History of the Muslim Peoples & Islamic Culture in Japan (1700—Present)

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The history of Muslims in Japan in somewhat recent, with the Japanese only having first documented Islam in the 1700s, with the actual history possibly stretching back even further, possibly from trade. Today however, Japanese Muslims are well established, numbering somewhere between 70,000—120,000; with approximately 10% being native. Additionally, there are some two hundred established mosques and masullahs; with the very first being constructed in 1905; but which has not unfortunately survived up to the present day. Outside of Japan, Muslim countries heavily trade with the country, with bilateral trade standing at some $300 billion dollars; larger even than Japan's trade with the United States, which hovers at around $200 billion dollars. In Japanese society, Muslims also face institutionalised racism; with a significant violations in privacy and surveillance, despite the biggest domestic threat facing Japan being Buddhist terrorism. Muslims do face stereotypes as foreigners, bearded rather than religious and other such notions. In total, Islam in Japan has over three centuries worth of history, with the earliest Muslim settlers believed to have worked in the cities of Yokohama and Kobe during the reign of the Meiji (1868—1890); these settlers being Indian and Malay sailors.[1]

First Documentation 1712
First_Diplomatic_Contact September 16th, 1890
Number of Mosques 200 (est. 1905)
Number of Communities 60 (20 are native)
Japanese Muslims ~7,000—12,000
Foreign Muslims ~70,000—120,000
Imports (to Japan) $219.06 billion dollars
Exports (Islamic World) $70.4 billion dollars
Total Bilateral Trade $289.46_billion_dollars

First Documentation 1712
First_Diplomatic_Contact September 16th, 1890
Number of Mosques 200 (est. 1905)
Number of Communities 60 (20 are native)
Japanese Muslims ~7,000—12,000
Foreign Muslims ~70,000—120,000
Imports (to Japan) $219.06 billion dollars
Exports (Islamic World) $70.4 billion dollars
Total Bilateral Trade $289.46_billion_dollars

The history of Muslims in Japan in somewhat recent, with the Japanese only having first documented Islam in the 1700s, with the actual history possibly stretching back even further, possibly from trade. Today however, Japanese Muslims are well established, numbering somewhere between 70,000—120,000; with approximately 10% being native. Additionally, there are some two hundred established mosques and masullahs; with the very first being constructed in 1905; but which has not unfortunately survived up to the present day. Outside of Japan, Muslim countries heavily trade with the country, with bilateral trade standing at some $300 billion dollars; larger even than Japan's trade with the United States, which hovers at around $200 billion dollars. In Japanese society, Muslims also face institutionalised racism; with a significant violations in privacy and surveillance, despite the biggest domestic threat facing Japan being Buddhist terrorism. Muslims do face stereotypes as foreigners, bearded rather than religious and other such notions. In total, Islam in Japan has over three centuries worth of history, with the earliest Muslim settlers believed to have worked in the cities of Yokohama and Kobe during the reign of the Meiji (1868—1890); these settlers being Indian and Malay sailors.[1]

HISTORY

Middle Ages

Japanese portrait; Meccan (1712).[2]

1700—1900:— Historically, contact between the Japanese and Muslim peoples was extremely rare, both during medieval and imperial Japan. In medieval times the first and only taste the Japanese had had of Islam was in 1715 (although the earliest depiction of a Meccan, possibly of Muhammad himself, was in 1712 in the "Wakan Sansai Zue (和漢三才図会)"[2]), when a native Japanese, Arai Hakuseki, published his book, "Tidings From the West" in 1715, or by "Seiyo Kibun" (西洋紀聞), who first described Islam.[3] Hakuseki's book was unfortunately coloured by the perceptions of an Italian priest who had illegally entered Japan.[4] Additionally, in 1876 a polemical book by Humphrey Prideuax, titled the "Life of Mohamet (1697)", had been translated sometime later further reinforcing these negative perceptions.[3] Any sort of original biographies by the native Japanese would not be published until 1899 (see Sakamoto Ken’ichi 坂本健; who's main biographies again, stemmed from European stereotypes and Muslim beliefs) and 1905; which was quickly followed by academic works on the Qur'an, and then the first monograph in 1918.[3] Ken’ichi 坂本健 was also the first person to translate the Qur'an, doing so in 1920 (which again unfortunately came from spurious European sources).[3] Ken’ichi also, rather unusally, changed the meanings of some words from the book in order to fit Japanese cultural norms, such as translating the Arabic term for "rabb" (or "lord") into jo¯tei 上帝 (“Emperor”).[3] The word Kami (神; meaning God) is also used to refer to "Allah".[3]

Battleship Ertugrul:— The first proper diplomatic contact came in late 19th Century when a Turkish naval ship (the "Ertugrul Firkateyni"), sailed on an eleven month journey carrying gifts for the Japanese emperor. It had been sent by the Ottoman Sultan, Abdulhamid II.[5] After it's mission was complete, the ship was violently torn apart and sunk in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture on September 16th, 1890 in a tragedy still remembered today.[5][6] It was intending on making it's return when an unexpected storm overpowered it.[5] Not a single sailor survived the tragedy, with the 533[7]—600[8][9] strong crew all having drowned.[5] The incident was commemorated by the Japanese 124 years later in 2014.[5] On the 125th anniversary the Turkish navy launched plans on sending another, the "Salih Reis", on the very same journey in memoriam, having set sail in June 2015.[5] In April of the the same year around 500 of 7,550[6]—8,300 catalogued artefacts were salvaged (which intriguingly included gold, silver and bronze Ottoman coins).[6] Efforts were started in 2007[6] by Tufan Turanlı, with the entire shipwreck eventually, and finally, making it's way back home in 2015. The Underwater Archaeology Institute (UAI), situated in the province of Muğla’s Bodrum, was responsible for such a feat.[7][n. 1] When it was placed on exhibition in 2015, the ship was seen by both the commander of the Turkish Naval Forces, Admiral Bülent Bostanoğlu and the Japanese Ambassador to Ankara, Yutaka Yokoi.[7] The tragedy however left an intriguing legacy, ushering in more than a century of friendship between the Japan and Turkey.[8][10]

Ertugrul sank in Kushimoto (1890).[10]
Japanese portrait; Meccan (1712).[2]

1700—1900:— Historically, contact between the Japanese and Muslim peoples was extremely rare, both during medieval and imperial Japan. In medieval times the first and only taste the Japanese had had of Islam was in 1715 (although the earliest depiction of a Meccan, possibly of Muhammad himself, was in 1712 in the "Wakan Sansai Zue (和漢三才図会)"[2]), when a native Japanese, Arai Hakuseki, published his book, "Tidings From the West" in 1715, or by "Seiyo Kibun" (西洋紀聞), who first described Islam.[3] Hakuseki's book was unfortunately coloured by the perceptions of an Italian priest who had illegally entered Japan.[4] Additionally, in 1876 a polemical book by Humphrey Prideuax, titled the "Life of Mohamet (1697)", had been translated sometime later further reinforcing these negative perceptions.[3] Any sort of original biographies by the native Japanese would not be published until 1899 (see Sakamoto Ken’ichi 坂本健; who's main biographies again, stemmed from European stereotypes and Muslim beliefs) and 1905; which was quickly followed by academic works on the Qur'an, and then the first monograph in 1918.[3] Ken’ichi 坂本健 was also the first person to translate the Qur'an, doing so in 1920 (which again unfortunately came from spurious European sources).[3] Ken’ichi also, rather unusally, changed the meanings of some words from the book in order to fit Japanese cultural norms, such as translating the Arabic term for "rabb" (or "lord") into jo¯tei 上帝 (“Emperor”).[3] The word Kami (神; meaning God) is also used to refer to "Allah".[3]

Ertugrul sank in Kushimoto (1890).[10]

Battleship Ertugrul:— The first proper diplomatic contact came in late 19th Century when a Turkish naval ship (the "Ertugrul Firkateyni"), sailed on an eleven month journey carrying gifts for the Japanese emperor. It had been sent by the Ottoman Sultan, Abdulhamid II.[5] After it's mission was complete, the ship was violently torn apart and sunk in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture on September 16th, 1890 in a tragedy still remembered today.[5][6] It was intending on making it's return when an unexpected storm overpowered it.[5] Not a single sailor survived the tragedy, with the 533[7]—600[8][9] strong crew all having drowned.[5] The incident was commemorated by the Japanese 124 years later in 2014.[5] On the 125th anniversary the Turkish navy launched plans on sending another, the "Salih Reis", on the very same journey in memoriam, having set sail in June 2015.[5] In April of the the same year around 500 of 7,550[6]—8,300 catalogued artefacts were salvaged (which intriguingly included gold, silver and bronze Ottoman coins).[6] Efforts were started in 2007[6] by Tufan Turanlı, with the entire shipwreck eventually, and finally, making it's way back home in 2015. The Underwater Archaeology Institute (UAI), situated in the province of Muğla’s Bodrum, was responsible for such a feat.[7][n. 2] When it was placed on exhibition in 2015, the ship was seen by both the commander of the Turkish Naval Forces, Admiral Bülent Bostanoğlu and the Japanese Ambassador to Ankara, Yutaka Yokoi.[7] The tragedy however left an intriguing legacy, ushering in more than a century of friendship between the Japan and Turkey.[8][10]

20th Century

Qurban Ali,[11] Soviet anti-colonialist in Japan.[12]

1900—1945:— For the Islamic peoples of Asia, it was a different story. Prior to the outbreak of World War II, Japan had made several major attempts at destabilising China (and the Soviet Union) by using their native Muslim populations against them by financing rebellions.[13] The most famous of these destablising events were the "Muslim trials" (1929—1939) in the Soviet Union.[13][n. 3] A famous revolt also occurred in Xinjiang in 1937.[13][n. 4] When war eventually broke out, Japan still kept to this policy, portraying themselves as the "liberators" of Islam,[13] when they were anything but (Chinese Muslims suffered horrendously under Japanese occupation). Politically however, Japan was so committed to the cause of getting Muslims on their side that in their 1943 parliamentary diet, the foreign minister of Japan declared that his country was "ready to consecrate all efforts in order to free these victims of Anglo-American tyranny and to support with energy the Muslim's political and cultural aspirations".[13][14] This was very surprising given the fact that Japan's pre-war Muslim population was almost negligible, and Muslims held no political power in the country.[13] After Japan eventually surrendered in 1945,[15] an American report was released that claimed that this was because of a "commitment of key figures in the elite to [advance] Japan's sphere of influence even it meant converting to Islam themselves and holding out the hope of an Islamic Japan to Muslims abroad".[13] As a marker of this new "alliance", the Japanese political elite further believed that Shintoism, the traditional religion of the Japanese peoples,[16][17] would present no conflict with Islam, even to the point of conversion.[13]

Japan's Courting of Muslims:— Saying this, it should be noted that pre-war Japan was different to warring Japan. The pre-war government had been courting Muslims since the early 1880s, especially after the famous Russo-Japanese War of 1904—1905.[14] This was primarily because this precise war propelled the Japanese nation onto the world stage as a potential superpower for the first time in it's history[18] which also served as a clear indication that Western dominance in Asia would not last forever.[19] After having struggled against the European, Russian and American powers, Japan had actually managed to crush any sort of imposition placed upon it by these same very powers, commanding new respect.[19] However, their sincerity to the Muslim cause at this point was questionable at best, given how the imperial government would often seed rumours into the Muslim world that the emperor of Japan was "ready to convert" over to the faith.[14] Despite this, in 1909, those closest to the emperor did sign "The Muslim Pact (1909)", vowing to spread Islam to the Japanese.[14] Tsuyoshi Inukai (later the Prime Minister of Japan), Ryohei Uchida (a close confident of the emperor), and Mitsuru Toyama (a prominant politician in Japanese politics) were noted signatories.[14] Abdurrashid Ibrahim was a Muslim signatory as well.[14] The reason they were doing this was to achieve the goal of obtaining a greater Asian Japan.[13] The scheme to "cultivate Muslims" was largely considered a success, and so it was even planned that this would be replicated in Catholic Latin America.[20][n. 5]

A map of colonial Asia (1512—1912).
Qurban Ali,[11] Soviet anti-colonialist in Japan.[12]

1900—1945:— For the Islamic peoples of Asia, it was a different story. Prior to the outbreak of World War II, Japan had made several major attempts at destabilising China (and the Soviet Union) by using their native Muslim populations against them by financing rebellions.[13] The most famous of these destablising events were the "Muslim trials" (1929—1939) in the Soviet Union.[13][n. 6] A famous revolt also occurred in Xinjiang in 1937.[13][n. 7] When war eventually broke out, Japan still kept to this policy, portraying themselves as the "liberators" of Islam,[13] when they were anything but (Chinese Muslims suffered horrendously under Japanese occupation). Politically however, Japan was so committed to the cause of getting Muslims on their side that in their 1943 parliamentary diet, the foreign minister of Japan declared that his country was "ready to consecrate all efforts in order to free these victims of Anglo-American tyranny and to support with energy the Muslim's political and cultural aspirations".[13][14] This was very surprising given the fact that Japan's pre-war Muslim population was almost negligible, and Muslims held no political power in the country.[13] After Japan eventually surrendered in 1945,[15] an American report was released that claimed that this was because of a "commitment of key figures in the elite to [advance] Japan's sphere of influence even it meant converting to Islam themselves and holding out the hope of an Islamic Japan to Muslims abroad".[13] As a marker of this new "alliance", the Japanese political elite further believed that Shintoism, the traditional religion of the Japanese peoples,[16][17] would present no conflict with Islam, even to the point of conversion.[13]

A map of colonial Asia (1512—1912).

Japan's Courting of Muslims:— Saying this, it should be noted that pre-war Japan was different to warring Japan. The pre-war government had been courting Muslims since the early 1880s, especially after the famous Russo-Japanese War of 1904—1905.[14] This was primarily because this precise war propelled the Japanese nation onto the world stage as a potential superpower for the first time in it's history[18] which also served as a clear indication that Western dominance in Asia would not last forever.[19] After having struggled against the European, Russian and American powers, Japan had actually managed to crush any sort of imposition placed upon it by these same very powers, commanding new respect.[19] However, their sincerity to the Muslim cause at this point was questionable at best, given how the imperial government would often seed rumours into the Muslim world that the emperor of Japan was "ready to convert" over to the faith.[14] Despite this, in 1909, those closest to the emperor did sign "The Muslim Pact (1909)", vowing to spread Islam to the Japanese.[14] Tsuyoshi Inukai (later the Prime Minister of Japan), Ryohei Uchida (a close confident of the emperor), and Mitsuru Toyama (a prominant politician in Japanese politics) were noted signatories.[14] Abdurrashid Ibrahim was a Muslim signatory as well.[14] The reason they were doing this was to achieve the goal of obtaining a greater Asian Japan.[13] The scheme to "cultivate Muslims" was largely considered a success, and so it was even planned that this would be replicated in Catholic Latin America.[20][n. 8]

DEMOGRAPHICS

What a Japanese Muslim hijabi may look like.

Population:— According to Kawakami Yasunori, a writer for the "Asia Shimbun", the Muslim population in 2007 numbered between 70,000—100,000 people, of which the Japan Muslim Association (JMA) estimates that there are between 7,000—10,000 ethnic Japanese.[21] Samee Siddiqui, another author, later claimed a figure of 70,000—120,000 in 2014, with 7,000—12,000 ethnic Japanese converts (and it is further notable that out of the non-ethnic Japanese, Japan is host to 2,000,000 foreign workers).[1] In order to understand the discrepancy in non-converts and convert Muslims, in the 1980s and 1990s the Japanese government offered visa waivers to countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh on the account of needing labour owed to an aging workforce and shortage of employees, leading to a bulge in the foreign Muslim population.[1] However restrictions were put back in place (for example Bangladesh and Pakistan were imposed in 1989 and Iran in 1992).[22] Data gathered from the Japan Immigration Association in 2006 noted that there were 11,329 Bangladeshi Japanese, 5,198 Iranian Japanese, 9,086 Pakistani Japanese residing in Japan, with significant populations living in Tokyo (3,235 Bangladeshi, 1,355 Iranian, and 1,457 Pakistani).[22] In addition there are 18,096 (7,396) Indians and 24,858 (2,474) Indonesians in Japan (parenthesis denoting Tokyo residents).[22] These communities are successfully integrated with communities spread across the country[22] (at least 20 Japanese Muslim communities out of the 60 that exist are made up of ethnic Japanese).[23]

Converts:— Muslim communities in Japan often have extremely warm relations with Japanese converts to Islam.[21] For instance, Ibrahim (Ken) Okubo was one such native convert in need of support, who by his mid-thirties was jobless, and needed help and counceling to get through what is very unusual for a person of his age to go through.[21] They counselled him through all thirty-five of his job-offers before he finally managed to land himself a job after six months.[21] He was not a new convert, but had first converted over to the faith in his early twenties.[21] His employer was even kind enough to allow him to practice his five daily prayers (out of which it should be noted only two clash for a couple of minutes on his work day).[21] Another convert, Ogawara Hiromasa, adopted Islam on the basis that his Pakistani friend always had had a positive outlook, which was put down to his his faith; also noting "[t]hings are more relaxed in the world of Islam".[21] However, it should be noted that although these were men, Japanese converts still remain overwhelmingly women married to foreign Muslim partners.[24][n. 9] Those Japanese women that do convert often have to reconcile their own traditions with those that are Islamic;[24] given the fact that most of these women are married to South Asian, Iranian or Central Asian Muslims.[24] Women converts often also face challenges from their own families, with members frequently ostracizing them, and their friends alienating them.[24] Foreigners normally do attract a lot of Japanese women; however they have a strong perception and identity regarding gender roles; and require their husbands to be the breadwinners in their society.[25]

Japanese Muslim man in religious-wear.
What a Japanese Muslim hijabi may look like.

Population:— According to Kawakami Yasunori, a writer for the "Asia Shimbun", the Muslim population in 2007 numbered between 70,000—100,000 people, of which the Japan Muslim Association (JMA) estimates that there are between 7,000—10,000 ethnic Japanese.[21] Samee Siddiqui, another author, later claimed a figure of 70,000—120,000 in 2014, with 7,000—12,000 ethnic Japanese converts (and it is further notable that out of the non-ethnic Japanese, Japan is host to 2,000,000 foreign workers).[1] In order to understand the discrepancy in non-converts and convert Muslims, in the 1980s and 1990s the Japanese government offered visa waivers to countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh on the account of needing labour owed to an aging workforce and shortage of employees, leading to a bulge in the foreign Muslim population.[1] However restrictions were put back in place (for example Bangladesh and Pakistan were imposed in 1989 and Iran in 1992).[22] Data gathered from the Japan Immigration Association in 2006 noted that there were 11,329 Bangladeshi Japanese, 5,198 Iranian Japanese, 9,086 Pakistani Japanese residing in Japan, with significant populations living in Tokyo (3,235 Bangladeshi, 1,355 Iranian, and 1,457 Pakistani).[22] In addition there are 18,096 (7,396) Indians and 24,858 (2,474) Indonesians in Japan (parenthesis denoting Tokyo residents).[22] These communities are successfully integrated with communities spread across the country[22] (at least 20 Japanese Muslim communities out of the 60 that exist are made up of ethnic Japanese).[23]

Japanese Muslim man in religious-wear.

Converts:— Muslim communities in Japan often have extremely warm relations with Japanese converts to Islam.[21] For instance, Ibrahim (Ken) Okubo was one such native convert in need of support, who by his mid-thirties was jobless, and needed help and counceling to get through what is very unusual for a person of his age to go through.[21] They counselled him through all thirty-five of his job-offers before he finally managed to land himself a job after six months.[21] He was not a new convert, but had first converted over to the faith in his early twenties.[21] His employer was even kind enough to allow him to practice his five daily prayers (out of which it should be noted only two clash for a couple of minutes on his work day).[21] Another convert, Ogawara Hiromasa, adopted Islam on the basis that his Pakistani friend always had had a positive outlook, which was put down to his his faith; also noting "[t]hings are more relaxed in the world of Islam".[21] However, it should be noted that although these were men, Japanese converts still remain overwhelmingly women married to foreign Muslim partners.[24][n. 10] Those Japanese women that do convert often have to reconcile their own traditions with those that are Islamic;[24] given the fact that most of these women are married to South Asian, Iranian or Central Asian Muslims.[24] Women converts often also face challenges from their own families, with members frequently ostracizing them, and their friends alienating them.[24] Foreigners normally do attract a lot of Japanese women; however they have a strong perception and identity regarding gender roles; and require their husbands to be the breadwinners in their society.[25]

PERCEPTIONS

Yugo (1994) depicting Pakistan. a South-Asian country and nuclear power.

Protrayels:— Islamic culture has been portrayed in Japanese culture and is not nearly as alien as is thought by some; more specifically it has featured itself in renowned manga and anime. Perhaps one of the most significant portrayals of one type of Muslim culture was that of Pakistan in the "Yugo" (1994[26]—2004[27]) and "Yugo the Negotiator" (2004[28]),[29] by Osamu Akana and Shingji Makari.[28] The story centres around Yugo Beppu a talented and experienced negotiator who helps rescue hostages from kidnappers, notable for never having lost a single case.[27][n. 11] The series is also centered around Japan, Russia and Hong Kong.[27] Scanlation group OMFGG (active between December 5th, 2008 and May 8th, 2011) translated the manga between September 16th, 2009 and March 24th, 2010 (up to chapter 15; the start of the Yakuza Arc; the Pakistani Arc being chapters 1—14).[30] The group can be found on the IRC channel "#OMFGG@irc.irchighway.net".[31][32] Another case is in Fullmetal Alchemist media where alchemy (etymologically Arabic[33][34]) heavily features in the series themes though Islam is not referred to directly; also featuring the philosophers stone (which dates back to the 8th century Arabs[35]), a concept also said to be formed[36][n. 12] by the Arabic Muslim Geber who lived in Spain.[37] There are also many other minor references to Muslims in Japanese anime. One of the most controversial depictions was that of the Qu'ran being read by an evil character in "Jojo's Bizarre Adventure"; for which the animators Shueisha Inc. and Another Push Pin Planning Co. later apologized; with the Japanese government weighing-in and saying it was "regrettable".[38][39]

"Otoyomegatari":— "Otoyomegatari", also known as "A Bride's Story", is a Seinen manga created and drawn by Kaoru Mori, and published in 2008 until present.[40] It is set in 19th century central Asia, following several Turkic women, such as a Turkic huntress who is due to marry her 12-year old husband, to a grandmother mountain who can climb mountains men are only afraid of.[40] It's art and storytelling has been praised, as well as the research around the central Asian societies.[40] Although the manga shows the cultural norms of 19th century culture, she does not comment or judge on the appropriateness of the practices when compared to modern societies.[40] Approximately, 54 chapters have been published so far as of April 19th, 2016, compiled into 8 tankōbon volumes, with unpublished chapters awaiting a 9th volume release (with the 9th volume commencing from chapter 52 onwards). The first tankobon was published on October 15th, 2009 in Japanese, and May 31st, 2011 in English. A 2004 political dialogue, Central Asia Plus Japan, celebrated it's 10th anniversary in 2014, with Mori illustrating a drawing of all six central Asian nations in their cultural attire.[41] The dialogue aims to create "a new framework for cooperation, thereby elevating relations between Japan and Central Asia to a new level".[41] Mori also won the 2014 Manga Award, scoring 94 points, the highest in the competition.[42] The winner of the prestigious award also receives significant public coverage and sales.[42][n. 13]

A Bride's Story (2008—Present). Vol. 2 & 3.
Japanese Muslim family.[43]

Perceptions & Stereotypes:— Unlike certain countries with minority Muslim populations, Japan is not a violent country, with Muslims not being subjected to any forms of violence or vandalism; although discrimination and racism does remain a rampant problem.[44] This has probably spurred Muslims to take on self-employment, although a significant amount do work as blue-collar workers for Japan's lucrative industries.[44] Workers rights remain a problem in the country, with some "slave-like" conditions being imposed on foreigners.[44] The Yakuza crime syndicate is also involved in importing illegal immigrants (probably for this purpose).[44] However, Muslims who assimilate in Japan can do well in the country whilst those that don't can find it difficult.[44] A case in point is in religious practice, where a Filipino Muslim was fired for merely asking the permission of her boss if she could pray and do lighter work during Ramadan; however it should be noted that the employer did employ a Turkish Muslim, who was secular who he was fine with.[44] Other stereotypes include the perception that Muslims are foreigners in "homogenous" Japan,[45] conflicting with the notion of race and Japanese blood lines,[45] depictions of being illegals,[45] terrorists,[45] backwards or uncivilized,[45] and being bearded rather than religious.[45] Muslim refugees also fleeing to Japan have little hope of being accepted; nearly half of the 410 refugees that were accepted from 5,000 applicants were from Burma (Myanamar).[46] Problematically, the government is also known to abruptly cut off money to refugees; as happened to one Pakistani family who were driven to suicide.[46]

Yugo (1994) depicting Pakistan. a South-Asian country and nuclear power.

Protrayels:— Islamic culture has been portrayed in Japanese culture and is not nearly as alien as is thought by some; more specifically it has featured itself in renowned manga and anime. Perhaps one of the most significant portrayals of one type of Muslim culture was that of Pakistan in the "Yugo" (1994[26]—2004[27]) and "Yugo the Negotiator" (2004[28]),[29] by Osamu Akana and Shingji Makari.[28] The story centres around Yugo Beppu a talented and experienced negotiator who helps rescue hostages from kidnappers, notable for never having lost a single case.[27][n. 14] The series is also centered around Japan, Russia and Hong Kong.[27] Scanlation group OMFGG (active between December 5th, 2008 and May 8th, 2011) translated the manga between September 16th, 2009 and March 24th, 2010 (up to chapter 15; the start of the Yakuza Arc; the Pakistani Arc being chapters 1—14).[30] The group can be found on the IRC channel "#OMFGG@irc.irchighway.net".[31][32] Another case is in Fullmetal Alchemist media where alchemy (etymologically Arabic[33][34]) heavily features in the series themes though Islam is not referred to directly; also featuring the philosophers stone (which dates back to the 8th century Arabs[35]), a concept also said to be formed[36][n. 15] by the Arabic Muslim Geber who lived in Spain.[37] There are also many other minor references to Muslims in Japanese anime. One of the most controversial depictions was that of the Qu'ran being read by an evil character in "Jojo's Bizarre Adventure"; for which the animators Shueisha Inc. and Another Push Pin Planning Co. later apologized; with the Japanese government weighing-in and saying it was "regrettable".[38][39]

A Bride's Story (2008—Present). Vol. 2 & 3.

"Otoyomegatari":— "Otoyomegatari", also known as "A Bride's Story", is a Seinen manga created and drawn by Kaoru Mori, and published in 2008 until present.[40] It is set in 19th century central Asia, following several Turkic women, such as a Turkic huntress who is due to marry her 12-year old husband, to a grandmother mountain who can climb mountains men are only afraid of.[40] It's art and storytelling has been praised, as well as the research around the central Asian societies.[40] Although the manga shows the cultural norms of 19th century culture, she does not comment or judge on the appropriateness of the practices when compared to modern societies.[40] Approximately, 54 chapters have been published so far as of April 19th, 2016, compiled into 8 tankōbon volumes, with unpublished chapters awaiting a 9th volume release (with the 9th volume commencing from chapter 52 onwards). The first tankobon was published on October 15th, 2009 in Japanese, and May 31st, 2011 in English. A 2004 political dialogue, Central Asia Plus Japan, celebrated it's 10th anniversary in 2014, with Mori illustrating a drawing of all six central Asian nations in their cultural attire.[41] The dialogue aims to create "a new framework for cooperation, thereby elevating relations between Japan and Central Asia to a new level".[41] Mori also won the 2014 Manga Award, scoring 94 points, the highest in the competition.[42] The winner of the prestigious award also receives significant public coverage and sales.[42][n. 16]

Japanese Muslim family.[43]

Perceptions & Stereotypes:— Unlike certain countries with minority Muslim populations, Japan is not a violent country, with Muslims not being subjected to any forms of violence or vandalism; although discrimination and racism does remain a rampant problem.[44] This has probably spurred Muslims to take on self-employment, although a significant amount do work as blue-collar workers for Japan's lucrative industries.[44] Workers rights remain a problem in the country, with some "slave-like" conditions being imposed on foreigners.[44] The Yakuza crime syndicate is also involved in importing illegal immigrants (probably for this purpose).[44] However, Muslims who assimilate in Japan can do well in the country whilst those that don't can find it difficult.[44] A case in point is in religious practice, where a Filipino Muslim was fired for merely asking the permission of her boss if she could pray and do lighter work during Ramadan; however it should be noted that the employer did employ a Turkish Muslim, who was secular who he was fine with.[44] Other stereotypes include the perception that Muslims are foreigners in "homogenous" Japan,[45] conflicting with the notion of race and Japanese blood lines,[45] depictions of being illegals,[45] terrorists,[45] backwards or uncivilized,[45] and being bearded rather than religious.[45] Muslim refugees also fleeing to Japan have little hope of being accepted; nearly half of the 410 refugees that were accepted from 5,000 applicants were from Burma (Myanamar).[46] Problematically, the government is also known to abruptly cut off money to refugees; as happened to one Pakistani family who were driven to suicide.[46]

MOSQUES

Kobe Mosque survived the air-bombings of World War II (June 1945).

Mosques:— The very first mosque to have ever been built in Japan was by Muslim soldiers who had escaped Russian captivity; constructing it in 1905 in Izumi Otsu, Osaka prefecture (but unfortunately it has not survived to the present day).[47][48] The second was built in 1914 (Kobe Mosque; which was rebuilt again in 1935 and is currently the oldest surviving mosque in Japan,[47][49] followed by the Nagoya Mosque (constructed in 1931 but destroyed in the second world war[22] after American air bombings,[50] which killed 250,000 Japanese across Japan in total;[51] and then rebuilt again in the 1998).[52] Up to 2006, a total of 39 mosques had been built,[22] with only two of them having had to have been rebuilt recently (Nagoya[22] and Tokyo Camii).[53] By 2014, mosques in Japan have grown into a family of some 200, though not all are strictly mosques, but musallahs (temporary prayer spaces);[1] as land is very expensive to buy. Historically, the "Tokyo Camii Mosque" (1938—1986, 2000—present)[53] is the most notable for it's history; and association with some of the most important figures in 20th century Japanese history.[1][n. 17] It was actively supported by the Japanese government, dignitaries, diplomats and domestic companies such as Mitsubishi.[1] Turkish companies later took over the funding of the new mosque (it had to be rebuilt because it had suffered from structural damange).[1] The Tokyo Camii also houses the Yuai International School, which teaches karate and calligraphy.[1]

Community Support:— The contruction of mosques by Japanese Muslims is very well supported; for instance in January 2006, ¥100 million yen ($864,985.17 dollars[54] or £489,784.79[55]) was required to buy a two story building for the purposes of creating a (200m2) mosque.[21] The building was extremely expensive, and a financing endeavor was carried out across Japan in order to meet a four month downpayment deadline, with a desposit of ¥10 million yen ($86,498.52[56] or £48,978.47[57]) to be paid by March.[21] Even renting a home in Japan on average costs between ¥75,000—¥78,000 yen alone for those on a monthly salary of ¥250,000 yen.[58] Osaka, Nagoya, Toyama, Niigata and Hokkaido where common Muslim communities are to be found, were called upon to help raise funds.[21] One Muslim from Tsunashima, Yokohama was so loyal that he gave away ¥500,000 yen of his ¥520,000 yen savings.[21] On July 20th, ¥97 million yen had been raised, with further donations topping up the required amount a few days later.[21]The reason why the mosque was so costly can be placed upon the fact that there is a severe housing shortage in Japan, and it is not uncommon for couples to save up vast amounts of money in order to buy homes,[59] and even then the average home is very small, consisting of a kitchen, and two small rooms; with one serving as a living room by day.[59]

The Yokohama Mosque was an expensive mosque costing more than $864,000 dollars (2006).
Japanese-Muslim Communities in Japan Based on the Presence of Mosques

Mosques in Japan.

Kobe Mosque survived the air-bombings of World War II (June 1945).

Mosques:— The very first mosque to have ever been built in Japan was by Muslim soldiers who had escaped Russian captivity; constructing it in 1905 in Izumi Otsu, Osaka prefecture (but unfortunately it has not survived to the present day).[47][48] The second was built in 1914 (Kobe Mosque; which was rebuilt again in 1935 and is currently the oldest surviving mosque in Japan,[47][49] followed by the Nagoya Mosque (constructed in 1931 but destroyed in the second world war[22] after American air bombings,[50] which killed 250,000 Japanese across Japan in total;[60] and then rebuilt again in the 1998).[52] Up to 2006, a total of 39 mosques had been built,[22] with only two of them having had to have been rebuilt recently (Nagoya[22] and Tokyo Camii).[53] By 2014, mosques in Japan have grown into a family of some 200, though not all are strictly mosques, but musallahs (temporary prayer spaces);[1] as land is very expensive to buy. Historically, the "Tokyo Camii Mosque" (1938—1986, 2000—present)[53] is the most notable for it's history; and association with some of the most important figures in 20th century Japanese history.[1][n. 18] It was actively supported by the Japanese government, dignitaries, diplomats and domestic companies such as Mitsubishi.[1] Turkish companies later took over the funding of the new mosque (it had to be rebuilt because it had suffered from structural damange).[1] The Tokyo Camii also houses the Yuai International School, which teaches karate and calligraphy.[1]

The Yokohama Mosque was an expensive mosque costing more than $864,000 dollars (2006).

Community Support:— The contruction of mosques by Japanese Muslims is very well supported; for instance in January 2006, ¥100 million yen ($864,985.17 dollars[54] or £489,784.79[55]) was required to buy a two story building for the purposes of creating a (200m2) mosque.[21] The building was extremely expensive, and a financing endeavor was carried out across Japan in order to meet a four month downpayment deadline, with a desposit of ¥10 million yen ($86,498.52[56] or £48,978.47[57]) to be paid by March.[21] Even renting a home in Japan on average costs between ¥75,000—¥78,000 yen alone for those on a monthly salary of ¥250,000 yen.[58] Osaka, Nagoya, Toyama, Niigata and Hokkaido where common Muslim communities are to be found, were called upon to help raise funds.[21] One Muslim from Tsunashima, Yokohama was so loyal that he gave away ¥500,000 yen of his ¥520,000 yen savings.[21] On July 20th, ¥97 million yen had been raised, with further donations topping up the required amount a few days later.[21]The reason why the mosque was so costly can be placed upon the fact that there is a severe housing shortage in Japan, and it is not uncommon for couples to save up vast amounts of money in order to buy homes,[59] and even then the average home is very small, consisting of a kitchen, and two small rooms; with one serving as a living room by day.[59]

SOCIETY

Security

Buddhist Terrorism:— Japan pledged to give $3.5 million dollars to the "International Organization for Migration" (IOM) and the "UN High Commissioner for Refugees" in response to the Rohingya genocide[61] in June 2015,[62][63] which was caused by Buddhist terrorists (specifically by the Theravada sect[64] which has 100 million followers;[65] which dominates[65] Sri Lanka and Myanamar).[66] It is notable that it is often Muslim children who are targeted by these Buddhist extremists and eventually murdered in vicious pogroms[67] across Myanamar for not following Buddhism.[68] Japan has also suffered from Buddhist terrorism in the past.[69] In 1995 the Aum Shinrikyo Buddhist movement launched a successful chemical weapons attack, releasing toxic sarin nerve gas on Tokyo's crowded train systems, which lead to the deaths of 12 people and the wounding of 3,796 people.[69] The movement also holds extremist Hindu beliefs.[70] On the 20th anniversary of the attacks a total of 13 deaths have been linked to it,[71] and 6,252[71] have been counted as injured.[72] Several further terrorist attacks by the Buddhists were foiled in the later months that followed, most notably the Shinjuku train station cyanide attack in Tokyo (up to 20,000 Japanese would have died)[73] and the Kayabacho attack which was designed to murder 9,000 Japanese.[73] 200 Buddhists were later convicted, with at least 12 on death row.[72] It has two offshoots, the "Aleph" and "Hikari no Wa".[72]

Buddhist terrorists often target children.[68]
Buddhist terrorists often target children.[68]

Buddhist Terrorism:— Japan pledged to give $3.5 million dollars to the "International Organization for Migration" (IOM) and the "UN High Commissioner for Refugees" in response to the Rohingya genocide[61] in June 2015,[62][63] which was caused by Buddhist terrorists (specifically by the Theravada sect[64] which has 100 million followers;[65] which dominates[65] Sri Lanka and Myanamar).[66] It is notable that it is often Muslim children who are targeted by these Buddhist extremists and eventually murdered in vicious pogroms[67] across Myanamar for not following Buddhism.[68] Japan has also suffered from Buddhist terrorism in the past.[69] In 1995 the Aum Shinrikyo Buddhist movement launched a successful chemical weapons attack, releasing toxic sarin nerve gas on Tokyo's crowded train systems, which lead to the deaths of 12 people and the wounding of 3,796 people.[69] The movement also holds extremist Hindu beliefs.[70] On the 20th anniversary of the attacks a total of 13 deaths have been linked to it,[71] and 6,252[71] have been counted as injured.[72] Several further terrorist attacks by the Buddhists were foiled in the later months that followed, most notably the Shinjuku train station cyanide attack in Tokyo (up to 20,000 Japanese would have died)[73] and the Kayabacho attack which was designed to murder 9,000 Japanese.[73] 200 Buddhists were later convicted, with at least 12 on death row.[72] It has two offshoots, the "Aleph" and "Hikari no Wa".[72]

Racism

The Tokyo Metropolitan Police secretly spies on the majority (58%-100%) Muslims.

Discrimination:— Muslims face institutionalized discrimination in Japan. The Tokyo Metropolitan Police (TMP) is known to have organised massive systematic surveillance of Muslims; having stalked them, followed them to their homes, obtained names and addresses from governmental alien registration records, and profiled more than 70,000 individuals, accumulated bank account information, balances, income and expenses and other personal information.[74] Islamic charities were also subjected to implanted agents; and the same was the case for halal shops and restaurants, and "other places that might be frequented by members of Tokyo’s Muslim community".[74] The police additionally installed covert surveillance cameras in mosques and other places.[74] The police also formed a “mosque squad” that consisted of 43 agents in June 2008.[74] If all were hypothetically Muslim this would mean that 58%—100% of the Muslim population has secretly underwent through this secret surveillance based on a widely quoted demographic of 70,000—120,000[1] Japanese-Muslims.[1] The secretive surveillance was exposed in October 2010 when more than 100 documents were leaked Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department.[74] Within seven months, 17 plaintiffs filed a lawsuit, that included Japanese citizens themselves, along with individuals from Tunisia, Algeria, Iran and Morocco.[74][n. 19] Although unsuccessful, they were awarded ¥90 million yen.[n. 20]

Japanese Racism:— The 2015 Syrian refugee crisis has also brought attention to Japanese racism. Although the Japanese government pledged $810 million dollars to help the refugees,[75] the Japanese have rejected 4,989 asylum seekers out of 5,000 applicants (an acceptance rate of 0.22%).[75] The Prime Minister has stated "[b]efore accepting immigrants or refugees, we need to have more activities by women, by elderly people and we must raise [the] birthrate". Perhaps one of the most outrageous incidents involved amateur manga artist, Toshiko Hasumi, who published a caricature attacking Syrian refugee children (Hasumi modified the drawing from a real photograph taken by Jonathan Hyams from a Syrian refugee camp in Lebanon). The little girl was drawn smirking with the words "I want to live a safe and clean life, eat gourmet food, go out, wear pretty things, and live a luxurious life...all at the expense of someone else...I have an idea. I'll become a refugee". This was shared over 2,000 times by the Japanese.[76] Hyam's himself responded to the drawing saying he was "saddened anyone would choose to use an image of an innocent child to express such perverse prejudice". Hasumi later somewhat backtracked, and said "I am just denying those 'fake refugees' pretending like victims who are acting for their own benefit...".[77] Hasumi later again made headlines for publishing the same drawing in her latest book, a racist book about attacking minorities all over Japan, including Koreans.[78] This is in spite of the fact that the Emperor of Japan has Korean ancestry, descended from half-Korean Emperor Kammu.[79] Her public facebook page can be found here where she also published the caricature.[n. 21]

Hasumi's drawing.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Police secretly spies on the majority (58%-100%) Muslims.

Discrimination:— Muslims face institutionalized discrimination in Japan. The Tokyo Metropolitan Police (TMP) is known to have organised massive systematic surveillance of Muslims; having stalked them, followed them to their homes, obtained names and addresses from governmental alien registration records, and profiled more than 70,000 individuals, accumulated bank account information, balances, income and expenses and other personal information.[74] Islamic charities were also subjected to implanted agents; and the same was the case for halal shops and restaurants, and "other places that might be frequented by members of Tokyo’s Muslim community".[74] The police additionally installed covert surveillance cameras in mosques and other places.[74] The police also formed a “mosque squad” that consisted of 43 agents in June 2008.[74] If all were hypothetically Muslim this would mean that 58%—100% of the Muslim population has secretly underwent through this secret surveillance based on a widely quoted demographic of 70,000—120,000[1] Japanese-Muslims.[1] The secretive surveillance was exposed in October 2010 when more than 100 documents were leaked Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department.[74] Within seven months, 17 plaintiffs filed a lawsuit, that included Japanese citizens themselves, along with individuals from Tunisia, Algeria, Iran and Morocco.[74][n. 22] Although unsuccessful, they were awarded ¥90 million yen.[n. 23]

Hasumi's drawing.

Japanese Racism:— The 2015 Syrian refugee crisis has also brought attention to Japanese racism. Although the Japanese government pledged $810 million dollars to help the refugees,[75] the Japanese have rejected 4,989 asylum seekers out of 5,000 applicants (an acceptance rate of 0.22%).[75] The Prime Minister has stated "[b]efore accepting immigrants or refugees, we need to have more activities by women, by elderly people and we must raise [the] birthrate". Perhaps one of the most outrageous incidents involved amateur manga artist, Toshiko Hasumi, who published a caricature attacking Syrian refugee children (Hasumi modified the drawing from a real photograph taken by Jonathan Hyams from a Syrian refugee camp in Lebanon). The little girl was drawn smirking with the words "I want to live a safe and clean life, eat gourmet food, go out, wear pretty things, and live a luxurious life...all at the expense of someone else...I have an idea. I'll become a refugee". This was shared over 2,000 times by the Japanese.[76] Hyam's himself responded to the drawing saying he was "saddened anyone would choose to use an image of an innocent child to express such perverse prejudice". Hasumi later somewhat backtracked, and said "I am just denying those 'fake refugees' pretending like victims who are acting for their own benefit...".[77] Hasumi later again made headlines for publishing the same drawing in her latest book, a racist book about attacking minorities all over Japan, including Koreans.[78] This is in spite of the fact that the Emperor of Japan has Korean ancestry, descended from half-Korean Emperor Kammu.[79] Her public facebook page can be found here where she also published the caricature.[n. 24]

ECONOMY

Japanese Muslims offering free meals to other Japanese.[80]

Tourism:— In the mid 2000's finding halal food in Japan was extremely difficult, as it was seldom sold in the country; however Muslim tourists by the early 2010s are now highly valued, especially after the government set the aim to have 20—25 million tourists annually by 2020, in time for the Summer Olympic Games.[81][82] The Japanese are committed to having an alternative tourist market, which previously comprised of Taiwanese, South Korean and Chinese tourists; but recent geo-political tensions have forced Japan to look for tourists elsewhere.[81] For Muslims who want to visit Japan, a "Halalminds" app (made by Indonesian Agung Pambudi), financed with $3,000 dollars, was published in order to help Muslims find halal businesses; and within four months was downloaded more than 4,000 times.[81] In 2004, 150,000 Muslims visited Japan, representing 2.4% of total visitors to Japan.[83] In 2013, this doubled to 300,000 (2.9%).[83] Malaysia had 158,500 visitors and Indonesia had 111,400 visitors in 2014.[84] By 2020, Japan is predicted to have 1,000,000 Muslim tourists, who will represent 4% of the total amount of visitors to the country.[83] The Japanese themselves are well known for exploring the world, in 2004, 23 million tourists went abroad, compared to only 6 million who visited the country.[85] This tourism divide can largely be placed down to publicity problems, overtly high costs of living in Japan, lack of help for translations, non-friendly convenience issues unique to Japan coupled with lack of free wifi access.[86]

Bilateral Trade:— Japan has significant bilateral trade relations with Muslim states. It had imports totaling $793 billion dollars in 2012, of whom, $219.06 billion dollars (27.6%) was just from 22 Muslim countries (Saudi Arabia (26.5%), UAE (21.4%), Indonesia (18.0%), Qatar (17.6%), Malaysia (16.5%) alone which totaled $179.19 billion dollars).[87] This is significantly more than Japan trades with the US, which since 1995 has hovered around the $60-$70 billion dollar mark.[87] Trade with the apartheid state of Israel stands at $0.8 billion dollars, and Palestinian $26,451.[87] Japanese exports in contrast total $70.4 billion dollars to Islamic countries, with the top five (Indonesia (35.2%), Malaysia (29.7%), UAE (15.0%), Saudi Arabia (14.0%) and Oman (6.07%)) totaling $58 billion dollars.[88] Trade with the apartheid state of Israel is at $1.6 billion dollars compared to Palestinian $5,386,056 dollars.[88] As of 2014, the GDP of all Muslim countries stands at $6.265 trillion dollars. Islamic spending in addition is worth an estimated $5 trillion dollars. As a result the Japanese have begun embracing certified halal industrialization, which includes specialising in halal food, medicine and cosmetics.[89][n. 25] The global halal tourism industry is currently worth an estimated $140 billion dollars, and by 2020 it will be worth an estimated upwards of $200 billion dollars.[90][91][92] The halal food industry alone will be worth $1.6 trillion dollars by 2018.[93] The Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI) however said at the end of 2014 it was worth $2 trillion dollars.[94][n. 26]

Halal Japanese food.
Japanese Muslims offering free meals to other Japanese.[80]

Tourism:— In the mid 2000's finding halal food in Japan was extremely difficult, as it was seldom sold in the country; however Muslim tourists by the early 2010s are now highly valued, especially after the government set the aim to have 20—25 million tourists annually by 2020, in time for the Summer Olympic Games.[81][82] The Japanese are committed to having an alternative tourist market, which previously comprised of Taiwanese, South Korean and Chinese tourists; but recent geo-political tensions have forced Japan to look for tourists elsewhere.[81] For Muslims who want to visit Japan, a "Halalminds" app (made by Indonesian Agung Pambudi), financed with $3,000 dollars, was published in order to help Muslims find halal businesses; and within four months was downloaded more than 4,000 times.[81] In 2004, 150,000 Muslims visited Japan, representing 2.4% of total visitors to Japan.[83] In 2013, this doubled to 300,000 (2.9%).[83] Malaysia had 158,500 visitors and Indonesia had 111,400 visitors in 2014.[84] By 2020, Japan is predicted to have 1,000,000 Muslim tourists, who will represent 4% of the total amount of visitors to the country.[83] The Japanese themselves are well known for exploring the world, in 2004, 23 million tourists went abroad, compared to only 6 million who visited the country.[85] This tourism divide can largely be placed down to publicity problems, overtly high costs of living in Japan, lack of help for translations, non-friendly convenience issues unique to Japan coupled with lack of free wifi access.[86]

Halal Japanese food.

Bilateral Trade:— Japan has significant bilateral trade relations with Muslim states. It had imports totaling $793 billion dollars in 2012, of whom, $219.06 billion dollars (27.6%) was just from 22 Muslim countries (Saudi Arabia (26.5%), UAE (21.4%), Indonesia (18.0%), Qatar (17.6%), Malaysia (16.5%) alone which totaled $179.19 billion dollars).[87] This is significantly more than Japan trades with the US, which since 1995 has hovered around the $60-$70 billion dollar mark.[87] Trade with the apartheid state of Israel stands at $0.8 billion dollars, and Palestinian $26,451.[87] Japanese exports in contrast total $70.4 billion dollars to Islamic countries, with the top five (Indonesia (35.2%), Malaysia (29.7%), UAE (15.0%), Saudi Arabia (14.0%) and Oman (6.07%)) totaling $58 billion dollars.[88] Trade with the apartheid state of Israel is at $1.6 billion dollars compared to Palestinian $5,386,056 dollars.[88] As of 2014, the GDP of all Muslim countries stands at $6.265 trillion dollars. Islamic spending in addition is worth an estimated $5 trillion dollars. As a result the Japanese have begun embracing certified halal industrialization, which includes specialising in halal food, medicine and cosmetics.[89][n. 27] The global halal tourism industry is currently worth an estimated $140 billion dollars, and by 2020 it will be worth an estimated upwards of $200 billion dollars.[90][91][92] The halal food industry alone will be worth $1.6 trillion dollars by 2018.[93] The Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI) however said at the end of 2014 it was worth $2 trillion dollars.[94][n. 28]

SOURCES

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Bodrum UAI have already conducted conservation and restoration efforts "on thousands of years of sunken wrecks in the Aegean and Mediterranean".
    1. Exhibit of Ottoman ship historically aided Japan starts in Istanbul. April 9, 2015. BGN News. Retrieved July 15th, 2015.
  2. ^ The Bodrum UAI have already conducted conservation and restoration efforts "on thousands of years of sunken wrecks in the Aegean and Mediterranean".
    1. Exhibit of Ottoman ship historically aided Japan starts in Istanbul. April 9, 2015. BGN News. Retrieved July 15th, 2015.
  3. ^ The first of these took place in 1929, then in 1935 and finally in 1939; all of which were in the Soviet Union and were ultimately unsuccessful.
    1. James P. Piscatori (1 January 1986). International Relations of the Asian Muslim States. University Press of America. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-8191-5248-0.
  4. ^ There has been another rebellion prior to this in in 1863 which lasted until 1878. China annexed the region in 1760, and rebellions largely stemmed from heavy taxations and discrimination under Manchu rule. However Muslims were willing to pledge loyalty to the Qing emperor in exchange for protection, but unfortunately the Muslims were quarreling amongst themselves, which prevented them from facing the emperor with a united front.
    1. Hazel Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University Jack A Goldstone; Jack A. Goldstone (29 April 2015). The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions. Routledge. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-135-93758-4.
  5. ^ This was for the purposes of a "Catholic policy". The idea was that if Muslims could be deceived into thinking the Japanese were about to convert over to the faith, then why couldn't Roman Catholics who were suffering under the yoke of Anglo-American Protestanism.
    1. W.E.B. Griffin; William E. Butterworth IV (3 June 2008). Death and Honor. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-4406-3094-1.
  6. ^ The first of these took place in 1929, then in 1935 and finally in 1939; all of which were in the Soviet Union and were ultimately unsuccessful.
    1. James P. Piscatori (1 January 1986). International Relations of the Asian Muslim States. University Press of America. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-8191-5248-0.
  7. ^ There has been another rebellion prior to this in in 1863 which lasted until 1878. China annexed the region in 1760, and rebellions largely stemmed from heavy taxations and discrimination under Manchu rule. However Muslims were willing to pledge loyalty to the Qing emperor in exchange for protection, but unfortunately the Muslims were quarreling amongst themselves, which prevented them from facing the emperor with a united front.
    1. Hazel Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University Jack A Goldstone; Jack A. Goldstone (29 April 2015). The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions. Routledge. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-135-93758-4.
  8. ^ This was for the purposes of a "Catholic policy". The idea was that if Muslims could be deceived into thinking the Japanese were about to convert over to the faith, then why couldn't Roman Catholics who were suffering under the yoke of Anglo-American Protestanism.
    1. W.E.B. Griffin; William E. Butterworth IV (3 June 2008). Death and Honor. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-4406-3094-1.
  9. ^ though it is not a requirement in Islam for women to convert to Islam as long as they believe in one God (at the time this was defined as Christian, Muslim, Sabean or Jewish).
  10. ^ though it is not a requirement in Islam for women to convert to Islam as long as they believe in one God (at the time this was defined as Christian, Muslim, Sabean or Jewish).
  11. ^ However the series has been criticised by reviewers who say that the manga and anime reinforce stereotypes about Muslims are violent misogynists. For example, one reviewer noted;
    Quote: "I also have to say that this show plays on Islamic stereotypes fiercely, and it troubled me a bit. [I'll discuss a few of those bothersome bits in the rest of this paragraph, but they may contain very mild spoilers, so be warned.] Now, before I go on the defensive, let me say that I am a Christian, one who's studying to become a pastor at some point, and I do not believe in Islam or any of its major tenants. That said, Yugo plays on fears of the Muslim world. Muslim men in this show, even the good ones, have violent tendencies and appear vaguely untrustworthy. The lone woman who shows up in the feature is being bought and sold as property, and she's had her tongue cut out. There's also the concept bandied about that Yugo, as a Japanese man, could never be an Islamic believer in the minds of the Pakistani dacoits. Yugo can tell any story it wants, but I would have been far more impressed if it didn't typecast its Muslim roles."
    1. Jason Huff (Unknown Date). Yugo the Negotiator Vol. 1. The Anime Review. Retrieved October 11th, 2016.
  12. ^ There have been claims that the philosopher's stone has it's roots in the Greeks, but this seems spurious as there has been a certain tendency in European scholarship to deliberately attribute inventions, or at least fabricate them towards certain historical European personalities. A case in point is that of the invention of the Windmill to writers such as "Heron", when in actual fact they originate in Iran. NASA scientist and professor, Dennis G. Shepherd, of Cornell University, have noted that this perception was only eradicated by modern 21st Century historians who, after centuries of believing in the fabrication, do not now take the claim seriously. This is likely to be the same case for the development of the philosopher's stone and other such attributions, traditionally given to the ancient Greeks.
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (from National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Pg. 4-6. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
    2. Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (January 1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. p. 333. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6.
    Quote: "Ancient manuscripts, however, have often suffered from mistranslations, revisions, and interpolations by other hands over the centuries. In some, even diagrams were changed to suit the whims of the revisionists, and there are instances of forgeries...Mentioning the Boas monograph is apposite here because of the well known ascription of the invention of the windmill to Heron of Alexandria by virtue of his account of it as one of the many devices in his pnuematica 2000 years ago. This ascription is now discounted by most authorities in varying defrees ranging from outright rejection through wistful reluctance to relinquish the idea, to acceptance as only a toy." (Pg. 4); and further that "Thus Herons work might have stimulated the use of wind power in the Islamic world, but there is no hard evidence to substantiate that."
    (Pg. 6) (D.G. Shepherd) Windmills are also said to have been invented in Herat according to Trudy Ring Robert M. Salkin and Sharon La Boda.
  13. ^
    • Vol. 6 sold 255,992 copies by January 26th, 2014; with some 40,000 sales occuring between January 20th 2014 and January 26th 2014
    1. Snow (January 29th, 2014). Japan's Weekly Manga and Light Novel Rankings for Jan 20 - 26. My Anime List. Retrieved April 19th, 2016.
    • Vol. 7 sold 338,828 copies between November 17th, 2014 and May 17th, 2015 (watch for spoiler tags that hide the ranking)
    1. Snow (May 31st, 2015). Japan's Yearly Manga & Light Novel Rankings for 2015 (First Half). My Anime List. Retrieved April 19th, 2016.
    • Vol. 8 sold 172,662 copies from December 14th, 2015 to December 20th, 2015; however it had been released prior to this date, and sold a total of 234,782 copies by December 20th, 2016.
    1. Snow (May 23rd, 2015). Japan's Weekly Manga Rankings for Dec 14 - 20. My Anime List. Retrieved April 19th, 2016.
  14. ^ However the series has been criticised by reviewers who say that the manga and anime reinforce stereotypes about Muslims are violent misogynists. For example, one reviewer noted;
    Quote: "I also have to say that this show plays on Islamic stereotypes fiercely, and it troubled me a bit. [I'll discuss a few of those bothersome bits in the rest of this paragraph, but they may contain very mild spoilers, so be warned.] Now, before I go on the defensive, let me say that I am a Christian, one who's studying to become a pastor at some point, and I do not believe in Islam or any of its major tenants. That said, Yugo plays on fears of the Muslim world. Muslim men in this show, even the good ones, have violent tendencies and appear vaguely untrustworthy. The lone woman who shows up in the feature is being bought and sold as property, and she's had her tongue cut out. There's also the concept bandied about that Yugo, as a Japanese man, could never be an Islamic believer in the minds of the Pakistani dacoits. Yugo can tell any story it wants, but I would have been far more impressed if it didn't typecast its Muslim roles."
    1. Jason Huff (Unknown Date). Yugo the Negotiator Vol. 1. The Anime Review. Retrieved October 11th, 2016.
  15. ^ There have been claims that the philosopher's stone has it's roots in the Greeks, but this seems spurious as there has been a certain tendency in European scholarship to deliberately attribute inventions, or at least fabricate them towards certain historical European personalities. A case in point is that of the invention of the Windmill to writers such as "Heron", when in actual fact they originate in Iran. NASA scientist and professor, Dennis G. Shepherd, of Cornell University, have noted that this perception was only eradicated by modern 21st Century historians who, after centuries of believing in the fabrication, do not now take the claim seriously. This is likely to be the same case for the development of the philosopher's stone and other such attributions, traditionally given to the ancient Greeks.
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (from National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Pg. 4-6. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
    2. Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (January 1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. p. 333. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6.
    Quote: "Ancient manuscripts, however, have often suffered from mistranslations, revisions, and interpolations by other hands over the centuries. In some, even diagrams were changed to suit the whims of the revisionists, and there are instances of forgeries...Mentioning the Boas monograph is apposite here because of the well known ascription of the invention of the windmill to Heron of Alexandria by virtue of his account of it as one of the many devices in his pnuematica 2000 years ago. This ascription is now discounted by most authorities in varying defrees ranging from outright rejection through wistful reluctance to relinquish the idea, to acceptance as only a toy." (Pg. 4); and further that "Thus Herons work might have stimulated the use of wind power in the Islamic world, but there is no hard evidence to substantiate that."
    (Pg. 6) (D.G. Shepherd) Windmills are also said to have been invented in Herat according to Trudy Ring Robert M. Salkin and Sharon La Boda.
  16. ^
    • Vol. 6 sold 255,992 copies by January 26th, 2014; with some 40,000 sales occuring between January 20th 2014 and January 26th 2014
    1. Snow (January 29th, 2014). Japan's Weekly Manga and Light Novel Rankings for Jan 20 - 26. My Anime List. Retrieved April 19th, 2016.
    • Vol. 7 sold 338,828 copies between November 17th, 2014 and May 17th, 2015 (watch for spoiler tags that hide the ranking)
    1. Snow (May 31st, 2015). Japan's Yearly Manga & Light Novel Rankings for 2015 (First Half). My Anime List. Retrieved April 19th, 2016.
    • Vol. 8 sold 172,662 copies from December 14th, 2015 to December 20th, 2015; however it had been released prior to this date, and sold a total of 234,782 copies by December 20th, 2016.
    1. Snow (May 23rd, 2015). Japan's Weekly Manga Rankings for Dec 14 - 20. My Anime List. Retrieved April 19th, 2016.
  17. ^ It was a mosque built by ethnic Tartar Muslims who had escaped Russian persecution during the October Revolution (1917).
    1. Samee Siddiqui (03 November 2014). Japan's rich Muslim past and present. Al Jazeera. Retireved July 15th, 2015.
  18. ^ It was a mosque built by ethnic Tartar Muslims who had escaped Russian persecution during the October Revolution (1917).
    1. Samee Siddiqui (03 November 2014). Japan's rich Muslim past and present. Al Jazeera. Retireved July 15th, 2015.
  19. ^ According to JapanFocus Journal; "Their complaint asserted that the police action violated three separate provisions of Japan’s Constitution: Article 13, which guarantees a right to privacy, Article 14, which prohibits discrimination based on “race, creed, sex, social status, or family origin,” and Article 20, which guarantees freedom of religion. They also claimed the police action violated other laws and regulations that protect personal information". The court awarded the plaintiffs 90 million yen on January 15, 2014; however this was only in relation to "disclosure of their confidential information".
    1. Police Surveillance of Muslims and Human Rights in Japan イスラム教徒と警察監視 日本における人権とは. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 39, No.1, September 29, 2014. Retrieved July 22nd, 2015
  20. ^ The court awarded the plaintiffs ¥90 million yen on January 15, 2014; however this was only in relation to "disclosure of their confidential information".
    1. Police Surveillance of Muslims and Human Rights in Japan イスラム教徒と警察監視 日本における人権とは. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 39, No.1, September 29, 2014. Retrieved July 22nd, 2015
  21. ^ She is also friends with a 4 ft racist Texan, called "Propaganda Buster", who's YouTube channel can be found here.
  22. ^ According to JapanFocus Journal; "Their complaint asserted that the police action violated three separate provisions of Japan’s Constitution: Article 13, which guarantees a right to privacy, Article 14, which prohibits discrimination based on “race, creed, sex, social status, or family origin,” and Article 20, which guarantees freedom of religion. They also claimed the police action violated other laws and regulations that protect personal information". The court awarded the plaintiffs 90 million yen on January 15, 2014; however this was only in relation to "disclosure of their confidential information".
    1. Police Surveillance of Muslims and Human Rights in Japan イスラム教徒と警察監視 日本における人権とは. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 39, No.1, September 29, 2014. Retrieved July 22nd, 2015
  23. ^ The court awarded the plaintiffs ¥90 million yen on January 15, 2014; however this was only in relation to "disclosure of their confidential information".
    1. Police Surveillance of Muslims and Human Rights in Japan イスラム教徒と警察監視 日本における人権とは. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 39, No.1, September 29, 2014. Retrieved July 22nd, 2015
  24. ^ She is also friends with a 4 ft racist Texan, called "Propaganda Buster", who's YouTube channel can be found here.
  25. ^ According to the Japan Islam Cultural Center, between 20—30 Japanese companies a year are obtaining halal certified licenses to sell halal products to Muslims compared to only five annually at the start of the century.
    1. Yo-Jung Chen (March 12, 2015). Japan to ASEAN: Tourists Yes, Terrorists No. The Diplomat. Retrieved July 15th, 2015.
  26. ^ Muslim themselves however only have a $700 billion dollar stake (35%) in the market.
    1. Abdul Hannan Tago (4 December 2014). Halal food market stands at $2 trillion worldwide. Arab News. Retrieved July 15th, 2015.
  27. ^ According to the Japan Islam Cultural Center, between 20—30 Japanese companies a year are obtaining halal certified licenses to sell halal products to Muslims compared to only five annually at the start of the century.
    1. Yo-Jung Chen (March 12, 2015). Japan to ASEAN: Tourists Yes, Terrorists No. The Diplomat. Retrieved July 15th, 2015.
  28. ^ Muslim themselves however only have a $700 billion dollar stake (35%) in the market.
    1. Abdul Hannan Tago (4 December 2014). Halal food market stands at $2 trillion worldwide. Arab News. Retrieved July 15th, 2015.

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