History of Muslims in the Video-Games Industry (1980—Present)

From Materia Islamica
Jump to: navigation, search

147967156634005.png

Introduction:— The history of Muslims in the video games industry is long and prosperous, with some of the most critically acclaimed games in the history of video gaming having had significant contributions from Muslims across Europe and America, and beyond. The most famous and well known of these names have included 1980s games pioneer Mevlut Dinc, Rockstar Games employees Imran Sarwar and Mondo Ghulam, Call of Duty's veterens Mohammad Alavi and Marwan A. Abderrazzaq, adventure/platformer games designer pioneer Babak Rafei, and award winning visual effects and Need for Speed art director Habib Zargarpour. There are also, further, some notable video games studios founded and headed by Muslims such as Crytek (creators of Far Cry and Crisis), and Talesworld (creators of Mount and Blade) that produce their own original games, stories, physics, graphic engines and characters. In addition there are numerous other Muslims working in other famous games companies. Some of the most famous games Muslims have ever worked on are Grand Theft Auto, Red Dead Redemption, Crash Bandicoot, Jak & Daxtar, Call of Duty, Manhunt, L.A. Noire, Sonic and Need for Speed, along with numerous others. Collectively these games have sold in the hundreds of millions.

Mevlut Dinc.

Introduction:— The history of Muslims in the video games industry is long and prosperous, with some of the most critically acclaimed games in the history of video gaming having had significant contributions from Muslims across Europe and America, and beyond. The most famous and well known of these names have included 1980s games pioneer Mevlut Dinc, Rockstar Games employees Imran Sarwar and Mondo Ghulam, Call of Duty's veterens Mohammad Alavi and Marwan A. Abderrazzaq, adventure/platformer games designer pioneer Babak Rafei, and award winning visual effects and Need for Speed art director Habib Zargarpour. There are also, further, some notable video games studios founded and headed by Muslims such as Crytek (creators of Far Cry and Crisis), and Talesworld (creators of Mount and Blade) that produce their own original games, stories, physics, graphic engines and characters. In addition there are numerous other Muslims working in other famous games companies. Some of the most famous games Muslims have ever worked on are Grand Theft Auto, Red Dead Redemption, Crash Bandicoot, Jak & Daxtar, Call of Duty, Manhunt, L.A. Noire, Sonic and Need for Speed, along with numerous others. Collectively these games have sold in the hundreds of millions.

Mevlut Dinc.

c. 1980—c. 1989

Gebelli programming.

Nasir Gebelli:— Nasir Gebelli was a computer games pioneer,[1] known for being a prolific games designer and programmer during the 1980s; and is now known as the father of the computing games industry.[2] Gebelli did poorly at university (he was studying computer science), and as a result began writing computer games for fun.[3] A chance contact with the founders of Sirius Software in 1980 (the same year that Sirius was founded), lead him to programming nine games for them in their first financial year.[4] He was still a college student when he joined up with them.[5] The prolific nature of Gebelli's coding brought the company $11,000,000 dollars in revenue (and managed to propel it as the 15th most successuful micro-computer software company in the world; most notably, Microsoft was ranked 2nd with a revenue amounting to $55,000,000 dollars).[6] In 1984, Gebelli left to found his own company, Sirius had by now gone bankrupt, having been owed millions of dollars in royalty fees. At his own company, he wrote and published at least 12 computer games himself.[3] Many of the techniques he used to programme his games were of his own creation, one of them was known as the “page flip” method that went on improve the stability of Apple computer games.[3] When IBM needed to boost sales of their "PCjr" computer models, the company personally contacted several games development companies, one of notable companies was Bill Gate's Microsoft, and the other was Gebelli Software Inc.[6] It was contracted as Gebelli was by now known as a legendary "driving force in the Apple game software arena".[6]

Gebelli Software Inc:—Gebelli Software Inc. was making a significant amount of money during this time (in 1984 they are recorded to have made between $201,000 dollars to $500,000 dollars per year based on 15 pieces of published software and four employees).[7] Gebelli was eventually hired by the Japanese games company, "Square Soft" to work on a new game, as his reputation now began to go global.[8] He stayed with the Japanese games developer until he retired from the industry after the release of "Secret of Mana" (1991). He had also single handedly programmed "/Final Fantasy III" (1990), "Final Fantasy II" (1988) and "Final Fantasy" (1987). He other credits include "Both Barrels" (1980), "Star Cruiser" (1980), "Phantom Five" (1980), "Cyber Strike" (1980), "Auto Bahn" (1981), "Pulsar II" (1981), "Gorgon" (1981), "Space Eggs" (1981), "Horizon V" (1981), "Firebird" (1981), "Zenith" (1982), and "Neptune" (1982). John Romero, creator of "Quake" (1996—Present), "Doom" (1993—Present) and "Wolfenstein" (1992) franchises, and founder of id Software, cites Gebelli as the most significant, and major, inspiration for his contributions to the gaming industry; saying "Nasir Gebelli is my favorite. He's my number one programming god, my idol. He's awesome".[9] He further elaborated stating "[e]arly on, seeing Nasir’s games, I really liked the speed...great speed...He...never had a program that would save his code...He had to keep the whole game in his head".[9] Gebelli's last public appearance was 18 years ago in 1998, at a Romero Apple II reunion party.

Secret of Mana (1993).
Enduro Racer (1986) for the Sega Master System.

Mevlut Dinc:— Mevlut Dinc is a Turkish-Muslim video games developer who's best work was done in the United Kingdom during the mid-1980s through to the early 1990s with the development and publication of numerous critically acclaimed games made for the third, fourth as well as fifth generation games consoles such as the Sinclair Spectrum and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. During his career he was credited with developing, programming, designing, writing musical scores, and producing games such as "Gerry the Germ" (1985; aggregate[n. 1] score of 51.4%[n. 2]),[10] "Aliens" (1986; 77.2%[n. 3]),[11] "Prodigy" (1986; 76.8%[n. 4]),[12] "Enduro Racer" (1986; 87.6%[n. 5]),[13][14] "High Frontier" (1987; 73.7%[n. 6]),[14] "Xarq" (1987; 72.8%[n. 7]),[14] "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987; 58.6%[n. 8]),[15][14] "Knightmare" (1987; 83.3%[n. 9]),[16] "Super Hang-On" (1987; 88.0%[n. 10]),[17][18][14] "Last Ninja 2" (1988; 85.5%[n. 11]),[19][13][14] "Hammerfist" (1990; 89.8%[n. 12]),[20][21][22][13] "Last Ninja Remix" (1990 70%[n. 13])),[23] "Time Machine" (1990; 85.9%[n. 14]),[24][25] "The First Samurai" (1991; 91.0%[n. 15]),[26][13] "Second Samurai" (1993; 86.1%[n. 16]),[27] "Street Racer" (1997; 66.0%[n. 17]),[13][28] and "S.C.A.R.S." (1998; aggregate score unknown).[13][29] Having found success in the UK Dinc, by the start the new millennium, returned to Turkey (Istanbul), after a near twenty year absence.[13] His extensive experience in the games industry resulted in him developing and releasing the first indigenously built Turkish game to have an international release, with "Dual Blades" in 2003.[13]

Gebelli programming.

Nasir Gebelli:— Nasir Gebelli was a computer games pioneer,[1] known for being a prolific games designer and programmer during the 1980s; and is now known as the father of the computing games industry.[2] Gebelli did poorly at university (he was studying computer science), and as a result began writing computer games for fun.[3] A chance contact with the founders of Sirius Software in 1980 (the same year that Sirius was founded), lead him to programming nine games for them in their first financial year.[30] He was still a college student when he joined up with them.[5] The prolific nature of Gebelli's coding brought the company $11,000,000 dollars in revenue (and managed to propel it as the 15th most successuful micro-computer software company in the world; most notably, Microsoft was ranked 2nd with a revenue amounting to $55,000,000 dollars).[6] In 1984, Gebelli left to found his own company, Sirius had by now gone bankrupt, having been owed millions of dollars in royalty fees. At his own company, he wrote and published at least 12 computer games himself.[3] Many of the techniques he used to programme his games were of his own creation, one of them was known as the “page flip” method that went on improve the stability of Apple computer games.[3] When IBM needed to boost sales of their "PCjr" computer models, the company personally contacted several games development companies, one of notable companies was Bill Gate's Microsoft, and the other was Gebelli Software Inc.[6] It was contracted as Gebelli was by now known as a legendary "driving force in the Apple game software arena".[6]

Secret of Mana (1993).

Gebelli Software Inc:—Gebelli Software Inc. was making a significant amount of money during this time (in 1984 they are recorded to have made between $201,000 dollars to $500,000 dollars per year based on 15 pieces of published software and four employees).[7] Gebelli was eventually hired by the Japanese games company, "Square Soft" to work on a new game, as his reputation now began to go global.[8] He stayed with the Japanese games developer until he retired from the industry after the release of "Secret of Mana" (1991). He had also single handedly programmed "/Final Fantasy III" (1990), "Final Fantasy II" (1988) and "Final Fantasy" (1987). He other credits include "Both Barrels" (1980), "Star Cruiser" (1980), "Phantom Five" (1980), "Cyber Strike" (1980), "Auto Bahn" (1981), "Pulsar II" (1981), "Gorgon" (1981), "Space Eggs" (1981), "Horizon V" (1981), "Firebird" (1981), "Zenith" (1982), and "Neptune" (1982). John Romero, creator of "Quake" (1996—Present), "Doom" (1993—Present) and "Wolfenstein" (1992) franchises, and founder of id Software, cites Gebelli as the most significant, and major, inspiration for his contributions to the gaming industry; saying "Nasir Gebelli is my favorite. He's my number one programming god, my idol. He's awesome".[9] He further elaborated stating "[e]arly on, seeing Nasir’s games, I really liked the speed...great speed...He...never had a program that would save his code...He had to keep the whole game in his head".[9] Gebelli's last public appearance was 18 years ago in 1998, at a Romero Apple II reunion party.

Enduro Racer (1986) for the Sega Master System.

Mevlut Dinc:— Mevlut Dinc is a Turkish-Muslim video games developer who's best work was done in the United Kingdom during the mid-1980s through to the early 1990s with the development and publication of numerous critically acclaimed games made for the third, fourth as well as fifth generation games consoles such as the Sinclair Spectrum and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. During his career he was credited with developing, programming, designing, writing musical scores, and producing games such as "Gerry the Germ" (1985; aggregate[n. 18] score of 51.4%[n. 19]),[10] "Aliens" (1986; 77.2%[n. 20]),[11] "Prodigy" (1986; 76.8%[n. 21]),[12] "Enduro Racer" (1986; 87.6%[n. 22]),[13][14] "High Frontier" (1987; 73.7%[n. 23]),[14] "Xarq" (1987; 72.8%[n. 24]),[14] "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987; 58.6%[n. 25]),[15][14] "Knightmare" (1987; 83.3%[n. 26]),[16] "Super Hang-On" (1987; 88.0%[n. 27]),[17][18][14] "Last Ninja 2" (1988; 85.5%[n. 28]),[19][13][14] "Hammerfist" (1990; 89.8%[n. 29]),[20][21][22][13] "Last Ninja Remix" (1990 70%[n. 30])),[23] "Time Machine" (1990; 85.9%[n. 31]),[24][25] "The First Samurai" (1991; 91.0%[n. 32]),[26][13] "Second Samurai" (1993; 86.1%[n. 33]),[27] "Street Racer" (1997; 66.0%[n. 34]),[13][28] and "S.C.A.R.S." (1998; aggregate score unknown).[13][29] Having found success in the UK Dinc, by the start the new millennium, returned to Turkey (Istanbul), after a near twenty year absence.[13] His extensive experience in the games industry resulted in him developing and releasing the first indigenously built Turkish game to have an international release, with "Dual Blades" in 2003.[13]

c. 1990—c. 1999

Babak Rafei:— Babak Rafei, alternatively known as Bob Rafei, is an Iranian[31] Muslim[n. 35] video games designer notable for having been Naughty Dog's first employee.[32][31] Rafei has worked on some of the most critically acclaimed games in video gaming history. According to Gamespot, Rafei has "four Crash Bandicoot and four Jak and Daxter games under his belt",[33] including "Star Trek: Generations" (1994)[34] "Crash Bandicoot" (1996),[34] "Crash 2" (1997),[34] "Crash Bandicoot 3: Warped" (1998),[34][35] "Crash Team Racing" (1999),[34] "Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy" (2001),[34][35] "Jak II" (2003),[34] "Jak 3" (2004),[34][35] "Jak X: Combat Racing" (2005)[34] and "Uncharted: Drakes Fortune" (2007).[34][35] He is currently working on a new Sonic game titled "Sonic Boom",[36][37] slated for release in November 2014, having lead the project[37] for his company Big Red Button since Arey left.[38] Notable specific contributions include leading the visual development of Jak and Daxter, shaping the look of Crash Bandicoot and art directing for Uncharted.[32] On Metacritic, Rafei is credited with being art director of "Crash Bandicoot 3: Warped" and "Uncharted: Drake's Fortune", while he is credited with being a developer of "Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy" and "Jak 3".[35] At Naughty Dog, he held various other job titles such as character animator and conceptual artist.[31] Rafei was also an board member of several organisation, most notably for the "Game Developers Conference" between 2002 and 2011, the "Game Developer Choice Awards", and for "One Big Game"; as a panel leader for the "Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences" at the art and animation panels.[39]

Rafei worked on the Crash Bandicoot series.
Far Cry (2004).

Crytek:— The Yerli brothers (Cevat Yerli,[40][41] Avni Yerli,[41] Faruk Yerli[41]) are a trio of Turkish-Muslim game developers who are notable for having founded a small gaming company called "Crytek" in 1999.[n. 36] They have created critically acclaimed games franchises such as Far Cry (2004-2014) and the Crysis series (2007-2013). Their organisation spans several continents, who have subsidiaries in the United Kingdom (Crytek UK[40][42][43]), Germany (Crytek Frankfurt[42][44]) Hungary (Crytek Budapest[42][44]), Bulgaria (Crytek Black Sea[40][42][45]), Ukraine (Crytek Ukraine[40][42]), America (Crytek USA[46] ), and Asia (Crytek Istanbul,[46][40] Crytek Shanghai,[40][47][48] Crytek Seoul[40][42][47]). Their creations have spanned ten Far Cry and six Crysis games, as well as having developed console exclusives such as "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013) for the Xbox One.[44] The company is currently in the process of making "Homefront 2" (2014)[43] and "Warface" (2014);[40][47][48] as well as producing games for the iOS market such as 2014's "The Collectables"[49] (having previously created "Fibble" and "Fibble HD" in 2012[50][51]). Their most critically acclaimed games have been originals such as "Crysis" (2007[52]-2011[53][54]) with a metacritic score of 81%[53][54]-91%,[52][55] "Far Cry" (2004[56]), with a score of 89%,[55][56] "Crysis 2" (2011[57][58][59]), with a score of between 84%[59]-86%,[55][57][58] "Crysis Warhead" (2008[60]), with a score of 84%[55][60]and "Crysis 3" (2013[61][62][63]), with a score of between 76%[61][63]-77%.[55][62] Their lowest rated game is the Xbox 360 exclusive "Far Cry Classic" (2014[64] ) with a metacritic score of 58%[55][64] but which has an extremely high user score rating of 81%.[55] The most popular user rated game on metacritic for the company is also currently the original "Far Cry" (2004[55][65]) PC game, also with a rating of 81%.[65]

Crytek have sold at least 10.79 million hard copies of their games altogether (2.5 million units of "Far Cry",[66] 3.0 million units of "Crysis",[66] 3.0 million units of "Crysis 2" (by July 2011),[67][68] 360,000[n. 37] units (and 3 million beta downloads[69]) of "Crysis 3" (in February 2013 in the US[70] and by December 2013 in Germany alone[71]), 1.5 million units of "Crysis Warhead",[66] and 431,000 units[72] of "Ryse: Son of Rome"). The developers also produce their own physics game-engines, starting with CryEngine[73][74][75] back in 2004, CryEngine 2 in 2009,[73][76] CryEngine 3 in 2011;[73][75][77][78] and the 4th generation CryENGINE[79] by 2013. Remnants of Cryteks engines can also be found in other products such as the Dunia Engines (developed by Kirmaan Aboobaker[80][81][82][83]), which were used in "Far Cry 3"[84] (2013) and "Far Cry: Blood Dragon"[85] (2013), which are heavily modified versions of the original CryEngine (although Ubisoft claim that they only reused about 2%-3% of the original CryEngine code[86][87]). The Anvil engine is also a modified version of the Dunia itself. In recent years the company have been focusing on developing free multiplayer MMPORG online games in efforts of combating piracy ("Crysis 2" in 2011 alone was pirated almost 4 million times,[88] hitting the developer hard who was aiming for at least 7 million sales[89]) and declining[90] PC market sales (the decision to move into these markets may have also come from the fact that the original "Crysis" game cost $20[91]-22 million to make, but by "Crysis 3" costs had risen to $66 million[91][92]).[n. 38]

Far Cry 3 (2013)[n. 39]
Rafei worked on the Crash Bandicoot series.

Babak Rafei:— Babak Rafei, alternatively known as Bob Rafei, is an Iranian[31] Muslim[n. 40] video games designer notable for having been Naughty Dog's first employee.[32][31] Rafei has worked on some of the most critically acclaimed games in video gaming history. According to Gamespot, Rafei has "four Crash Bandicoot and four Jak and Daxter games under his belt",[33] including "Star Trek: Generations" (1994)[34] "Crash Bandicoot" (1996),[34] "Crash 2" (1997),[34] "Crash Bandicoot 3: Warped" (1998),[34][35] "Crash Team Racing" (1999),[34] "Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy" (2001),[34][35] "Jak II" (2003),[34] "Jak 3" (2004),[34][35] "Jak X: Combat Racing" (2005)[34] and "Uncharted: Drakes Fortune" (2007).[34][35] He is currently working on a new Sonic game titled "Sonic Boom",[36][37] slated for release in November 2014, having lead the project[37] for his company Big Red Button since Arey left.[38] Notable specific contributions include leading the visual development of Jak and Daxter, shaping the look of Crash Bandicoot and art directing for Uncharted.[32] On Metacritic, Rafei is credited with being art director of "Crash Bandicoot 3: Warped" and "Uncharted: Drake's Fortune", while he is credited with being a developer of "Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy" and "Jak 3".[35] At Naughty Dog, he held various other job titles such as character animator and conceptual artist.[31] Rafei was also an board member of several organisation, most notably for the "Game Developers Conference" between 2002 and 2011, the "Game Developer Choice Awards", and for "One Big Game"; as a panel leader for the "Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences" at the art and animation panels.[39]

Far Cry (2004).

Crytek:— The Yerli brothers (Cevat Yerli,[40][41] Avni Yerli,[41] Faruk Yerli[41]) are a trio of Turkish-Muslim game developers who are notable for having founded a small gaming company called "Crytek" in 1999.[n. 41] They have created critically acclaimed games franchises such as Far Cry (2004-2014) and the Crysis series (2007-2013). Their organisation spans several continents, who have subsidiaries in the United Kingdom (Crytek UK[40][42][43]), Germany (Crytek Frankfurt[42][44]) Hungary (Crytek Budapest[42][44]), Bulgaria (Crytek Black Sea[40][42][45]), Ukraine (Crytek Ukraine[40][42]), America (Crytek USA[46] ), and Asia (Crytek Istanbul,[46][40] Crytek Shanghai,[40][47][48] Crytek Seoul[40][42][47]). Their creations have spanned ten Far Cry and six Crysis games, as well as having developed console exclusives such as "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013) for the Xbox One.[44] The company is currently in the process of making "Homefront 2" (2014)[43] and "Warface" (2014);[40][47][48] as well as producing games for the iOS market such as 2014's "The Collectables"[49] (having previously created "Fibble" and "Fibble HD" in 2012[50][51]). Their most critically acclaimed games have been originals such as "Crysis" (2007[52]-2011[53][54]) with a metacritic score of 81%[53][54]-91%,[52][55] "Far Cry" (2004[56]), with a score of 89%,[55][56] "Crysis 2" (2011[57][58][59]), with a score of between 84%[59]-86%,[55][57][58] "Crysis Warhead" (2008[60]), with a score of 84%[55][60]and "Crysis 3" (2013[61][62][63]), with a score of between 76%[61][63]-77%.[55][62] Their lowest rated game is the Xbox 360 exclusive "Far Cry Classic" (2014[64] ) with a metacritic score of 58%[55][64] but which has an extremely high user score rating of 81%.[55] The most popular user rated game on metacritic for the company is also currently the original "Far Cry" (2004[55][65]) PC game, also with a rating of 81%.[65]

Far Cry 3 (2013)[n. 42]

Crytek have sold at least 10.79 million hard copies of their games altogether (2.5 million units of "Far Cry",[66] 3.0 million units of "Crysis",[66] 3.0 million units of "Crysis 2" (by July 2011),[67][68] 360,000[n. 43] units (and 3 million beta downloads[69]) of "Crysis 3" (in February 2013 in the US[70] and by December 2013 in Germany alone[71]), 1.5 million units of "Crysis Warhead",[66] and 431,000 units[72] of "Ryse: Son of Rome"). The developers also produce their own physics game-engines, starting with CryEngine[73][74][75] back in 2004, CryEngine 2 in 2009,[73][76] CryEngine 3 in 2011;[73][75][77][78] and the 4th generation CryENGINE[79] by 2013. Remnants of Cryteks engines can also be found in other products such as the Dunia Engines (developed by Kirmaan Aboobaker[80][81][82][83]), which were used in "Far Cry 3"[84] (2013) and "Far Cry: Blood Dragon"[85] (2013), which are heavily modified versions of the original CryEngine (although Ubisoft claim that they only reused about 2%-3% of the original CryEngine code[86][87]). The Anvil engine is also a modified version of the Dunia itself. In recent years the company have been focusing on developing free multiplayer MMPORG online games in efforts of combating piracy ("Crysis 2" in 2011 alone was pirated almost 4 million times,[88] hitting the developer hard who was aiming for at least 7 million sales[89]) and declining[90] PC market sales (the decision to move into these markets may have also come from the fact that the original "Crysis" game cost $20[91]-22 million to make, but by "Crysis 3" costs had risen to $66 million[91][92]).[n. 44]

c. 2000—c. 2009

Imran Sarwar:— Imran Sarwar is a British-Pakistani Muslim who currently works for Rockstar North, a video games developer based in Edinburgh,[93] made world famous for the controversial but hugely successful "Grand Theft Auto" video-game franchise. The latest installment ("GTAV") saw seen him serve as the head of mission game design,[93][94] He was also co-producer[95][96][97] of the series (alongside Leslie Benzies).[98] According to in-game credits, Sarwar has been four times Associate Producer of the GTA franchise since "GTAIV",[99][100][101] but who however started out as a mission designer[102] for "Grand Theft Auto Vice City" back in 2002.[95][98] By 2004 he had been promoted to Senior Level Designer[103] and worked extensively on "Grand Theft Auto San Andreas"[98]—the twelfth most successful computer game in the world and second in Playstation history (the number one most successful Playstation 2 game ever; selling well over 27.5 million units worldwide[104]). The current installment however has beaten this record; as it is the sixth best-selling game in video game history and the number one most successful Playstation game ever with 32.5 million copies sold.[105] Over his entire career Sarwar has worked on eleven games, with nine of them specifically for Rockstar North.[98] Before he had moved to work with the company, Sarwar had worked on games such as "Tiny Toon Adventures: Wacky Stackers" (2001) and "Pinky and the Brain: The Master Plan" (2002) whilst at the Warthog Corporation.[106][107][108] Rockstar co-founder Dan Houser also specifically mentioned Sarwar involvement even in character design "...me, Rupert Humphries and Imran Sarwar, one of the main designers, will sit around early in the game, talking about stuff, then Sam, Aaron and Leslie will look at it and sign off on it or offer feedback...it doesn't really matter what we put down on the page, we might imagine certain characters are going to be very strong, and they're not, and others start out okay and turn out fantastic".[109] Dan Houser mentioned him again at the BAFTA video-game awards.

Mondo Ghulam:— Mondo Ghulam is British-Pakistani Muslim video-games animator, who was a previous employee at Rockstar North.[110][111] He has worked on the development of many of their most well known game franchises in roles that include "(Lead) Cutscene Animator",[112] "Animation Supporter",[112] "Technical Director"[113][114] and "Animation Director".[115][116] Ghulam attended the University of Strathclyde graduating with a Bachelors (Hons) in Marketing & Finance in 1995.[117] He then went on to do his Masters at the Glasgow School of Art (graduating with an MPhil in Advanced 2D/3D Motion Graphics/Virtual Prototyping For Design in July 1999).[117][118] His earliest known work was "Manhunt"[112][115] which was released in 2003[112] and later began worked on the critically acclaimed "Grand Theft Auto" franchise (working on "San Andreas" (2004),[112][115] "Liberty City Stories" (2005),[115][119] "Vice City Stories" (2006),[115][120] "GTAIV" (2008),[112][115] "The Lost and Damned" (2009),[115][121] "The Ballad of Gay Tony" (2009),[115][122] and finally "GTAV" (2013)[123]). Other games to which he is credited with include "Manhunt 2" (2007),[115][124] "Midnight Club: Los Angeles" (2008),[113][115] "Red Dead Redemption" (2010),[115][112][125] "L.A. Noire" (2011),[110][115][126] and "Max Payne 3" (2012).[115][127] He was the "(Lead) Cutscene Animator" from January 2003 to October 2008,[115] and "Animation Director" from December 2008 to June 2012.[117][115] (his final work with them being "GTAV" until April 2012[123]). At the Edinburgh Interactive Edge Awards, Ghulam remakred that L.A. Noire was one of his most challenging and hard working experiences, stating "[w]hat people maybe don't know is how much my colleagues and myself worked at Rockstar North...[w]orking several years, in fact, to make this game what it is".[110][128][n. 45]

Ghulam; Animation Director ('08-'12).[117]
"All Ghillied Up"; scripted and designed by Alavi, who now works for Respawn Entertainment; the developer of Titanfall (2014).

Mohammad Alavi:— Mohammad Alavi is an Iranian-Muslim video games developer most notable for his work on the "Call of Duty" franchise. Alavi has a B.Sc. in Chemistry & Biology[129] and an A.S. in Games Design and Development (Full Sail University[129]). In his teenage[130] years he was known as a prominent modder, working on games such as "Quake",[130] "Half-Life" and "Counter-Strike".[129] Eventually his creative skills became so successful that video games magazine "PC Gamer" featured his creations.[129] Thinking they were however inferior, the feature inspired him towards games development. After graduating he was hired by "Inifinty Ward".[129] His first work was on the level designs in "Call of Duty 2"[131] (2005), where he was also responsible for "the darkly humorous potato-throwing grenade tutorial".[129] By the time "Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare" (2007) Alavi was pushing boundaries in game design.[129] He single-handedly scripted the first level of the game; "Crew Expendable"[129][131] as well as the "best level in Call of Duty history"[132] "All Ghillied Up"[133][134][131][135] (and "One Shot, One Kill"[131]) mission "writing over 10,000 lines of scripts that anticipated every way the player might disturb or be noticed by the patrolling soldiers, handling each case with different animations and behaviours"; writing the artificial intelligence himself even though he was not an AI programmer.[133] By "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2" (2009) Alavi scripted and designed the "Second Sun" map, where he "also designed and scripted the controversial [and shocking[136]] No Russian sequence, in which the player is permitted to participate in a civilian massacre".[131][133][134] Eventually Infinity Ward fractured,[133][135] and Alavi moved to continue his work for Respawn Entertainment, for "Titanfall" (2014).[133][134][137] That game sold more than 10 million copies worldwide.[138]

Imran Sarwar:— Imran Sarwar is a British-Pakistani Muslim who currently works for Rockstar North, a video games developer based in Edinburgh,[93] made world famous for the controversial but hugely successful "Grand Theft Auto" video-game franchise. The latest installment ("GTAV") saw seen him serve as the head of mission game design,[93][94] He was also co-producer[95][96][97] of the series (alongside Leslie Benzies).[98] According to in-game credits, Sarwar has been four times Associate Producer of the GTA franchise since "GTAIV",[99][100][101] but who however started out as a mission designer[102] for "Grand Theft Auto Vice City" back in 2002.[95][98] By 2004 he had been promoted to Senior Level Designer[103] and worked extensively on "Grand Theft Auto San Andreas"[98]—the twelfth most successful computer game in the world and second in Playstation history (the number one most successful Playstation 2 game ever; selling well over 27.5 million units worldwide[104]). The current installment however has beaten this record; as it is the sixth best-selling game in video game history and the number one most successful Playstation game ever with 32.5 million copies sold.[105] Over his entire career Sarwar has worked on eleven games, with nine of them specifically for Rockstar North.[98] Before he had moved to work with the company, Sarwar had worked on games such as "Tiny Toon Adventures: Wacky Stackers" (2001) and "Pinky and the Brain: The Master Plan" (2002) whilst at the Warthog Corporation.[106][107][108] Rockstar co-founder Dan Houser also specifically mentioned Sarwar involvement even in character design "...me, Rupert Humphries and Imran Sarwar, one of the main designers, will sit around early in the game, talking about stuff, then Sam, Aaron and Leslie will look at it and sign off on it or offer feedback...it doesn't really matter what we put down on the page, we might imagine certain characters are going to be very strong, and they're not, and others start out okay and turn out fantastic".[109] Dan Houser mentioned him again at the BAFTA video-game awards.

Ghulam; Animation Director ('08-'12).[117]

Mondo Ghulam:— Mondo Ghulam is British-Pakistani Muslim video-games animator, who was a previous employee at Rockstar North.[110][111] He has worked on the development of many of their most well known game franchises in roles that include "(Lead) Cutscene Animator",[112] "Animation Supporter",[112] "Technical Director"[113][114] and "Animation Director".[115][116] Ghulam attended the University of Strathclyde graduating with a Bachelors (Hons) in Marketing & Finance in 1995.[117] He then went on to do his Masters at the Glasgow School of Art (graduating with an MPhil in Advanced 2D/3D Motion Graphics/Virtual Prototyping For Design in July 1999).[117][118] His earliest known work was "Manhunt"[112][115] which was released in 2003[112] and later began worked on the critically acclaimed "Grand Theft Auto" franchise (working on "San Andreas" (2004),[112][115] "Liberty City Stories" (2005),[115][119] "Vice City Stories" (2006),[115][120] "GTAIV" (2008),[112][115] "The Lost and Damned" (2009),[115][121] "The Ballad of Gay Tony" (2009),[115][122] and finally "GTAV" (2013)[123]). Other games to which he is credited with include "Manhunt 2" (2007),[115][124] "Midnight Club: Los Angeles" (2008),[113][115] "Red Dead Redemption" (2010),[115][112][125] "L.A. Noire" (2011),[110][115][126] and "Max Payne 3" (2012).[115][127] He was the "(Lead) Cutscene Animator" from January 2003 to October 2008,[115] and "Animation Director" from December 2008 to June 2012.[117][115] (his final work with them being "GTAV" until April 2012[123]). At the Edinburgh Interactive Edge Awards, Ghulam remakred that L.A. Noire was one of his most challenging and hard working experiences, stating "[w]hat people maybe don't know is how much my colleagues and myself worked at Rockstar North...[w]orking several years, in fact, to make this game what it is".[110][128][n. 46]

"All Ghillied Up"; scripted and designed by Alavi, who now works for Respawn Entertainment; the developer of Titanfall (2014).

Mohammad Alavi:— Mohammad Alavi is an Iranian-Muslim video games developer most notable for his work on the "Call of Duty" franchise. Alavi has a B.Sc. in Chemistry & Biology[129] and an A.S. in Games Design and Development (Full Sail University[129]). In his teenage[130] years he was known as a prominent modder, working on games such as "Quake",[130] "Half-Life" and "Counter-Strike".[129] Eventually his creative skills became so successful that video games magazine "PC Gamer" featured his creations.[129] Thinking they were however inferior, the feature inspired him towards games development. After graduating he was hired by "Inifinty Ward".[129] His first work was on the level designs in "Call of Duty 2"[131] (2005), where he was also responsible for "the darkly humorous potato-throwing grenade tutorial".[129] By the time "Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare" (2007) Alavi was pushing boundaries in game design.[129] He single-handedly scripted the first level of the game; "Crew Expendable"[129][131] as well as the "best level in Call of Duty history"[132] "All Ghillied Up"[133][134][131][135] (and "One Shot, One Kill"[131]) mission "writing over 10,000 lines of scripts that anticipated every way the player might disturb or be noticed by the patrolling soldiers, handling each case with different animations and behaviours"; writing the artificial intelligence himself even though he was not an AI programmer.[133] By "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2" (2009) Alavi scripted and designed the "Second Sun" map, where he "also designed and scripted the controversial [and shocking[136]] No Russian sequence, in which the player is permitted to participate in a civilian massacre".[131][133][134] Eventually Infinity Ward fractured,[133][135] and Alavi moved to continue his work for Respawn Entertainment, for "Titanfall" (2014).[133][134][137] That game sold more than 10 million copies worldwide.[138]

Others

Silent Hill: Homecoming (2008).

Marwan A. Abderrazzaq:— Marwan A. Abderrazzaq is a triple-A[139] video games producer and former Machinima Director[139] who has seven games credited to his name.[140] He was producer of "Risk II" (2000),[140] "Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure" (2005),[140] "Silent Hill: Homecoming" (2008),[140] Call of Duty: World at War (2008),[140] Call of Duty: Black Ops (2010)[140] as well as being the multiplayer producer of "Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen" (2009)[140] and Senior Producer of "F.E.A.R. 3" (2011).[140] He has also received "special thanks" credits on two games, notably "300: March to Glory" (2007)[140] and "Robin Hood: Defender of the Crown" (2003).[140] PR Newswire notes "Abderrazzaq served as Senior Director of Franchise at Machinima, demonstrating success in building and maintaining a variety of popular cross-platform entertainment franchises. He oversaw initiatives with studio partners including Warner Bros. and Microsoft to launch premium content on the Machinima Network including Halo 4: Forward Unto Dawn, Mortal Kombat: Legacy II and Street Fighter: Assassins Fist".[139] Abderrazzaq has eighteen years worth of video gaming experience,[139] having worked with studios such as Electronic Arts, Collective Studios, Activision, Warner Bros, Konami,[141] and Interactive Entertainment.[139] According to the University of Miami Magazine, in Spring 2008's Alumni Digest, Abderrazzaq had a harder time than his Whiter counterparts breaking into the industry, despite graduating with a Bachelors of Science in 1994 (similar to that of his close colleagues Chris Valenziano and Patrick Doody who received theirs in 1997 and 1995 respectively), but his perseverance eventually paid off later in life.[141] He also writes/directs short films.[140]

Habib Zargarpour:— is an award-winning (twice Oscar nominated) Iranian Muslim who has traditionally worked in the visual effects industry of Hollywood (specifically at Industrial Light & Magic, a company founded by George Lucas[142]), but has worked on several video games as well. From 1991 to 2002 he served in visual effects. He served as "computer effects artist" for "Adventures in Dinosaur City" (1991),[143] "Star Trek: Generations" (1994),[143] "The Mask" (1994)[143] and "Star Trek: First Contact" (1996).[143] He was computer graphics supervisor in "Jumanji" (1995)[143] and "Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace" (1999).[143] He was "associate visual effects supervisor" of "The Bourne Identity" (2002),[143] "Signs" (2002) and "The Perfect Storm" (2000).[143] In addition to these roles he was also the digital tornado designer in Twister (1996),[143] a visual effects co-supervisor in Spawn (1997),[143] was the digital wave research and development researcher and artist for Snake Eyes (1998)[143] and was digital artist in Aizea: City of the Wind (2001),[143] an animation short. He was Senior Art Director for "Need for Speed: Underground" (2003),[143] "James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing" (2003),[143] "Need for Speed: Most Wanted" (2005)[143] and "Need for Speed: Nitro" (2009).[143] Since 2010 Zargarpour has served as Creative Director at Microsoft Studios, and has also worked with fellow Muslim video gamers at Crytek for their game "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013).[144][145] Additionally he has also worked on games such as "Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars" (2007), "Army of Two: The 40th Day" (2010) and "Kinect Star Wars" (2012).

Need for Speed (Underground).
Silent Hill: Homecoming (2008).

Marwan A. Abderrazzaq:— Marwan A. Abderrazzaq is a triple-A[139] video games producer and former Machinima Director[139] who has seven games credited to his name.[140] He was producer of "Risk II" (2000),[140] "Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure" (2005),[140] "Silent Hill: Homecoming" (2008),[140] Call of Duty: World at War (2008),[140] Call of Duty: Black Ops (2010)[140] as well as being the multiplayer producer of "Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen" (2009)[140] and Senior Producer of "F.E.A.R. 3" (2011).[140] He has also received "special thanks" credits on two games, notably "300: March to Glory" (2007)[140] and "Robin Hood: Defender of the Crown" (2003).[140] PR Newswire notes "Abderrazzaq served as Senior Director of Franchise at Machinima, demonstrating success in building and maintaining a variety of popular cross-platform entertainment franchises. He oversaw initiatives with studio partners including Warner Bros. and Microsoft to launch premium content on the Machinima Network including Halo 4: Forward Unto Dawn, Mortal Kombat: Legacy II and Street Fighter: Assassins Fist".[139] Abderrazzaq has eighteen years worth of video gaming experience,[139] having worked with studios such as Electronic Arts, Collective Studios, Activision, Warner Bros, Konami,[141] and Interactive Entertainment.[139] According to the University of Miami Magazine, in Spring 2008's Alumni Digest, Abderrazzaq had a harder time than his Whiter counterparts breaking into the industry, despite graduating with a Bachelors of Science in 1994 (similar to that of his close colleagues Chris Valenziano and Patrick Doody who received theirs in 1997 and 1995 respectively), but his perseverance eventually paid off later in life.[141] He also writes/directs short films.[140]

Need for Speed (Underground).

Habib Zargarpour:— is an award-winning (twice Oscar nominated) Iranian Muslim who has traditionally worked in the visual effects industry of Hollywood (specifically at Industrial Light & Magic, a company founded by George Lucas[142]), but has worked on several video games as well. From 1991 to 2002 he served in visual effects. He served as "computer effects artist" for "Adventures in Dinosaur City" (1991),[143] "Star Trek: Generations" (1994),[143] "The Mask" (1994)[143] and "Star Trek: First Contact" (1996).[143] He was computer graphics supervisor in "Jumanji" (1995)[143] and "Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace" (1999).[143] He was "associate visual effects supervisor" of "The Bourne Identity" (2002),[143] "Signs" (2002) and "The Perfect Storm" (2000).[143] In addition to these roles he was also the digital tornado designer in Twister (1996),[143] a visual effects co-supervisor in Spawn (1997),[143] was the digital wave research and development researcher and artist for Snake Eyes (1998)[143] and was digital artist in Aizea: City of the Wind (2001),[143] an animation short. He was Senior Art Director for "Need for Speed: Underground" (2003),[143] "James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing" (2003),[143] "Need for Speed: Most Wanted" (2005)[143] and "Need for Speed: Nitro" (2009).[143] Since 2010 Zargarpour has served as Creative Director at Microsoft Studios, and has also worked with fellow Muslim video gamers at Crytek for their game "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013).[144][145] Additionally he has also worked on games such as "Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars" (2007), "Army of Two: The 40th Day" (2010) and "Kinect Star Wars" (2012).

c. 2010—c. Present

"Mount & Blade" (2008).[146][n. 47]

Taleworlds:— "Mount & Blade" is a popular historical PC games series developed by a small independent Turkish video-games developer called "Taleworlds"[147] (which was initially made up of a wife and husband who programmed the beta version themselves[147]), who are based in Ankara, Turkey.[148] The company have released four stand-alone games, the first eponymously called "Mount & Blade" which was released in 2008,[147][149][150] which was then followed by "Mount & Blade: Warband" in 2010,[147][151] "Mount & Blade: With Fire & Sword" in 2011,[147][149][152] and then finally "Mount & Blade: Warband - Napoleonic Wars" in 2012. "Mount & Blade II: Bannerlord" (the sequel to the first game), is slated for release some time in the future, and is currently in development. The game series itself has been largely distributed via Steam (owned by the Valve corporation), and have frequently appeared high on their sales charts.[153][154][155][156] In April 2010 for example it was ranked third in sales just before "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2" and "Battlefield: Bad Company 2", and also ranked higher than "Just Cause 2"[157] (which was released just several days before "Warband"); beating "The Settlers", and "Counter-Strike: Source" as well.[157] Though Valve do not release download data associated with their games distribution site,[158] Taleworlds have revealed their sales figures on their own. Turkish media organisation Andolu Agency has revealed that the series had sold over one million copies[159] by the end of 2011 (the publication of "Warband" alone saw 120,000 copies sold within three months of it's release[160]). In 2015, Talesworld revealed that they had sold over 6,000,000 copies across all gaming platforms.[161]

Supergiant Games:— Amir Rao, head of studio operations and founder of the Indie games studio "Supergiant Games", is a Pakistani American who has designed, created and developed the hugely popular RPG indie games "Bastion" (2011) and "Transistor" (2014), in his home county of San Francisco, California.[162][163] His first game went on to sell over 3,000,000 copies, whilst the latter has sold more than 1,000,000 copies, both by the end of December 2015.[164][165] Rao was featured in Forbes top thirty under thirty technology entrepreneurs in 2014 for his contributions towards the gaming industry. "Bastion" received an 86% combined aggregate score from professional gaming critics, with users similarly ranking it an 8.6 out of 10.0, as well as it having achieved several top twenty category awards by review aggregate site Metacritic.[166] Transistor on the other hand received a score of 83% from critics and a user score of of 8.3.[167] According to the co-founder of Supergiant Games, Gavin Simon, both Rao, and Rao's father, as well as Simon had previously worked for EA Games on the Command & Conquer franchise (that included work on the critically acclaimed titles "Command & Conquer 3" in 2007 and "Red Alert 3" in 2008).[163] After the three had meeting over creating their own studio at Rao's home, they both moved in together and began to design a prototype of their first game, within one month of the meeting.[163] After a demo had been created, an additional five people were brought on board to help with production.[163] After the production of Transistor, their staff grew to 12 people.[168] Their games have been ported onto the Xbox and Playstation platforms, Steam, and the Apple and Chrome stores.[168]

A cosplayer for Transistor (2014).
"Garshasp" (2010) was a huge global commercial success for Iranian developer, Dead Mage.

Dead Mage:— "Garshasp" (2010) is an Iranian made PC video-game, that was released and developed by "Dead Mage Studios" to over thirty different countries worldwide on a budget of $400,000 dollars.[169][170] According to Metacritic, professional critics gave the game an unusually low 49% score, whereas users who had played the game ranked it a 6.5 out of 10.0.[171] It was reported that 60,000 copies of the game had been sold by December 18th, 2010 in Iran alone.[172] In July 2013, the number of copies that were sold amounted to 250,000 copies.[169] Although met with mixed reviews, the game went on to be a success, selling 300,000 copies on Steam, and over 300,000 more in Iran for a combined sale of 600,000 copies.[n. 48][170] The release of Garshasp was hugely influential in Iran, with an excerpt from Polygon illustrating that "[i]f you haven’t heard of Garshasp, then you don’t know anything about the Iranian video game industry", as well as saying "[i]t’s easy to lose count of how many times developers in Iran cite Garshasp: The Monster Slayer as the Iranian game industry’s first masterstroke".[170] Dead Mage went on to release an even more critically successfully game, "Shadowblade" (2015), with a professional critic score of 70%, similarly with a higher user score of 8.9 out of 10.0.[173] Their latter game was named Iran's best game of the year in 2015.[174] The studio also successfully completed a Kickstarter campaign in 2015 for $65,000 dollars worth of funding to develop "Children of Morta", with over 3,427 donations being given amounting to $108,938 dollars or approximately 168% of their required goal.[175][176] The highest individual donation was $5,000 dollars.[175] Other games developed by them include "Epic of Kings" (2016).[177]

"Mount & Blade" (2008).[146][n. 49]

Taleworlds:— "Mount & Blade" is a popular historical PC games series developed by a small independent Turkish video-games developer called "Taleworlds"[147] (which was initially made up of a wife and husband who programmed the beta version themselves[147]), who are based in Ankara, Turkey.[148] The company have released four stand-alone games, the first eponymously called "Mount & Blade" which was released in 2008,[147][149][150] which was then followed by "Mount & Blade: Warband" in 2010,[147][151] "Mount & Blade: With Fire & Sword" in 2011,[147][149][152] and then finally "Mount & Blade: Warband - Napoleonic Wars" in 2012. "Mount & Blade II: Bannerlord" (the sequel to the first game), is slated for release some time in the future, and is currently in development. The game series itself has been largely distributed via Steam (owned by the Valve corporation), and have frequently appeared high on their sales charts.[153][154][155][156] In April 2010 for example it was ranked third in sales just before "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2" and "Battlefield: Bad Company 2", and also ranked higher than "Just Cause 2"[157] (which was released just several days before "Warband"); beating "The Settlers", and "Counter-Strike: Source" as well.[157] Though Valve do not release download data associated with their games distribution site,[158] Taleworlds have revealed their sales figures on their own. Turkish media organisation Andolu Agency has revealed that the series had sold over one million copies[159] by the end of 2011 (the publication of "Warband" alone saw 120,000 copies sold within three months of it's release[160]). In 2015, Talesworld revealed that they had sold over 6,000,000 copies across all gaming platforms.[161]

A cosplayer for Transistor (2014).

Supergiant Games:— Amir Rao, head of studio operations and founder of the Indie games studio "Supergiant Games", is a Pakistani American who has designed, created and developed the hugely popular RPG indie games "Bastion" (2011) and "Transistor" (2014), in his home county of San Francisco, California.[162][163] His first game went on to sell over 3,000,000 copies, whilst the latter has sold more than 1,000,000 copies, both by the end of December 2015.[164][165] Rao was featured in Forbes top thirty under thirty technology entrepreneurs in 2014 for his contributions towards the gaming industry. "Bastion" received an 86% combined aggregate score from professional gaming critics, with users similarly ranking it an 8.6 out of 10.0, as well as it having achieved several top twenty category awards by review aggregate site Metacritic.[166] Transistor on the other hand received a score of 83% from critics and a user score of of 8.3.[167] According to the co-founder of Supergiant Games, Gavin Simon, both Rao, and Rao's father, as well as Simon had previously worked for EA Games on the Command & Conquer franchise (that included work on the critically acclaimed titles "Command & Conquer 3" in 2007 and "Red Alert 3" in 2008).[163] After the three had meeting over creating their own studio at Rao's home, they both moved in together and began to design a prototype of their first game, within one month of the meeting.[163] After a demo had been created, an additional five people were brought on board to help with production.[163] After the production of Transistor, their staff grew to 12 people.[168] Their games have been ported onto the Xbox and Playstation platforms, Steam, and the Apple and Chrome stores.[168]

"Garshasp" (2010) was a huge global commercial success for Iranian developer, Dead Mage.

Dead Mage:— "Garshasp" (2010) is an Iranian made PC video-game, that was released and developed by "Dead Mage Studios" to over thirty different countries worldwide on a budget of $400,000 dollars.[169][170] According to Metacritic, professional critics gave the game an unusually low 49% score, whereas users who had played the game ranked it a 6.5 out of 10.0.[171] It was reported that 60,000 copies of the game had been sold by December 18th, 2010 in Iran alone.[172] In July 2013, the number of copies that were sold amounted to 250,000 copies.[169] Although met with mixed reviews, the game went on to be a success, selling 300,000 copies on Steam, and over 300,000 more in Iran for a combined sale of 600,000 copies.[n. 50][170] The release of Garshasp was hugely influential in Iran, with an excerpt from Polygon illustrating that "[i]f you haven’t heard of Garshasp, then you don’t know anything about the Iranian video game industry", as well as saying "[i]t’s easy to lose count of how many times developers in Iran cite Garshasp: The Monster Slayer as the Iranian game industry’s first masterstroke".[170] Dead Mage went on to release an even more critically successfully game, "Shadowblade" (2015), with a professional critic score of 70%, similarly with a higher user score of 8.9 out of 10.0.[173] Their latter game was named Iran's best game of the year in 2015.[174] The studio also successfully completed a Kickstarter campaign in 2015 for $65,000 dollars worth of funding to develop "Children of Morta", with over 3,427 donations being given amounting to $108,938 dollars or approximately 168% of their required goal.[175][176] The highest individual donation was $5,000 dollars.[175] Other games developed by them include "Epic of Kings" (2016).[177]

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ Links have only been supplied to references that could be checked and verified completely. Aggregate scores are based on number of reviews that could have been checked and verified. Aggregate scores may differ. Information on aggregate scores last updated 1 May 2014.
  2. ^
    1. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Crash". Issue #27. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (45%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #54. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (47.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #49. Pg. 49. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (3 Stars/5 Stars; 60%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #4. Pg. 69. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (Score: 4; (17/40); 42.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #80. Pg. 15. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (61.8%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 51.4%.
  3. ^
    1. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #37. Pg. 18. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (84%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #58. Pg. 25. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (60%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #14. Pg. 36. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
      1. Berkmann, Marcus (February 1987 YS14). Aliens. The Your Sinclair Rock'n'Roll Years. (90%) Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #63. Pg. 37. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (77.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #23. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby ". Issue #117. Pg. 17. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71.7%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 77.2%
  4. ^
    1. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #34. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #56. Pg. 57. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #62. Pg. 47. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (72.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #113. Pg. 19. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (66.7%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 76.8%.
  5. ^
    1. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #60. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #16. Pg. 31. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #67. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #48. Pg. 31. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (86%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #27. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (96%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "C+VG". Issue #67. Pg. 15. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #40. Pg. 17. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (92%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    8. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #130. Pg. 19. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71.7%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 87.6%
  6. ^
    1. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #68. Pg. 107. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #26. Pg. 63. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #48. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 73.7%
  7. ^
    1. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #18. Pg. 62. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #32. Pg. 30. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (59%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #54. Pg. 23. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (59%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Your Computer". Issue #8610. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (59%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #10. Pg. 83. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (60%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #60. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (67.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 72.8%
  8. ^
    1. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #40. Pg. 121. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (67%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #68. Pg. 25. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (65%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #63. Pg. 62. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (20%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #18. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #56. Pg. 77. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (51%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #128. Pg. 22. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68.3%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 58.6%.
  9. ^
    1. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #69. Pg. 37. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #49. Pg. 18. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Computer & Video Game". Issue #76. Pg. 21. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (82.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #26. Pg. 27. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #82. Pg. 63. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (89%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #161. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 83.3%.
  10. ^
    1. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #70. Pg. 12. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "ACE". Issue #05. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (75.2%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #49. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #83. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #165. Pg. 34. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 88.0%
  11. ^
    1. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #33. Pg. 23. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Crash". Issue #59. Pg. 189. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "ACE". Issue #16. Pg. 105. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (74.7%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #14. Pg. 61. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (89%-93%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #75. Pg. 58. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (83%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Crash". Issue #98. Pg. 80. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #22. Pg. 49. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 85.5%
  12. ^
    1. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #75. Pg. 41. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (95%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #29. Pg. 27. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "ACE". Issue #33. Pg. 59. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (86%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "C+VG". Issue #103. Pg. 73. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (87%-88%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #54. Pg. 14. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (87%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #98. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (92%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #200. Pg. 33. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 89.8%.
  13. ^
    1. "Last Ninja Remix" (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #84. Pg. 76. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 70%
  14. ^
    1. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #80. Pg. 42. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #34. Pg. 47. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90-93%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "ACE". Issue #37. Pg. 82. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #58. Pg. 53. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #104. Pg. 21. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #204. Pg. 32. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (72%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Overall: 85.9%
  15. ^
    1. Lee, Peter (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Action". Issue #28. Pg. 84-85. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (94%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. Maddock, Jonathan (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Computing". Issue #44. Pg. 76-77. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (94%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. Campbell, Stuart (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Power". Issue #8. Pg. 34-36. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. Webb, Trenton (December 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #29. Pg. 94-96. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. Haynes, Rik (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "CU Amiga". Issue #December 1991. Pg. 115-116. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. Ashley , Cotter-Cairns (June 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "ACE". Issue #52. Pg. 71. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. Jim , Douglas (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Crash". Issue #37. Pg. 80-85. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    8. James, Price (May 1993). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Force". Issue #May 1993. Pg. 12. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    9. Paul, Presley (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "The One for Amiga Games". Issue #39. Pg. 78-79. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    10. Carsten, Borgmeier (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #January 1992. Pg. 28. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (82%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    11. Sharp, Brian (November 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #November 1991. Pg. 24-25. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 91.0%
  16. ^
    1. Bradley, Stephen (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #53. Pg. 60-61. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. Maddock, Jonathan (February 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Computing". Issue #70. Pg. 140. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. Nash, Jonathan (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Power". Issue #32. Pg. 40-41. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. Tipping, Amanda (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #145. Pg. 38. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. Upchurch, David (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "The One Amiga". Issue #63. Pg. 76-77. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (87%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. Storey III, Dudley (May 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Down Under". Issue #9. Pg. 75. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. Sloan, Jonathan (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "CU Amiga". Issue #December 1993. Pg. 184. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (83%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    8. Löwenstein, Richard (February 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #February 1994. Pg. 16. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (73%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score of 86.1%
  17. ^
    1. Korn, Andrew (November 1997). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "CU Amiga Magazine". Issue #November 1997. Pg. 38-39. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (87%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. Smith, Andy (December 1997). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #105. Pg. 40-41. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (45%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 66.0%
  18. ^ Links have only been supplied to references that could be checked and verified completely. Aggregate scores are based on number of reviews that could have been checked and verified. Aggregate scores may differ. Information on aggregate scores last updated 1 May 2014.
  19. ^
    1. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Crash". Issue #27. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (45%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #54. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (47.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #49. Pg. 49. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (3 Stars/5 Stars; 60%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #4. Pg. 69. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (Score: 4; (17/40); 42.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #80. Pg. 15. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (61.8%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 51.4%.
  20. ^
    1. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #37. Pg. 18. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (84%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #58. Pg. 25. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (60%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #14. Pg. 36. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
      1. Berkmann, Marcus (February 1987 YS14). Aliens. The Your Sinclair Rock'n'Roll Years. (90%) Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #63. Pg. 37. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (77.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #23. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby ". Issue #117. Pg. 17. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71.7%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 77.2%
  21. ^
    1. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #34. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #56. Pg. 57. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #62. Pg. 47. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (72.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #113. Pg. 19. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (66.7%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 76.8%.
  22. ^
    1. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #60. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #16. Pg. 31. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #67. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #48. Pg. 31. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (86%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #27. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (96%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "C+VG". Issue #67. Pg. 15. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #40. Pg. 17. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (92%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    8. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #130. Pg. 19. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71.7%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 87.6%
  23. ^
    1. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #68. Pg. 107. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #26. Pg. 63. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #48. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 73.7%
  24. ^
    1. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #18. Pg. 62. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #32. Pg. 30. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (59%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #54. Pg. 23. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (59%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Your Computer". Issue #8610. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (59%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #10. Pg. 83. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (60%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #60. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (67.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 72.8%
  25. ^
    1. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #40. Pg. 121. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (67%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #68. Pg. 25. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (65%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #63. Pg. 62. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (20%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #18. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #56. Pg. 77. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (51%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #128. Pg. 22. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68.3%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 58.6%.
  26. ^
    1. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #69. Pg. 37. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #49. Pg. 18. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Computer & Video Game". Issue #76. Pg. 21. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (82.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #26. Pg. 27. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #82. Pg. 63. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (89%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #161. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 83.3%.
  27. ^
    1. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #70. Pg. 12. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "ACE". Issue #05. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (75.2%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #49. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #83. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #165. Pg. 34. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 88.0%
  28. ^
    1. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #33. Pg. 23. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Crash". Issue #59. Pg. 189. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "ACE". Issue #16. Pg. 105. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (74.7%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #14. Pg. 61. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (89%-93%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #75. Pg. 58. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (83%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Crash". Issue #98. Pg. 80. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #22. Pg. 49. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 85.5%
  29. ^
    1. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #75. Pg. 41. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (95%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #29. Pg. 27. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "ACE". Issue #33. Pg. 59. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (86%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "C+VG". Issue #103. Pg. 73. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (87%-88%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #54. Pg. 14. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (87%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #98. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (92%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #200. Pg. 33. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 89.8%.
  30. ^
    1. "Last Ninja Remix" (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #84. Pg. 76. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 70%
  31. ^
    1. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #80. Pg. 42. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #34. Pg. 47. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90-93%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "ACE". Issue #37. Pg. 82. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #58. Pg. 53. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #104. Pg. 21. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #204. Pg. 32. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (72%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Overall: 85.9%
  32. ^
    1. Lee, Peter (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Action". Issue #28. Pg. 84-85. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (94%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. Maddock, Jonathan (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Computing". Issue #44. Pg. 76-77. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (94%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. Campbell, Stuart (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Power". Issue #8. Pg. 34-36. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. Webb, Trenton (December 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #29. Pg. 94-96. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. Haynes, Rik (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "CU Amiga". Issue #December 1991. Pg. 115-116. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. Ashley , Cotter-Cairns (June 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "ACE". Issue #52. Pg. 71. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. Jim , Douglas (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Crash". Issue #37. Pg. 80-85. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89.5%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    8. James, Price (May 1993). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Force". Issue #May 1993. Pg. 12. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    9. Paul, Presley (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "The One for Amiga Games". Issue #39. Pg. 78-79. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    10. Carsten, Borgmeier (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #January 1992. Pg. 28. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (82%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    11. Sharp, Brian (November 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #November 1991. Pg. 24-25. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (100%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 91.0%
  33. ^
    1. Bradley, Stephen (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #53. Pg. 60-61. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. Maddock, Jonathan (February 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Computing". Issue #70. Pg. 140. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    3. Nash, Jonathan (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Power". Issue #32. Pg. 40-41. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (90%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    4. Tipping, Amanda (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #145. Pg. 38. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    5. Upchurch, David (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "The One Amiga". Issue #63. Pg. 76-77. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (87%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. Storey III, Dudley (May 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Down Under". Issue #9. Pg. 75. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (85%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    7. Sloan, Jonathan (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "CU Amiga". Issue #December 1993. Pg. 184. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (83%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    8. Löwenstein, Richard (February 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #February 1994. Pg. 16. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (73%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score of 86.1%
  34. ^
    1. Korn, Andrew (November 1997). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "CU Amiga Magazine". Issue #November 1997. Pg. 38-39. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (87%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. Smith, Andy (December 1997). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #105. Pg. 40-41. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (45%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    Aggregate Score: 66.0%
  35. ^ Babak's second name, "Rafei" (alternatively spelled as "Rafee") is a Qur'anic name translating to a person of "high status", being "exalted, sublime and superb".
    1. Refee (entry). Quranic Names (QuranClub). Retrieved 14 September 2014.
    The name Babak appears however not to be a Qur'anic derived name but can be used by Muslims "since it doesn't have a bad meaning". The name means "father" or "mentor" and was used in ancient Persia as an endearing term for male heads of households (similarly to the use of "daddy" in English).
    1. Babak (entry). Quranic Names (QuranClub). Retrieved 14 September 2014.
    Babak is also the name of a famous historical figure in Iran, notable for having been a "leader of a major Khurramī revolt in early ʿAbbāsid Iran" and having "[grown up] Muslim", according to the Danish Islamic historian Patricia Crone, although in contrast modern Iranian historians believe him to have been a Muslim throughout his life.
    1. Crone, Patricia (2011). Bābak(1,466 words). Brill Online. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
    2. Abbas Amanat; Farzin Vejdani (14 February 2012). Iran Facing Others: Identity Boundaries in a Historical Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 73-74. ISBN 978-1-137-01340-8.
  36. ^ Crytek was formed in September 1999, which currently also employs between 600-700 people worldwide.
  37. ^ 260,000 copies of Crysis 3 were sold in the US alone in February 2013, another 100,000 were sold in Germany by December 2013 (see sources - in-paragraph). Other data not available publicly. Private holding companies such as NPD may have global data as indicated by gamespot (see source references again later in-paragraph) . VGChartz claims 1.86 million have been sold on all platforms but VGChartz source is controversial for possibly being unreliable.
  38. ^ However with the launch of "Warface" (which has registered 25 million players as of April 2014)
    1. Makuch, Eddie (March 31, 2014). Game with a silly name, Warface, gets 25 million registered users. Gamespot Retrieved 12 April 2014.
    Crytek is expected to generate $9.7 million per month alone.
    1. Make a hole! Breaking into the free-to-play shooter market. NOVEMBER 6, 2013. SUPERDATA Digital Goods Management. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  39. ^ The game-engine developed by Kirmaan Aboobaker. It uses modified CryEngine code, and has sold 6 million copies worldwide.
  40. ^ Babak's second name, "Rafei" (alternatively spelled as "Rafee") is a Qur'anic name translating to a person of "high status", being "exalted, sublime and superb".
    1. Refee (entry). Quranic Names (QuranClub). Retrieved 14 September 2014.
    The name Babak appears however not to be a Qur'anic derived name but can be used by Muslims "since it doesn't have a bad meaning". The name means "father" or "mentor" and was used in ancient Persia as an endearing term for male heads of households (similarly to the use of "daddy" in English).
    1. Babak (entry). Quranic Names (QuranClub). Retrieved 14 September 2014.
    Babak is also the name of a famous historical figure in Iran, notable for having been a "leader of a major Khurramī revolt in early ʿAbbāsid Iran" and having "[grown up] Muslim", according to the Danish Islamic historian Patricia Crone, although in contrast modern Iranian historians believe him to have been a Muslim throughout his life.
    1. Crone, Patricia (2011). Bābak(1,466 words). Brill Online. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
    2. Abbas Amanat; Farzin Vejdani (14 February 2012). Iran Facing Others: Identity Boundaries in a Historical Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 73-74. ISBN 978-1-137-01340-8.
  41. ^ Crytek was formed in September 1999, which currently also employs between 600-700 people worldwide.
  42. ^ The game-engine developed by Kirmaan Aboobaker. It uses modified CryEngine code, and has sold 6 million copies worldwide.
  43. ^ 260,000 copies of Crysis 3 were sold in the US alone in February 2013, another 100,000 were sold in Germany by December 2013 (see sources - in-paragraph). Other data not available publicly. Private holding companies such as NPD may have global data as indicated by gamespot (see source references again later in-paragraph) . VGChartz claims 1.86 million have been sold on all platforms but VGChartz source is controversial for possibly being unreliable.
  44. ^ However with the launch of "Warface" (which has registered 25 million players as of April 2014)
    1. Makuch, Eddie (March 31, 2014). Game with a silly name, Warface, gets 25 million registered users. Gamespot Retrieved 12 April 2014.
    Crytek is expected to generate $9.7 million per month alone.
    1. Make a hole! Breaking into the free-to-play shooter market. NOVEMBER 6, 2013. SUPERDATA Digital Goods Management. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  45. ^ He is still based in Scotland, working at Freelance (as a consultant) for the games industry.
    1. Mondo Ghulam (Profile). LinkedIn. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  46. ^ He is still based in Scotland, working at Freelance (as a consultant) for the games industry.
    1. Mondo Ghulam (Profile). LinkedIn. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  47. ^ Concept art. Modding the game has also made it popular.
  48. ^ Sales figures are difficult to come by, and this figure may be inaccurate if the wrong interpretation has been given. According to one source, Polygon, Gasrshasp was "one of the best-selling Iranian-made PC games, having sold 300,000 copies domestically and even more when the developers launched it on Steam". The phrase "even more" can be interpreted as either more than 300,000 copies sold on steam or possibly it may be interpreted as having sold above this number on steam.
    1. Yara Elmjouie (January 14th, 2016). THE GAME INDUSTRY OF IRAN. Polygon. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  49. ^ Concept art. Modding the game has also made it popular.
  50. ^ Sales figures are difficult to come by, and this figure may be inaccurate if the wrong interpretation has been given. According to one source, Polygon, Gasrshasp was "one of the best-selling Iranian-made PC games, having sold 300,000 copies domestically and even more when the developers launched it on Steam". The phrase "even more" can be interpreted as either more than 300,000 copies sold on steam or possibly it may be interpreted as having sold above this number on steam.
    1. Yara Elmjouie (January 14th, 2016). THE GAME INDUSTRY OF IRAN. Polygon. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.

References

  1. ^ a b Matt Barton (21 March 2013). [Matt Barton (21 March 2013). Honoring the Code: Conversations with Great Game Designers. CRC Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4665-6754-2. Honoring the Code: Conversations with Great Game Designers]. CRC Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4665-6754-2.
  2. ^ a b Brenda Brathwaite (2011). Breaking into the Game Industry:: Advice for a Successful Career from Those Who Have Done It. Cengage Learning. p. 3. ISBN 1-4354-5805-2.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Steven Levy (19 May 2010). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution - 25th Anniversary Edition. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p. 263. ISBN 978-1-4493-9374-8.
  4. ^ Newmedia. HyperMedia Communications, Incorporated. 1998. p. 134.
  5. ^ a b Brad J. King; John M. Borland (1 August 2003). Dungeons and Dreamers: The Rise of Computer Game Culture: Fron Geek to Chic. McGraw-Hill/Osborne. ISBN 978-0-07-222888-5.
  6. ^ a b c d e f InfoWorld Media Group, Inc. (2 April 1984). InfoWorld. InfoWorld Media Group, Inc. p. 80. ISSN 01996649. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Inc.1984" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Inc.1984" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Inc.1984" defined multiple times with different content
  7. ^ a b Carol A. Waugh (1984). Microcomputer Market Place. Dekotek. p. 70.
  8. ^ a b Steven Kent (16 June 2010). The Ultimate History of Video Games: from Pong to Pokemon and beyond...the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Crown/Archetype. p. 719. ISBN 978-0-307-56087-2.
  9. ^ a b c d Matt Barton (21 March 2013). Honoring the Code: Conversations with Great Game Designers. CRC Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4665-6754-2.
  10. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Gerry the Germ (1985). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  11. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Aliens (1986). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  12. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Prodigy (1986). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Yilmaz, Erdal. Cagiltay, Kursat. (2005). History of Digital Games in Turkey. Middle East Technical University (METU). p. 6-7. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #69. Pg. 36. World of Spectrum. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  15. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Big Trouble in Little China (1987). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  16. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Knightmare (1987). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  17. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Super Hang-On (1987). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  18. ^ a b Nick Roberts, Paul Sumner, Bym Welthy (February 1988). Super Hang-On. ZX Spectrum Reviews. Issue 49, February 1988. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  19. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Last Ninja 2 (1988). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  20. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Hammerfist (1990). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  21. ^ a b Hammerfist (1990). Hall of Light (online amiga database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  22. ^ a b Campbell, Mark. Mevlut Dinc Interview. Slipstream (Konix Multisystem Archive). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  23. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Last Ninja Remix (1990). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  24. ^ a b Heide, Martijn (© 1999-2014). Time Machine (1990). ThunderWare Research Center (World of Spectrum Database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  25. ^ a b Time Machine (1990). Hall of Light (online amiga database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  26. ^ a b The First Samurai (1991). Hall of Light (online amiga database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  27. ^ a b Second Samurai (1993). Hall of Light (online amiga database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  28. ^ a b Street Racer (1997). Hall of Light (online amiga database). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  29. ^ a b S.C.A.R.S (European) . All Game. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  30. ^ Newmedia. HyperMedia Communications, Incorporated. 1998. p. 134.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Roberto J. R. A. (February 9, 2014). Leer más: Bob Rafei, el ex-Naughty Dog al frente de Sonic Boom. Hobby Consolas (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  32. ^ a b c d Carless, Simon (February 15, 2008). Arey, Rafei Announce Big Red Button Entertainment. Gamasutra. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  33. ^ a b McGee, Maxwell (March 15, 2014). Sega Explains Sonic and Knuckles' New Look. Gamespot. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Bob Rafei, Jeff Lander. Founders. Big Red Button Entertainment. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bob Rafei. Metacritic. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  36. ^ a b Sonic undergoes makeover for new game, TV series. Today's Zaman. February 09, 2014. Retrieved 27th September 2014.
  37. ^ a b c d Corriea, Alexa Ray (February 06, 2014). Why Sega handed Sonic over to Western studios and gave him a scarf. Polygon. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  38. ^ a b Ryan Parreno (25th March 2014). Sonic Boom Developer Big Red Button Has Hired Some Of Sony's Finest: Naughty Dog, Superbot, Sony Santa Monica. Gameranx. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  39. ^ a b Bob Rafei Big Red Button Entertainment Founder, CEO & Visual Director. Into the Pixel. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Sinclair, Brendan (Thursday 17 January 2013). Crytek opens Istanbul studio. Games Industry International. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  41. ^ a b c d e f Hall, Charlie (July 11, 2013). THE STORY OF CRYTEK: FROM X-ISLE THROUGH REDEMPTION. Polygon. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Crytek Subsidiaries Addresses. Games Industry International. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  43. ^ a b c d Crytek reach for Innovation Award. February 7, 2012. Nottingham Post. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  44. ^ a b c d e f Kietzmann, Ludwig (7 June 2012). Crytek's Ryse still in the works, Kinect will be 'part of it'. Joystiq. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  45. ^ a b Black Sea Studios. IGN. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  46. ^ a b c d Farokhmanesh, Megan (Jan 28, 2013). Crytek forms new Austin studio with former Darksiders developers. Polygon. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  47. ^ a b c d e f Ivan, Tom (Wednesday 8 August 2012). Crytek opens new China studio. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  48. ^ a b c d Chapple, Craig (8 August 2012). Crytek heads to Shanghai with new studio. Develop. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  49. ^ a b The Collectables iOS. Metacritic. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  50. ^ a b Fibble iOS. Metacritic. Retrievd 12 April 2014.
  51. ^ a b Fibble HD iOS. Metacritic. Retrievd 12 April 2014.
  52. ^ a b c d Crysis (PC. Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  53. ^ a b c d Crysis (Playstation 3). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  54. ^ a b c d Crysis (Xbox 360). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Crytek Metacritic Profile (metacritic score rank). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  56. ^ a b c d Far Cry (PC). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  57. ^ a b c d Crysis 2 (PC). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  58. ^ a b c d Crysis 2 (Playsation 3). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  59. ^ a b c d Crysis 2 (Xbox360). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  60. ^ a b c d Crysis Warhead (PC). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  61. ^ a b c d Crysis 3 (PC). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  62. ^ a b c d Crysis 3 (Playstation 3). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  63. ^ a b c d Crysis 3 (Xbox360). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  64. ^ a b c d Far Cry Classic (Xbox 360). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  65. ^ a b c d Far Cry (PC). Metacritic. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  66. ^ a b c d e f According to Crytek themselves (REFERENCE Avni Yerli (26 May 2010). "CryEngine 3 - The next generation of interactive entertainment and real-time 3D technologies") (link since expired - however forums can be accessed which relay these figures independently of each other here (IGN) and here (Beyond 3D)) they have sold around 3.5 million copies of Crysis, 2.5 million copies of Far Cry, and 1.5 million copies of Crysis: Warhead.
  67. ^ a b Electronic Arts Reports Q1 FY12 Financial Results. July 26, 2011. Electronic Arts. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  68. ^ a b Dutton, Fred (Tuesday, 26 July 2011). Crysis 2 racks up three million sales. Eurogamer. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  69. ^ a b Garreffa, Anthony (Feb 17, 2013). Crysis 3 beta has been downloaded over 3 million times. Tweaktown. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  70. ^ a b Makuch, Eddie on (14 March 2013). Dead Space 3 US sales hit 605,000. GameSpot. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  71. ^ a b Papadopoulos, John (December 13, 2013).Disappointing Sales – Crysis 3 PC Has Just Passed 100.000 Sold Copies In Its Homeland. DarkSideofGaming. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  72. ^ a b Parreno, Ryan (18 January 2014). Microsoft Reveals LTD Sales For Xbox One-exclusive Games. Gaming Enthusiast. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  73. ^ a b c d e f Stead, Chris (July 15, 2009). The 10 Best Game Engines of This Generation. IGN. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  74. ^ a b CryENGINE® 1. Crytek. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  75. ^ a b c d Lilly, Paul (21 July 2009). Doom to Dunia: A Visual History of 3D Game Engines. p. 8. Maximum PC. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  76. ^ a b CryENGINE® 2. Crytek. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  77. ^ a b CryENGINE® 3. Crytek. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  78. ^ a b Dutton, Fred (Thursday, 14 June 2012). [1]. Eurogamer. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  79. ^ a b CryENGINE (CryENGINE® 4) . Crytek. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  80. ^ a b Moin, Ali (18 October 2013). Is Ubisoft Using Dunia Engine Instead Of Disrupt Engine For PC Version Of Watch_Dogs?. Gearnuke. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  81. ^ a b Hagedoorn, Hilbert (12 April 2012).Far Cry 3 VGA Graphics Benchmark performance test - In-game screenshots. Guru3D. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  82. ^ a b Ubisoft Montréal | Released Oct 21, 2008. Moddb. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  83. ^ a b PC Gaming - Grafik-Engines demonstieren Spielegrafik der Zukunft (10/12). TweakPC (German). Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  84. ^ a b Morgan, Thomas (Wednesday, 10 October 2012). Far Cry 3 preview: Territoriality, crafting and early tech analysis. Eurogamer. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  85. ^ a b Coulter, Kyle (date unknown). HOME > FEATURE > FAR CRY 3: BLOOD DRAGON REVIEWWRITTEN BY: KYLE COULTER, MTV.CA. MTV Proto. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  86. ^ a b Lilly, Paul (21 July 2009). Doom to Dunia: A Visual History of 3D Game Engines. p. 9. Maximum PC. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  87. ^ a b de Vries, Wilbert (Friday, December 14, 2007). Ubisoft licht tipje van de sluier over Far Cry 2 op. Tweakers (Dutch). Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  88. ^ a b Timothy (unknown publication date). Crysis 2 Most Pirated Game of 2011. Slashdot. Retreived 12 April 2014.
  89. ^ a b Eitel, Florian (19 October 2010). Crysis 2: Crytek wants to sell 7 million copies. PC Games Hardware (German). Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  90. ^ a b Destructoid (28 March 2011). Crysis 2 huge success, Xbox 360 dominates sales. Destructoid. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  91. ^ a b c d Gauder, John (March 1, 2013). Crysis 3 cost $66 million to make, can next gen sustain such budgets?. Gamechup. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  92. ^ a b Papadopoulos, John (March 1, 2013). Crytek’s CEO Admits That Crysis 3 Was Limited By Current-Generation Consoles. Dark Side of Gaming. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  93. ^ a b c d Meikleham, David. (11 July 2013). New GTA 5 info: interview with Rockstar lift lids on car customisation, impound lots, combat and slow-mo drive-bys. Official Playstation Magazine. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  94. ^ a b Shaul, Brandy (Tuesday 9 July 2013). 'GTA 5': Rockstar explains gun and vehicle customisation. Digital Spy. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  95. ^ a b c d Imran Sarwar's Scores. Metacritic. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  96. ^ a b Hess, Bill (10 July 2013)Grand Theft Auto V vehicle modifications are many. Attack of the Fanboy. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  97. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (October 2, 2013). Grand Theft Auto 5 Credits (Timeframe: 0.16). Youtube. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  98. ^ a b c d e f g h Imran Sarwar Developer ID Profile: Credits by Role. MobyGames. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  99. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (March 26, 2013). Grand Theft Auto IV (Timeframe: 0.19). Youtube. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  100. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (February 10, 2013). Grand Theft Auto IV: The Lost and Damned (Timeframe: 0.20). Youtube. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  101. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (November 23, 2009). Grand Theft Auto IV: The Ballad of Gay Tony (Timeframe: 0.24). Youtube. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  102. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (July 30, 2009). Grand Theft Auto: City Credits (Timeframe: 1.04). Youtube. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  103. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (February 6, 2010). Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas Credits (Timeframe: 1.04). Youtube. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  104. ^ a b Top 10 Bestselling Games of All Time. CheatCC. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  105. ^ a b Take-Two Interactive Software, Inc. Reports Strong Results for Fiscal Third Quarter 2014. Take 2 Games. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  106. ^ a b Tiny Toon Adventures: Wacky Stackers. Mobygames. 7 April 2014.
  107. ^ a b Pinky and the Brain: The Master Plan Credits. Mobygames. 7 April 2014.
  108. ^ a b Imran Sarwar Developer ID Profile: Game List. MobyGames. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  109. ^ a b Stuart, Keith (Friday 13 September 2013) Grand Theft Auto 5 – inside the creative process with Dan Houser. The Guardian. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  110. ^ a b c d e f Edge Staff (August 11 2011). LA Noire wins Edinburgh Interactive Edge Award. Edge Online. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  111. ^ a b Gamespot Staff (April 22, 2008). Grand Theft Auto IV Q&A: Animating the World. Gamespot. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  112. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mondo Ghulam (Profile ID). Metacritic. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  113. ^ a b c d MahaloMidnightClub (July 21, 2011). Midnight Club: Los Angeles (Credits) - "Technical Direction". Timeframe 5:28. Youtube. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  114. ^ a b Grand Theft Auto IV Manual. p. 24. Steamstatic. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  115. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Mondo Ghulam Profile ID. Moby Games. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  116. ^ a b Veglia, Matteo (December 21, 2013). Reaching Out - Mondo Ghulam. Matteo Veglia Animation and VFX Student. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  117. ^ a b c d e f g h Mondo Ghulam (Profile). LinkedIn. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  118. ^ a b Herald Staff (Friday 2 July 1999). Glasgow School of Art Graduate Expectation. The Herald. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  119. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (April 18, 2010). Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories (Credits). Timeframe: 0:56. Youtube. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  120. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (March 2, 2011). Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories (Credits). Timeframe: 1:06. Youtube. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  121. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (February 10, 2013). Grand Theft Auto: The Lost and Damned (Credits). Timeframe: 0:16. Youtube. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  122. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (November 23, 2011). Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony (Credits). Timeframe: 0:21. Youtube. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  123. ^ a b c d Ghulam, Mondo. Mondo Ghulam (Official Website) - Works. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  124. ^ a b Zevik (February 21, 2010). Manhunt 2 (Credits). Youtube. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  125. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (July 21, 2010). Read Dead Redemption (Credits) - Mondo Ghulam "Animation Support". Timeframe 3:22. Youtube. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  126. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (June 27, 2011). L.A. Noire (Credits). Timeframe: 1:32. Youtube. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  127. ^ a b GTA Series Videos (May 29, 2012). Max Payne 3 (Credits) - "Animation Director". Timeframe 8:28. Youtube. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  128. ^ a b Editorial (12 August 2011). L.A. Noire wins Edinburgh Interactive Edge Award . Rockstar Informar. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  129. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Edge Staff (February 11 2013). No Russian: the modder who went on to make Call Of Duty’s most controversial set piece. Edge Online. Pg. 1. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  130. ^ a b c d Heppe, Abbie (November 16, 2011). Meet the Team. Respawn Entertainment. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  131. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Truyens, Joannes (February 12, 2013). Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare’s most iconic set pieces wouldn’t have been included if not for one man. Beefjack. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  132. ^ a b NowGamer (December 5, 2011) 20. The ‘All Ghillied Up’ Mission In Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare. NowGamer. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  133. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Edge Staff (February 11 2013). No Russian: the modder who went on to make Call Of Duty’s most controversial set piece. Edge Online. Pg. 2. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  134. ^ a b c d e f Totilo, Stephen (8 February 2012). The Designer of Call of Duty's 'No Russian' Massacre Wanted You to Feel Something. Kotaku. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  135. ^ a b c d Senior, Tom (9 August 2012). Modern Warfare 2 designer explains the thinking behind No Russian mission. PC Gamer. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  136. ^ a b GamesRadar Staff (June 23, 2012). The 10 most shocking game moments of the decade. Games Radar. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  137. ^ a b “Titanfall will most definitely have an ending. It’s not a story if it doesn’t have an ending” says Respawn. X-ONE magazine issue #107. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  138. ^ a b Luke Karmali (5 October 2015). TITANFALL SALES PASS 10 MILLION GLOBALLY. IGN. Retrieved October 27th, 2016.
  139. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 3BlackDot Appoints Videogame Industry Veteran Marwan Abderrazzaq to Lead Game Development. Game Skinny (PR Newswire). Retrieved 27th September 2014.
  140. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Marwan A. Abderrazzaq. Internet Movie Database (IMDB). Retrieved 27th September 2014.
  141. ^ a b c d College Pals Put Thrill in Silent Hill. Volume 15. Issue 1. Alumni Digest. MIAMI: The University of Miami Magazine (Spring 2008). Retrieved 27th September 2014.
  142. ^ a b Julia Elefson (February 17, 2005). Habib Zargarpour, Academy Award-Nominated CG and CGI Expert, to Speak at the University of Advancing Technology on Feb. 17, 2005. Business Wire. University of Advancing Technology, Tempe. Retrieved 28th September 2014.
  143. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af [2]. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 28th September 2014.
  144. ^ a b Habib Zargarpour, Microsoft Studios, Creative Director. FMX. Retrieved 28th September 2014.
  145. ^ a b [http://www.fmx.de/program2014/event/3516 CONFERENCE | TECHNOLOGY | HIGH-END GRAPHICS FOR NEW GAME PLATFORMS Wednesday, April 23, Gloria 2, 15:00 - 16:00 The Art and Technology of RYSE: Son of Rome]. FMX. Retrieved 28th September 2014.
  146. ^ a b Randy (31 July 2008). Mount & Blade hitting early this school year. Gaming Nexus. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  147. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Osorio, Vince (5 March 2011). Mount & Blade: With Fire & Sword (PC). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  148. ^ a b Taleworlds Profile. Playnation. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  149. ^ a b c d Taleworlds Profile at Metacritic. Metacritic. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  150. ^ a b Mount & Blade (PC). Metacritic. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  151. ^ a b Mount & Blade: Warband (PC). Metacritic. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  152. ^ a b Mount & Blade: With Fire & Sword (PC). Metacritic. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  153. ^ a b Pavlovic, Uros (6 October 2009). Risen & L4D2 Conquer PC Sales. Action Trip. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  154. ^ a b Martin, Joe (31 March 2010). Top 10 UK PC games chart. BitGamer. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  155. ^ a b Faylor, Chris (4 March 2010). Weekly PC Sales Bring No Clear Winner (Updated: Winner Revealed). Shack News. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  156. ^ a b Dobra, Andrei (14 May 2009). PC Sales Charts – Zombies Edition. Softpedia. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  157. ^ a b c d Trog (12 April 2010). Latest Steam Weekly Sales Rankings. AusGamers. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  158. ^ a b Plunkett, Luke (11 November 2011). A Rare Glimpse at Steam Sales Figures. Kotaku. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  159. ^ a b Kocasu, Emre (February 13, 2012). Mount and Blade 2 Alpha ENG Subbed!. Originally from the Turkish news agency Anadlu Agency (AA) Youtube. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  160. ^ a b Akdeniz, Elif (18 July 2010). Nascent Turkish Games Sector Emerging Player in Global Market. Today's Zaman. Cached Version. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  161. ^ a b Phil Savage (July 28th, 2015). Mount & Blade series has sold 6 million copies. PC Gamer. Retrieved December 6th, 2015.
  162. ^ a b Fahad Ahmad (February 9th, 2016). 10 young Pakistan entrepreneurs who deserve appreciation. The Nation. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  163. ^ a b c d e f g h Michael Briers (March 4th, 2015). Indie Games Showcase: Supergiant Games. Playstation Lifestyle. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  164. ^ a b Matt Liebl (December 28th, 2015). Latest Bastion, Transistor sales figures revealed. Game Zone. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  165. ^ a b Jordan Devore (December 28th, 2015). TRANSISTOR SELLS OVER A MILLION COPIES. Destructoid. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  166. ^ a b Bastion PC. August 16th, 2011. Metacritic. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  167. ^ a b Transistor PC. May 20, 2014. Metacritic. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  168. ^ a b c d Dean Takahashi (May 2nd, 2014). How super-indie Supergiant Games is following the success of Bastion with Transistor (interview). Venture Beat. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  169. ^ a b c d Mark J. P. Wolf; Toru Iwatani (1 May 2015). Video Games Around the World. MIT Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-262-52716-3.
  170. ^ a b c d e f Yara Elmjouie (January 14th, 2016). THE GAME INDUSTRY OF IRAN. Polygon. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  171. ^ a b Garshasp: The Monster Slayer PC. May 9th, 2011. Metacritic. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  172. ^ a b Iran: "Garshasp" computer game developers eyeing world markets. December 18th, 2010. Payvand (via Mehr News Agency). Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  173. ^ a b Shadow Blade: Reload PC. August 10th, 2015. Metacritic. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  174. ^ a b “Shadow Blade” named Iran’s best game of the year. August 29th, 2015. Tehran Times. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  175. ^ a b c d Children of Morta. Dead Mage. Kickstarter. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  176. ^ a b Ron Duwell (February 20th, 2015). Children of Morta crushes Kickstarter, coming to consoles. Techno Buffalo. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.
  177. ^ a b Clement Renaudin (February 22nd, 2016). After a slight approval delay, Infinity Blade-like Epic of Kings is now out on the App Store. Pocket Gamer. Retrieved March 12th, 2016.

External Links

F icon.png
Share this on Facebook!
Like Our Page!.
Reddit-icon.png
Share this on Reddit!
Visit Our Subreddit!.
Retrieved from "http://materiaislamica.com/index.php?title=History_of_Muslims_in_the_Video-Games_Industry_(1980—Present)&oldid=1172"