Battle of Pollilur (1780)

From Materia Islamica
Jump to: navigation, search

Epitomization/Illustration
The Battle of Pollilur.
Duration: September 6th, 1780
(237 or 238 years ago)
Result: Decisive Mysore Victory
Belligerents:
TippuSultanFlag4small.jpg Mysore Kingdom
Belligerents:
India-viceroy-1885.jpg British Empire
Strength:
TippuSultanFlag4small.jpg 8,000[1]—10,000[2]
Strength:
India-viceroy-1885.jpg 3,853[3]—8,398[4]
Casualties:
TippuSultanFlag4small.jpg 1,700[5]—3,000[6] killed

Casualties:
India-viceroy-1885.jpg 3,653[3]—4,000[2] killed
India-viceroy-1885.jpg 200[6]—3,280[7] Prisoners

The Battle of Pollilur was a battle that occurred in 1780, near the village of Pollilur, in what is today modern day India. It formed part of a larger war, which became known as the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War (1780—1784) which saw the British Empire (c. 1500s—1945[8]) and Mysore Empire (1761—1799[9]) declare war on one another. It is arguably one of the best strategic and tactical battles to have ever occurred in history and is best remembered for having inflicted one of the most devastating and violent defeats the British had ever endured. It became famous not only because of the stark defeat of the British army, but, perhaps more practically it became important to military technological history for the use of highly effective, and deadly, bladed Mysore missiles.

Indeed, these were the first rockets of metallic origin to be used in warfare—an innovation that later left a lasting impact on the fates of hundreds of countries once their craft was replicated in Europe (where they were called "Congreve Rockets"); and more particularly to the Napoleonic Wars (1803—1815). Such missiles were often very capable of being fired up to a total distance of 1.5 miles (though some have questioned their efficacy), and were borne out of a necessity to keep Mysore independent, and free of imperial and colonial European hands, who had already rooted themselves to parts of Southern and Eastern India.

Much like the Roman army at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC), the British army were lead into a trap, surrounded and almost all totally annihilated. A particular legacy of the Battle of Pollilur was that it "demolished the reputation that the British in India were invincible, as was assumed since the Battle of Buxor".[10] As a result of the conflict, Haider Ali, founder of the Mysore Empire and his son Tipu Sultan, became one of the most legendary and celebrated historical figures in both Islamic and Indian history (although radical Hindus, since the political BJP-party victory in 2014 in India, have turned on him in favour of an anti-Muslim bias and hatred[11]).

Background & History of the Mysore Kingdom

Vijayanagara Empire (1336—1565).
Long before the Mysore Kingdom became an independent entity, it had long been ruled over by the Vijayanagara Empire (1336—1565).[12][13] The Mysore dynasty itself however, wasn't young; it had been established in 1399 (by the Hindu Wodeyars,[14] a mere 63 years after the empire itself had been established). The Vijayanagara empire wasn't to last, and saw defeat in 1565.[15][16][17] This was as a result of the Battle of Talikota,[15][16] when a combined force of Muslim confederacies—Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda—annihilated the (numerically superior[18]) Hindus in battle.[19] The Vijayanagara's had 140,000 infantry, 10,000 cavalry, 2,300 cannons[19] and 100 war elephants.[18] The opposing side only had 80,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 20 cannon.[18] By the time the battle had ended, 100,000 of the Vijayanagara soldiers had perished on the battlefield.[20][21] In a cruel twist of irony (as the word "Vijayanagara" literally translates to "City of Victory"), it was sacked and destroyed by numerous parties.[15] Both Hindus and Muslims struck the city; with thieves plundering the capital from all directions, including remote jungle tribes.[22] The Vijayanagaran's had no other option than to flee to Penukonda.[15] By 1614 this second iteration, which had survived for some 49 years after the catastrophe, eventually crumbled amidst political intrigue, as well as from internal rivalries.[15] It's last few remaining remnants clung onto survival as late as 1646, after which it ceased to be mentioned.[16] The flaws in the Vijayanagara's was that they had always deployed extensively large numbers of soldiers in battle; probably to compensate for the lack of advanced technology (superior horses, armoured units, composite bows, extended lances, and powerful matchlocks—all of which they lacked).[23] As a result, the Vijayanagara's were resoundly defeated many times, when they should have won. In one instance, 30,000 of their soldiers faced an army of 7,000 Muslims (of which only 2,000 of the latter participated).[23] This smaller, concentrated and highly skilled force were easily able to hold them off.[23]
The earliest known history of the Mysore Kingdom stretches back to the Muarya Empire (322 BC—187 BC[24]) which was India's first imperial empire.[25] After it's collapse, Mysore was severed into three separate territories, with each of it's realm's ruled by three rival factions; the Kadamba's (north), the Chera's (south) and the Pallava's (east).[25] By the 11th century all three eventually succumbed to the powerful Calukya Dynasty (543—753[26]), which absorbed Mysore as part of their terrain.[25] By the 12th century, the Hoysala Dynasty (1026—1343[27]), who originally came from the Deccan, took advantage of the severely weakened Calukya's and conquered it for themselves.[25] In the middle of the 14th century, The Tughluq Empire (1320—1413[28]) destroyed the Hoysala's and integrated Mysore into their own freehold.[25] This however, was not to last.[25] The Tughluq's collapsed in the 15th century owed to poor administration, giving way to the Vijayanagara Dynasty who then took root of not only Mysore, but the whole of southern India.[25] After the collapse of the Vijayanagara's in 1565,[29] Mysore then became an independent kingdom in it's own right, ruled by the Wodeyars (or Raja's) of Mysore. This too, however, wasn't to last. Haider Ali (1722—1782[30]), who was originally born a peasant, but conscripted as a mercenary for the Chief Minister (Dalwai) of Mysore,[31] suddenly overthrew the weak and ineffective Wodeyar's in 1761, and formed his own powerful—and later heavily influential and much celebrated—empire; at a time when foreign European imperial powers (mainly consisting of the British, French and Portuguese) began encroaching into India. Ali had initially wanted to work with the British,[25] who he saw as powerful potential allies,[25] but it was to his disappointment that the British allied themselves to his enemies instead—with the Marathra Empire (1674—1818[32]) and the Hyderabad State (1724—1948[33])—and declared war on Ali's newly formed dynasty.[25] Ali and his son, would go on to fight four Anglo-Mysore Wars;[31] with the most remembered battle being Pollilur in 1780.[n. 1]
India c. 1798
Vijayanagara Empire (1336—1565).
Long before the Mysore Kingdom became an independent entity, it had long been ruled over by the Vijayanagara Empire (1336—1565).[12][13] The Mysore dynasty itself however, wasn't young; it had been established in 1399 (by the Hindu Wodeyars,[14] a mere 63 years after the empire itself had been established). The Vijayanagara empire wasn't to last, and saw defeat in 1565.[15][16][17] This was as a result of the Battle of Talikota,[15][16] when a combined force of Muslim confederacies—Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda—annihilated the (numerically superior[18]) Hindus in battle.[19] The Vijayanagara's had 140,000 infantry, 10,000 cavalry, 2,300 cannons[19] and 100 war elephants.[18] The opposing side only had 80,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 20 cannon.[18] By the time the battle had ended, 100,000 of the Vijayanagara soldiers had perished on the battlefield.[20][21] In a cruel twist of irony (as the word "Vijayanagara" literally translates to "City of Victory"), it was sacked and destroyed by numerous parties.[15] Both Hindus and Muslims struck the city; with thieves plundering the capital from all directions, including remote jungle tribes.[22] The Vijayanagaran's had no other option than to flee to Penukonda.[15] By 1614 this second iteration, which had survived for some 49 years after the catastrophe, eventually crumbled amidst political intrigue, as well as from internal rivalries.[15] It's last few remaining remnants clung onto survival as late as 1646, after which it ceased to be mentioned.[16] The flaws in the Vijayanagara's was that they had always deployed extensively large numbers of soldiers in battle; probably to compensate for the lack of advanced technology (superior horses, armoured units, composite bows, extended lances, and powerful matchlocks—all of which they lacked).[23] As a result, the Vijayanagara's were resoundly defeated many times, when they should have won. In one instance, 30,000 of their soldiers faced an army of 7,000 Muslims (of which only 2,000 of the latter participated).[23] This smaller, concentrated and highly skilled force were easily able to hold them off.[23]
India c. 1798
The earliest known history of the Mysore Kingdom stretches back to the Muarya Empire (322 BC—187 BC[24]) which was India's first imperial empire.[25] After it's collapse, Mysore was severed into three separate territories, with each of it's realm's ruled by three rival factions; the Kadamba's (north), the Chera's (south) and the Pallava's (east).[25] By the 11th century all three eventually succumbed to the powerful Calukya Dynasty (543—753[26]), which absorbed Mysore as part of their terrain.[25] By the 12th century, the Hoysala Dynasty (1026—1343[27]), who originally came from the Deccan, took advantage of the severely weakened Calukya's and conquered it for themselves.[25] In the middle of the 14th century, The Tughluq Empire (1320—1413[28]) destroyed the Hoysala's and integrated Mysore into their own freehold.[25] This however, was not to last.[25] The Tughluq's collapsed in the 15th century owed to poor administration, giving way to the Vijayanagara Dynasty who then took root of not only Mysore, but the whole of southern India.[25] After the collapse of the Vijayanagara's in 1565,[29] Mysore then became an independent kingdom in it's own right, ruled by the Wodeyars (or Raja's) of Mysore. This too, however, wasn't to last. Haider Ali (1722—1782[30]), who was originally born a peasant, but conscripted as a mercenary for the Chief Minister (Dalwai) of Mysore,[31] suddenly overthrew the weak and ineffective Wodeyar's in 1761, and formed his own powerful—and later heavily influential and much celebrated—empire; at a time when foreign European imperial powers (mainly consisting of the British, French and Portuguese) began encroaching into India. Ali had initially wanted to work with the British,[25] who he saw as powerful potential allies,[25] but it was to his disappointment that the British allied themselves to his enemies instead—with the Marathra Empire (1674—1818[32]) and the Hyderabad State (1724—1948[33])—and declared war on Ali's newly formed dynasty.[25] Ali and his son, would go on to fight four Anglo-Mysore Wars;[31] with the most remembered battle being Pollilur in 1780.[n. 2]

Outbreak of the Anglo—Mysore Wars

Mughal Empire (1526—1857)
The Indian Mughal Empire (1526—1857), suffered a major defeat in 1739[34] at the hands of another Muslim ruler; Nadir Shah, the Shah of the Afsharid Dynasty (1688—1747).[35] Shah was from modern day Iran, but of Sunni background;[36] who crippled the also Sunni Mughals when he invaded through the Khyber Pass, with 150,000 horse-riding men.[35] Within the space of approximately three months the Persians looted the Mughal treasury of it's £87.5 million pounds in today's money[35]—an essential amount in order to keep the empire running—having also carried away "Shah Jahan’s magnificent peacock throne, the Koh-i-Noor, the largest diamond in the world, as well as its sister, the Darya Nur...".[35] With a lack of funds to pay mercenaries, soldiers, weapon-smiths, administrators and tax collectors, the Mughal dynasty rapidly disintegrated under financial pressure. It failed to keep large rebellions in check,[37] and thereafter faltered. The British East India Company (1600—1874),[38] and it's French counterpart (the French Compagnie des Indes 1664—1794[39]) then rapidly began exploiting the situation by building up vast reserves of private troops.[35] Soon enough, the British East India Company had become so rich and powerful, that it began an expansion eastward to China, where it instigated even more misery on the Chinese population by triggering the Opium Wars (1839—1860[40][41]); and by winning these confrontations, ended up controlling a significant amount of the narcotics and tea trade. It even began to exploit the American population, which would later trigger the American War of Independence (1775—1783). After it absorbed the Dutch East India Company's (1602—1799[42]) markets in 1799 (which has been alleged to have been worth $7.4 trillion dollars in today's money[43]) the British East India Company became the most valuable in the world.[n. 3] During this tentative time, the British wanted more control, bringing them into conflict with Mysore, which was seen as a threat to the exploits of the Company.
The British initiated the 1st Anglo-Mysore War (1767—1769) in the hopes of crushing Haider Ali,[31] much to his surprise. The move was calculated. Ali was already engaged in conflict with two of his neighbours by this time; the powerful Marathra Empire, and the Hyderabad State to the North.[31] A two-front border war would have meant certain defeat. Not even Germany during World War II (1939—1945) was able to successfully engage in such a feat[44] (the Soviets to the East and the Anglo-Americans to the West had steadily gnawed away Germany's chances of conquering Europe,[45][46] when previously it had had much success fighting against only one opponent across one open border). Ali had decided his best chances lay in engaging in intensive diplomacy, in the hopes he would prevent the two endogenous enemy empires from converging onto his territory.[31] This worked remarkably well, and he was able to direct his resources elsewhere, namely in conquering Madras from the Europeans.[31] As time went, the British suffered many defeats (with Changame and Mangalore particularly notable),[47] only capitulating to his demands just as he was able to launch an offensive at the Gates of Madras.[48] An uneasy peace soon brewed; with the British going as far as calling for an alliance, but with the goal of having Ali relinquish conquered territory.[31] Believing the British would honour their end of the deal, he chose to close all open hostilities with them and in 1769, Mysore and Britain signed the Treaty of Madras (1769),[47] and cemented their relationship. However, the British renegaded on their promise of a mutual alliance and broke contract,[31] abandoning Ali to the mercy of the Marathra's, when they declared war on Mysore in 1770 (possibly as late as 1771[49]).[50] After making a hasty peace,[50] Ali was enraged[n. 4] at the unexpected betrayal (and the British attack on a French colony under his protection in 1778; the Mahe Port).[31][50] The dishonourable actions of the British caused Ali to launch a new offensive against the English.[3] This marked the outbreak of the 2nd Anglo Mysore-War.[49]
Rendition of Tipu Sultan.
Mughal Empire (1526—1857)
The Indian Mughal Empire (1526—1857), suffered a major defeat in 1739[34] at the hands of another Muslim ruler; Nadir Shah, the Shah of the Afsharid Dynasty (1688—1747).[35] Shah was from modern day Iran, but of Sunni background;[36] who crippled the also Sunni Mughals when he invaded through the Khyber Pass, with 150,000 horse-riding men.[35] Within the space of approximately three months the Persians looted the Mughal treasury of it's £87.5 million pounds in today's money[35]—an essential amount in order to keep the empire running—having also carried away "Shah Jahan’s magnificent peacock throne, the Koh-i-Noor, the largest diamond in the world, as well as its sister, the Darya Nur...".[35] With a lack of funds to pay mercenaries, soldiers, weapon-smiths, administrators and tax collectors, the Mughal dynasty rapidly disintegrated under financial pressure. It failed to keep large rebellions in check,[37] and thereafter faltered. The British East India Company (1600—1874),[38] and it's French counterpart (the French Compagnie des Indes 1664—1794[39]) then rapidly began exploiting the situation by building up vast reserves of private troops.[35] Soon enough, the British East India Company had become so rich and powerful, that it began an expansion eastward to China, where it instigated even more misery on the Chinese population by triggering the Opium Wars (1839—1860[40][41]); and by winning these confrontations, ended up controlling a significant amount of the narcotics and tea trade. It even began to exploit the American population, which would later trigger the American War of Independence (1775—1783). After it absorbed the Dutch East India Company's (1602—1799[42]) markets in 1799 (which has been alleged to have been worth $7.4 trillion dollars in today's money[43]) the British East India Company became the most valuable in the world.[n. 5] During this tentative time, the British wanted more control, bringing them into conflict with Mysore, which was seen as a threat to the exploits of the Company.
Rendition of Tipu Sultan.
The British initiated the 1st Anglo-Mysore War (1767—1769) in the hopes of crushing Haider Ali,[31] much to his surprise. The move was calculated. Ali was already engaged in conflict with two of his neighbours by this time; the powerful Marathra Empire, and the Hyderabad State to the North.[31] A two-front border war would have meant certain defeat. Not even Germany during World War II (1939—1945) was able to successfully engage in such a feat[51] (the Soviets to the East and the Anglo-Americans to the West had steadily gnawed away Germany's chances of conquering Europe,[45][46] when previously it had had much success fighting against only one opponent across one open border). Ali had decided his best chances lay in engaging in intensive diplomacy, in the hopes he would prevent the two endogenous enemy empires from converging onto his territory.[31] This worked remarkably well, and he was able to direct his resources elsewhere, namely in conquering Madras from the Europeans.[31] As time went, the British suffered many defeats (with Changame and Mangalore particularly notable),[47] only capitulating to his demands just as he was able to launch an offensive at the Gates of Madras.[48] An uneasy peace soon brewed; with the British going as far as calling for an alliance, but with the goal of having Ali relinquish conquered territory.[31] Believing the British would honour their end of the deal, he chose to close all open hostilities with them and in 1769, Mysore and Britain signed the Treaty of Madras (1769),[47] and cemented their relationship. However, the British renegaded on their promise of a mutual alliance and broke contract,[31] abandoning Ali to the mercy of the Marathra's, when they declared war on Mysore in 1770 (possibly as late as 1771[49]).[50] After making a hasty peace,[50] Ali was enraged[n. 6] at the unexpected betrayal (and the British attack on a French colony under his protection in 1778; the Mahe Port).[31][50] The dishonourable actions of the British caused Ali to launch a new offensive against the English.[3] This marked the outbreak of the 2nd Anglo Mysore-War.[49]

Battle of Pollilur: Tactics and Strategy

The flag of Tipu Sultan, who managed to brilliantly rout route the British at Pollilur (1780), killing over 3,500 and take a similar number as prisoners of war.
The 2nd Anglo-Mysore War saw 3,853—7,000 British,[6][52] take on a force of 10,000 soldiers of Mysore in September 1780 at Pollilur.[6] The battle was a strategic and tactical success for Haider's young son, Tipu Sultan (sometimes spelled "Tipoo Sultan"), who had been dispatched to ambush the British.[6] The Battle saw the Europeans almost totally annihilated (as one Sir Thomas Munro would go on to state, it was "the severest blow that the English ever sustained in India").[6] By the end of the battle, 3,653—4,000[2] Europeans had been killed;[6] with the remaining 200[6]—3,280 taken prisoner.[7] Mysore by comparison suffered a small loss of only 1,700[5]—3,000 men.[6] The battle itself had been very brutal; largely because of the metallic rockets that had been used so effectively. They were so violent that soldiers described in great shock at how powerful Ali's technology had been in forcing them to bend as malleably as they did; with soldiers often gored in a barrage of longwood attachments, metal and explosive fire. Sultan's army so successfully hammered away at the British army, that they were forced into a place circumferenced entirely by water courses and valleys, ripe for ambush.[53] One such description was detailed very graphically, with a great sense of awe, by William Bayly (sometimes spelled "Baillie" or "Bailey") who had commanded the British forces at Pollilur.[7] He illustrated that "[e]very illumination of blue lights was accompanied by a shower of rockets, some of which entered the head of the column, passing through to its rear, causing death, wounds, and dreadful lacerations from the long bamboos of twenty or thirty feet...The instant a rocket passes through a man’s body it resumes its original impetus of force, and will thus destroy ten or twenty until the combustible matter with which it is charged becomes expended. The shrieks of our men from these unusual weapons was terrific; thighs, legs, and arms left fleshless with bones protruding in a shattered state from every part of the body, were the sad effects of these diabolical engines of destruction".[53]
Haider Ali started the war with 90,000 men who he personally marched through the Changama Pass and into Carnatic, where the British East India Company held territory. His second son Karim was sent to attack Porto Novo, whereas he himself and his first son, Sultan, were assigned to lay siege to Arcot. The British caught wind of these troops moving across the country, and eventually heard that Carnatic had been invaded. Fearful of an invasion into Madras, where the British were also based, it's Governer and Council, decided to take drastic action themselves and compose an army headed under Hector Munro, which was to be sent to Conjeeveram. Another half were also organised and set to reach this rendezvous. These other troops came from Guntur where Colonial Bayly was based and headed command. It was theorized that when this force came together, only then would it be capable of taking Mysore head on. Munro left Madras on August 25th, and reached Conjeeveram after a four day march on the 29th. Here he waited for Bayly who had left on the same day. When word reached Mysore about these troop movements, Ali immediately sent his son to ambush this second detachment and confront Bayly head on so that the British army wouldn't have a chance to pool their collective resources. Ali also abandoned the Siege of Arcot and instead kept an eye on Munro at Conjeeveram, thereby preventing his movements, and who at the sight of seeing Ali, was too afraid to move. Ali and Sultan had already been extremely skilled in battle, having laid several sieges themselves when they weren't warring with the British. Between 1774 and 1778 Ali and Sultan had reconquered territories they had either lost to the Marathas or had conquered anew. So when the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War broke out, they knew exactly what to do. Wars were essentially a family affair for Ali, who readily involved his son's by sending them to the front lines. Such was his confidence that he let his son pursue European troops himself.[6]
A map of territories and towns in 1780.
British rendition of Haider Ali.
Bayly began the war by marching his troops to the Kortalaiyar river on August 25th, intending to meet up with the rest of the English army and form a bulwark against Ali and his son. During this time, the river's conditions were extremely favourable to the English army, and they could have crossed it with no problem, had it not been that he had decided to camp on the north bank of the river. By morning to his surprise, the river had completely flooded it's banks, and trapped the English. It would not be until September 3rd that he and his men would be able to get out. From there it was a three day march to Perambakkam (which was fifteen miles from the main British military base at Conjeeveram). As he was moving his troops towards the base, Sultan commenced the attack. Bayly had known of his movements prior to this however, because Sultan's troops had already been harassing them as soon as he'd left the southern river bank. Sultan however, could not have clashed at a worse time. Not only had they known about them, but the English were at a complete tactical advantage as a result of their surroundings; they were deep in marshland at every point, making cavalry charges almost impossible. However, with his cavalry thundering through the mud at his wings, Sultan and his infantry made an organised dash to destroy the English. However, the English were left confused when they saw them, and chose not to fire. This was because Sultan had been so disciplined with his troops that it confused the English for a moment as to who they were; thinking it was Munro to their rescue. As soon as the first rockets began to barrage the English did they realise what they were up against. The cavalry forced the English back who immediately called for a volley of cannon fire. Sultan's infantry thus suffered a rain of metallic shrapnel, and were forced to let the cavalry take charge of the battle, suffering some 900 deaths from the head on collision. Three hours of fighting passed, when the marshes began to flood, separating the two armies, with the English having lost 250 men.[3]
Sultan immediately dispatched another messenger to tell his father of the news, and requested for more men to be sent to in order to asphyxiate the English army. Bayly had thought the same, and pleaded for Colonial Fletcher to come to his aid; another 1,000 men were sent, and arrived on September 9th. Having had his army reinforced, Bayly became confident enough to march his troops again. However, Sultan wouldn't let the English even retreat. Barely half a mile had passed since the English army had moved that Sultan continued to chase them. Exhausted and demoralised, Bayly gave his troops some desperate respite and camped for the night. Their destination was only nine miles away. Having lost faith in his troops' ability to move, he waited for Munro to arrive, hoping for a rescue. Munro never did. This horrendous mistake caused Sultan to exploit it. He moved his guns to high positions that could blast the English by morning. Word also reached Ali that Munro had no intention of moving himself; Ali was now free to send more artillery pieces to his son's side. By 5am the English began to make their way again, but on the sixth mile Sultan fired his guns and rockets to their rear; his father then brought his cavalry and simultaneously charged at both their flanks. The English were pincered, and ran for the village of Pollilur. Here they used their own guns and fired at the Mysore guard. Two divisions of the English army were then immediately ordered to track down and obliterate Sultan's guns which were causing so much damage; however a cavalry charge cut them to pieces. Ali then moved in, with the English dreaded to find that they had mistaken them for their own troops. Surrounded, they rapidly formed a square to hold off the onslaught. This however, only concentrated their numbers for the artillery, who volleyed multiple rounds at them and killed thousands. The penultimate act was the destruction of the English ammunition stores, which violently exploded and concluded any chance of an English victory. A final cavalry charge crushed more of the English, who were then forced to surrender.[3]
Surrender of the British after being pulverised by Sultan and Ali at Pollilur.
Mysorean Rocketeer from Dawn.com. Note the multiple firing mechanism.
Although the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War lasted for four years (1780—1784), an early account by a Frenchmen also exists documenting his time following the Mysore army from May 28th, 1780 to November 4th, 1780; up to when Arcot fell to Mysore. Common for it's time, it may contain exaggerations or outright lies (the French military adventurer Maistre de la Tour, for instance greatly inflated his own character by calling himself a "General in the Army of the Mogul Empire" when he wasn't, and contradicts himself by saying he never met Haider Ali). Nevertheless, the French officer, M. de Lalee, documents the French perspective of the conflict, who was an actual soldier. An English translation of his account was published in Irfan Habib's book "Confronting Colonialism: Resistance and Modernization Under Haider Ali & Tipu Sultan" (2002).[4] On August 15th, the first recorded movements of the English army on the Mysore side found that the English were leading a force of 3,200 soldiers and 8 cannons (lead presumably by Colonial Bayly, having estimated the size of this force from a far distance). Another army was spotted consisting of 1,200 soldiers and 10 cannons (implied to have been lead by M. Munro). Much later on August 28th, Lalee himself estimated the size of Bayly's force, amounting to a total of 8,200 men, 180 cavalry, and 15—18 cannons. During the same time Mysore's Bidar faction had already been giving them pursuit (coming as close as to capturing five Europeans, two of whom were stabbed to death, only 30 paces from the main column). On September 5th, Ali gave the command to Sultan to confront Bayly directly (he was given 5,000 horses and a division of soldiers commanded by Asdar Ali Beg in order to prepare for this clash). By September 6th, Ali had tracked down the British through his network of spies, and confronted General Munro and began toying with him; peculiarly, he chose not to engage. Lalee claimed this was in order to prevent him from joining up with Colonial Bayly—who clashed with Sultan that very day at Pollilur.
The flag of Tipu Sultan, who managed to brilliantly rout route the British at Pollilur (1780), killing over 3,500 and take a similar number as prisoners of war.
The 2nd Anglo-Mysore War saw 3,853—7,000 British,[6][52] take on a force of 10,000 soldiers of Mysore in September 1780 at Pollilur.[6] The battle was a strategic and tactical success for Haider's young son, Tipu Sultan (sometimes spelled "Tipoo Sultan"), who had been dispatched to ambush the British.[6] The Battle saw the Europeans almost totally annihilated (as one Sir Thomas Munro would go on to state, it was "the severest blow that the English ever sustained in India").[6] By the end of the battle, 3,653—4,000[2] Europeans had been killed;[6] with the remaining 200[6]—3,280 taken prisoner.[7] Mysore by comparison suffered a small loss of only 1,700[5]—3,000 men.[6] The battle itself had been very brutal; largely because of the metallic rockets that had been used so effectively. They were so violent that soldiers described in great shock at how powerful Ali's technology had been in forcing them to bend as malleably as they did; with soldiers often gored in a barrage of longwood attachments, metal and explosive fire. Sultan's army so successfully hammered away at the British army, that they were forced into a place circumferenced entirely by water courses and valleys, ripe for ambush.[53] One such description was detailed very graphically, with a great sense of awe, by William Bayly (sometimes spelled "Baillie" or "Bailey") who had commanded the British forces at Pollilur.[7] He illustrated that "[e]very illumination of blue lights was accompanied by a shower of rockets, some of which entered the head of the column, passing through to its rear, causing death, wounds, and dreadful lacerations from the long bamboos of twenty or thirty feet...The instant a rocket passes through a man’s body it resumes its original impetus of force, and will thus destroy ten or twenty until the combustible matter with which it is charged becomes expended. The shrieks of our men from these unusual weapons was terrific; thighs, legs, and arms left fleshless with bones protruding in a shattered state from every part of the body, were the sad effects of these diabolical engines of destruction".[53]
A map of territories and towns in 1780.
Haider Ali started the war with 90,000 men who he personally marched through the Changama Pass and into Carnatic, where the British East India Company held territory. His second son Karim was sent to attack Porto Novo, whereas he himself and his first son, Sultan, were assigned to lay siege to Arcot. The British caught wind of these troops moving across the country, and eventually heard that Carnatic had been invaded. Fearful of an invasion into Madras, where the British were also based, it's Governer and Council, decided to take drastic action themselves and compose an army headed under Hector Munro, which was to be sent to Conjeeveram. Another half were also organised and set to reach this rendezvous. These other troops came from Guntur where Colonial Bayly was based and headed command. It was theorized that when this force came together, only then would it be capable of taking Mysore head on. Munro left Madras on August 25th, and reached Conjeeveram after a four day march on the 29th. Here he waited for Bayly who had left on the same day. When word reached Mysore about these troop movements, Ali immediately sent his son to ambush this second detachment and confront Bayly head on so that the British army wouldn't have a chance to pool their collective resources. Ali also abandoned the Siege of Arcot and instead kept an eye on Munro at Conjeeveram, thereby preventing his movements, and who at the sight of seeing Ali, was too afraid to move. Ali and Sultan had already been extremely skilled in battle, having laid several sieges themselves when they weren't warring with the British. Between 1774 and 1778 Ali and Sultan had reconquered territories they had either lost to the Marathas or had conquered anew. So when the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War broke out, they knew exactly what to do. Wars were essentially a family affair for Ali, who readily involved his son's by sending them to the front lines. Such was his confidence that he let his son pursue European troops himself.[6]
British rendition of Haider Ali.
Bayly began the war by marching his troops to the Kortalaiyar river on August 25th, intending to meet up with the rest of the English army and form a bulwark against Ali and his son. During this time, the river's conditions were extremely favourable to the English army, and they could have crossed it with no problem, had it not been that he had decided to camp on the north bank of the river. By morning to his surprise, the river had completely flooded it's banks, and trapped the English. It would not be until September 3rd that he and his men would be able to get out. From there it was a three day march to Perambakkam (which was fifteen miles from the main British military base at Conjeeveram). As he was moving his troops towards the base, Sultan commenced the attack. Bayly had known of his movements prior to this however, because Sultan's troops had already been harassing them as soon as he'd left the southern river bank. Sultan however, could not have clashed at a worse time. Not only had they known about them, but the English were at a complete tactical advantage as a result of their surroundings; they were deep in marshland at every point, making cavalry charges almost impossible. However, with his cavalry thundering through the mud at his wings, Sultan and his infantry made an organised dash to destroy the English. However, the English were left confused when they saw them, and chose not to fire. This was because Sultan had been so disciplined with his troops that it confused the English for a moment as to who they were; thinking it was Munro to their rescue. As soon as the first rockets began to barrage the English did they realise what they were up against. The cavalry forced the English back who immediately called for a volley of cannon fire. Sultan's infantry thus suffered a rain of metallic shrapnel, and were forced to let the cavalry take charge of the battle, suffering some 900 deaths from the head on collision. Three hours of fighting passed, when the marshes began to flood, separating the two armies, with the English having lost 250 men.[3]
Surrender of the British after being pulverised by Sultan and Ali at Pollilur.
Sultan immediately dispatched another messenger to tell his father of the news, and requested for more men to be sent to in order to asphyxiate the English army. Bayly had thought the same, and pleaded for Colonial Fletcher to come to his aid; another 1,000 men were sent, and arrived on September 9th. Having had his army reinforced, Bayly became confident enough to march his troops again. However, Sultan wouldn't let the English even retreat. Barely half a mile had passed since the English army had moved that Sultan continued to chase them. Exhausted and demoralised, Bayly gave his troops some desperate respite and camped for the night. Their destination was only nine miles away. Having lost faith in his troops' ability to move, he waited for Munro to arrive, hoping for a rescue. Munro never did. This horrendous mistake caused Sultan to exploit it. He moved his guns to high positions that could blast the English by morning. Word also reached Ali that Munro had no intention of moving himself; Ali was now free to send more artillery pieces to his son's side. By 5am the English began to make their way again, but on the sixth mile Sultan fired his guns and rockets to their rear; his father then brought his cavalry and simultaneously charged at both their flanks. The English were pincered, and ran for the village of Pollilur. Here they used their own guns and fired at the Mysore guard. Two divisions of the English army were then immediately ordered to track down and obliterate Sultan's guns which were causing so much damage; however a cavalry charge cut them to pieces. Ali then moved in, with the English dreaded to find that they had mistaken them for their own troops. Surrounded, they rapidly formed a square to hold off the onslaught. This however, only concentrated their numbers for the artillery, who volleyed multiple rounds at them and killed thousands. The penultimate act was the destruction of the English ammunition stores, which violently exploded and concluded any chance of an English victory. A final cavalry charge crushed more of the English, who were then forced to surrender.[3]
Mysorean Rocketeer from Dawn.com. Note the multiple firing mechanism.
Although the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War lasted for four years (1780—1784), an early account by a Frenchmen also exists documenting his time following the Mysore army from May 28th, 1780 to November 4th, 1780; up to when Arcot fell to Mysore. Common for it's time, it may contain exaggerations or outright lies (the French military adventurer Maistre de la Tour, for instance greatly inflated his own character by calling himself a "General in the Army of the Mogul Empire" when he wasn't, and contradicts himself by saying he never met Haider Ali). Nevertheless, the French officer, M. de Lalee, documents the French perspective of the conflict, who was an actual soldier. An English translation of his account was published in Irfan Habib's book "Confronting Colonialism: Resistance and Modernization Under Haider Ali & Tipu Sultan" (2002).[4] On August 15th, the first recorded movements of the English army on the Mysore side found that the English were leading a force of 3,200 soldiers and 8 cannons (lead presumably by Colonial Bayly, having estimated the size of this force from a far distance). Another army was spotted consisting of 1,200 soldiers and 10 cannons (implied to have been lead by M. Munro). Much later on August 28th, Lalee himself estimated the size of Bayly's force, amounting to a total of 8,200 men, 180 cavalry, and 15—18 cannons. During the same time Mysore's Bidar faction had already been giving them pursuit (coming as close as to capturing five Europeans, two of whom were stabbed to death, only 30 paces from the main column). On September 5th, Ali gave the command to Sultan to confront Bayly directly (he was given 5,000 horses and a division of soldiers commanded by Asdar Ali Beg in order to prepare for this clash). By September 6th, Ali had tracked down the British through his network of spies, and confronted General Munro and began toying with him; peculiarly, he chose not to engage. Lalee claimed this was in order to prevent him from joining up with Colonial Bayly—who clashed with Sultan that very day at Pollilur.

Commemorative Mural [35 ft x 7 ft]

Painting Description and Analysis[54]
Camels and elephants at the rear of the main army: Camels and elephants regularly appear in battle processions. The camel riders wear conical shaped helmets and carry either muskets with fixed bayonets or swords. Drummers, seated on elephants adorned with tigerstriped caps, add to the musical fanfare accompanying Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan who precede them. They could also play an important role in conveying messages on the battle field.
A
Haidar Ali rides into battle on his elephant: Haidar Ali wearing a gold spotted white kameez, strings of white pearls and a red turban enters the field on his favourite elephant, Poongaj. Haidar sits in an elaborate howdah with an attendant and is shown holding a flower, a popular Mughal stylistic motif. At the front of the howdah an oustretched green canopy provides some shade. Underneath can be seen the mahout who is holding an ankus or elephant goad. Haidar's elephant, Poongaj, is adorned with girdles of bells and earrings in addition to the large decorative saddle.
B
Tipu Sahib (below Haidar Ali) on his elephant: Tipu who played a major role in the Battle of Pollilur enters the field. Tipu wears a blue green kameez decorated with tiger stripes and a turban with a jewelled plume. He is portrayed in the popular Mughal stylistic pose of holding a rose and on his right forearm can be seen a jewelled 'bazu band' or armguard . Tipu's howdah consists of an elaborate parasol (sharing the regal symbolism of the sacred Hindu 'chhatra') and is not enclosed like that of his father Haidar Ali's, who can be seen at some distance above him. It is supposed that this distance suggests the two armies of Haidar and Tipu converging at Pollilur.
C
Mysorean footsoldiers carrying swords: The Mysorean soldiers below Tipu exchange glances. They sport different coloured turbans and carry tall spears in one hand and swords in the other.
D
Mir Sadik greets Tipu Sahib: Mir Sadik riding a richly caparisoned horse appears before Tipu. His gesture indicates that he is greeting Tipu at the same time as inviting him to war.
E
Mysorean footsoldiers carrying tall spears: Mysorean foot soldiers wearing kneelength white trousers, advance before Haidar Ali. They carry tall, large spears decorated with red, yellow and black tassles.
F
Musicians turn to face Haidar Ali: Detail showing musicians with trumpets and tabors looking backwards at Haidar as he enters the field.
G
Mysorean archers on foot: Detail showing standing Mysorean archers. The bindi can be seen on their foreheads indicating their Hindu faith. They wear straps to support their turbans and sandals on their feet.
H
Indian soldiers advance behind hill: Indian soldiers advance unseen from behind a small hill at the top of the picture. They include archers and men on horseback carrying spears as well as snipers who aim their guns in the direction of the British.
I
Dusta of mounted Mysorean archers: A contingent or 'dusta' armed with bows and arrows travelling horizontally at the top of the field joins the general charge.
J
Mysorean horsemen shown riding diagonally: Here we can see the Mysorean cavalry charge which traverses the painting diagonally from bottom to top. Some of the horsemen carry swords others bows and arrows.
K
The Indian cavalry charge builds up momentum: The horsemen wear conical shaped quilted helmets with neck flaps similiar to those identified as belonging to Tipu's arsenal. It has also been suggested that these may be Maratha cavalry. The Marathas were part of the Indian alliance against the British in the 2nd Anglo Mysore War. A few carry crossbows or muskets but the majority carry swords which they hold up belligerently. They wear shields on their backs.
L
Multiple close combat scenes: A Mysorean horseman spears a British soldier, knocking his hat off - a frequent motif for victims. At the same time, the Indian soldier below, holding a knuckle weapon, appears to be falling backwards and possibly kicking the British soldier infront, who in turn is firing closerange into the midrift of another horseman.
M
Mysorean soldiers operating cannon: Two Mysorean soldiers can be seen operating canon. One hand is occupied with lighting the fusewire, the other with holding the ramrod also referred to as a ‘scouring stick’– used for loading the canon ball into the muzzle and pushing it up against the gun powder propellant.
N
European soldier with moustache thought to be on the English side: A standing European soldier with a moustache points his musket in the direction of the British Square and an Indian horsemen. Although he sports a moustache like the Frenchmen who are without exception portrayed with moustaches, it is more likely that he is a British soldier as no other French are depicted in this part of the painting. He also wears a double crossbelt and a tall hat whereas the French are depicted with single crossbelts and shorter plain black hats.
O
British getting hacked to pieces in the Mysorean cavalry charge: This scene shows the thick of the battle with many of the British cavalry being slaughtered. On the right side of the scene the Mysorean cavalry press into the British Square. A large Maratha commander is pierced by a bayonet which sends his green cap flying. Nearby a headless British soldier can be seen still standing. On the far left of the scene, the furthest extremity of the British force are visible. A cavalry officer wearing a red overcoat without a crossbelt has both his arms outstretched having been lanced. Among the various objects are numerous flying canon balls and an isolated kutar – a kind of dagger characterised by an H-shaped horizontal hand grip.
P
Single British cavalry officer firing musket: In the chaos a single British cavalry officer rides towards the British Square firing a musket. His assailant, a Mysorean on horseback, also riding against the flow, makes a stab at him with an almost imperceptible spear.
Q
Horseman’s head blown off by cannon and hand to hand combat: A British soldier, drawn in gigantic proportions, is lanced while he fires a canon shot at the Mysorean horseman whose severed head falls to the ground spurting blood. Close by a Mysore and British foot soldier can be seen sparring. The Mysorean carries a knuckle weapon in his left hand and a sword in his other while the Britisher fights with his bayonet.
R
Explosion of the British ammunition cart: The exploding ammunition cart in the middle of the British square which pushed the outcome of the battle in favour of the Mysoreans as it caused the British to run out of gunpowder. An Indian sepoy pours water into the cart.
S
Colonel Baillie being transported in a palanquin: Colonel Baillie appears in the middle of the men he commanded, seated in a palanquin carried by six Indian bearers and wearing a cocked hat. By this stage of the battle he was wounded. He appears to be biting his index finger and is portrayed as an effeminate figure.
T
British ammunition tumbrels: British ammunition tumbrels with artillery men in the foreground.
U
Captairn Baird pointing on horseback: Captain Baird points towards the explosion of ammunition while addressing Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher who is beside him.
V
Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher on horseback: Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher on horseback. He is side by side with Captain Baird. The Colonel appears to adopt the same gesture as his superior Colonel Baillie of nervously putting his finger on his lip or even biting it, doubtless in reaction to the ammunition explosion inside the British Square.
W
Soldiers in the British Square: British soldiers in tight formation at the bottom of the defensive square they formed against the Indian cavalry attacks, of which they managed to repulse a total of 13 before surrendering. They wear double crossbelt red overcoats and tall hats with a white ribbon, a gold decoration and an aigrette. In contrast to the moustachio'd French they are characterised by their muttonchop whiskers.
X
Mysore cavalry breach the right side of British Square: Mysorean horsemen wearing blue and red tunics attack the right side of the British Square in diagonal formation. The horses' saddles, against which the sword scabbards are visible, are also coloured and have a gold hem. One Mysorean in green, catapulted into the air with his arms outstretched, appears to emerge from the body of a fellow countryman also in green who is bent back over his horse. It is unlikely the artist intended this effect but failed to correct the mistake.
Y
Horse floundering hit by cannon fire: A Mysorean on horseback is fired at by a British artillery man which causes him to flop sideways over his saddle while still wielding his sword. The horse, with its distorted limbs, appears to be in state of shock and maybe also wounded. Infront some examples of hand-to-hand combat.
Z
Two horsemen clash head on and a soldier is hit by an arrow: Two horsemen confront eachother head on. The British officer fights with a sword although more frequently they are seen with bayonets. Behind him a British soldier who has been mortally wounded by an arrow can be seen prostrate. The sense of perspective in relation to the ground is lost.
1
Hand to hand fighting between footsoldier and horseman: This depiction of close fighting shows a British soldier using the bayonet at the end of his musket against a Mysorean horseman wielding a sword. It also is an example of perspective error as the former looks like he is embracing the horse's neck.
2
Close combat scene with soldier trampled to death: A British officer thrusts his bayonet at a Mysorean on horseback while another Mysorean tramples over the prostrate body of a British soldier whom he has just killed with his lance.
3
British soldier attacking French artilleryman: A British soldier appears to march fearlessly into the line of the enemy cannon's fire carrying his musket like a pickaxe while the French artilleryman defiantly has his hand on the fuse. The scene is a good example of how scale can be intentionally distorted with the figure of the British soldier made threateningly large in contrast to the dimunitive pair of onlooking artillery men.
4
Mysorean horseman holding up decapitated head: A Mysorean horseman riding back towards the open space, occupied by a commander, proudly displays the decapitated head of a British victim in one hand while holding aloft his sword in the other.
5
French artillery firing at the British Square: The French artillery men take aim from their hilly vantage point at the British Square and ammunition tumbrels. The cannons are fired with fuse wire. Some of the artillery men carry ramrods, resembling long brushes, which were used for loading the cannons. Most of the French depicted in the painting can be found close to this spot in the top right of the painting. The French were at war with England in India as they were in Europe and took the side of Haidar Ali. Apart from being distinguished by their moustaches, the French uniforms are subtly different to those of the British: their red overcoats normally have a single white cross belt; their hats are less high than those of the British and they don’t carry muskets.
6
General Sayyid Gaffur right side appearance: Sayyid Gaffur is probably shown here in the middle of some open ground with his attendant who carries a large insignia. He rides a richly caparisoned chestnut horse and wears a gold-embroidered turban, red tunic, cummerbund and spotted green trousers. This would be his second appearance in the painting as he has also been identified next to Haidar Ali according to Seringapatam by Constance Parsons (1931).
7
Indian horsemen wearing helmets rally each other: Indian horsemen wearing conical shaped helmets with neck flaps raise their swords. The same non-metal quilted headgear or 'peti' can be seen on horsemen on the opposite side of the painting. It is possible to observe their stirrups. Some of them look behind, urging eachother on in the charge.
8
Mons Lally surveying the British Square with his telescope: Mons Lally is shown looking out of a telescope from the summit of a hill, wearing a cocked hat with a white plume. The gradient is partly suggested by his posture with one foot placed on a higher piece of ground. A soldier holds the tether of his undecorated brown horse. Mons Lally is credited in some accounts of the battle with perceiving the British ammunition and ordering his artillery to aim at it. The result can be seen in the explosion in the middle of the British Square.
9
General Sayyid Gaffur left side appearance: With Haidar Ali is General Sayyid Gaffur. He is riding a richly caparisoned chestnut horse while his attendant shields him with a parasol. He has also been identified by Constance Parsons in Seringapatam (1931) on the right side of the painting.
10
Painting Description and Analysis[54]
Camels and elephants at the rear of the main army: Camels and elephants regularly appear in battle processions. The camel riders wear conical shaped helmets and carry either muskets with fixed bayonets or swords. Drummers, seated on elephants adorned with tigerstriped caps, add to the musical fanfare accompanying Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan who precede them. They could also play an important role in conveying messages on the battle field.
A
Haidar Ali rides into battle on his elephant: Haidar Ali wearing a gold spotted white kameez, strings of white pearls and a red turban enters the field on his favourite elephant, Poongaj. Haidar sits in an elaborate howdah with an attendant and is shown holding a flower, a popular Mughal stylistic motif. At the front of the howdah an oustretched green canopy provides some shade. Underneath can be seen the mahout who is holding an ankus or elephant goad. Haidar's elephant, Poongaj, is adorned with girdles of bells and earrings in addition to the large decorative saddle.
B
Tipu Sahib (below Haidar Ali) on his elephant: Tipu who played a major role in the Battle of Pollilur enters the field. Tipu wears a blue green kameez decorated with tiger stripes and a turban with a jewelled plume. He is portrayed in the popular Mughal stylistic pose of holding a rose and on his right forearm can be seen a jewelled 'bazu band' or armguard . Tipu's howdah consists of an elaborate parasol (sharing the regal symbolism of the sacred Hindu 'chhatra') and is not enclosed like that of his father Haidar Ali's, who can be seen at some distance above him. It is supposed that this distance suggests the two armies of Haidar and Tipu converging at Pollilur.
C
Mysorean footsoldiers carrying swords: The Mysorean soldiers below Tipu exchange glances. They sport different coloured turbans and carry tall spears in one hand and swords in the other.
D
Mir Sadik greets Tipu Sahib: Mir Sadik riding a richly caparisoned horse appears before Tipu. His gesture indicates that he is greeting Tipu at the same time as inviting him to war.
E
Mysorean footsoldiers carrying tall spears: Mysorean foot soldiers wearing kneelength white trousers, advance before Haidar Ali. They carry tall, large spears decorated with red, yellow and black tassles.
F
Musicians turn to face Haidar Ali: Detail showing musicians with trumpets and tabors looking backwards at Haidar as he enters the field.
G
Mysorean archers on foot: Detail showing standing Mysorean archers. The bindi can be seen on their foreheads indicating their Hindu faith. They wear straps to support their turbans and sandals on their feet.
H
Indian soldiers advance behind hill: Indian soldiers advance unseen from behind a small hill at the top of the picture. They include archers and men on horseback carrying spears as well as snipers who aim their guns in the direction of the British.
I
Dusta of mounted Mysorean archers: A contingent or 'dusta' armed with bows and arrows travelling horizontally at the top of the field joins the general charge.
J
Mysorean horsemen shown riding diagonally: Here we can see the Mysorean cavalry charge which traverses the painting diagonally from bottom to top. Some of the horsemen carry swords others bows and arrows.
K
The Indian cavalry charge builds up momentum: The horsemen wear conical shaped quilted helmets with neck flaps similiar to those identified as belonging to Tipu's arsenal. It has also been suggested that these may be Maratha cavalry. The Marathas were part of the Indian alliance against the British in the 2nd Anglo Mysore War. A few carry crossbows or muskets but the majority carry swords which they hold up belligerently. They wear shields on their backs.
L
Multiple close combat scenes: A Mysorean horseman spears a British soldier, knocking his hat off - a frequent motif for victims. At the same time, the Indian soldier below, holding a knuckle weapon, appears to be falling backwards and possibly kicking the British soldier infront, who in turn is firing closerange into the midrift of another horseman.
M
Mysorean soldiers operating cannon: Two Mysorean soldiers can be seen operating canon. One hand is occupied with lighting the fusewire, the other with holding the ramrod also referred to as a ‘scouring stick’– used for loading the canon ball into the muzzle and pushing it up against the gun powder propellant.
N
European soldier with moustache thought to be on the English side: A standing European soldier with a moustache points his musket in the direction of the British Square and an Indian horsemen. Although he sports a moustache like the Frenchmen who are without exception portrayed with moustaches, it is more likely that he is a British soldier as no other French are depicted in this part of the painting. He also wears a double crossbelt and a tall hat whereas the French are depicted with single crossbelts and shorter plain black hats.
O
British getting hacked to pieces in the Mysorean cavalry charge: This scene shows the thick of the battle with many of the British cavalry being slaughtered. On the right side of the scene the Mysorean cavalry press into the British Square. A large Maratha commander is pierced by a bayonet which sends his green cap flying. Nearby a headless British soldier can be seen still standing. On the far left of the scene, the furthest extremity of the British force are visible. A cavalry officer wearing a red overcoat without a crossbelt has both his arms outstretched having been lanced. Among the various objects are numerous flying canon balls and an isolated kutar – a kind of dagger characterised by an H-shaped horizontal hand grip.
P
Single British cavalry officer firing musket: In the chaos a single British cavalry officer rides towards the British Square firing a musket. His assailant, a Mysorean on horseback, also riding against the flow, makes a stab at him with an almost imperceptible spear.
Q
Horseman’s head blown off by cannon and hand to hand combat: A British soldier, drawn in gigantic proportions, is lanced while he fires a canon shot at the Mysorean horseman whose severed head falls to the ground spurting blood. Close by a Mysore and British foot soldier can be seen sparring. The Mysorean carries a knuckle weapon in his left hand and a sword in his other while the Britisher fights with his bayonet.
R
Explosion of the British ammunition cart: The exploding ammunition cart in the middle of the British square which pushed the outcome of the battle in favour of the Mysoreans as it caused the British to run out of gunpowder. An Indian sepoy pours water into the cart.
S
Colonel Baillie being transported in a palanquin: Colonel Baillie appears in the middle of the men he commanded, seated in a palanquin carried by six Indian bearers and wearing a cocked hat. By this stage of the battle he was wounded. He appears to be biting his index finger and is portrayed as an effeminate figure.
T
British ammunition tumbrels: British ammunition tumbrels with artillery men in the foreground.
U
Captairn Baird pointing on horseback: Captain Baird points towards the explosion of ammunition while addressing Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher who is beside him.
V
Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher on horseback: Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher on horseback. He is side by side with Captain Baird. The Colonel appears to adopt the same gesture as his superior Colonel Baillie of nervously putting his finger on his lip or even biting it, doubtless in reaction to the ammunition explosion inside the British Square.
W
Soldiers in the British Square: British soldiers in tight formation at the bottom of the defensive square they formed against the Indian cavalry attacks, of which they managed to repulse a total of 13 before surrendering. They wear double crossbelt red overcoats and tall hats with a white ribbon, a gold decoration and an aigrette. In contrast to the moustachio'd French they are characterised by their muttonchop whiskers.
X
Mysore cavalry breach the right side of British Square: Mysorean horsemen wearing blue and red tunics attack the right side of the British Square in diagonal formation. The horses' saddles, against which the sword scabbards are visible, are also coloured and have a gold hem. One Mysorean in green, catapulted into the air with his arms outstretched, appears to emerge from the body of a fellow countryman also in green who is bent back over his horse. It is unlikely the artist intended this effect but failed to correct the mistake.
Y
Horse floundering hit by cannon fire: A Mysorean on horseback is fired at by a British artillery man which causes him to flop sideways over his saddle while still wielding his sword. The horse, with its distorted limbs, appears to be in state of shock and maybe also wounded. Infront some examples of hand-to-hand combat.
Z
Two horsemen clash head on and a soldier is hit by an arrow: Two horsemen confront eachother head on. The British officer fights with a sword although more frequently they are seen with bayonets. Behind him a British soldier who has been mortally wounded by an arrow can be seen prostrate. The sense of perspective in relation to the ground is lost.
1
Hand to hand fighting between footsoldier and horseman: This depiction of close fighting shows a British soldier using the bayonet at the end of his musket against a Mysorean horseman wielding a sword. It also is an example of perspective error as the former looks like he is embracing the horse's neck.
2
Close combat scene with soldier trampled to death: A British officer thrusts his bayonet at a Mysorean on horseback while another Mysorean tramples over the prostrate body of a British soldier whom he has just killed with his lance.
3
British soldier attacking French artilleryman: A British soldier appears to march fearlessly into the line of the enemy cannon's fire carrying his musket like a pickaxe while the French artilleryman defiantly has his hand on the fuse. The scene is a good example of how scale can be intentionally distorted with the figure of the British soldier made threateningly large in contrast to the dimunitive pair of onlooking artillery men.
4
Mysorean horseman holding up decapitated head: A Mysorean horseman riding back towards the open space, occupied by a commander, proudly displays the decapitated head of a British victim in one hand while holding aloft his sword in the other.
5
French artillery firing at the British Square: The French artillery men take aim from their hilly vantage point at the British Square and ammunition tumbrels. The cannons are fired with fuse wire. Some of the artillery men carry ramrods, resembling long brushes, which were used for loading the cannons. Most of the French depicted in the painting can be found close to this spot in the top right of the painting. The French were at war with England in India as they were in Europe and took the side of Haidar Ali. Apart from being distinguished by their moustaches, the French uniforms are subtly different to those of the British: their red overcoats normally have a single white cross belt; their hats are less high than those of the British and they don’t carry muskets.
6
General Sayyid Gaffur right side appearance: Sayyid Gaffur is probably shown here in the middle of some open ground with his attendant who carries a large insignia. He rides a richly caparisoned chestnut horse and wears a gold-embroidered turban, red tunic, cummerbund and spotted green trousers. This would be his second appearance in the painting as he has also been identified next to Haidar Ali according to Seringapatam by Constance Parsons (1931).
7
Indian horsemen wearing helmets rally each other: Indian horsemen wearing conical shaped helmets with neck flaps raise their swords. The same non-metal quilted headgear or 'peti' can be seen on horsemen on the opposite side of the painting. It is possible to observe their stirrups. Some of them look behind, urging eachother on in the charge.
8
Mons Lally surveying the British Square with his telescope: Mons Lally is shown looking out of a telescope from the summit of a hill, wearing a cocked hat with a white plume. The gradient is partly suggested by his posture with one foot placed on a higher piece of ground. A soldier holds the tether of his undecorated brown horse. Mons Lally is credited in some accounts of the battle with perceiving the British ammunition and ordering his artillery to aim at it. The result can be seen in the explosion in the middle of the British Square.
9
General Sayyid Gaffur left side appearance: With Haidar Ali is General Sayyid Gaffur. He is riding a richly caparisoned chestnut horse while his attendant shields him with a parasol. He has also been identified by Constance Parsons in Seringapatam (1931) on the right side of the painting.
10

Mysore Rocket Technology & The Invention of Missiles

Rocket technology featured prominantly in the design of Ali and Sultan's weaponry. Although the Muslims had not invented rockets per se, they did invent missiles (known as "Bana" rockets amongst Mysoreans[55]).[n. 7] Previously the Chinese had described their rockets in the "Wu Pei Chih" (c. 1620s), which stated that explosive warheads were launched from wooden boxes, divided into cells that were able to hold one hundred projectiles each.[56] However Mysore invented another set of rockets (indeed they "were the first ironcased rockets successfully deployed for military use"[57]) when they decided to manufacture them with metal instead of bamboo and pasteboard. The value of these rockets was so immense that Mysore attached a company of rocketeers to each of their army brigades, and were capable of raising well over 5,000—6,000 rocket carrying troops by the 1790s.[58][59] Adding iron to the devices boosted their impact on field, allowing weapon smiths to make them increasingly more powerful, destructive and loud without worrying about the fear of exploding the container from the expansion of the exhaust gases when firing them.[56] Additionally, the extra thrust that this provided more than compensated for their overall weight.[56] When Sultan was killed by the British, a smorgasbord of artillery was found in the ammunition stores of the Mysore military (or the "Rocket Court").[60] There were 600 launchers, 700 serviceable rockets and over 9,000 empty rockets.[60] A particularly interesting fact was that rocket technology never ceased to be researched after 1799. T.L. Varghese, V.N. Krishnamurthy, writing in "The Chemistry and Technology of Solid Rocket Propellants" (2017), show in great detail the vast and eclectic consequences the spread of this Muslim technology had been, and how it spurred European scientists (including Alfred Nobel who developed a blasting gel by using Nitroglycerine and Nitrocellulose) to vastly improve rocket chemistry over the coming century.[61]
Chinese vs. Muslim rockets.
The "Congreve Rocket" are exact copies of the rockets developed by Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan.
Mysore rockets were constructed using four crucial moieties; which were iron, steel, gunpowder and a specialised mechanical design.[62] At least two surviving specimens are known to exist; remaining preserved at the Royal Artillery Museum (under the "Woolwich Arsenal" collection).[62] One of these specimens is a 2.3 inch outer diameter casing, by 10 inches in length, tied with strips of leather forming a hide to an adjacent 3 foot, 4 inch long sword blade (1.02 m in length).[62] The second is a 1.5 inch by 7.8 inch casing with hide, but this time tied to a bamboo pole of 6 foot and 3 inches length (1.90m).[62] The casings are made of steel (whereas the cylinders themselves were made up of soft iron), which were coupled with mutli-nozzle holes, along with a sword blade acting as the directional warhead. The propellant consisted of a specially designed gunpowder (which had been modified to produce striking aggressive bursts of energy, spreading a rapid unpleasant strong odour as well as producing smoke, along with creating a sudden and deafening sound; also unusual for it's time, the gunpowder was highly resistant to moisture ingress; making the rockets extremely durable, during even the most intense of monsoons). Altogether the rockets weighed approximately 2kg—5.4kg each,[63] with the propellant making up at least half of the rockets weight. They were capable of being fired simultaneously, making their use devastatingly efficient.[62] Between 5—10 rockets were fired from a single wheeled rocket ramp, with the target coordinates customised by adjusting the angle of projection (made possible from "calculat[ing]...the diameter of the cylinder and the distance of the target".[62] These rockets were capable of bombing targets more than 1.5 miles away[64][63][65] (7,920 feet; more than the distance of certain modern sniper rifles). The British eventually copied the designs and transported them to Europe where they were used during the Napoleonic Wars (having also claimed all the credit for the Mysore inventions).[66]
Chinese vs. Muslim rockets.
Rocket technology featured prominantly in the design of Ali and Sultan's weaponry. Although the Muslims had not invented rockets per se, they did invent missiles (known as "Bana" rockets amongst Mysoreans[55]).[n. 8] Previously the Chinese had described their rockets in the "Wu Pei Chih" (c. 1620s), which stated that explosive warheads were launched from wooden boxes, divided into cells that were able to hold one hundred projectiles each.[56] However Mysore invented another set of rockets (indeed they "were the first ironcased rockets successfully deployed for military use"[57]) when they decided to manufacture them with metal instead of bamboo and pasteboard. The value of these rockets was so immense that Mysore attached a company of rocketeers to each of their army brigades, and were capable of raising well over 5,000—6,000 rocket carrying troops by the 1790s.[58][59] Adding iron to the devices boosted their impact on field, allowing weapon smiths to make them increasingly more powerful, destructive and loud without worrying about the fear of exploding the container from the expansion of the exhaust gases when firing them.[56] Additionally, the extra thrust that this provided more than compensated for their overall weight.[56] When Sultan was killed by the British, a smorgasbord of artillery was found in the ammunition stores of the Mysore military (or the "Rocket Court").[60] There were 600 launchers, 700 serviceable rockets and over 9,000 empty rockets.[60] A particularly interesting fact was that rocket technology never ceased to be researched after 1799. T.L. Varghese, V.N. Krishnamurthy, writing in "The Chemistry and Technology of Solid Rocket Propellants" (2017), show in great detail the vast and eclectic consequences the spread of this Muslim technology had been, and how it spurred European scientists (including Alfred Nobel who developed a blasting gel by using Nitroglycerine and Nitrocellulose) to vastly improve rocket chemistry over the coming century.[61]
The "Congreve Rocket" are exact copies of the rockets developed by Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan.
Mysore rockets were constructed using four crucial moieties; which were iron, steel, gunpowder and a specialised mechanical design.[62] At least two surviving specimens are known to exist; remaining preserved at the Royal Artillery Museum (under the "Woolwich Arsenal" collection).[62] One of these specimens is a 2.3 inch outer diameter casing, by 10 inches in length, tied with strips of leather forming a hide to an adjacent 3 foot, 4 inch long sword blade (1.02 m in length).[62] The second is a 1.5 inch by 7.8 inch casing with hide, but this time tied to a bamboo pole of 6 foot and 3 inches length (1.90m).[62] The casings are made of steel (whereas the cylinders themselves were made up of soft iron), which were coupled with mutli-nozzle holes, along with a sword blade acting as the directional warhead. The propellant consisted of a specially designed gunpowder (which had been modified to produce striking aggressive bursts of energy, spreading a rapid unpleasant strong odour as well as producing smoke, along with creating a sudden and deafening sound; also unusual for it's time, the gunpowder was highly resistant to moisture ingress; making the rockets extremely durable, during even the most intense of monsoons). Altogether the rockets weighed approximately 2kg—5.4kg each,[63] with the propellant making up at least half of the rockets weight. They were capable of being fired simultaneously, making their use devastatingly efficient.[62] Between 5—10 rockets were fired from a single wheeled rocket ramp, with the target coordinates customised by adjusting the angle of projection (made possible from "calculat[ing]...the diameter of the cylinder and the distance of the target".[62] These rockets were capable of bombing targets more than 1.5 miles away[64][63][65] (7,920 feet; more than the distance of certain modern sniper rifles). The British eventually copied the designs and transported them to Europe where they were used during the Napoleonic Wars (having also claimed all the credit for the Mysore inventions).[66]

Impact and Legacy

For thirty-three years, both father and son had struggled against the British, without the use of allies (or at the very least, reliable,[n. 9] allies) who surrounded their territory.[n. 10] In the first Anglo-Mysore War (1767—1769) Hyder Ali crushed the "combined armies of the Marathas, the British and the Nizam of Hyderabad".[62] The second Anglo-Mysore War (1780—1784) then provided fertile ground for Tipu Sultan to flower into a great warrior and political leader[62] after his father's death in 1782[67] (having now led his own military detachment; and won a significant victory over a European imperial and colonial power at Pollilur). The third Anglo-Mysore War (1789) saw Sultan brazenly invade Tranvancore (who were allied to the English), but unfortunately for him he was resoundly defeated.[62] The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War unfortunately now this time saw his own untimely death,[68] which dealt the final blow to his father's short lived empire—and although this war was also of a short duration[62]—it had a significant, unintentional impact across the globe, with far reaching consequences in rocket research. Having killed Sultan, the British shipped hundreds of unused Mysore rockets to the UK as part of their spoils of war to the Royal Arsenal.[69] Here they reverse engineered the technology and copied it, and even somewhat improved it.[69] These rockets, called the "Congrieve rockets", were so important that they managed to prevent a successful invasion of England by the French.[70] With the discovery of the Indian Muslim rockets, the British spread the technology to the far reaches of their empire, making missiles more and more prominent, which proved to be a deciding factor for the outcome of many battles.[n. 11] Tipu Sultan had made devastating use of his rocket technology all the way up to his death in 1799, and now the Europeans would inherit his technology. Knowledge of these secret weapons eventually spread throughout the rest of Europe, with militaries copying their design, and fuelling further developments.[71]
The sword and hilt of Tipu Sultan's sword (sold in 2015 for £6 million pounds).
A depiction of Pollilur, 1780.
Historians, too, were awestruck, not only at the power of Ali's rockets, but by how skillfully Mysore had routed the British. One such author (who went by the name of Rao, who wrote the "History of Mysoor") remarked; "Colonel Wellesley, advancing at the height of his regiment...was instantly attacked, in the darkness of the night, on every side, by a tremendous fire of musketry and rockets. The men gave way, were dispersed, and retreated in disorder. Several were killed, and twelve grenadiers...were taken prisoners".[72] Bayly had also remarked at how skillfully the enemy had routed the British; stating "Hyder's means of intelligence were so multipied and superior to ours that nothing went on in either of our camps which he was not immediately informed of, and, finding that both our armies were in this perilous situation, he suddenly decamped about midnight, before it was possible for us to obtain the least knowledge of his intentions, and formed a junction with his son Tippo. The fires of his camp were left blazing; and two or three thousand horse and rocket-men kept hovering round our main army, in order to conceal his enterprise from us; and early that morning he laid his whole force in ambush behind the woods and village of Polliloore, a place that greatly favoured his design, being a commanding spot of ground, intersected by deep ravins and water-courses, and upon the only road for guns leading to Congeveram".[72] The defeat was so humiliating that it had angered the British to point where they would fabricate claims and demonise Sultan. Supriya Goswami, writing in "Colonial India in Children’s Literature" (2012) stated "[t]he resounding defeat at Pollilur was a setback to the British campaign to control the Carnatic...Baillie's capture and death were renarrated in a manner that made Tipu look like a deliberate and vengeful murderer. Ironically, the anonymous writer of one of the earliest published captivity narratives does not mention Tipu in a negative light", but does "[go] on to describe the sadistic pleasure that Hyder gets from the spectacle of British suffering".[73]
The sword and hilt of Tipu Sultan's sword (sold in 2015 for £6 million pounds).
For thirty-three years, both father and son had struggled against the British, without the use of allies (or at the very least, reliable,[n. 12] allies) who surrounded their territory.[n. 13] In the first Anglo-Mysore War (1767—1769) Hyder Ali crushed the "combined armies of the Marathas, the British and the Nizam of Hyderabad".[62] The second Anglo-Mysore War (1780—1784) then provided fertile ground for Tipu Sultan to flower into a great warrior and political leader[62] after his father's death in 1782[67] (having now led his own military detachment; and won a significant victory over a European imperial and colonial power at Pollilur). The third Anglo-Mysore War (1789) saw Sultan brazenly invade Tranvancore (who were allied to the English), but unfortunately for him he was resoundly defeated.[62] The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War unfortunately now this time saw his own untimely death,[68] which dealt the final blow to his father's short lived empire—and although this war was also of a short duration[62]—it had a significant, unintentional impact across the globe, with far reaching consequences in rocket research. Having killed Sultan, the British shipped hundreds of unused Mysore rockets to the UK as part of their spoils of war to the Royal Arsenal.[69] Here they reverse engineered the technology and copied it, and even somewhat improved it.[69] These rockets, called the "Congrieve rockets", were so important that they managed to prevent a successful invasion of England by the French.[70] With the discovery of the Indian Muslim rockets, the British spread the technology to the far reaches of their empire, making missiles more and more prominent, which proved to be a deciding factor for the outcome of many battles.[n. 14] Tipu Sultan had made devastating use of his rocket technology all the way up to his death in 1799, and now the Europeans would inherit his technology. Knowledge of these secret weapons eventually spread throughout the rest of Europe, with militaries copying their design, and fuelling further developments.[71]
A depiction of Pollilur, 1780.
Historians, too, were awestruck, not only at the power of Ali's rockets, but by how skillfully Mysore had routed the British. One such author (who went by the name of Rao, who wrote the "History of Mysoor") remarked; "Colonel Wellesley, advancing at the height of his regiment...was instantly attacked, in the darkness of the night, on every side, by a tremendous fire of musketry and rockets. The men gave way, were dispersed, and retreated in disorder. Several were killed, and twelve grenadiers...were taken prisoners".[72] Bayly had also remarked at how skillfully the enemy had routed the British; stating "Hyder's means of intelligence were so multipied and superior to ours that nothing went on in either of our camps which he was not immediately informed of, and, finding that both our armies were in this perilous situation, he suddenly decamped about midnight, before it was possible for us to obtain the least knowledge of his intentions, and formed a junction with his son Tippo. The fires of his camp were left blazing; and two or three thousand horse and rocket-men kept hovering round our main army, in order to conceal his enterprise from us; and early that morning he laid his whole force in ambush behind the woods and village of Polliloore, a place that greatly favoured his design, being a commanding spot of ground, intersected by deep ravins and water-courses, and upon the only road for guns leading to Congeveram".[72] The defeat was so humiliating that it had angered the British to point where they would fabricate claims and demonise Sultan. Supriya Goswami, writing in "Colonial India in Children’s Literature" (2012) stated "[t]he resounding defeat at Pollilur was a setback to the British campaign to control the Carnatic...Baillie's capture and death were renarrated in a manner that made Tipu look like a deliberate and vengeful murderer. Ironically, the anonymous writer of one of the earliest published captivity narratives does not mention Tipu in a negative light", but does "[go] on to describe the sadistic pleasure that Hyder gets from the spectacle of British suffering".[73]

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ Quote: "Pollilur in September, 1780. Described by many historians as the severest blow that the English ever sustained in India, it established Tipu as a general of international repute".
    1. India Perspectives. PTI for the Ministry of External Affairs. 1995. p. 29.
  2. ^ Quote: "Pollilur in September, 1780. Described by many historians as the severest blow that the English ever sustained in India, it established Tipu as a general of international repute".
    1. India Perspectives. PTI for the Ministry of External Affairs. 1995. p. 29.
  3. ^ However this was only brief. This seeming monopoly lasted between 1811 and 1815, after which, the Dutch regained control of their assets.
    1. Primary Society and Environment. R.I.C. Publications. 2001. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-74126-128-8.
  4. ^ According to some historians the betrayal that Haider had suffered made his angry, but did not wholly detract from his ambitions to court the British. For six years, between 1769 and 1775, he made efforts to continuously press the British to ally to his cause, but this never worked. Having lost hope in any sort of an alliance with them, by February 1780, after suffering years of rejection from the British, he entered into a coalition with one of his (and their) enemies (the Marathas), and declared war on the English (which erupted into the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War).
    1. Mohibbul Hasan (2005). Waqai-i manazil-i Rum: Tipu Sultan's mission to Constantinople. Aakar Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-81-87879-56-5.
  5. ^ However this was only brief. This seeming monopoly lasted between 1811 and 1815, after which, the Dutch regained control of their assets.
    1. Primary Society and Environment. R.I.C. Publications. 2001. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-74126-128-8.
  6. ^ According to some historians the betrayal that Haider had suffered made his angry, but did not wholly detract from his ambitions to court the British. For six years, between 1769 and 1775, he made efforts to continuously press the British to ally to his cause, but this never worked. Having lost hope in any sort of an alliance with them, by February 1780, after suffering years of rejection from the British, he entered into a coalition with one of his (and their) enemies (the Marathas), and declared war on the English (which erupted into the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War).
    1. Mohibbul Hasan (2005). Waqai-i manazil-i Rum: Tipu Sultan's mission to Constantinople. Aakar Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-81-87879-56-5.
  7. ^
    • Quote: "According to Amithaba Ghosh, 'Tipu's rockets could be considered as the first missiles, because the rocket could only carry itself, the propellant, its casing and the stabilizing stick', while 'the missile is distinguished by its ability to carry something more - like the sword or the bomb'. Tipu also used sword fixed rockets."
    1. Kaveh Yazdani (10 January 2017). India, Modernity and the Great Divergence: Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.). BRILL. p. 253. ISBN 978-90-04-33079-5.
  8. ^
    • Quote: "According to Amithaba Ghosh, 'Tipu's rockets could be considered as the first missiles, because the rocket could only carry itself, the propellant, its casing and the stabilizing stick', while 'the missile is distinguished by its ability to carry something more - like the sword or the bomb'. Tipu also used sword fixed rockets."
    1. Kaveh Yazdani (10 January 2017). India, Modernity and the Great Divergence: Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.). BRILL. p. 253. ISBN 978-90-04-33079-5.
  9. ^ :Quote: "The Nizam quit the conflict in 1780; the Marathas dropped out in 1782, after making peace with the British; the French were unwilling to help". In the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War, Mysore's allies abandoned them. Mysore had to fight alone themselves, and although they did eventually win, their signed agreements and treaties with their neighbours eventually meant nothing.
    1. Karl J. Schmidt (20 May 2015). An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-317-47681-8.
  10. ^ Quote: "In the second half of the eighteenth century, buoyed by a decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey (1757) in Bengal, the East India Company sought to consolidate its interests across India through a carefully calibrated combination of military and diplomatic activity. Spanning a period of thirty-three years between 1766 and 1799, the Anglo-Mysore Wars were among the most protracted and significant of Britain’s numerous imperial campaigns. Fought across the peninsula of south India, the four wars led to the ultimate overthrow of the Kingdom of Mysore (ruled by Hyder Ali until 1782, and subsequently by his son, Tipu Sultan) by the East India Company and its allies, but not before considerable British humiliation in the second Anglo-Mysore War of 1780­–4. Although often played out across the same landscapes, the four wars were markedly different conflicts which required appropriately differentiated representational strategies from the narratives which described them".
    1. Rosie Dias (Spring 2013). Memory and the Aesthetics of Military Experience: Viewing the Landscape of the Anglo-Mysore Wars. Tate Papers (No. 19, Spring 2013). WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 4th, 2018. ISSN 1753-9854.
  11. ^ In one instance, the British fired 25,000 rockets into Copenhagen, Denmark.
    1. Ahmed F. El-Sayed (25 May 2016). Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion. Springer. p. 1000. ISBN 978-1-4471-6796-9.
    The rockets were also effective elsewhere as well, namely at the Battle of the Nations (1813) in Leipzig and in North America in the War of 1812. Francis Scott Key later saw the rockets light up the American flag when Fort Baltimore was attacked by the rebels. In a hail of inspiration at the sight the rockets produced he penned the famous song, "The Star Spangled Banner".
    1. Francis French; Colin Burgess (2007). Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965. U of Nebraska Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-8032-0697-6.
  12. ^ :Quote: "The Nizam quit the conflict in 1780; the Marathas dropped out in 1782, after making peace with the British; the French were unwilling to help". In the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War, Mysore's allies abandoned them. Mysore had to fight alone themselves, and although they did eventually win, their signed agreements and treaties with their neighbours eventually meant nothing.
    1. Karl J. Schmidt (20 May 2015). An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-317-47681-8.
  13. ^ Quote: "In the second half of the eighteenth century, buoyed by a decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey (1757) in Bengal, the East India Company sought to consolidate its interests across India through a carefully calibrated combination of military and diplomatic activity. Spanning a period of thirty-three years between 1766 and 1799, the Anglo-Mysore Wars were among the most protracted and significant of Britain’s numerous imperial campaigns. Fought across the peninsula of south India, the four wars led to the ultimate overthrow of the Kingdom of Mysore (ruled by Hyder Ali until 1782, and subsequently by his son, Tipu Sultan) by the East India Company and its allies, but not before considerable British humiliation in the second Anglo-Mysore War of 1780­–4. Although often played out across the same landscapes, the four wars were markedly different conflicts which required appropriately differentiated representational strategies from the narratives which described them".
    1. Rosie Dias (Spring 2013). Memory and the Aesthetics of Military Experience: Viewing the Landscape of the Anglo-Mysore Wars. Tate Papers (No. 19, Spring 2013). WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 4th, 2018. ISSN 1753-9854.
  14. ^ In one instance, the British fired 25,000 rockets into Copenhagen, Denmark.
    1. Ahmed F. El-Sayed (25 May 2016). Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion. Springer. p. 1000. ISBN 978-1-4471-6796-9.
    The rockets were also effective elsewhere as well, namely at the Battle of the Nations (1813) in Leipzig and in North America in the War of 1812. Francis Scott Key later saw the rockets light up the American flag when Fort Baltimore was attacked by the rebels. In a hail of inspiration at the sight the rockets produced he penned the famous song, "The Star Spangled Banner".
    1. Francis French; Colin Burgess (2007). Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965. U of Nebraska Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-8032-0697-6.

References

  1. ^ Paul Cowan (30 June 2011). Scottish Military Disasters. Neil Wilson Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-906476-58-8.
  2. ^ a b c d R. G. Grant (24 October 2017). 1001 Battles That Changed the Course of History. Book Sales. p. 465. ISBN 978-0-7858-3553-0.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Mohibbul Hasan (2005). History of Tipu Sultan. Aakar Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-81-87879-57-2.
  4. ^ a b c Irfan Habib (1 July 2002). Confronting Colonialism: Resistance and Modernization Under Haidar Ali & Tipu Sultan. Anthem Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-84331-024-2.
  5. ^ a b c Micheal Clodfelter (9 May 2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015, 4th ed. McFarland. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-7864-7470-7.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Mohibbul Hasan (2005). History of Tipu Sultan. Aakar Books. pp. 12–15. ISBN 978-81-87879-57-2.
  7. ^ a b c d e S. C. Bhatt (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Karnataka. Gyan Publishing House. p. 26. ISBN 978-81-7835-36
  8. ^ Marco Rimanelli (14 September 2009). The A to Z of NATO and Other International Security Organizations. Scarecrow Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-8108-7062-8.
  9. ^ Tmh. General Knowledge Digest 2010. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-07-069939-7.
  10. ^ Dr. Nazeer Ahmed Ph.D. (10 July 2001). Islam in Global History: Volume Two: From the Death of Prophet Muhammed to the First World War. Xlibris Corporation. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-4628-3131-9.
  11. ^ Ravi Visvesvaraya Sharada Prasad (October 29th, 2017). Who Was Tipu Sultan. Counter Currents. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 18th, 2018.
  12. ^ a b S. C. Bhatt (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Karnataka. Gyan Publishing House. p. 24. ISBN 978-81-7835-369-2.
  13. ^ a b Anjana Motihar Chandra (2007). India Condensed: 5000 Years of History & Culture. Marshall Cavendish. p. 39. ISBN 978-981-261-350-9.
  14. ^ a b GKToday (8 June 2015). Current Affairs - May 2015: Current Affairs E-Book Compilation of GKToday For May, 2015. GKTODAY. p. 191. GGKEY:F9QE3U64UJ0.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Britannica Educational Publishing (1 April 2010). The History of India. Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-1-61530-201-7.
  16. ^ a b c d e f George Sarton (1967). Introduction to the History of Science: From Homer to Omar Khayyam. Carnegie Institution of Washington. p. 41.
  17. ^ a b G. C. Mendis (December 1996). The Early History of Ceylon and Its Relations with India and Other Foreign Countries. Asian Educational Services. p. 78. ISBN 978-81-206-0209-0.
  18. ^ a b c d e f R. G. Grant (24 October 2017). 1001 Battles That Changed the Course of History. Book Sales. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-7858-3553-0.
  19. ^ a b c d Kaushik Roy (3 June 2015). Warfare in Pre-British India – 1500BCE to 1740CE. Taylor & Francis. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-317-58691-3.
  20. ^ a b Nicholas F. Gier (20 August 2014). The Origins of Religious Violence: An Asian Perspective. Lexington Books. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7391-9223-8.
  21. ^ a b Robert Sewell (December 1987). India Before the English. Asian Educational Services. p. 31. ISBN 978-81-206-0128-4.
  22. ^ a b Roshen Dalal (2002). The Puffin History of India for Children, 3000 BC - AD 1947. Penguin Books India. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-14-333544-3.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Kaushik Roy (3 June 2015). Warfare in Pre-British India – 1500BCE to 1740CE. Routledge. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-317-58692-0.
  24. ^ a b Miriam T. Stark (15 April 2008). Archaeology of Asia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 326. ISBN 978-1-4051-5303-4.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t John Middleton (June 2015). World Monarchies and Dynasties. Routledge. p. 650. ISBN 978-1-317-45158-7.
  26. ^ a b Mélanie Vandenhelsken; Meenaxi Barkataki-Ruscheweyh; Bengt G. Karlsson (7 August 2017). Geographies of Difference: Explorations in Northeast Indian Studies. Taylor & Francis. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-351-61562-4.
  27. ^ a b Andrea L. Stanton (5 January 2012). Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. SAGE. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4129-8176-7.
  28. ^ a b William J. Duiker; Jackson J. Spielvogel (1 January 2013). The Essential World History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning. p. 263. ISBN 1-133-60772-1.
  29. ^ a b Muzaffar Husain Syed; Syed Saud Akhtar; B D Usmani (14 September 2011). Concise History of Islam. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 260. ISBN 978-93-82573-47-0.
  30. ^ a b Gregory Fremont-Barnes (2007). Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760-1815: A-L. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 350. ISBN 978-0-313-33446-7.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Karl J. Schmidt (20 May 2015). An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. Routledge. pp. 62. ISBN 978-1-317-47681-8.
  32. ^ a b John Farndon (1 January 2018). The Rise of Western Society: Sailing Ships and Revolutions. Hungry Tomato ®. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-5415-1883-4.
  33. ^ a b Dr. Venkat Rao Palati. Role Of Freedom Fighters In Bidar District (1890 -1948). Lulu.com. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-312-40623-0.
  34. ^ a b Spencer C. Tucker (23 December 2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East (6 volumes): From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 733. ISBN 978-1-85109-672-5.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j William Dalrymple (March 4th, 2015). The East India Company: The original corporate raiders. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 20th, 2018.
  36. ^ a b Sabrina Mervin; Rainer Brunner; Jean-François Legrain (29 May 2013). The Dynamics of Sunni-Shia Relationships: Doctrine, Transnationalism, Intellectuals and the Media. Hurst Publishers. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-84904-217-8.
  37. ^ a b Munis D. Faruqui (27 August 2012). The Princes of the Mughal Empire, 1504–1719. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-139-53675-2.
  38. ^ a b Zabihollah Rezaee; Richard Riley (2010). Financial Statement Fraud: Prevention and Detection. John Wiley & Sons. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-470-45570-8.
  39. ^ a b James Anderson (21 March 2013). Daily Life Through Trade: Buying and Selling in World History. ABC-CLIO. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-313-36325-2.
  40. ^ a b Harry den Hartog (2010). 上海新城: 追寻蔓延都市里的社区和身份. 010 Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 978-90-6450-735-9.
  41. ^ a b Ulric Killion (2006). A Modern Chinese Journey to the West: Economic Globalization and Dualism. Nova Publishers. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-59454-905-2.
  42. ^ a b John Bucknill; Sir John A. S. Bucknill (1931). The Coins of the Dutch East Indies: An Introduction to the Study of the Series. Asian Educational Services. p. 15. ISBN 978-81-206-1448-2.
  43. ^ a b Andrew Phillips; J. C. Sharman (23 April 2015). International Order in Diversity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 102. ISBN 978-1-107-08483-4.
  44. ^ History of World War II. Marshall Cavendish. 2004. p. 744. ISBN 978-0-7614-7485-2.
  45. ^ a b Robert Leckie (1987). Delivered from Evil: The Saga of World War II. Harper & Row. p. 890. ISBN 978-0-06-015812-5.
  46. ^ a b {Robert C. Hilderbrand (1 February 2001). Dumbarton Oaks: The Origins of the United Nations and the Search for Postwar Security. UNC Press Books. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-8078-4950-7.
  47. ^ a b c d Radhey Shyam Chaurasia (2002). History of Modern India, 1707 A. D. to 2000 A. D.. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 94. ISBN 978-81-269-0085-5.
  48. ^ a b James Stuart Olson; Robert Shadle (1996). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 774. ISBN 978-0-313-29367-2.
  49. ^ a b c d Salma Ahmed Farooqui (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. p. 380. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1.
  50. ^ a b c d e f Showick Thorpe Edgar Thorpe (2009). The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, 1/e. Pearson Education India. p. 97. ISBN 978-81-317-2133-9.
  51. ^ History of World War II. Marshall Cavendish. 2004. p. 744. ISBN 978-0-7614-7485-2.
  52. ^ a b Dalrymple, W. (2005). "ASSIMILATION AND TRANSCULTURATION IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY INDIA: A Response to Pankaj Mishra". Common Knowledge. 11 (3): 445–485. doi:10.1215/0961754X-11-3-445. ISSN 0961-754X.
  53. ^ a b c d Jaim, H M Iftekhar; Jaim, Jasmine (2013). "The Decisive Nature of the Indian War Rocket in the Anglo-Mysore Wars of the Eighteenth Century". Arms & Armour. 8 (2): 131–138. doi:10.1179/174962611X13097916223244. ISSN 1741-6124.
  54. ^ a b Otto Money (2014). THE BATTLE OF POLLILUR PAINTING. Battle of Pollilur Painting. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved June 12th, 2017.
  55. ^ a b Roy Porter (17 March 2003). The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 4, Eighteenth-Century Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 685. ISBN 978-0-521-57243-9.
  56. ^ a b c d e f A. Bowdoin Van Riper (29 October 2007). Rockets and Missiles: The Life Story of a Technology. JHU Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8018-8792-5.
  57. ^ a b Estefania Wenger (1 March 2017). Tipu Sultan: A Biography. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 978-93-86367-44-0.
  58. ^ a b Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Jaim, Jasmine (2014). "War Rockets in India": 1–4. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-3934-5_10216-1.
  59. ^ a b Kaveh Yazdani (10 January 2017). India, Modernity and the Great Divergence: Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.). BRILL. p. 252. ISBN 978-90-04-33079-5.
  60. ^ a b c d Anwar Haroon (June 2013). Kingdom of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Xlibris Corporation. p. 298. ISBN 978-1-4836-1534-9.
  61. ^ a b T.L. Varghese; V.N. Krishnamurthy (3 January 2017). The Chemistry and Technology of Solid Rocket Propellants (A Treatise on Solid Propellants). Allied Publishers. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-93-85926-33-4.
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Jaim, H M Iftekhar; Jaim, Jasmine (2013). "The Decisive Nature of the Indian War Rocket in the Anglo-Mysore Wars of the Eighteenth Century". Arms & Armour. 8 (2): 131–138. ISSN 1741-6124. doi:10.1179/174962611X13097916223244.
  63. ^ a b c d Ron Miller (1 August 2007). Rockets. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-58013-688-4.
  64. ^ a b Ron Miller (1 September 2007). Satellites. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8225-7154-4.
  65. ^ a b Ray Spangenburg; Diane Kit Moser (2009). Wernher Von Braun, Revised Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-4381-0413-3.
  66. ^ a b A. Bowdoin Van Riper (29 October 2007). Rockets and Missiles: The Life Story of a Technology. JHU Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8018-8792-5.
  67. ^ a b Karl J. Schmidt (20 May 2015). An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-317-47681-8.
  68. ^ a b Reddy (1 November 2005). General Studies History 4 Upsc. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-07-060447-6.
  69. ^ a b c d A. Bowdoin Van Riper (29 October 2007). Rockets and Missiles: The Life Story of a Technology. JHU Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-8018-8792-
  70. ^ a b Francis French; Colin Burgess (2007). Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965. U of Nebraska Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-8032-0697-6.
  71. ^ a b Ian McNeil (1 June 2002). An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology. Routledge. p. 838. ISBN 978-1-134-98164-9.
  72. ^ a b c d Arish Jamil (2013). Why Mysore? The Idealistic and Materialistic Factors Behind Tipu Sultan’s War Rocket Success. Emory Endeavors in History. Pages 62-83. p. 66-67. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved June 12th, 2017.
  73. ^ a b Supriya Goswami (26 July 2012). Colonial India in Children’s Literature. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-136-28143-3.

External Links