Battle of Xeres Guadalete (711)

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Epitomization/Illustration
Duration: July 19th, 711—
July 21st, 711
(1306 or 1307 years ago)
Result: Decisive Muslim Victory
Belligerents:
Umayyad Flag.jpg Umayyad Empire
Belligerents:
VisigothFlag.jpg Visigoth Empire
Strength:
Umayyad Flag.jpg 12,000
Strength:
VisigothFlag.jpg 40,000—100,000
Casualties:
Umayyad Flag.jpg 3,000[1]
Casualties:
VisigothFlag.jpg ~9,000[n. 1]

The Battle of Guadalete in 711 is perhaps one of the most significant battles in the entirety of human history, as it ushered in an era of great prosperity for Islamic (and even Jewish) civilisation. Tarik ibn Zeyad, with a force of about 12,000 soldiers, crushed the Visigothic military which consisted of about 40,000—100,000 men. The Iberian peninsula had been occupied by the Catholic Visigoths at the time of the invasion; although they had not bothered to settle in Gibralter. Their own civilisation itself was notable throughout history for being the first in 800 years to sack the city of Rome. The Visigoths were however, a highly persecutory people towards non-Catholics; who were subsequently driven into the far recesses of northern Spain. This is where they would repeatedly attempt to try and regain their lost kingdom.

Islamic civilization lasted until 1492, thereafter giving way to the rise of the great Spanish Empire that would eventually colonise the whole of the Americas before itself being totally dismantled in 1975. The vestiges of Muslim civilization, however, are still visible in Spain today, and although much of it was deliberately destroyed during the "Reconquista", remnants of it's ancient kingdoms still survive to this day. Although Zeyad could not have foreseen his long lasting influence in the victory, he stands out as one of the most distinguished people in history. However, a mere two years later, he was recalled back to Damascus for leading the conquest, which was done without the permission of the Caliphical authority. He spent the rest of his days devoted to the Islamic faith outside Iberia.

Background

Overview

Russian depiction of the Ummayyud Caliphate.

Casus Belli:— The exact cause of the Umayyud Empire declaring war on the Visigoths is not entirely known. However the general political situation for minorities in the Visigothic kingdom was well recognized. The Jewish tribes in the Hispanic kingdom were persecuted extensively.[2][3][n. 2] Other historians claim the conquest may have been driven as retaliation against the current Visigothic king from his apparant heirs who wanted the throne for themselves;[2] and that prior to this some Jewish Berber tribes might have been launching raids into Spain in order to fight against Jewish persecution too (going as far as even suggesting that Tarik Ibn Zeyad might actually have been a Jewish convert to Islam, along with Tarif Ibn Malluk).[2] Regardless of his roots, it was certain that he was a Muslim and his loyalties were rooted to the Ummah. Still yet, other historians have suggested the conquest was down to competition for resources.[n. 3] The battle was also not wholly authorized by the Islamic emperor, who recalled Zeyad to Damascus, to explain his actions.[4] He was accused by the new Caliph for misappropriating funds, and was dismissed from his post, where it has been alleged he spent the remainder of his life as a religious "ascetic".[4] An important note must also be made that the Visigoths were not the indigenous inhabitants of Spain, but were a Germanic tribe that had driven most of the indigenous population into North Africa.[3] The Visigoths were a powerful tribe that had even sacked Rome in 410.[5] Historians have suggested that civil war amongst the Visigoths must have been another reason for Islamic intervention.[3][n. 4]

History

Tactics:— Although little information is available, historians have documented certain tactics that were used by both armies.[6] It was originally theorized that Islamic armies suddenly converted over to cavalry warfare, particularly in medieval Europe in the 8th century.[6] However this has allegedly been "disproved" because "the western Islamic armies of this period still consisted largely of infantry or mounted infantry rather than large numbers of true cavalry".[6] However it is still possible that they might have used it extensively (horse riders often did not have any proper foot grips in the battle, and so there is scant physical evidence of it's use).[n. 5] According to others however Muslims reintroduced horseshoes "whose cavalry technology reflected the stony terrain of their Middle Eastern homelands".[6] During the battle itself, the Islamic army was believed to have camped themselves on higher ground whilst Visigothic forces held the lower ground.[6] The former's cavalry was also positioned directly ahead of their infantry spearmen, and behind them were the archers and the Muslim camp.[6] The Visigothic cavalry on the other hand formed several horizontal lines in front and behind them was the the Visigothic infantry.[6] The Muslims used this to their advantage and proceeded with crushing, short, sharp selective attacks as the opposing forces advanced.[6] The Muslims made it imperative to split their spearmen and archers into sections in order to allow the cavalry to retreat after every attack.[6]

Tarik's battle formation used selective attacks against the Visigoths.
UK postage stamps commemorating Zeyad's 1,300 year old landing at Gibralter (40x28mm).[7]

Size:— Zeyad's force was made up of 12,000—12,300 soldiers (which included 20 Arab officers[8] and 300 horse-ridden cavalry[9][10]).[11] Most historians however agree that Zeyad's army consisted of only 7,000 soldiers.[12][13][14][2][15] His army was mostly made up of Arabs, Berbers and Yemenis.[8][16] These men were later reinforced with 5,000 additional Berbers.[10] The opposing force was made up of thousands more soldiers, and although the numbers are somewhat disputed, they numbered between 40,000—100,000 men.[11][17][18][19][20] The lowest of these figures is believed to be true by some historians, and comes from the noted historian Ibn Khaldun. Modern European historians have revised the numbers of the Europeans to ~25,000, to as low as ~15,000.[21][22] Some 3,000 Muslims died in the battle, and numerous were left disabled; and it is furthermore believed that out of the 12,000 men that participated, only 6,000 remained completely unhurt.[23][n. 6] The Visigoths by contrast suffered far more deaths than Zeyad's forces (though the amount is unknown).[19] Their center was said to have been totally destroyed.[23] Such was the loss that the Visigoths fled the kingdom only with a statue of the Virgin Mary (a gift by Pope Gregory I) to Leander, and hidden in a cave near Guadaloupe where it's never been found since.[14] That particular statue was attributed to St. Luke.[14] Perhaps more significant was that the Jews welcomed Muslims as liberators.[10]

Aftermath

Aftermath:— There is only one surviving account written by the Christians ("Chronicle of 754"), which was written 43 years after the war.[24] On the Muslim side, many of the documentary evidence and sources were deliberately destroyed during the Spanish "Reconquista", and there exists few contemporary accounts of the invasion.[24] According to European sources, the king's family member's lead the wings of the Visigothic army—but had long been disgruntled at the usurption of their previous king, Witiza.[24] Roderick's forces were said to have abandoned him during the battle and left the field—although this seems highly unlikely.[24] What happened to Roderick after is not entirely clear.[24] Victorian authors have said he was seen in the battlefield, "seated in a chariot of war" and "adorned with ivory ornaments and drawn by two large white mules"; and "on his head he wore a crown or diadem of pearls, while a rich chlamys, or mantle of purple, bordered with embroidery of gold" covered his shoulders.[25] Tarik killed the king himself with "his own hand", and later sent his head to the military command.[25] The Christians however tell a different story.[26] They claimed that he ran; he mounted a horse called "Orelia", and fled.[26] The horse was later supposedly found, including it's upper garments, and the buskins "covered with pearls and precious stones", on the bank of the river Guadalete.[26] It is theorized by the famous Spanish historian, Mariana, that he had drowned trying to cross it in armour.[26][27]

Tarik Laying His Conquests At The Feet Of Musa (711).

Legacy

Gibralter, now a British territory, founded and settled by Muslim Berbers.

Legacy:— Tarik's victory ushered in of an era of great prosperity for Islamic civilisation, which lasted until 1492, leaving behind a 791 year legacy.[28][29][30][31][32] The Moors were the first people in the history of Gibralter to settle on "the rock".[12] Normally they had lived in Northwest Africa, currently today known as the territories of Morocco and Mauritiania.[12] They were one of the earliest tribes to convert to Islam as well.[12] After the war was over the island was named after them, but precisely when, and in what language the name of Gibralter originated is not wholly known.[12] What is however known is that it was certainly named after Tarik. According to Ben Hazil, the Arabs had named the rock, the "Hill of Tarik", and a corrupted version of the title lead to the development of the word "Gibralter".[12] However according to Ernle Bradford, the actual word is an anglicized corruption of the word "Gibel Tarik" (meaning "Tarik's Rock").[12] On the other hand, Howard Levie alleges that the first documented use of the word "Gibralter" was in the "Cronica de Fernando IV" (1340), and therefore claims that it is actually a Spanish corruption of the Arabic term (called "Djabel Tarik" in the "Cronica").[12] Another legacy of Tarik's conquest was in the naming of the native home of House Lannister from the books "A Song of Ice and Fire", a set of novels by the fantasy writer George R. R. Martin.[n. 7][n. 8] Their home is called "Casterly Rock". Tarik's landing and victory was even commemorated in Gibralter by the Britihs governent in 2011 on the 1,300th anniversary of the battle, issuing four set of stamps, worth £0.42p, £0.44p, £0.66p and £2.00 pounds.[7]

The conquest of Spain took several years to complete, and the Muslims held onto Spain for 781 years before the Spanish reconquered it in 1492. (Map source.[33]).
Tarik Zeyad (711).

Wider Consequences:— Tarik ibn Zeyad's victory over the Visigoths entered an almost 800 year old Islamic rule in the Iberian peninsula. For 781 years, there were several notable Muslim civilizations that erupted in Spain, and many cultural and scientific achievements were attained such as the development of the Muslim numerical system (often mistakenly called the "Hindu-Arabic numerical system"). The Jews also had their golden age in Muslim Spain,[n. 9] whereas previously they were usually oppressed and massacred. The Spanish inquisition in 1480 testified to this fact when both Muslims and Jews were tortured, persecuted and murdered for years. Throughout Muslim Spain, it was not a simple case of Christians fighting Muslims or vice versa, but often Muslims and Christians would form alliances to take out common enemies as the states fractured into separate kingdoms.[3] The battle itself has some parallels to that of the "Battle of Tours" in 732 which occurred in France,[29] which has undergone wide amounts of puffery throughout European history as a defining battle in the "survival" of Europe and "Western Civilization" (which at the time never really existed, and it is debatable whether or not such a concept even exists today in practice).[n. 10] The battle of Tours itself consisted of an overstretched Muslim army (by at least 1,000 miles from their intended goal of Gibralter).[29] They are said to have been too far away from their own capital, without supplies, and no possibility of reinforcements ever reaching them.[29] However they did fight hard, and both sides suffered very heavy casualties.[29] The Muslims only voluntarily gave up the battle when orders came to retreat as their general had died.[34]

Sources

Further Reading

Further Reading

  • THE ROMANCE OF SPANISH HISTORY by Abbott, John S. C. (Otherwise Abbott, John Stevens Cabot; Author of "The French Revolution"; "The History of Napoleon Bonaparte"). (1869). Chapter 3; The Moorish Invasion (From 673 A.D. to 821 A.D.); p. 59-80 Harper & Brothers Publishers, Franklin Square, New York (Southern District). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • THE STORY OF THE MIDDLE AGES by Harding, Samual Bannister (otherwise Harding S.B.; Ph.D; Professor of European History at Indiana University). (1901) (1912). Chapter 10; Mohammed and the Mohammedans p. 77-83, © "Scott, Foreman and Company". Robert O. Law Company; Edition Book Manufacturers Chicago USA (Chicago and New York)). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • CHILD'S HISTORY OF SPAIN by Bonner, John (Author of "A Child's History of Rome", "A Child's History of France" etc). (1894). Chapter 3; The Moorish Conquest A.D. 710-711 p. 16-21; New York, Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • THE STORY OF THE GREATEST NATIONS: SPAIN (FROM THE DAWN OF HISTORY TO THE TWENTIETH CENTURY) by Horne, Charles. F. (M.S, Ph.D) and Ellis, Edward S. (A.M) (Volume 7; ELLIS: Author of "Standard History of the United States", "History of Our Country", "A Popular History of the World", "A School History of the United States" and advisor of "A Dictionary of Mythology", "Plutarch's Lives" etc HORNE: Author of "Great Men and Famous Women"). (1901) (1906). Chapter 131; The Beginnings of Spain — The Gothic Kingdom p. 1269-1276; © Francis R. Niglutsch. Published by Francis R. Niglutsch (New York). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • THE STORY OF THE GREATEST NATIONS: SPAIN (FROM THE DAWN OF HISTORY TO THE TWENTIETH CENTURY) by Horne, Charles. F. (M.S, Ph.D) and Ellis, Edward S. (A.M) (Volume 7; ELLIS: Author of "Standard History of the United States", "History of Our Country", "A Popular History of the World", "A School History of the United States" and advisor of "A Dictionary of Mythology", "Plutarch's Lives" etc HORNE: Author of "Great Men and Famous Women"). (1901) (1906). Chapter 132; Spain Under the Moors p. 1277-1284; © Francis R. Niglutsch. Published by Francis R. Niglutsch (New York). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • BARBARIAN AND NOBLE by Lansing, Marion Florence (M.A.). (1911). Chapter 10; Roderick And The Saracens p. 92-101; © Marion Florence Lansing. Published by Ginn and Company (Proprietors, Boston USA). Boston, New York, Chicago, London. Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • A SHORT SKETCH OF EUROPEAN HISTORY by Marshall, H. E.. (Author of "An Island Story") (Unknown Year of Publication). Chapter 7; The Conquest of Spain by the Arabs p. 27-31; Frederick A. Stokes Company.Publishers (New York). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • HISTORICAL TALES THE ROMANCE OF REALITY by Morris, Charles (Volume 7, Author of "Half-Hour with the Best American Authors", "Tales From the Dramatists"). (1898) (1908). Chapter 3; The Enchanted Palace p. 17-22; © 1898 1904 1908 by J.B. Lippincopt Company; Published by The Angelus University, Los Angeles, California (Angelus University Course) (Angelus Edition). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • HISTORICAL TALES THE ROMANCE OF REALITY by Morris, Charles (Volume 7, Author of "Half-Hour with the Best American Authors", "Tales From the Dramatists"). (1898) (1908). Chapter 4; Battle of Guadalete p. 23-29; © 1898 1904 1908 by J.B. Lippincopt Company; Published by The Angelus University, Los Angeles, California (Angelus University Course) (Angelus Edition). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • HISTORICAL TALES THE ROMANCE OF REALITY by Morris, Charles (Volume 7, Author of "Half-Hour with the Best American Authors", "Tales From the Dramatists"). (1898) (1908). Chapter 5; The Table of Solomon p. 30-39; © 1898 1904 1908 by J.B. Lippincopt Company; Published by The Angelus University, Los Angeles, California (Angelus University Course) (Angelus Edition). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • HISTORICAL TALES THE ROMANCE OF REALITY by Morris, Charles (Volume 7, Author of "Half-Hour with the Best American Authors", "Tales From the Dramatists"). (1898) (1908). Chapter 7; Pelistes, the Defender of Cordova p. 47-53; © 1898 1904 1908 by J.B. Lippincopt Company; Published by The Angelus University, Los Angeles, California (Angelus University Course) (Angelus Edition). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • HISTORICAL TALES THE ROMANCE OF REALITY by Morris, Charles (Volume 7, Author of "Half-Hour with the Best American Authors", "Tales From the Dramatists"). (1898) (1908). Chapter 8; The Stratagem of Theodomir p. 54-59; © 1898 1904 1908 by J.B. Lippincopt Company; Published by The Angelus University, Los Angeles, California (Angelus University Course) (Angelus Edition). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • HISTORICAL TALES THE ROMANCE OF REALITY by Morris, Charles (Volume 7, Author of "Half-Hour with the Best American Authors", "Tales From the Dramatists"). (1898) (1908). Chapter 9; The Cave of Covadonga p. 60-67; © 1898 1904 1908 by J.B. Lippincopt Company; Published by The Angelus University, Los Angeles, California (Angelus University Course) (Angelus Edition). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  • HISTORY FOR YOUNG READERS by Ober, F. A. (Otherwise Frederick Albion Ober, Author of "Puerto Rico and its Resources", "Crusoe's Island", "Travels in Mexico", "In the Wake of Columbus", "Camps in the Caribees", "A Life of Josephine", etc). (1912). Chapter 5; The Invasion from Africa p. 36-44; © 1899 D. Appleton and Company; Published D.Appleton and Company (New York and London). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).

Footnotes

  1. ^ If 9,000 Berber's survived, then by the following quote, the Muslim forces must have killed at least 9,000 of them (based on an army the size of 12,000 men. Quote: "Visigothic casualties in the battle were high enough to mount nearly all the Berbers on captured horses, and many more were killed in a 3 day pursuit".
    1. Ian Heath (26 September 2015). Armies of the Dark Ages. Lulu.com. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-326-23332-7.
  2. ^ Quote: There were at that time in Spain many Jews who, though they had, through compulsion, received the rite of baptism, still, in heart, held to the faith of their fathers, and, groaning under the oppression they endured, longed for deliverance. They were, of course, eager to engage in any enterprises of rebellion which promised them relief. The Jews were accused, and probably with reason, of entering into a conspiracy with their brethren in Africa, who, in confederacy with the Saracens, agreed to invade Spain, and, by overthrowing the Gothic power there, were to establish the Saracenic sway, under which the Jews were to enjoy toleration. Alarmed by the whisperings of danger which reached his ears, the king summoned a council. The bishops, appointed by him, and regarded as officers of his Government, were of course submissive to his will. By this council it was decreed that any baptized Jew who should relapse should be consigned to perpetual slavery, and that the children of the Jews, when seven years of age, should be taken from them, and educated under the protection of Christians appointed for that purpose. After an energetic but intolerant reign of about thirteen years, Ejica died, and his son, Witiza, received the diadem.
    1. THE ROMANCE OF SPANISH HISTORY by Abbott, John S. C. (Otherwise Abbott, John Stevens Cabot; Author of "The French Revolution"; "The History of Napoleon Bonaparte"). (1869). Chapter 3; The Moorish Invasion (From 673 A.D. to 821 A.D.); p. 59-80 Harper & Brothers Publishers, Franklin Square, New York (Southern District). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  3. ^ Quote: In short, the invaders were strongly re-enforced by the discontented masses of that section of Spain, the maltreated Jews and the debased agricultural classes, who saw, or thought they saw, freedom from a yoke that had galled them for generations and had grown heavier with succeeding years. Besides, they did not think that the Moslems would more than ravage the country and perhaps attempt to destroy the military power of the Goths, and then would retire to the land from which they had come. There are two things, at least, we should note: first, that the army of Tarik was composed mainly of native Africans, then called Moors or Berbers; and that they had come with the settled purpose of conquest and plunder. In order to enforce upon his men the desperate nature of their task, Tarik caused his ships to be burned, and thus impressed them with the fact that they must either conquer or' be destroyed—for they could not retreat.
    1. HISTORY FOR YOUNG READERS by Ober, F. A. (Otherwise Frederick Albion Ober, Author of "Puerto Rico and its Resources", "Crusoe's Island", "Travels in Mexico", "In the Wake of Columbus", "Camps in the Caribees", "A Life of Josephine", etc). (1912). Chapter 5; The Invasion from Africa p. 36-44; © 1899 D. Appleton and Company; Published D.Appleton and Company (New York and London). Retrieved 24th June 2012. [ Download Link of Sources] (2012).
  4. ^ Still yet, other sources claim that famine, disease and political tensions were simmering by the year 700, as well as general choas gave way for the Muslims to take over by 711. The Visigothic count Julian was also left offended when King Roderic, the Visigothic King, had seduced his daighter Florinda; and he wanted revenge and so approached the Muslims "with a plan to invade Spain" (although this seems highly dubious).
    1. Damien Simonis (2007). Spain. Lonely Planet. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-74104-554-3.
  5. ^ Horse riders never had proper equipment in order to stay gripped onto horses until Shah Abbas I of Persia interestingly invented the high heel for use in horses in the 16th century.
    1. Willem M. Floor (1999). The Persian Textile Industry in Historical Perspective, 1500-1925. Harmattan. p. 230. ISBN 978-2-7384-8380-5.
    2. William Kremer (25 January 2013). Why did men stop wearing high heels?. BBC News (BBC World Service). Retrieved May 29th, 2016.
  6. ^ Spanish Christians througnout out history haved tended to give unreliable numbers for those participating in battles. For instance they claimed the Moors had 53,000 Knights and 600,000 infantry fighting them in one battle against 8,000 Spanish Knights and 12,000 Infantry during the Crusade of Salado.
    1. Joseph F. O'Callaghan (17 March 2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 177. ISBN 0-8122-0463-8.
  7. ^ Quote: "I also hope to make it down south to visit the Rock of Gibraltar (my model for Casterly Rock) and the Alhambra, but so far no public events are scheduled for that portion of the tour. If that changes, new events will be adding on my appearances page."
    1. George R. R. Martin (May 29th, 2008). Coming to Spain. Live Journal. Retrieved May 26th, 2016.
  8. ^ Quote: "George R.R. Martin has often likened Casterly Rock to the actual Gibraltar, while at the same time he has noted that Casterly Rock will appear in future A Song of Ice and Fire novels."
    1. SEASON 6 FILMING LOCATIONS IN SPAIN CONFIRMED. June 3rd, 2015. Westeros. Retrieved May 26th, 2016.
  9. ^ Quote: The situation improved in 711 when Spain fell under the rule of the Muslim Moors...Jews were able to coexist peacefully with their neighbors...protected under Islamic law. Jews did not have complete autonomy and had to pay a special tax, the jizha, but were able to freely practice their religion. The era of Muslim rule in Spain (8th-11th century) was considered the "Golden Age" for Spanish Jewry. Jewish intellectual and spiritual life flourished and many Jews served in Spanish courts. Jewish economic expansion was unparalleled. In Toledo, Jews were involved in translating Arabic texts to the romance languages, as well as translating Greek and Hebrew texts into Arabic. Jews also contributed to botany, geography, medicine, mathematics, poetry and philosophy. A number of well-known Jewish physicians practiced during this period, including Hasdai Ibn Shaprut (915-970), who was the doctor for the Caliph (leader of Spain). Many famous Jewish figures lived during the Golden Age and contributed to making this a flourishing period for Jewish thought. These included Samuel Ha-Nagid, Moses ibn Ezra, Solomon ibn Gabirol Judah Halevi and Moses Maimonides...[Jews] were given administrative control over their communities and managed their own communal affairs. Jews had their own court system, known as the Bet Din. Rabbis served as judges and rendered both religious and civil legal opinions. Islamic culture also influenced the Jews. Muslim and Jewish customs and practices became intertwined. For example, Arabic was used for prayers rather than Hebrew or Spanish. Before entering the synagogue, Jews washed their hands and feet, which is a practice done before entering a mosque. Arab melodies were used for Jewish songs. Jews wore the clothing style of their Moorish neighbors...Jews lived peacefully in Al-Andulus for 400 years.
    1. Rebecca Weiner (Unknown Date). Judaism: Sephardim. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved May 28th, 2016.
    Other sources that document the Jewish Golden Age:
    1. Mark R. Cohen (Unknown Date). The “Golden Age” of Jewish-Muslim Relations: Myth and Reality. Princeton University Press. pp. 28-38. Retrieved May 28th, 2016.
  10. ^ Quote: "The Battle of Tours, which, Western historians assert, stopped the advance of the Muslims and saved the Christians of Europe, was neither "major", nor even a "battle". As the authority of David Nicole stated in "The Armies of Islam", it was "in reality an unsuccessful large-scale Muslim raid". It certainly did not prevent the Muslims from advancing into Europe later. The Muslim armies, despite the assertions of Western historians continued their conquests in Europe. From Avignon in 734 and Lyon in the South-east of France in 743, they moved into Germany and also Italy and beyond, conquering Sicily in 827, Messina in 834, Castro-giovanni in 859, and Syracuse in 878. The Muslims occupied southern Italy from 882 to 915, venturing as far as Naples and Rome without resistance, although they stopped at the gates of Rome."
    1. Ahmed Essa; Othman Ali (2010). Studies in Islamic Civilization: The Muslim Contribution to the Renaissance. IIIT. p. 37-38. ISBN 978-1-56564-350-5.

References

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  2. ^ a b c d Alexander Mikaberidze (31 July 2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 879-880. ISBN 978-1-59884-336-1.
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