History of the Pakistan State Military (1947—2000)

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147967156634005.png
Manpower
(ISI Agents)
1,167,000 (2015)
(10,000—40,000)
Nuclear Warheads
(Range)
(Total Yield Est.)
110—130 (2015)[1]
(2,750km/7,000km)
(1.54 Mt—65.0 Mt)
Yearly Budget $7.6 billion (2015)
Wars with India
(partial or direct)
2 wins, 1 loss, 1 Stalemate
War with Soviet
Union
(indirect)
1 win
US Military Aid
(Since 1947)
$12.9 billion[2]
(1947—Present)
World Military Rank
(Without Nuclear Weapons)
13th (2016)[3]

The history of the Pakistan State Military has only gone on for 68 years, but it has since become one of the most formidable fighting forces in the world. It also has a particularly strong intelligence network, top of the range special tactical units and diverse historical paramilitary factions. It has a documented history of warfare and is a regional power, rivalling that of India, keeping it in check; along with having it's own set of allies that have included China, Saudi Arabia, the United States and the Afghan Taliban. The Pakistan State Military is one of the most powerful institutions in the country; despite being surrounded by either hostile nations, or unstable countries (with the exception of Iran).

It has fared particularly well given that it's larger and more belligerent neighbour has been trying to destroy it through either direct or indirect terrorism, warfare or otherwise. It has fought off India approximately four times, and has freed over a third of Kashmir successfully; and also created a common border with China. It has won, either partially or fully, two major wars against the Hindu state (winning the 1947, 1965 wars and even arguably having the upper hand in the 1999 war), with the exception of the disastrous 1971 Civil War that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh; only because Bengalis declared and fought for their independence, with India only acting a secondary force, aiding the Bengalis, who did most of the work.

Organisation

Budget & Manpower

image
Pakistani military in northern Pakistan.

Recruits:— In 2003, the BBC reported the total manpower of the Pakistan military amounted to 550,000 armed personnel, in contrast to Indias 1.10 million; which ran on a budget of $2.6 billion dollars and $15.9 billion dollars respectively.[4] The country also had 353 military aircraft in contrast to 738 of the latter.[4] By 2005, Pakistan had 2,000 tanks,[5] 1,300 towed artillery,[5] ten submarines,[5] eight frigates,[5] and 350 combat aircraft (that include 2 squadrons of F-16s).[5] Military personnel totaled two armoured divisions and nineteen infantry divisions (consisting of 550,000 active duty soldiers).[5] In 2015, Pakistan had a total of 617,000 active duty personnel, with an additional 515,000 in the active reserves (totaling 1,167,000 personnel), with over 75 million men fit for duty out of possible 93 million.[6] On the logistics side, it has 9,629 independent land based systems, that include 2,924 battle tanks, 2,828 armored vehicles and 3,278 towed artillery,[6] 914 aircraft (of which 387 are fighter jets and 361 helicopters),[6] and 74 naval vessels, but currently no aircraft carriers.[6] The military consists of nine army corps.[n. 1] Each of Pakistan's army corps is made up of two to three divisions per active corp; which further consists of three brigades, housing 16,000–18,000 men.[7] Additionally each brigade is made up of at least three battalion squads or more that house between 600–900 men[7] Other groups which assist the army include the 65,000 Frontier Corps,[5] and 30,000 Pakistani Rangers,[5]

Manpower:— Other sources claim Pakistan has 643,800 active duty soldiers; the army making up 550,000, the navy 23,800 sailors and the air force 70,000.[8] The latter of these servicemen are some of the best trained pilots in the world, with annual flight hours numbering at some 210 per pilot (with total aircraft at 422 combat specific).[8] Total paramilitary forces make up 304,000 active duty personnel, with an additional 185,000 national guards.[8] The Pakistani Navy also has 8 submarines in it's arsenal.[8] In 2015, Pakistan began plans to upgrade it's submarine fleet to the Yuan-Class 335; and in May 22nd, China docked a submarine carrying 65 sailors at a Karachi port in what was thought to be an inspection of the machines by the military, which angered India.[9] Pakistan later signed a $4—$5 billion dollar deal with China to buy 8 Yuan class submarines at a cost of $500—$625 million dollars each.[10] In contrast the Indian armed forces have a total force numbering some 1,325,000 soldiers serving in the active duty corps, with an additional 1,555,000 in the reserves.[8] Of this total number, the Indian army makes up 1,125,000 servicemen, and the navy 58,350 (who additionally have 14 submarines, 13 frigates, 11 destroyers and 1 aircraft carrier).[8] Air force personnel make up 127,200 employees, who have 8,656 combat capable aircraft (however Indian pilots are less well-trained, having an average flight time of 180 hours per pilot).[8] Indian paramilitary forces make up 1,400,000 men (including 230,000 border guards).[8]

Pakistan owns 8 Yuan-Class submarines.
Corps[11] Founded No. Division I Division II Division III Division IV Location
01st Army Corps. 1958 I 6th Kharian Armoured 17th Kharian Infantry 37th Infantry N/A Mangla, Azad Kashmir
02nd Army Corps. 1971 II 1st Lahore Armoured 14th Okara Infantry N/A N/A Multan, Punjab
04th Army Corps. 1965 IV 10th Lahore Infantry 11th Lahore Infantry N/A N/A Lahore, Punjab
05th Army Corps. 1975 V 25th Malir Mechanized 16th Pano Akil Infantry 18th Hyderabad Infantry N/A Karachi, Sindh
10th Army Corps. 1975 X 12th Murree Infantry 19th Mangla Infantry 23rd Jhelum Infantry FCNA (Gilgit) Rawalpindi, Punjab
11th Army Corps. 1975 XI 7th Peshawar Infantry 9th Kohat Infantry N/A N/A Peshawar, NWFP
12th Army Corps. c. 1980s XII 33rd Quetta Infantry 41st Quetta Infantry N/A N/A Quetta, Balochistan
30th Army Corps. c. XXXX XXX 2nd Gujranwala Artillery 8th Sialkot Infantry 15th Sialkot Infantry N/A Gujranwala, Punjab
31st Army Corps. c. XXXX XXXI 26th Bahawalpur Mechanized 35th Bahawalpur Infantry 40th Okara Infantry N/A Bahawalpur, Punjab
Strategic Army Corps. c. XXXX N/A 47th Sargodha Artillery Others N/A N/A Rawalpindi, Punjab

Pakistani military in northern Pakistan.

Recruits:— In 2003, the BBC reported the total manpower of the Pakistan military amounted to 550,000 armed personnel, in contrast to Indias 1.10 million; which ran on a budget of $2.6 billion dollars and $15.9 billion dollars respectively.[4] The country also had 353 military aircraft in contrast to 738 of the latter.[4] By 2005, Pakistan had 2,000 tanks,[5] 1,300 towed artillery,[5] ten submarines,[5] eight frigates,[5] and 350 combat aircraft (that include 2 squadrons of F-16s).[5] Military personnel totaled two armoured divisions and nineteen infantry divisions (consisting of 550,000 active duty soldiers).[5] In 2015, Pakistan had a total of 617,000 active duty personnel, with an additional 515,000 in the active reserves (totaling 1,167,000 personnel), with over 75 million men fit for duty out of possible 93 million.[6] On the logistics side, it has 9,629 independent land based systems, that include 2,924 battle tanks, 2,828 armored vehicles and 3,278 towed artillery,[6] 914 aircraft (of which 387 are fighter jets and 361 helicopters),[6] and 74 naval vessels, but currently no aircraft carriers.[6] The military consists of nine army corps.[n. 2] Each of Pakistan's army corps is made up of two to three divisions per active corp; which further consists of three brigades, housing 16,000–18,000 men.[7] Additionally each brigade is made up of at least three battalion squads or more that house between 600–900 men[7] Other groups which assist the army include the 65,000 Frontier Corps,[5] and 30,000 Pakistani Rangers,[5]

Pakistan owns 8 Yuan-Class submarines.

Manpower:— Other sources claim Pakistan has 643,800 active duty soldiers; the army making up 550,000, the navy 23,800 sailors and the air force 70,000.[8] The latter of these servicemen are some of the best trained pilots in the world, with annual flight hours numbering at some 210 per pilot (with total aircraft at 422 combat specific).[8] Total paramilitary forces make up 304,000 active duty personnel, with an additional 185,000 national guards.[8] The Pakistani Navy also has 8 submarines in it's arsenal.[8] In 2015, Pakistan began plans to upgrade it's submarine fleet to the Yuan-Class 335; and in May 22nd, China docked a submarine carrying 65 sailors at a Karachi port in what was thought to be an inspection of the machines by the military, which angered India.[9] Pakistan later signed a $4—$5 billion dollar deal with China to buy 8 Yuan class submarines at a cost of $500—$625 million dollars each.[10] In contrast the Indian armed forces have a total force numbering some 1,325,000 soldiers serving in the active duty corps, with an additional 1,555,000 in the reserves.[8] Of this total number, the Indian army makes up 1,125,000 servicemen, and the navy 58,350 (who additionally have 14 submarines, 13 frigates, 11 destroyers and 1 aircraft carrier).[8] Air force personnel make up 127,200 employees, who have 8,656 combat capable aircraft (however Indian pilots are less well-trained, having an average flight time of 180 hours per pilot).[8] Indian paramilitary forces make up 1,400,000 men (including 230,000 border guards).[8]


Corps[11] Founded No. Division I Division II Division III Division IV Location
01st Army Corps. 1958 I 6th Kharian Armoured 17th Kharian Infantry 37th Infantry N/A Mangla, Azad Kashmir
02nd Army Corps. 1971 II 1st Lahore Armoured 14th Okara Infantry N/A N/A Multan, Punjab
04th Army Corps. 1965 IV 10th Lahore Infantry 11th Lahore Infantry N/A N/A Lahore, Punjab
05th Army Corps. 1975 V 25th Malir Mechanized 16th Pano Akil Infantry 18th Hyderabad Infantry N/A Karachi, Sindh
10th Army Corps. 1975 X 12th Murree Infantry 19th Mangla Infantry 23rd Jhelum Infantry FCNA (Gilgit) Rawalpindi, Punjab
11th Army Corps. 1975 XI 7th Peshawar Infantry 9th Kohat Infantry N/A N/A Peshawar, NWFP
12th Army Corps. c. 1980s XII 33rd Quetta Infantry 41st Quetta Infantry N/A N/A Quetta, Balochistan
30th Army Corps. c. XXXX XXX 2nd Gujranwala Artillery 8th Sialkot Infantry 15th Sialkot Infantry N/A Gujranwala, Punjab
31st Army Corps. c. XXXX XXXI 26th Bahawalpur Mechanized 35th Bahawalpur Infantry 40th Okara Infantry N/A Bahawalpur, Punjab
Strategic Army Corps. c. XXXX N/A 47th Sargodha Artillery Others N/A N/A Rawalpindi, Punjab
2nd Gujranwala Artillery
10th Lahore Infantry
26th Bahawalpur Mechanized
1st Lahore Armoured
33rd Quetta Infantry
25th Malir Mechanized
47th Sargodha Artillery
6th Kharian Armoured
7th Peshawar Infantry
12th Murree Infantry
8th Sialkot Infantry
11th Lahore Infantry
35th Bahawalpur Infantry
14th Okara Infantry
41st Quetta Infantry
16th Pano Akil Infantry
Others
17th Kharian Infantry
9th Kohat Infantry
19th Mangla Infantry
15th Sialkot Infantry
40th Okara Infantry
18th Hyderabad Infantry
37th Infantry
23rd Jhelum Infantry

Weapons Exports

MBT-2000 Khalid Battle Tank. 369 Tanks have been exported (96 by China).

Exports:— In 2013, Pakistan's arms imports were around $1.3 billion dollars, about $200 million dollars less than the previous year.[12] Approximately 25% of this was as a result of the construction of the CAC/PAC JF-17 jets.[12] Of Pakistan's imports 54% of arms imports come directly from China.[12] Pakistan bought 8 Chinese submarines in 2015 at the cost of $5 billion dollars, three weeks before President Xi Jinping was due to make his visit to the country.[13] In 2008 scientists in Pakistan stressed the importance of research and development for the defense industry.[14] Arms exports from Pakistan itself were $300 million dollars in 2008 globally.[15] The Pakistani authorities are very secretive of this data, as they declare much less in official figures.[16] For example the World Bank claims Pakistan had around $3 million dollars worth of exports in 1991, whereas USACDA says that Pakistan exported around $10 million dollars worth of arms (being one of 38 countries out of 142 to have made such exports).[17] Between the decade of 1981 and 1991 Pakistan made a total of $780 million dollars in arms exports ($1.019 billion dollars based on the 1991 dollar exchange rate).[18] This was in contrast to India who exported $130 million dollars ($174 million dollars by the 1991 exchange value) in the same decade.[19] 1984 was Pakistan's best year, for every weapon Pakistan imported, twelve were exported.[18] In 2015 Pakistan exported its first domestically built PAC JF-17 Thunder jets to Burma.[20]

Indigenous Designs:— Pakistan has recently began to design it's own weapons. The Burraq and Shahpur UACV drones are an example. In November 2012, only three countries in the world had UACV's which were Iran,[21] United States[22] and Israel.[22] Pakistan joined the list on March 13th, 2015; with their domestic built Burraq and Shahpur drones.[23][n. 3] Interestingly Iran was the first country in the world to have invented armed aerial drones (or "unmanned aerial combat vehicle"/"UACV"), and was the first to use it in a war.[21][n. 4] The JF-17 Thunder Fighter Jet is another example. The JF-17 is a fighter jet made indigenously[n. 5] in Pakistan and co-produced with China (which was largely responsible for weapons integration; namely of the PL-5 (air-to-air missile), SD-10 (air-to-air missile) and C-802AK (long-range anti-ship missile). It is produced by the Pakistani Air Weapons Complex (AWC), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) along with the Chinese Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) with $250 million dollars investment from both parties.[24][25] The chief designer of the jet was Yang Wei.[26][n. 6] The Pakistan defense industry, has included only seven arms fairs up to 2012 where the military and heavy industries have showcased their military hardware.[22] Turkey has two defense contractors, Aselsan and TAI, that made it into the top 100 list of defense companies in 2013.[27] Currently Pakistan does not have any, whereas India has two (total revenue $3.63 billion dollars) and Israel has four ($9.23 billion dollars).[28]

The JF-17 Thunder Fighter jet.
MBT-2000 Khalid Battle Tank. 369 Tanks have been exported (96 by China).

Exports:— In 2013, Pakistan's arms imports were around $1.3 billion dollars, about $200 million dollars less than the previous year.[12] Approximately 25% of this was as a result of the construction of the CAC/PAC JF-17 jets.[12] Of Pakistan's imports 54% of arms imports come directly from China.[12] Pakistan bought 8 Chinese submarines in 2015 at the cost of $5 billion dollars, three weeks before President Xi Jinping was due to make his visit to the country.[13] In 2008 scientists in Pakistan stressed the importance of research and development for the defense industry.[14] Arms exports from Pakistan itself were $300 million dollars in 2008 globally.[15] The Pakistani authorities are very secretive of this data, as they declare much less in official figures.[16] For example the World Bank claims Pakistan had around $3 million dollars worth of exports in 1991, whereas USACDA says that Pakistan exported around $10 million dollars worth of arms (being one of 38 countries out of 142 to have made such exports).[17] Between the decade of 1981 and 1991 Pakistan made a total of $780 million dollars in arms exports ($1.019 billion dollars based on the 1991 dollar exchange rate).[18] This was in contrast to India who exported $130 million dollars ($174 million dollars by the 1991 exchange value) in the same decade.[19] 1984 was Pakistan's best year, for every weapon Pakistan imported, twelve were exported.[18] In 2015 Pakistan exported its first domestically built PAC JF-17 Thunder jets to Burma.[20]

The JF-17 Thunder Fighter jet.

Indigenous Designs:— Pakistan has recently began to design it's own weapons. The Burraq and Shahpur UACV drones are an example. In November 2012, only three countries in the world had UACV's which were Iran,[21] United States[22] and Israel.[22] Pakistan joined the list on March 13th, 2015; with their domestic built Burraq and Shahpur drones.[23][n. 7] Interestingly Iran was the first country in the world to have invented armed aerial drones (or "unmanned aerial combat vehicle"/"UACV"), and was the first to use it in a war.[21][n. 8] The JF-17 Thunder Fighter Jet is another example. The JF-17 is a fighter jet made indigenously[n. 9] in Pakistan and co-produced with China (which was largely responsible for weapons integration; namely of the PL-5 (air-to-air missile), SD-10 (air-to-air missile) and C-802AK (long-range anti-ship missile). It is produced by the Pakistani Air Weapons Complex (AWC), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) along with the Chinese Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) with $250 million dollars investment from both parties.[24][25] The chief designer of the jet was Yang Wei.[26][n. 10] The Pakistan defense industry, has included only seven arms fairs up to 2012 where the military and heavy industries have showcased their military hardware.[22] Turkey has two defense contractors, Aselsan and TAI, that made it into the top 100 list of defense companies in 2013.[27] Currently Pakistan does not have any, whereas India has two (total revenue $3.63 billion dollars) and Israel has four ($9.23 billion dollars).[28]

Chronological History

c. 1940s—c. 1950s

Weapons Aquisition History:— Soon after it's separation and independence from India in 1947, weapons procurement became a top priority for the Pakistani military, with there being an acute sense of insecurity surrounding what India would do, which had simply inherited a far larger and well equipped military from the British.[29] Small weapons were initially purchased from the United Kingdom (and other commonwealth countries), but it was not until the United States started seeking alliances during the cold war, did Pakistan benefit from large ammunitions and weapons supplies for it's three main defense industries.[29] The government by this time had already acknowledged that the country was severely lacking in resources to develop their defensive weapons capabilities;[n. 11] exemplified by the fact that it even lacked resources for even a proper sugar industry (only two factories existed which produced between 8,000—25,000[30][31] tonnes of sugar per year).[29] In May 1954, the US and Pakistan signed the "Mutual Defense Assistance Treaty" (MDAT), with Pakistan for the first time receiving first world military training.[29] In September 1955, Pakistan was admitted to the "Southeast Asia Treaty Organization" (SEATO) and the "Central Treaty Organization" (CENTO) at the behest of the US, with a fourth US security agreement (the "Bilateral Agreement of Co-operation") signed in May 1959, which allowed the US to set up a military base in Peshawar.[29] The alliance was strategically beneficial for Pakistan, which would otherwise not have been.[29][n. 12]

Pakistan territories and demographic.[32]
Civllian SSG officer.

The relationship with it's US ally became severely strained however in the 1960s when the US dramatically cut off weapons exports to the country; right in the the middle of the War of 1965. This outrageous betrayal pivoted Pakistan towards China; and this soon marked the start of a new Pakistan—China military and economic relationship).[33] Since then, the special relationship has become a strategically important alliance for both countries; for China it ensures economic security;[n. 13][34] and for Pakistan it helped against existential threats vis a vis a belligerent and anti-Muslim Hindu state. The relationship has had several important implications since the 1965 incident. The most notable was a dramatic move on the part of China to use it's very first veto at the UN at Pakistan's request in 1971.[n. 14][35] A decade later, China indirectly provided the Afghan people with $200 million dollars in cash every year through Pakistan at it's request during the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979—1989).[35] Later still, in 2010, when a US diplomat confronted the Chinese about their "uncompromising support for Pakistan" China snapped back in kind, saying "Pakistan is our Israel".[36][n. 15] In April 2015, China signed a $45—46 billion dollar economic investment agreement with Pakistan,[37] as part of it's grand "Silk Road Fund" project.[38][n. 16] Around 78% of Pakistanis feel positive about China; conversely 30% of Chinese feel the same, although China's low number can be explained by ignorance and stereotypes regarding South Asians.[39][n. 17] Nonethless, bilateral trade between the two was worth $12 billion dollars in 2014.[40]

US Military Aid:— Between 1946 and 2012 India had recieved far more aid from the US than Pakistan has ever been given, with India getting $65.1 billion dollars for it's begging bowl, whilst Pakistan was only given $44.4 billion dollars (despite India being an enemy[41] of the US during the Cold War, and an ally of the USSR).[2] However, Pakistan did receive more military aid; $12.9 billion dollars, with India getting $0.897 billion dollars.[2] Total aid given to India amounts of $66 billion dollars (the 7th largest recipient of US aid) whilst Pakistan does not even make the top ten.[2] Most of the aid Pakistan received from the US was during the 1980s (when the Soviet—Afghan War was raging), and after the 2001 New York Incident.[2] Despite this, what was left of the US alliance was still useful for Pakistan. The Americans claimed that they would protect the country's security, but this only translated to the supply of military equipment and some economic aid in the form of loans.[29] Pakistan received $3.2 billion dollars in the space of six years since the war started, which consisted of "soft" loans (at an interest rate of 10%—14%), as well as military credits.[29] The country also separately paid for forty F-16 fighter jets between 1983 and 1986.[29] The second economic package consisted of $4 billion dollars ($2.3 billion dollars was economic; $1.74 billion dollars was in military credits).[29] Historically aid played a key role in Pakistan being able to help defend Afghanistan; which was later cut in 1990.[29]

Russian terrorism.
Pakistani narcotic trade routes.
However, according to analysis conducted by the Guardian, Pakistan obtained approximately $21.3 billion dollars in military aid from the US, but during crucial events in it's history the US cut off all aid; the starkest examples being the 1965 Indian War, and the 1971 Civil War ("US military assistance dropped dramatically during and immediately after the Indo-Pakistani wars of 1965 and 1971").[42] Economic assistance has totaled $25.5 billion dollars through USAID alone, but in total economic aid since the countries inception has totaled approximately $40.4 billion dollars.[42] As part of the "coalition fund" (2002—2010) Pakistan has received $9.2 billion dollars as well.[42] All levels of aid are measured at the 2009 US dollar rates.[42] Therefore in total the Guardian stipulates that Pakistan has received approximately $56 billion dollars from the United States (the equivalent of £30 billion pounds).[42] The US itself has calculated that it owes Pakistan $31.05 billion dollars in appropriation from 2002 to 2015 alone, but the actual amount given to the country is far lower; as the "final obligation and disbursement totals [are] typically are lower than program account appropriations".[43][n. 18] In terms of aid to Pakistan from the UK, in 2013 this amounted to £338 million pounds (Bangladesh by contrast received £272 million pounds).[44] According to the OECD/DFID report, Pakistan is set to receive £446 million pounds in non-military aid for 2014—2015, describing Pakistan as a "country we cannot ignore".[32]

First Kashmir Liberation War:— The Pakistani military drew blood in it's first war in 1947 when Hari Singh, the Maharaja of Kashmir, a Sikh by religion provoked the Kashmiri insurrection.[45] The territory was 75% Muslim, and his indecision to accede to either Pakistan or India[n. 19] caused a domestic rebellion.[45] The Pakistanis quickly sided with the Kashmiris to free them and join Muslim majority Pakistan.[45] The Maharaja however signed over their rights to Hindu majority India in haste, going against the democratic wishes of Kashmiris; and involving Indian aggression directly.[45] By the wars end the Indians were only successful in capturing Sringar, but were unable to uproot Pakistani forces in the rest of the territory.[45] Tensions would again increase decades later leading to a second war in 1965, in which Pakistan would gain more territory.[45] The political history of Kashmir however also has a stark parallel to other states in India which opted to become independent themselves. One such state was Hyderabad, which was ruled by a Muslim Nizam.[46] Between September and October 1948 the Indian army invaded Hyderabad, with the Hindu army murdering between 27,000—40,000 Muslim men, women, children and babies.[46] All mention of such a massacre by it's "non-violent" leader Nehru, has since been censored in Indian schoolbooks.[46] Kashmir might have suffered a similar fate had Pakistan not intervened, as the Indian government was by far at more of an advantage than Pakistan ever was.[47]

Hyderabad suffered at the hands of India.
Kashmir clearly belongs to Pakistan.

Despite winning in Kashmir, Pakistan still suffered from an incoherent and decentralized government at both the political and military levels. India by contrast held better central political, administrative and military power; thus Pakistan had to create their own system very quickly and indigenously in the midst of the war.[47] India also had British commanders in their army (though Pakistan to be fair also had some).[47] Though many of these commanders had little interaction with politicians, the partition and war had exposed a deeper and more disturbing ethnic and religious hatred that had been fermented under British India.[47] For Pakistan, it became unthinkable to abandon Kashmir since it was largely populated by Muslims; to leave it to the Indian state meant being complicit in inflicting mass violence against fellow Muslims.[47] The soldiers on the ground who fought for Pakistan also received no support from the army command and worked mostly on their own, lest the British find out.[47] On the diplomatic level, India could not be negotiated with, which continued to exacerbate tensions between the two countries.[47] Dehli in the meanwhile became ever more fanatical on the issue.[47] Lord Mountbatton, who had advocated for a democratic solution was deliberately rebuffed by the Indians;[47] the Hindus refused a democratic option citing the Kashmiris acceded to the Indian union wilfully, but no such documents exist.[48] It is also notable that India attempted to seize control, by sending troops even without the permission of it's Maharaja.[48]

On September 27th, 1947, India was increasingly attempting to assert it's authority on Kashmir.[49] Nehru wrote of India's position regarding the matter to his close aide, Sardar Patel, claiming that the situation was becoming more dangerous and deteriorating fast.[49] He further claimed that the Muslim League and North West Frontier Province were making preparations to enter the state.[49] In reality no such thing was happening, but the urgency of Nehru was based on his own assertion that winter was going to cut off Kashmir from the rest of India, leaving only one route;[49] through the Jhelum Valley.[49] He further claimed that Pakistan was getting ready to take "big action" in the state, as soon as winter came.[49] Sardar Patel therefore continued to pressure Singh into acceding to the Indian union.[49] However Singh was making matters further worse by unleashing a reign of terror against the Muslims of the region, suppressing the right of the people in Poonch where traditionally some of the soldiers of the Indian Army that fought for the British, originated from.[49] Poonch itself is a strategic location between Jhelum, Chenab Rivers and the Pir Panjal Range.[49] The roads of this region were critical and many of the battles of the war were fought in them and nearby towns.[49] Some of them even entered into the lore of each respective country, such as Akhnoor.[49] The Poonchis were battle-hardened Muslims who lived with their families there, also having strong cultural, historical, religious and economic ties with Pakistanis.[50]

Jhelum Valley, Pakistan.
Abdul Khan.

They also had strong military ties with their brethren across the border.[50] Approximately 60,000 soldiers from this region alone had fought for the British in World War Two and were later not afraid to stand up against India.[50] As these soldiers returned from the war they found that they were under the rule and thumb of a Hindu state, instead of the Maharaja of Poonch, where the former had implemented harsh and "onerous taxes" in order to cripple them.[50] The Hindu Dogra troops set out to collect these taxes from the defenceless Muslim populace.[50] Upon hearing of the cruelties suffered by the Punjabi Muslims at the hands of heavily armed Hindu and Sikh mobs down south, the Poonchis immediately reacted with outrage.[50] In the same month the genocide of the Punjabi Muslims had occurring; and the Kashmiris soon held a meeting.[50] The meeting was held at Nila Bat, Dhirkot, where they publicly demanded accession to Pakistan.[50] The Maharaja responded by murdering those involved, as his Dogra troops were sent down to hunt them and opened fire on crowds.[50] In revenge, by August 27th, Abdul Qayuum Khan lead a vicious attack against the Dogras.[50] The Maharaja responded in kind by "unleashing the full force of the Dogras" on innocent civilians.[50] The Hindu ruler had now openly declared war on Muslims.[50] In his zeal, Singh attacked entire villages and burnt them to the ground.[50] The response of the Poonchis was sharp.[50] Many took their families to the safety of Pakistan and returned with the intention of raising a revolution against a ruler who committed himself to genocide.[50][n. 20]

Result of the First War Against India:— Pakistan conquered 40%[51]—60%[52] of Kashmir, retaining 37%[52]–40%[51] of it today, giving the rest of it's share to China (marking it up to 20%),[52] leaving India with 40%–43%[52] (India would later invade Pakistan and take the strategically inept Siachin glacier out of spite[53]). Pakistan however overall gained a significant strategic and military victory over India (which had to run away to the UN and humiliatingly ask for a ceasefire[51]). Pakistan had also gained itself access to China for the first time by having created a common border between the two countries,[52] which the original partition had failed to establish. For India, it was a resounding and humiliating defeat to it's smaller and weaker neighbour, only softened by it's eventual arrival onto the battlefield (but still unable to drive away Pakistani forces). Pressured only by world powers and their politics, Pakistani forces would only move away of their accord from the region after having been guaranteed a plebiscite would be held for the Kashmiri people;[52] which India would never honour as it knew it would lose outright.[52] Hostilities would resume with Pakistan driven by a strong desire of defense against Indian aggression. Despite Indian provocations India has cared very little for the region, even being unaware that the Chinese had openly built a road in Aksai Chin until 1973, over a decade after the 1962 Sino–Indian War, illustrating further, just how incompetent the Indian military is, and how spiteful they are towards Kashmiri freedom.[54]

Pakistani soldiers fighting in trench warfare (1947).
Pakistani soldiers fighting in trench warfare (1947).

The number of casualties during the course of the war according to many neutral (Western) observers, were a total of 2,000 dead on the battlefield.[55] Indian historians have admitted 1,500 of their soldiers died attempting to seize the state, leaving at most 500 casualties left for the Pakistani forces. However historian Sten Widmalm cites that in actual fact 1,900 Indian soldiers were killed fighting in Kashmir,[56] with Pakistani casualties thus estimated at only 100 dead. Thus at the very minimum between 100–500 Pakistani soldiers were killed during the course of the war compared to India's 1,500–1,900 war dead. Other sources such as Peter Lyon however claim 1,500 died for each country (though he cites several Hindu authors in comparison to one Muslim historian),[48][52] and could have been as high as 3,000 killed in action for each nation.[51] However, Pakistan clearly suffered far less military casualties overall, which were between 100–3,000 in contrast to India's 1,500–3,000 dead. Less neutral sources, specifically Indian, give grossly exaggerated accounts of Pakistani war dead, claiming "6,000" died, with "14,000" wounded (figures of which are not taken seriously by historians outside India since Indian authors cannot cite verifiable neutral references to this data).[57] However the Indians themselves admit they'd suffered 6,000 casualties.[58] In addition they claim only "1,000" of their soldiers were "missing in action", and reporting none killed in action.[57] This is clearly impossible given that Pakistan freed more than third of the territory against the Indian terrorists.

Pakistan territories and demographic.[32]

Weapons Aquisition History:— Soon after it's separation and independence from India in 1947, weapons procurement became a top priority for the Pakistani military, with there being an acute sense of insecurity surrounding what India would do, which had simply inherited a far larger and well equipped military from the British.[29] Small weapons were initially purchased from the United Kingdom (and other commonwealth countries), but it was not until the United States started seeking alliances during the cold war, did Pakistan benefit from large ammunitions and weapons supplies for it's three main defense industries.[29] The government by this time had already acknowledged that the country was severely lacking in resources to develop their defensive weapons capabilities;[n. 21] exemplified by the fact that it even lacked resources for even a proper sugar industry (only two factories existed which produced between 8,000—25,000[59][60] tonnes of sugar per year).[29] In May 1954, the US and Pakistan signed the "Mutual Defense Assistance Treaty" (MDAT), with Pakistan for the first time receiving first world military training.[29] In September 1955, Pakistan was admitted to the "Southeast Asia Treaty Organization" (SEATO) and the "Central Treaty Organization" (CENTO) at the behest of the US, with a fourth US security agreement (the "Bilateral Agreement of Co-operation") signed in May 1959, which allowed the US to set up a military base in Peshawar.[29] The alliance was strategically beneficial for Pakistan, which would otherwise not have been.[29][n. 22]

Civllian SSG officer.

The relationship with it's US ally became severely strained however in the 1960s when the US dramatically cut off weapons exports to the country; right in the the middle of the War of 1965. This outrageous betrayal pivoted Pakistan towards China; and this soon marked the start of a new Pakistan—China military and economic relationship).[33] Since then, the special relationship has become a strategically important alliance for both countries; for China it ensures economic security;[n. 23][34] and for Pakistan it helped against existential threats vis a vis a belligerent and anti-Muslim Hindu state. The relationship has had several important implications since the 1965 incident. The most notable was a dramatic move on the part of China to use it's very first veto at the UN at Pakistan's request in 1971.[n. 24][35] A decade later, China indirectly provided the Afghan people with $200 million dollars in cash every year through Pakistan at it's request during the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979—1989).[35] Later still, in 2010, when a US diplomat confronted the Chinese about their "uncompromising support for Pakistan" China snapped back in kind, saying "Pakistan is our Israel".[36][n. 25] In April 2015, China signed a $45—46 billion dollar economic investment agreement with Pakistan,[37] as part of it's grand "Silk Road Fund" project.[38][n. 26] Around 78% of Pakistanis feel positive about China; conversely 30% of Chinese feel the same, although China's low number can be explained by ignorance and stereotypes regarding South Asians.[39][n. 27] Nonethless, bilateral trade between the two was worth $12 billion dollars in 2014.[40]

Russian terrorism.

US Military Aid:— Between 1946 and 2012 India had recieved far more aid from the US than Pakistan has ever been given, with India getting $65.1 billion dollars for it's begging bowl, whilst Pakistan was only given $44.4 billion dollars (despite India being an enemy[41] of the US during the Cold War, and an ally of the USSR).[2] However, Pakistan did receive more military aid; $12.9 billion dollars, with India getting $0.897 billion dollars.[2] Total aid given to India amounts of $66 billion dollars (the 7th largest recipient of US aid) whilst Pakistan does not even make the top ten.[2] Most of the aid Pakistan received from the US was during the 1980s (when the Soviet—Afghan War was raging), and after the 2001 New York Incident.[2] Despite this, what was left of the US alliance was still useful for Pakistan. The Americans claimed that they would protect the country's security, but this only translated to the supply of military equipment and some economic aid in the form of loans.[29] Pakistan received $3.2 billion dollars in the space of six years since the war started, which consisted of "soft" loans (at an interest rate of 10%—14%), as well as military credits.[29] The country also separately paid for forty F-16 fighter jets between 1983 and 1986.[29] The second economic package consisted of $4 billion dollars ($2.3 billion dollars was economic; $1.74 billion dollars was in military credits).[29] Historically aid played a key role in Pakistan being able to help defend Afghanistan; which was later cut in 1990.[29]

Pakistani narcotic trade routes.
However, according to analysis conducted by the Guardian, Pakistan obtained approximately $21.3 billion dollars in military aid from the US, but during crucial events in it's history the US cut off all aid; the starkest examples being the 1965 Indian War, and the 1971 Civil War ("US military assistance dropped dramatically during and immediately after the Indo-Pakistani wars of 1965 and 1971").[42] Economic assistance has totaled $25.5 billion dollars through USAID alone, but in total economic aid since the countries inception has totaled approximately $40.4 billion dollars.[42] As part of the "coalition fund" (2002—2010) Pakistan has received $9.2 billion dollars as well.[42] All levels of aid are measured at the 2009 US dollar rates.[42] Therefore in total the Guardian stipulates that Pakistan has received approximately $56 billion dollars from the United States (the equivalent of £30 billion pounds).[42] The US itself has calculated that it owes Pakistan $31.05 billion dollars in appropriation from 2002 to 2015 alone, but the actual amount given to the country is far lower; as the "final obligation and disbursement totals [are] typically are lower than program account appropriations".[43][n. 28] In terms of aid to Pakistan from the UK, in 2013 this amounted to £338 million pounds (Bangladesh by contrast received £272 million pounds).[44] According to the OECD/DFID report, Pakistan is set to receive £446 million pounds in non-military aid for 2014—2015, describing Pakistan as a "country we cannot ignore".[32]
Hyderabad suffered at the hands of India.

First Kashmir Liberation War:— The Pakistani military drew blood in it's first war in 1947 when Hari Singh, the Maharaja of Kashmir, a Hindu by religion provoked the Kashmiri insurrection.[45] The territory was 75% Muslim, and his indecision to accede to either Pakistan or India[n. 29] caused a domestic rebellion.[45] The Pakistanis quickly sided with the Kashmiris to free them and join Muslim majority Pakistan.[45] The Maharaja however signed over their rights to Hindu majority India in haste, going against the democratic wishes of Kashmiris; and involving Indian aggression directly.[45] By the wars end the Indians were only successful in capturing Sringar, but were unable to uproot Pakistani forces in the rest of the territory.[45] Tensions would again increase decades later leading to a second war in 1965, in which Pakistan would gain more territory.[45] The political history of Kashmir however also has a stark parallel to other states in India which opted to become independent themselves. One such state was Hyderabad, which was ruled by a Muslim Nizam.[46] Between September and October 1948 the Indian army invaded Hyderabad, with the Hindu army murdering between 27,000—40,000 Muslim men, women, children and babies.[46] All mention of such a massacre by it's "non-violent" leader Nehru, has since been censored in Indian schoolbooks.[46] Kashmir might have suffered a similar fate had Pakistan not intervened, as the Indian government was by far at more of an advantage than Pakistan ever was.[47]

Kashmir clearly belongs to Pakistan.

Despite winning in Kashmir, Pakistan still suffered from an incoherent and decentralized government at both the political and military levels. India by contrast held better central political, administrative and military power; thus Pakistan had to create their own system very quickly and indigenously in the midst of the war.[47] India also had British commanders in their army (though Pakistan to be fair also had some).[47] Though many of these commanders had little interaction with politicians, the partition and war had exposed a deeper and more disturbing ethnic and religious hatred that had been fermented under British India.[47] For Pakistan, it became unthinkable to abandon Kashmir since it was largely populated by Muslims; to leave it to the Indian state meant being complicit in inflicting mass violence against fellow Muslims.[47] The soldiers on the ground who fought for Pakistan also received no support from the army command and worked mostly on their own, lest the British find out.[47] On the diplomatic level, India could not be negotiated with, which continued to exacerbate tensions between the two countries.[47] Dehli in the meanwhile became ever more fanatical on the issue.[47] Lord Mountbatton, who had advocated for a democratic solution was deliberately rebuffed by the Indians;[47] the Hindus refused a democratic option citing the Kashmiris acceded to the Indian union wilfully, but no such documents exist.[48] It is also notable that India attempted to seize control, by sending troops even without the permission of it's Maharaja.[48]

Jhelum Valley, Pakistan.

On September 27th, 1947, India was increasingly attempting to assert it's authority on Kashmir.[49] Nehru wrote of India's position regarding the matter to his close aide, Sardar Patel, claiming that the situation was becoming more dangerous and deteriorating fast.[49] He further claimed that the Muslim League and North West Frontier Province were making preparations to enter the state.[49] In reality no such thing was happening, but the urgency of Nehru was based on his own assertion that winter was going to cut off Kashmir from the rest of India, leaving only one route;[49] through the Jhelum Valley.[49] He further claimed that Pakistan was getting ready to take "big action" in the state, as soon as winter came.[49] Sardar Patel therefore continued to pressure Singh into acceding to the Indian union.[49] However Singh was making matters further worse by unleashing a reign of terror against the Muslims of the region, suppressing the right of the people in Poonch where traditionally some of the soldiers of the Indian Army that fought for the British, originated from.[49] Poonch itself is a strategic location between Jhelum, Chenab Rivers and the Pir Panjal Range.[49] The roads of this region were critical and many of the battles of the war were fought in them and nearby towns.[49] Some of them even entered into the lore of each respective country, such as Akhnoor.[49] The Poonchis were battle-hardened Muslims who lived with their families there, also having strong cultural, historical, religious and economic ties with Pakistanis.[50]

Abdul Khan.

They also had strong military ties with their brethren across the border.[50] Approximately 60,000 soldiers from this region alone had fought for the British in World War Two and were later not afraid to stand up against India.[50] As these soldiers returned from the war they found that they were under the rule and thumb of a Hindu state, instead of the Maharaja of Poonch, where the former had implemented harsh and "onerous taxes" in order to cripple them.[50] The Hindu Dogra troops set out to collect these taxes from the defenceless Muslim populace.[50] Upon hearing of the cruelties suffered by the Punjabi Muslims at the hands of heavily armed Hindu and Sikh mobs down south, the Poonchis immediately reacted with outrage.[50] In the same month the genocide of the Punjabi Muslims had occurring; and the Kashmiris soon held a meeting.[50] The meeting was held at Nila Bat, Dhirkot, where they publicly demanded accession to Pakistan.[50] The Maharaja responded by murdering those involved, as his Dogra troops were sent down to hunt them and opened fire on crowds.[50] In revenge, by August 27th, Abdul Qayuum Khan lead a vicious attack against the Dogras.[50] The Maharaja responded in kind by "unleashing the full force of the Dogras" on innocent civilians.[50] The Hindu ruler had now openly declared war on Muslims.[50] In his zeal, Singh attacked entire villages and burnt them to the ground.[50] The response of the Poonchis was sharp.[50] Many took their families to the safety of Pakistan and returned with the intention of raising a revolution against a ruler who committed himself to genocide.[50][n. 30]

Pakistani soldiers fighting in trench warfare (1947).

Result of the First War Against India:— Pakistan conquered 40%[51]—60%[52] of Kashmir, retaining 37%[52]–40%[51] of it today, giving the rest of it's share to China (marking it up to 20%),[52] leaving India with 40%–43%[52] (India would later invade Pakistan and take the strategically inept Siachin glacier out of spite[53]). Pakistan however overall gained a significant strategic and military victory over India (which had to run away to the UN and humiliatingly ask for a ceasefire[51]). Pakistan had also gained itself access to China for the first time by having created a common border between the two countries,[52] which the original partition had failed to establish. For India, it was a resounding and humiliating defeat to it's smaller and weaker neighbour, only softened by it's eventual arrival onto the battlefield (but still unable to drive away Pakistani forces). Pressured only by world powers and their politics, Pakistani forces would only move away of their accord from the region after having been guaranteed a plebiscite would be held for the Kashmiri people;[52] which India would never honour as it knew it would lose outright.[52] Hostilities would resume with Pakistan driven by a strong desire of defense against Indian aggression. Despite Indian provocations India has cared very little for the region, even being unaware that the Chinese had openly built a road in Aksai Chin until 1973, over a decade after the 1962 Sino–Indian War, illustrating further, just how incompetent the Indian military is, and how spiteful they are towards Kashmiri freedom.[54]

Pakistani soldiers fighting in trench warfare (1947).

The number of casualties during the course of the war according to many neutral (Western) observers, were a total of 2,000 dead on the battlefield.[55] Indian historians have admitted 1,500 of their soldiers died attempting to seize the state, leaving at most 500 casualties left for the Pakistani forces. However historian Sten Widmalm cites that in actual fact 1,900 Indian soldiers were killed fighting in Kashmir,[56] with Pakistani casualties thus estimated at only 100 dead. Thus at the very minimum between 100–500 Pakistani soldiers were killed during the course of the war compared to India's 1,500–1,900 war dead. Other sources such as Peter Lyon however claim 1,500 died for each country (though he cites several Hindu authors in comparison to one Muslim historian),[48][52] and could have been as high as 3,000 killed in action for each nation.[51] However, Pakistan clearly suffered far less military casualties overall, which were between 100–3,000 in contrast to India's 1,500–3,000 dead. Less neutral sources, specifically Indian, give grossly exaggerated accounts of Pakistani war dead, claiming "6,000" died, with "14,000" wounded (figures of which are not taken seriously by historians outside India since Indian authors cannot cite verifiable neutral references to this data).[57] However the Indians themselves admit they'd suffered 6,000 casualties.[58] In addition they claim only "1,000" of their soldiers were "missing in action", and reporting none killed in action.[57] This is clearly impossible given that Pakistan freed more than third of the territory against the Indian terrorists.

c. 1950s—c. 1960s

Israel's invasion of Egypt (1956).

Israeli Invasion of Egypt:— The 1950s were a time of great soul searching for Pakistan; allowing it to examine the horrors of the partition massacres perpetrated by the Sikhs and Hindus, instigated on a genocidal scale, as well as the first ever (victorious) war fought between itself and India; the following decade would see Pakistan intensely reflect internally in on itself.[61] However, despite not being in any major wars, the Pakistanis were angered by the joint Israeli, French and British attack against Egypt in 1956 (also known as "Israel's invasion of Egypt" or the "Suez Crisis").[62] This anger was later arrested by the military, who launched a coup against the government in 1958 for their own reasons, who chose to keep the peace.[62] The Suez was an important 120-mile strategic trade route for Egypt to deal with not Pakistan; approximately 120,000 Egyptian Muslims had given their life to construct it for the French in 1869; it becoming Europe's "windpipe" for oil as a staggering 66% of Europe's oil supply was tethered to this passage. When the Egyptians wanted to nationalise it in order to finance a dam project (supported by the Soviets[63]), as was their right; the British formed a tripartite alliance to attack using Israel.[64] This failed catastrophically; Britain and France retreated in December 1956 and Israel in 1957.[64] The UK simply could not finance it; since the US surprisingly refused them support, worried for their own relations with the Arabs, having also been kept in the dark.[64]

This refusal to militarily support Egypt was probably down to Pakistan's involvement with allying itself to the US, which ended up angering friendly Muslim countries such as Egypt and Iraq who saw White supremacy as a threat.[62] This view would later change somewhat by the end of the Suez War when the US backed Egypt in winning[65] the war.[63] Egypt only attained independence in 1922,[66] but even then up until 1951 Britain had up to 80,000 troops in control of the Suez Canal.[67] There were approxmimately 300,000 Egyptian soldiers in the Egyptian military, but only 45,000 were actually able to take part and most were inexperienced without any proper supply lines in place or had any adequate back up, or the proper equipment which was largely Soviet land-based as opposed to desert, in stark contrast to the Israelis who were Western-backed and had excellent lines of support.[68] It would not be until 1966, with Soviet military assistance, would the Egyptian army look like a true threat to Israel.[63] Israel had invaded with 175,000 troops[69] Britain mobilized 45,000 soldiers.[70] The invasion also took Egypt by surprise (since the planned invasion was done in the utmost of secrecy; catching even the US by surprise[63]), and hence 1,650 Egyptian soldiers died in the battle, along with a 1,000 civilians.[71] The Israelis that died numbered between 189[71]—291 the French and British 10 and 16 respectively.[71] Israel only backed down after the United States threatened it with sanctions.[72]

Only 45,000 Egyptians took part in the battle.
Israel's invasion of Egypt (1956).

Israeli Invasion of Egypt:— The 1950s were a time of great soul searching for Pakistan; allowing it to examine the horrors of the partition massacres perpetrated by the Sikhs and Hindus, instigated on a genocidal scale, as well as the first ever (victorious) war fought between itself and India; the following decade would see Pakistan intensely reflect internally in on itself.[61] However, despite not being in any major wars, the Pakistanis were angered by the joint Israeli, French and British attack against Egypt in 1956 (also known as "Israel's invasion of Egypt" or the "Suez Crisis").[62] This anger was later arrested by the military, who launched a coup against the government in 1958 for their own reasons, who chose to keep the peace.[62] The Suez was an important 120-mile strategic trade route for Egypt to deal with not Pakistan; approximately 120,000 Egyptian Muslims had given their life to construct it for the French in 1869; it becoming Europe's "windpipe" for oil as a staggering 66% of Europe's oil supply was tethered to this passage. When the Egyptians wanted to nationalise it in order to finance a dam project (supported by the Soviets[63]), as was their right; the British formed a tripartite alliance to attack using Israel.[64] This failed catastrophically; Britain and France retreated in December 1956 and Israel in 1957.[64] The UK simply could not finance it; since the US surprisingly refused them support, worried for their own relations with the Arabs, having also been kept in the dark.[64]

Only 45,000 Egyptians took part in the battle.

This refusal to militarily support Egypt was probably down to Pakistan's involvement with allying itself to the US, which ended up angering friendly Muslim countries such as Egypt and Iraq who saw White supremacy as a threat.[62] This view would later change somewhat by the end of the Suez War when the US backed Egypt in winning[65] the war.[63] Egypt only attained independence in 1922,[66] but even then up until 1951 Britain had up to 80,000 troops in control of the Suez Canal.[67] There were approxmimately 300,000 Egyptian soldiers in the Egyptian military, but only 45,000 were actually able to take part and most were inexperienced without any proper supply lines in place or had any adequate back up, or the proper equipment which was largely Soviet land-based as opposed to desert, in stark contrast to the Israelis who were Western-backed and had excellent lines of support.[68] It would not be until 1966, with Soviet military assistance, would the Egyptian army look like a true threat to Israel.[63] Israel had invaded with 175,000 troops[69] Britain mobilized 45,000 soldiers.[70] The invasion also took Egypt by surprise (since the planned invasion was done in the utmost of secrecy; catching even the US by surprise[63]), and hence 1,650 Egyptian soldiers died in the battle, along with a 1,000 civilians.[71] The Israelis that died numbered between 189[71]—291 the French and British 10 and 16 respectively.[71] Israel only backed down after the United States threatened it with sanctions.[72]

c. 1960s—c. 1970s

Prelude to the 1965 Indo-Pakistan War:— After the humiliating defeat suffered by India in Kashmir, the Sino-Indian war of 1962 would later be influenced by the War of 1947. India by the 1960s had adopted the "Forward Policy" (c. November 1961) in which it began seizing Chinese lands incrementally.[73] China sought to protect itself from India, which was also undermining Chinese efforts in Tibet.[73] For Chinese Muslims the issue may have also been particularly troublesome; Tibet's Buddhists have historically been extremely violent in persecuting Muslims in the region for decades (stemming from wars in eastern Tibet, between the Tibetans and Chinese Muslims).[74] Most have never regarded Muslims as "fully Tibetan".[74] Since China restored the region, Muslims have been better able to live in the country.[74] However today there is still denial that Muslims have ever been treated ill in Buddhist society; Jamyang Norbu the Director of the Amnye Machen Institute at the Tibetan Centre for Advanced Studies in Dharamsala, India, claims, "[n]owhere in Tibetan history is anything remotely of the kind indicated".[74] However Western historian Ian Buruma, in "Tibet Disenchanted" notes "Muslims had been persecuted in the past by Tibetans who wanted to keep Tibet ‘pure,’ that is, purely Buddhist" and that "[i]n 1959...a mosque was burned down in Lhasa, because Muslims were accused of collaborating with the Chinese".[74] Even today Buddhists refuse to condemn their persecution of Muslims, with even Aung San Suu Kyi[75] outright dismissing recent mass atrocities.

Chinese troops in 1962.
Indians surrendering, 1962.

In the eyes of the Chinese, the Indians were attempting to return the Chinese to their pre-1949 borders; something which they could not tolerate.[73] Additionally, China had acted against India for several reasons. India was fast becoming increasingly aggressive against it's neighbours, adopting a hegemonic approach to that of it's smaller neighbours, particularly Nepal and Pakistan.[76] In one incident, India blatantly attacked Nepal in a border incident on the 29th September 1962.[76] Then again in October India attacked East Pakistan (modern day Bangladesh) in an attack that lasted for twelve days, involving artillery and automatic weapons fire.[76] The Chinese had had enough, with Chairman Mao realising the Indians were "running amuck".[76] Although these small incidents did not culminate for the broader reason for the Chinese defense of 1962; it did rationalise good reasons to stop India militarily.[76] To the world however, the Indians were projecting themselves as "peace lovers" and "non-violent", with their prime minister enjoying "great international status", despite it's blatant belligerent attitude towards its smaller and much more peaceful neighbours.[76] As China's daring operation came into realisation the Indians would later propogate themselves as victims of a Chinese attack to the world, in stark contrast to how they actually saw themselves (laughably, as the "third force" behind the United States and the Soviet Union).[76] The Chinese thus decided to inflict a severe, but limited, war of "extermination"; carefully having analysed any political fallout.[76]

Second Kashmir Liberation War:— Now, having lost humiliatingly to China, India decided to provoke another war with Pakistan in 1965 in order regain some pride.[77] Previous high level talks were held in May 1963 over dealing fairly over the issue of Kashmir but ended in stalemate as before.[77] At the same time India was further forcing themselves upon the Kashmiri territory; by narrowing down Kashmir's special status and instigating barbaric and inhumane laws; such as giving soldiers complete immunity to murder, rape and destroy civilian property (which was legally mandated by India under the 1958 "Armed Forces Special Powers Act" and still is[78][79][80][81][82][83]).[77] Future investigations of Indian soldiers raping in Kashmir have often been met with death threats and violence (a former government official, Syed M. Yasin, was threatened for investigating the infamous gang rapes of 1991 by the Indian military in 2014).[84] Luckily prior to the War of 1965, Pakistan began cementing it's strategic ties with China, irking India, by ceding a portion of Kashmiri territory, which had historically been claimed by them to China.[77] Indian militarization was also causing severe unease in the region.[77] Political infighting and the death of Nehru in 1964 eventually saw an opportunity for Pakistan to free Kashmir of the Indians.[77] By 1965 Pakistan made it's move before India could act, seeing opportunity and secretly initiated the Second Kashmiri Insurrection.[77] The Indians declared total war on Pakistan but failed to capture any lasting, permanent territory.[85][86]

Pakistan bombing Indians out of Pakistan.
Two Pakistanis, brought down four Indian jets.

Air warfare played a significant role in that war. One of the most famous dogfights of the war occurred on September 1st, 1965, involving Sarfraz Rafiqui, a squadron commander, who reduced Indian Air Force capability by 65% in "one stroke" (the Indians withdrew 80 of their Vampire jets and 50 of their Ouragons from the front line as a result of his prowess together with his colleague Imtiaz Bhatti).[87] Since then the evolution of the Pakistani air force continued to adapt to global changes in modern warfare.[88] On land, tanks also played a vital part, with armoured divisions playing a significant role in Pakistan's defence. One of the most famous battles of the 1965 war was that of Chawinda where Indian forces were resolutely defeated by a numerically inferior force (the Pakistanis ended up destroying 120 tanks which were confirmed by British journalists, losing only 44 tanks themselves).[86] After the 1965 war, India later became obsessed with dismembering Pakistan.[77] However the war was not without some minor disasters for the Pakistani side; for one, Pakistan lost 82—83 tanks at the Battle of Asal Utter (the Indians lost some 104 tanks in Sialkot in total).[86] The Indians also made gross exaggerations on the number of casualties on the Pakistani side during the course of the war (and also hid their number of lost tanks);[86] at the Battle of Phillora for instance the Indians claimed they had destroyed 67 Pakistani tanks, but in reality this was more than the number of Pakistani tanks in the area, with the Indians losing 15 tanks.[86] India regularly conflates it's military kills.

The Soviets in the late stages of the war moved in and organised the "Tashkent Agreement (January 1966)", in order to prevent further war over Kashmir.[77] Interestingly, why they did this was perhaps Russia felt India would lose; Russia's entire military industrial complex for instance was almost completely dependent on India for it's very survival, and India's loss in the war would mean that some 800 Russian military contractors could go broke if it lost (75% of Indian military equipment, 80% of their air force and 85% of their navy's was procured from the Soviets).[89] This reliance on Russian arms was also a huge blow to India's political ambitions, since Russia could hold India to ransom in times of difficulty; for Pakistan the war's consequences were thus very advantageous; since India also lost out in arms suppliers from the US and UK who supplied Pakistan.[77] Perhaps more importantly, was that by the time a UN mandated ceasefire was in effect, Pakistan also felt somewhat betrayed by China who's threats towards India turned out be empty (despite the extensive persecution of Indian Chinese in India).[77] The Chinese did support Pakistan however, and actively, through military supplies, later becoming Pakistan's chief supplier of missiles.[90] The war did have another consequence however, in that Pakistan totally ignored it's eastern counterpart; the Bengalis who felt increasingly isolated as there simply was no military to protect them from Indian incursions; thus probably contributing to the Pakistani Civil War.[91][n. 31]

Indian tanks captured by Pakistan; Battle of Chawinda.
Chinese troops in 1962.

Prelude to the 1965 Indo-Pakistan War:— After the humiliating defeat suffered by India in Kashmir, the Sino-Indian war of 1962 would later be influenced by the War of 1947. India by the 1960s had adopted the "Forward Policy" (c. November 1961) in which it began seizing Chinese lands incrementally.[73] China sought to protect itself from India, which was also undermining Chinese efforts in Tibet.[73] For Chinese Muslims the issue may have also been particularly troublesome; Tibet's Buddhists have historically been extremely violent in persecuting Muslims in the region for decades (stemming from wars in eastern Tibet, between the Tibetans and Chinese Muslims).[74] Most have never regarded Muslims as "fully Tibetan".[74] Since China restored the region, Muslims have been better able to live in the country.[74] However today there is still denial that Muslims have ever been treated ill in Buddhist society; Jamyang Norbu the Director of the Amnye Machen Institute at the Tibetan Centre for Advanced Studies in Dharamsala, India, claims, "[n]owhere in Tibetan history is anything remotely of the kind indicated".[74] However Western historian Ian Buruma, in "Tibet Disenchanted" notes "Muslims had been persecuted in the past by Tibetans who wanted to keep Tibet ‘pure,’ that is, purely Buddhist" and that "[i]n 1959...a mosque was burned down in Lhasa, because Muslims were accused of collaborating with the Chinese".[74] Even today Buddhists refuse to condemn their persecution of Muslims, with even Aung San Suu Kyi[75] outright dismissing recent mass atrocities.

Indians surrendering, 1962.

In the eyes of the Chinese, the Indians were attempting to return the Chinese to their pre-1949 borders; something which they could not tolerate.[73] Additionally, China had acted against India for several reasons. India was fast becoming increasingly aggressive against it's neighbours, adopting a hegemonic approach to that of it's smaller neighbours, particularly Nepal and Pakistan.[76] In one incident, India blatantly attacked Nepal in a border incident on the 29th September 1962.[76] Then again in October India attacked East Pakistan (modern day Bangladesh) in an attack that lasted for twelve days, involving artillery and automatic weapons fire.[76] The Chinese had had enough, with Chairman Mao realising the Indians were "running amuck".[76] Although these small incidents did not culminate for the broader reason for the Chinese defense of 1962; it did rationalise good reasons to stop India militarily.[76] To the world however, the Indians were projecting themselves as "peace lovers" and "non-violent", with their prime minister enjoying "great international status", despite it's blatant belligerent attitude towards its smaller and much more peaceful neighbours.[76] As China's daring operation came into realisation the Indians would later propogate themselves as victims of a Chinese attack to the world, in stark contrast to how they actually saw themselves (laughably, as the "third force" behind the United States and the Soviet Union).[76] The Chinese thus decided to inflict a severe, but limited, war of "extermination"; carefully having analysed any political fallout.[76]

Pakistan bombing Indians out of Pakistan.

Second Kashmir Liberation War:— Now, having lost humiliatingly to China, India decided to provoke another war with Pakistan in 1965 in order regain some pride.[77] Previous high level talks were held in May 1963 over dealing fairly over the issue of Kashmir but ended in stalemate as before.[77] At the same time India was further forcing themselves upon the Kashmiri territory; by narrowing down Kashmir's special status and instigating barbaric and inhumane laws; such as giving soldiers complete immunity to murder, rape and destroy civilian property (which was legally mandated by India under the 1958 "Armed Forces Special Powers Act" and still is[78][79][80][81][82][83]).[77] Future investigations of Indian soldiers raping in Kashmir have often been met with death threats and violence (a former government official, Syed M. Yasin, was threatened for investigating the infamous gang rapes of 1991 by the Indian military in 2014).[84] Luckily prior to the War of 1965, Pakistan began cementing it's strategic ties with China, irking India, by ceding a portion of Kashmiri territory, which had historically been claimed by them to China.[77] Indian militarization was also causing severe unease in the region.[77] Political infighting and the death of Nehru in 1964 eventually saw an opportunity for Pakistan to free Kashmir of the Indians.[77] By 1965 Pakistan made it's move before India could act, seeing opportunity and secretly initiated the Second Kashmiri Insurrection.[77] The Indians declared total war on Pakistan but failed to capture any lasting, permanent territory.[85][86]

Two Pakistanis, brought down four Indian jets.

Air warfare played a significant role in that war. One of the most famous dogfights of the war occurred on September 1st, 1965, involving Sarfraz Rafiqui, a squadron commander, who reduced Indian Air Force capability by 65% in "one stroke" (the Indians withdrew 80 of their Vampire jets and 50 of their Ouragons from the front line as a result of his prowess together with his colleague Imtiaz Bhatti).[87] Since then the evolution of the Pakistani air force continued to adapt to global changes in modern warfare.[88] On land, tanks also played a vital part, with armoured divisions playing a significant role in Pakistan's defence. One of the most famous battles of the 1965 war was that of Chawinda where Indian forces were resolutely defeated by a numerically inferior force (the Pakistanis ended up destroying 120 tanks which were confirmed by British journalists, losing only 44 tanks themselves).[86] After the 1965 war, India later became obsessed with dismembering Pakistan.[77] However the war was not without some minor disasters for the Pakistani side; for one, Pakistan lost 82—83 tanks at the Battle of Asal Utter (the Indians lost some 104 tanks in Sialkot in total).[86] The Indians also made gross exaggerations on the number of casualties on the Pakistani side during the course of the war (and also hid their number of lost tanks);[86] at the Battle of Phillora for instance the Indians claimed they had destroyed 67 Pakistani tanks, but in reality this was more than the number of Pakistani tanks in the area, with the Indians losing 15 tanks.[86] India regularly conflates it's military kills.

Indian tanks captured by Pakistan; Battle of Chawinda.

The Soviets in the late stages of the war moved in and organised the "Tashkent Agreement (January 1966)", in order to prevent further war over Kashmir.[77] Interestingly, why they did this was perhaps Russia felt India would lose; Russia's entire military industrial complex for instance was almost completely dependent on India for it's very survival, and India's loss in the war would mean that some 800 Russian military contractors could go broke if it lost (75% of Indian military equipment, 80% of their air force and 85% of their navy's was procured from the Soviets).[89] This reliance on Russian arms was also a huge blow to India's political ambitions, since Russia could hold India to ransom in times of difficulty; for Pakistan the war's consequences were thus very advantageous; since India also lost out in arms suppliers from the US and UK who supplied Pakistan.[77] Perhaps more importantly, was that by the time a UN mandated ceasefire was in effect, Pakistan also felt somewhat betrayed by China who's threats towards India turned out be empty (despite the extensive persecution of Indian Chinese in India).[77] The Chinese did support Pakistan however, and actively, through military supplies, later becoming Pakistan's chief supplier of missiles.[90] The war did have another consequence however, in that Pakistan totally ignored it's eastern counterpart; the Bengalis who felt increasingly isolated as there simply was no military to protect them from Indian incursions; thus probably contributing to the Pakistani Civil War.[91][n. 32]

c. 1970s—c. 1980s

Pakistan thwarted India's western assault.

Pakistan Civil War:— The 1971 Pakistani Civil War, which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh, was never wholly won by India though many of its historians make the claim—in fact had it not been for the demoralized native troops in East Pakistan (Bangladesh), coupled with no military air cover, and the Indian army additionally being "greatly aided" by the revolutionary forces (known as the "Mukti Bahini"), the Indian movement would certainly have been checked as it was in West Pakistan which stopped the Indians from invading successfully[92] (even though West Pakistan has been seen as more a threat than East Pakistans by the Indians, who's spending is on average 15—20 times greater on the Western border, despite the Bangladesh border being twice as big).[93] Other Indian historians even make allusions to losing the war in the long term, as their enemy came out stronger, ridding itself of the costly East; noted for it's far larger population size.[94] Diplomatically, the Indians were also completely outwitted into unconditionally surrendering over Pakistan's POW's.[94] India's relations also later soured with Bangladesh; the Bangladeshi prime minister was even murdered a short while after a diplomatic dispute with India itself, igniting the country with anti-Indian activity.[94] By 1975 most military analysts came to a consensus that Pakistan had "more than replaced" what it had lost during the war,[95] with yet other Indian historians blaming the war for having sparked and legitimised Pakistan's nuclear programme and it's arms race with India.[96][n. 33]

After the war, the Indian military began persecuting Bangladeshis. In a ten-year span alone, Indian soldiers murdered up to a 1,000 unarmed Bangladeshi civilians in a "shoot to kill" policy, near Bangladesh's border; with no one being "prosecuted for any of these killings, in spite of the evidence" making it clear the killings were done in "cold blood, of unarmed and defenceless local residents".[97] The Indian military's methods have included "shoot[ing] people in the back" and beating little children to death.[97][98] One likely explanation for the murders, besides them being Muslims, is non-Hindus eating beef, which are considered holy in India.[99][100] Hindus have been known to trigger riots over the consumption of beef (indeed everything about cows is believed holy; including their urine, which is so popular brand drinks exist in the country to rival Coca-cola and Pepsi[101]).[102][103] More problematic however, is that since Bangladesh was created, India has proven itself as an unreliable ally and a vicious bully, with the Bangladeshis giving up vast concessions.[n. 34][104] Insults and slights are also common from it's larger neighbour; where it has attempted to intimidate Bengalis by branding one quarter of it's population as "terrorists".[105][106] In August 2014, an Indian governmental think tank even provocatively branded all Bangladeshis as "anti-Indian".[107] Post-1975, Bangladesh began mending it's military relationship with Pakistan.[108] India's behaviour can probably be explained by the fact that it arrogantly thinks it won the freedom of the Bengalis, when it actually didn't.
Indian soldiers murder Bangladeshis without impunity.
Sargodha Base (1971). Pakistan's air force.

"Hindu" Genocide:— After the war, Indian historians have alleged that the Pakistan military carried out a "Hindu genocide". Historian RJ Rummel prefers to call it a "democide" rather than genocide, and estimates 1,500,000 were killed (between 300,000-3,000,000; labeling it as a "Bengali/Hindu democide" (Bengalis are majority Muslim however).[109] Evidence however presented by Lisa Sharlach notes that the majority of the causalities were indeed Muslims and not Hindus,[110] giving credence that the Indians often vastly exaggerate their casualties, often giving widely inflated values with inaccurate information. For instance, one of India's most respected historians, K.S. Lal (who was later outed as a Hindu extremist), claimed "75 million Hindus" were killed during the 1,146-year old Muslim dynastic era (711[111]—1857[112]). These numbers have actually proven themselves false on computer simulations run by Oxbridge historians. Despite this, Hindu authors such as Vivek Gumaste in the "India Tribune" claims "2.4 million" Bengali Hindus died during 1971.[113] In the same article however Gumaste,[n. 35] claims Muslims are treated as "equals"[113] in India; however there have "officially" been over 6,933 anti-Muslim pogroms between 1954—1982 and 3,949 between 1968—1980,[114] unofficially, the number remains unknown. Given the ineptitude and discriminatory attitude of the Indian government, the numbers are likely far higher. Kashmir[n. 36] for example is heavily suppressed, with mass gang-rapes committed by the Indian army.

Few in India regard the Bangladesh war as a loss for India, however experts have noted otherwise. Brahma Chellaney in "Securing India's Future in the New Millennium", notes psychological, economic and diplomatic levers determine it's peace;[115] with Pakistan's civil war being a "classic" example; where India had claimed to have "won the war but lost the peace".[115] The prime minister, Indira Ghandi, even gave away any military gains at the negotiating table with Pakistan at the wars end.[115] signifying India's defeat, by making Pakistan politically, economically and militarily "compact";[115] a move that ultimately strengthened Pakistan in the future (especially in the development of it's nuclear weapons).[115] Bangladesh was a complete drain on Pakistan's resources, well before the war, and would have remained "highly vulnerable" to an Indian attack.[115] Strategically, if kept, Pakistan would have been at a significant disadvantage in the future (when Indian aggression would inevitably increase again).[115] Pakistan would not have been able to launch unconventional defensive warfare against it's larger neighbour as a result; and as it later successfully achieved.[115] India is even believed to have lost economically in Bangladesh crisis as well.[115] Ten million refugees entered India during the war and an additional ten million arrived after the Bengalis became independent.[115] Overall, it inadvertently strengthened Pakistan against it and weakened it's own, although bilateral trade with Pakistan stands at $586.57 million dollars,[116] and India at $6 billion dollars.[117]

Pakistani F6 fighter-jet; Pakistani Civil War (1971).
Pakistani helicopter surveying Balochistan.

Baluchistan War:— Balochistan is the most southern-western region of Pakistan, and native homeland of the Balochi people, who's ancestral claim is rooted in the Kurds.[118] There are only 3,000,000 ethnic Balochi people living in the state itself out of a total population of 6,000,000; and by landmass, the state is comparable to that of France.[118] It is region that has become of significant economic interest to the Chinese, central Asians and the United States.[119] The region is rich is natural gas deposits and has vast economic potential, but suffers severe economic problems and lack of governance.[120][121] Thus conflict has erupted, and can significantly be traced back to the 1970s, when both India and Afghanistan were targeting Pakistan, by supporting the Balochi nationalists (decades later evidence would emerge that India still holds this position, actively financing terrorism in the region).[119] The most significant Baloch insurgency lasted from 1973—1977,[122] and was mainly owed to secessionist tendencies, and the worsening economic situation.[122] Casualties totaled 14,300—14,600, of whom 3,000—3,300 were soldiers, 5,300 rebels, along with 6,000 civilians.[n. 37] Iran, which has 1,200,000 Balochi citizens living in their country have always been wary not to ignite a similar insurgency, but the Shah of Iran did send $200 million dollars, US-military helicopters, and Iranian pilots to stop the Baluchis in the 1970s.[119] There have been at least four other insurgencies since 1947; all have effectively failed.[120]

Pakistan thwarted India's western assault.

Pakistan Civil War:— The 1971 Pakistani Civil War, which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh, was never wholly won by India though many of its historians make the claim—in fact had it not been for the demoralized native troops in East Pakistan (Bangladesh), coupled with no military air cover, and the Indian army additionally being "greatly aided" by the revolutionary forces (known as the "Mukti Bahini"), the Indian movement would certainly have been checked as it was in West Pakistan had stopped the Indians from invading successfully[92] (even though West Pakistan has been seen as more a threat than East Pakistans by the Indians, who's spending is on average 15—20 times greater on the Western border, despite the Bangladesh border being twice as big).[93] Other Indian historians even make allusions to losing the war in the long term, as their enemy came out stronger, ridding itself of the costly East; noted for it's far larger population size.[94] Diplomatically, the Indians were also completely outwitted into unconditionally surrendering over Pakistan's POW's.[94] India's relations also later soured with Bangladesh; the Bangladeshi prime minister was even murdered a short while after a diplomatic dispute with India itself, igniting the country with anti-Indian activity.[94] By 1975 most military analysts came to a consensus that Pakistan had "more than replaced" what it had lost during the war,[95] with yet other Indian historians blaming the war for having sparked and legitimised Pakistan's nuclear programme and it's arms race with India.[96][n. 38]

Indian soldiers murder Bangladeshis without impunity.
After the war, the Indian military began persecuting Bangladeshis. In a ten-year span alone, Indian soldiers murdered up to a 1,000 unarmed Bangladeshi civilians in a "shoot to kill" policy, near Bangladesh's border; with no one being "prosecuted for any of these killings, in spite of the evidence" making it clear the killings were done in "cold blood, of unarmed and defenceless local residents".[97] The Indian military's methods have included "shoot[ing] people in the back" and beating little children to death.[97][98] One likely explanation for the murders, besides them being Muslims, is non-Hindus eating beef, which are considered holy in India.[99][100] Hindus have been known to trigger riots over the consumption of beef (indeed everything about cows is believed holy; including their urine, which is so popular brand drinks exist in the country to rival Coca-cola and Pepsi[101]).[102][103] More problematic however, is that since Bangladesh was created, India has proven itself as an unreliable ally and a vicious bully, with the Bangladeshis giving up vast concessions.[n. 39][104] Insults and slights are also common from it's larger neighbour; where it has attempted to intimidate Bengalis by branding one quarter of it's population as "terrorists".[105][106] In August 2014, an Indian governmental think tank even provocatively branded all Bangladeshis as "anti-Indian".[107] Post-1975, Bangladesh began mending it's military relationship with Pakistan.[108] India's behaviour can probably be explained by the fact that it arrogantly thinks it won the freedom of the Bengalis, when it actually didn't.
Sargodha Base (1971). Pakistan's air force.

"Hindu" Genocide:— After the war, Indian historians have alleged that the Pakistan military carried out a "Hindu genocide". Historian RJ Rummel prefers to call it a "democide" rather than genocide, and estimates 1,500,000 were killed (between 300,000-3,000,000; labeling it as a "Bengali/Hindu democide" (Bengalis are majority Muslim however).[109] Evidence however presented by Lisa Sharlach notes that the majority of the causalities were indeed Muslims and not Hindus,[110] giving credence that the Indians often vastly exaggerate their casualties, often giving widely inflated values with inaccurate information. For instance, one of India's most respected historians, K.S. Lal (who was later outed as a Hindu extremist), claimed "75 million Hindus" were killed during the 1,146-year old Muslim dynastic era (711[111]—1857[112]). These numbers have actually proven themselves false on computer simulations run by Oxbridge historians. Despite this, Hindu authors such as Vivek Gumaste in the "India Tribune" claims "2.4 million" Bengali Hindus died during 1971.[113] In the same article however Gumaste,[n. 40] claims Muslims are treated as "equals"[113] in India; however there have "officially" been over 6,933 anti-Muslim pogroms between 1954—1982 and 3,949 between 1968—1980,[114] unofficially, the number remains unknown. Given the ineptitude and discriminatory attitude of the Indian government, the numbers are likely far higher. Kashmir[n. 41] for example is heavily suppressed, with mass gang-rapes committed by the Indian army.

Pakistani F6 fighter-jet; Pakistani Civil War (1971).

Few in India regard the Bangladesh war as a loss for India, however experts have noted otherwise. Brahma Chellaney in "Securing India's Future in the New Millennium", notes psychological, economic and diplomatic levers determine it's peace;[115] with Pakistan's civil war being a "classic" example; where India had claimed to have "won the war but lost the peace".[115] The prime minister, Indira Ghandi, even gave away any military gains at the negotiating table with Pakistan at the wars end.[115] signifying India's defeat, by making Pakistan politically, economically and militarily "compact";[115] a move that ultimately strengthened Pakistan in the future (especially in the development of it's nuclear weapons).[115] Bangladesh was a complete drain on Pakistan's resources, well before the war, and would have remained "highly vulnerable" to an Indian attack.[115] Strategically, if kept, Pakistan would have been at a significant disadvantage in the future (when Indian aggression would inevitably increase again).[115] Pakistan would not have been able to launch unconventional defensive warfare against it's larger neighbour as a result; and as it later successfully achieved.[115] India is even believed to have lost economically in Bangladesh crisis as well.[115] Ten million refugees entered India during the war and an additional ten million arrived after the Bengalis became independent.[115] Overall, it inadvertently strengthened Pakistan against it and weakened it's own, although bilateral trade with Pakistan stands at $586.57 million dollars,[116] and India at $6 billion dollars.[117]

Pakistani helicopter surveying Balochistan.

Baluchistan War:— Balochistan is the most southern-western region of Pakistan, and native homeland of the Balochi people, who's ancestral claim is rooted in the Kurds.[118] There are only 3,000,000 ethnic Balochi people living in the state itself out of a total population of 6,000,000; and by landmass, the state is comparable to that of France.[118] It is region that has become of significant economic interest to the Chinese, central Asians and the United States.[119] The region is rich is natural gas deposits and has vast economic potential, but suffers severe economic problems and lack of governance.[120][121] Thus conflict has erupted, and can significantly be traced back to the 1970s, when both India and Afghanistan were targeting Pakistan, by supporting the Balochi nationalists (decades later evidence would emerge that India still holds this position, actively financing terrorism in the region).[119] The most significant Baloch insurgency lasted from 1973—1977,[122] and was mainly owed to secessionist tendencies, and the worsening economic situation.[122] Casualties totaled 14,300—14,600, of whom 3,000—3,300 were soldiers, 5,300 rebels, along with 6,000 civilians.[n. 42] Iran, which has 1,200,000 Balochi citizens living in their country have always been wary not to ignite a similar insurgency, but the Shah of Iran did send $200 million dollars, US-military helicopters, and Iranian pilots to stop the Baluchis in the 1970s.[119] There have been at least four other insurgencies since 1947; all have effectively failed.[120]

c. 1980s—c. 1990s

Sikh Terrorism in the Punjab

Punjab (excluding H. Pradesh & Haryana).

Post Partition:— After the 1947partition, Sikhs first began to visit Pakistan in the 1950s and 1960s;[123] simultaneously, friction between the Sikhs and Hindus in India was beginning to increase.[123] The Sikhs that visited Pakistan had good reasons; for instance, many of their pilgrimage sites were in the country; and they would also want to visit their former friends who'd gotten left behind.[123] On the other side, Sikh separatism became a significant problem for India, particularly when Sikh representatives, known as the Akali Dal, began to physically redraw the boundaries of the Punjab on a linguistic basis.[123] Punjabi Hindus (who's ancestral tongue is Punjabi by definition) chose Hindi officially, irking the Sikhs.[123] Between 1955 and 1965 the Sikhs then began to demand autonomy;[123] and by 1966 the Indian government capitulated, resulting in the creation of the "Punjabi Suba".[123] As a result of the appeasement things remained relatively peaceful up until 1978 (however there were several incidences of tension before between the two parties, such as the jailing of 40,000 Akali Sikhs for protesting the state of emergency declared by Indira Ghandi).[123] The situation was becoming even more fraught when Ghandi failed in her attempts to use the Sikh terrorist Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale against the Akali Dal.[123] The plan ultimately backfired on Ghandi when Bhinderanwale sided with the Akali Dal.[123] Issues of contention are the control of Punjabs rivers and the annexation of Chandigarh.[123]

Between 1978 and 1983 Bhinderenwale emerged as the main spokesperson of the Sikhs, and enjoyed widespread support. He was religiously zealous; knowing many Sikh scriptures and had excellent oratory skills.[123] During his reign, he was suspected of many murders and atrocities by the Indian government however, and was similarly accused of engaging in political violence that was increasingly become a problem.[123] Such acts of violence included the killing of newspaper editors and politicians.[123] His reign was so loved however by the Sikhs that the Akalis called him the "Danda" (the stave) who could be used to "beat" the government with.[123] His actions were so brazen that by December 1983[123] he began to move into the Golden Temple and opened up a bomb making factory and engaged in terrorist activity.[124][125] In the six months prior to (the infamous) Operation Blue Star, 298 people had lost their lives in the Punjab, and just five days prior to June 6th, 48 people were murdered.[124] A reknowned Sikh scholar later noted that Bhinderanwale had placed the temple "in the line of fire" owing to his activity.[123] As the situation worsened in the Indian Punjab the military decided to strike first and launched an offensive killing Bhinderanwale on June 6th, 1984[123] with help from the British SAS.[126] The British government later denied this, and merely stated that the SAS officers were only there as "advisors" and did not actually participate.

The Golden Temple Complex was attacked by the Indian military in 1984, considered sacrilege by Sikhs.
Orchestration of the battle.

Post Sikh Defeat:— Total deaths from the operation amounted to 493 militants dead, 86 wounded and 1,592 arrested; but this is disputed by Sikh authors who claim 7,000—8,000 were killed (Mark Tully estimated 4,000 were killed on the Sikh side).[127] Other authors have said that only up to 1,000 were killed unofficially.[124] On the Indian side, 83 were killed and 293 were wounded.[127] Despite the numbers, what is known is that the battle only became bloody when the Sikh extremists fired on the army when they called for the Sikhs to first surrender peacefully.[124] The Indians however made the mistake of not using a "surgical" tactical commando strike, thereby prolonging the massacre for up to three days.[124] Intelligence reports were also poor on the Indian side, the militants were far more well equipped than initially believed.[124] Additionally four of the six generals that took part in the battle for the Indian military were Sikhs themselves.[124] The humiliation was not taken lightly nonethless by the Sikhs, and eventually on October 31st, 1984 Indira Ghandi was gunned down in an assassination by two of her personal Sikh bodyguards.[128] This subsequently set off the 1984 Dehli Riots, where up to 3,000 Sikhs were killed.[129] Tully reported that 2,717 were killed; but the Sikhs have claimed 20,000 died (and even claim it as a "genocide"[130]).[129] There was approximately $250 million dollars worth of damage done to property during the riots as well.[129] Years after the defeat of the terrorist separatists, foreign funding to such organisations was still occurring as late as 2008, with a vital portion from the UK.[131]

The concept of Khalistan is curious as it also possesses some potential for threatening the Muslims of Punjab. The concept of a Sikh homeland encompasses lands and territories inside and around India, as well as Pakistan territory.[132] This also includes all other Punjabi speaking areas,[132] despite the fact that such a proposition would make the Sikhs a minority in their own country (since the majority of Punjabis are Muslim).[n. 43] Significantly Pakistani Punjab contains many Sikh holy and historical sites, and even when the Sikhs did have their own "Khalistan", in the form of the empire of the Sikh tyrant,[133][134][135] Ranjit Singh (1780—1839), Muslims were treated horrendously and with much inequality, along with other non-Sikhs.[136] Such examples can be seen from the use of slave labour (forced labour[137]) and matters which concerned murder (for example if a Sikh murdered a Muslim, a fine of 16—20 rupees was to be charged on the Sikh, of which only 2 rupees (10%—12.5%) went to the family of the Muslim victim, and if Hindu four rupees (20%—25%) would be paid to the Hindu relatives, with the rest going to the Sikh state; in essence under Sikh laws Hindus were worth twice more than a Muslim).[136] Also, under Sikh law, Punjabis (90% of whom were Muslim[138]) were taxed 90% of their earnings (but even this was considered too little).[136] Despite this, as late as 2001 Khalastani Sikhs sent a letter to President Musharaff asking for his "support", citing "200,000" Sikhs had been killed by India since 1984, and 75,000 Muslims in Kashmir since 1988, thus expecting help.[139]

Pakistan Kashmir.
Topographic layout of battle (1984).

Khalistan and the Place of Muslims:— Sikh persecution of Muslims remains a significant problem; and there are many examples of Sikhs persecuting Muslims actively. One such example was in April 1997, when, angry at a lack of support from Pakistan to help the Sikhs to form their own homeland, approximately 100 Sikhs went rioting throughout a Pakistani street one night in the UK smashing dozens of houses and cars owned by Muslims in Southall, a constituency in UK.[140] Another such example is several days prior to the 9/11 incident in New York, Sikhs were already cultivating links with racist and fascist organisation known as the BNP, who are against British Muslim rights in the United Kingdom.[141] Sikh leaders were openly meeting with the BNP, with the BBC revealing that Sikh leaders themselves approached the BNP, instead of the other way around.[142] Another is when a gang of Sikhs murdered an Indian Muslim, Muhammad Afzhal, in 2003 who was a rickshaw driver 25 years old.[143] In 2010, the issue of the BNP arose again when it was found that an alliance with the BNP could push the Sikh—Muslim relationship to breaking point in Birmingham, Wolverhampton and Coventry.[144] There have also been numerous allegations by Sikhs of conversion of their girls over to Islam, grooming; accusations of which have never been substantiated, except for one case involving both Hindus and Muslims grooming a Sikh girl. The organisation that testified is suspected to have worked with the EDL.

Despite this, Muslims have helped Sikhs in their struggle for independence, although by how much remains elusive.[145] Pakistan was careful to avoid confrontation with India between 1972 and 1989, but did not wholly avoid it's operations.[146] The Pakistanis provided money, weapons and strategic advice to the Sikh separatist movement.[146] The support was so substatial that India initiated the 1986—1987 Brasstacks Crisis which were done in order to deter Pakistan from supporting the Sikh cause.[146] However Pakistan did not back the Sikh uprising to the extent that they did for their Kashmiri brethren.[146] After 1984 violence, caused by the Sikh rebellion, caused killings to spiral out of control.[146] In 1983 for example there were only 135 deaths, in 1986 there were 598 deaths, and in 1987, 1,238.[146] After Operation Blue Star in 1984, Pakistan was galvanized to exploit the situation.[146] However others have said Pakistani support for the Sikh cause waned.[146] There was no military confrontation on behalf of the Sikhs, unlike in stark contrast to the Kargil Crisis where Pakistan attempted to liberate the rest of Kashmir from the yoke of Indian oppression.[146] Hard evidence linking Pakistan to the training of Sikh militants has remained unfounded.[146] Pakistan had several reasons to support the Sikh cause nonetheless, such as destablizing India for the security of Pakistani sovereignty (and even financed it through the ISI selling drugs to finance such ventures).[147] However PM's Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto had differing views supporting Sikhs.[147]

Pakistani liberated Kashmir.

The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

Destroyed Soviet gun-ship.

The Communist Coup:— Mohammad D. Khan was overthrown in April 1978, by communist forces of the Afghan military; lead by Nur M. Taraki.[148] This eventually would lead to the formation of an unstable Marxist-Leninist government called the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan, consisting of the Khalq and Parcham Party's.[148] This new government had very little support from the Afghan peoples.[148] This new government ended up cultivating ties with the Soviet Union, and also lead brutal purges targeted at any opposition movements.[148] Land and social reforms also contributed to the anti-communist feeling in the country.[148] Rebellions sprang up in the urban and tribal areas, and soon collectively these movements became known as the Mujahideen.[148] The uprisings, along with internal political rebellions, lead to the Soviets deciding for military intervention, sending 30,000 troops to invade on December 24th/27th 1979.[148][149] Hafizullah Amin (Khalq leader) was then overthrown and killed, with the Soviets backing Babrak Karmal (Parcham leader).[148] The Mujahideen, now backed by the United States, grew increasingly more powerful, especially when mass desertions occurred in the Afghan army, who's soldiers were against persecuting their own people.[148] The communists then decided to increase their presence (directing 100,000 soldiers), which lead to a stalemate (the Soviets took control of the cities and other areas, whereas the opposing forces moved freely amongst the countryside).[148]

The Soviet invasion represented the largest mobilisation of Soviet forces since WWII.[150] They attacked the country in an initially well organised blitzkrieg; however this did not last long, and it withdrew in defeat nine years later (on April 14th, 1988).[149][151] The war became one of the defining moments of the end of the cold war era.[150] The withdrawal agreement that signified Soviet defeat, did nothing more than reaffirm the Soviet Unions wishes to abandon their allies,[151] who had originally supported the overthrowing of the the democratic government of Afghanistan in 1978 (from 1929 to that date the country had been an enormously peaceful country to live and work in).[152] The Soviet support for the communists devastated the country, and saw two additional wars rip the country apart in the coming decades; the second being the overthrow of the communist regime and then the American invasion of Afghanistan.[152] The Soviet Union's war was, however, one of the main factors that lead to the collapse of the empire[153] in several redeeming ways; for instance perceptions on the effectiveness of the Soviet military changed rapidly amongst the Russians, the division between the authority and military command was also widened, the isolation of the Soviet Unions non-Russian citizens proved problematic, and the weakening of the communist political hegemoney was growing.[154] During the course of the conflict Afghan guerrilla forces were portrayed favorably by anti-communist regimes in the West, ignoring the fact that such a force was also involved in the narcotics trade.[150]

"Soviet Retreat".
Afghanistan before the Soviet invasion.

Consequences:— The war completely destroyed the economy, society and infrastructure of Afghanistan.[152] Unnatural Afghan deaths amounted to 876,825 dead (1978—1987)[152] which meant, on average, 240 Afghan's were killed on a daily basis by the Russians;[152] and that for every Soviet soldier that died, sixty Afghan's were murdered.[152] Approximately 1,500,000 people were also left disabled;[152] with psychological trauma also significiant.[152] In addition, some 6,000,000 Afghans were displaced externally by the 1990s, with Pakistan and Iran said to have "perform[ed] remarkably well" in regards to the safety and hosting of these refugees[n. 44] (however it should also be noted that many Afghans inside their own country were also displaced en masse).[152] Conditions were however not ideal, and many of Afghanistans skills in trade and farming were lost during this period; with the impact being that societies which continuously lose such structure will suffer from more war and conflict).[152] Women's rights also regressed during this period of Soviet occupation; Afghan women who were escaping the cruel aerial bombardments of the countryside[n. 45] for instance were surprised to see female guards in Kabul's prisons where many of them would be tortured by communist forces.[152] Prior to the war, women wore skirts openly and attitudes were largely liberal and progressive.[149] Despite this, the Afghans celebrated the defeat of the Soviet Union as a victory against an overwhelming and stronger superpower.[152][n. 46]

Pakistan sent billions of dollars in aid to the Afghan rebels, supporting them even up to 1996 which resulted in the triumph of the Taliban.[153] Concerning Iran, militarily and politically, Pakistan differed with it on Afghanistan significantly, even in the 1960s.[155] The oppressive and anit-democratic Shah of Iran was only concerned if it become a Soviet satellite-state, having already been surrounded by Ba'athists in the east of his country, and Soviets in the North; wanting to avoid complete encirclement (this fear was made worse in 1972 when the last Afghan king, Zahir Shah, was ousted by his cousin, Muhammad D. Khan, in 1972).[155] The Iranians did however financially support the Afghans.[155] Pakistan, on the other hand, was concerned with the increasing influence of India, notable for it's persecution and genocides against Muslims in their own country. As a result of the Indian threat, Pakistan has attempted always to have a Afghan government friendly to it's interests.[155] It it notable that the Shah also did not want Afghanistan to be under the influence of India either (since the Indians were allies of the Soviets; even an "Aryan Resistance" was proposed under his leadership).[155] Pakistan itself was also influenced by Saudi Arabia, who was "bent"[155] on allaying Iranian influence. Since then Pakistan used Islam to politically influence the Afghans.[155] By 1979, the Iranian Revolution, the Iran—Iraq War (1980—1988) and the Soviet War dramatically changed the positions of both countries.[155] Iranian influences effectively declined, allowing Pakistani influence to grow stronger.[155]

Narco-routes and the drug trade.
Iranian gun-boat, Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988).

The Soviet war effectively took Iran out of the equation, since it was already fighting for it's survival from the Western-backed Iraq regime.[155] Saying this, Iran, despite suffering massively financially (said to have lost $627—$930 billion dollars owed to the war);[156] accepted almost 3 million refugees from it's neighbour.[155] Iran was however fearful that any brazen support for their Afghan allies would have caused the USSR to focus it's attention on eliminating Iran through it's already ongoing war with Iraq.[155] The country did however support the Shia groups, causing some resentment from the Pakistani and Afghan Sunni population.[155] Iran however effectively lost out politically, culturally and religiously on the Afghan front.[155] After the war, and in 1992 when the native communists were ousted by the Mujahideen and Pakistan, Pakistan's policy in Afghanistan was to seek for a unified and friendly country.[157] Pakistan's involvement in the Soviet War was for good reasons;[157] it was fearful that Moscow's next move would be to instigate conflict in the country, and also may cause war between Pakistan and Afghanistan over territories historically claimed by greater Afghanistan (Khyber Pathunkwa).[157] Moscow had further already been quite hostile to Pakistan for allying itself with the United States (Moscow had already worked with India, supplying it with modern weapons in the 1971 Pakistani Civil War).[157] However Pakistan's interest in the country was about more than getting rid of the Soviets.[157]

Mujahideen Problems:— The Soviets still had hopes of interfering after their defeat. Pakistan was totally unwilling to let this be, given that the Soviets continued to support their allies, and had left large amounts of ammunitions behind.[157] Militarily, Pakistan had attacked towns such as Jalalabad, in aid of the Mujahideen.[157] Isolated, the Najibullah regime, collapsed.[157] By April 1992, Pakistan united all the groups of the Mujahideen, and formed an interim government; resulting in the "Peshawar Accords", further resulting in the presidency of Sibghatullah Mojeddadi, and afterwards Rabbani (the later of whom triggered a civil war when he refused to step down in 1993 after his tenure had ended).[157] Pakistan was outraged and supported his enemies in order to place him out of power, supporting one Pashtun group after another; feeling the Accords had been dishonored.[157] Pakistan felt even more betrayed after it's sacrifices were ignored by the Afghans, especially the leaders of some Afghan groups (such as Ahmad Shah Masud who was allied to Rabbani).[157] Furthermore such leaders wanted to use Iran, Russia and India to put pressure on Pakistan.[157] Things can to a standstill when four Afghan terrorists hijacked a bus; and were then killed in Islamabad.[157] In revenge, one Pakistani employee was killed in Kabul in the summer of 1994.[157] Pakistan became even more concerned when Rabbani and Masud began to invite Indian intelligence officers into the country to install military installations.[157]

Ahmad Shah Masud betrayed Pakistan.
Pakistan battling Taliban in 2015.

Betrayed, Pakistan sought other routes to the threat that now presented itself to the nation.[157] This other route was through the Taliban.[157] This was an entirely pragmatic relationship; the group were strong enough to stablise the Pashtun areas of the country, an important regard in the safety of the Pakistani state.[157] Furthermore the Taliban were able to rid Afghanistan of Indian influence; and increased confidence in the construction of oil pipelines and trade from Central Asia.[157] However, on the domestic and foreign policy fronts this proved to be a heavy price.[157] Domestically, religious fanatacism grew; risking Pakistan falling into the hands of political parties sympathetic to the Taliban (which lead to some success into the infiltration of Pakistani politics); mainly arising from Anti-American feeling and sympathy for the organisation, as well as disenfranchisement with the mainstream and nationalist parties.[157] Strategically however, Pakistan was placed into a far better position than before; but the alliance gave way to a complicated, and later domestically dangerous, relationship.[157] Pakistan's image and policies were now being wholly damaged; the Taliban were internationally seen by Iran and the Central Asian states (as well as the rest of the world) as medieval, harsh and anti-women.[157] With friction rising between the Taliban and the Pakistani state, trade with Central Asians remained an unrealized goal.[157] Given the growth in support for the organization, Pakistan found it very difficult to shake them off.[157]

Sikh Terrorism in the Punjab

Punjab (excluding H. Pradesh & Haryana).

Post Partition:— After the 1947partition, Sikhs first began to visit Pakistan in the 1950s and 1960s;[123] simultaneously, friction between the Sikhs and Hindus in India was beginning to increase.[123] The Sikhs that visited Pakistan had good reasons; for instance, many of their pilgrimage sites were in the country; and they would also want to visit their former friends who'd gotten left behind.[123] On the other side, Sikh separatism became a significant problem for India, particularly when Sikh representatives, known as the Akali Dal, began to physically redraw the boundaries of the Punjab on a linguistic basis.[123] Punjabi Hindus (who's ancestral tongue is Punjabi by definition) chose Hindi officially, irking the Sikhs.[123] Between 1955 and 1965 the Sikhs then began to demand autonomy;[123] and by 1966 the Indian government capitulated, resulting in the creation of the "Punjabi Suba".[123] As a result of the appeasement things remained relatively peaceful up until 1978 (however there were several incidences of tension before between the two parties, such as the jailing of 40,000 Akali Sikhs for protesting the state of emergency declared by Indira Ghandi).[123] The situation was becoming even more fraught when Ghandi failed in her attempts to use the Sikh terrorist Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale against the Akali Dal.[123] The plan ultimately backfired on Ghandi when Bhinderanwale sided with the Akali Dal.[123] Issues of contention are the control of Punjabs rivers and the annexation of Chandigarh.[123]

The Golden Temple Complex was attacked by the Indian military in 1984, considered sacrilege by Sikhs.

Between 1978 and 1983 Bhinderenwale emerged as the main spokesperson of the Sikhs, and enjoyed widespread support. He was religiously zealous; knowing many Sikh scriptures and had excellent oratory skills.[123] During his reign, he was suspected of many murders and atrocities by the Indian government however, and was similarly accused of engaging in political violence that was increasingly become a problem.[123] Such acts of violence included the killing of newspaper editors and politicians.[123] His reign was so loved however by the Sikhs that the Akalis called him the "Danda" (the stave) who could be used to "beat" the government with.[123] His actions were so brazen that by December 1983[123] he began to move into the Golden Temple and opened up a bomb making factory and engaged in terrorist activity.[124][125] In the six months prior to (the infamous) Operation Blue Star, 298 people had lost their lives in the Punjab, and just five days prior to June 6th, 48 people were murdered.[124] A reknowned Sikh scholar later noted that Bhinderanwale had placed the temple "in the line of fire" owing to his activity.[123] As the situation worsened in the Indian Punjab the military decided to strike first and launched an offensive killing Bhinderanwale on June 6th, 1984[123] with help from the British SAS.[126] The British government later denied this, and merely stated that the SAS officers were only there as "advisors" and did not actually participate.

Orchestration of the battle.

Post Sikh Defeat:— Total deaths from the operation amounted to 493 militants dead, 86 wounded and 1,592 arrested; but this is disputed by Sikh authors who claim 7,000—8,000 were killed (Mark Tully estimated 4,000 were killed on the Sikh side).[127] Other authors have said that only up to 1,000 were killed unofficially.[124] On the Indian side, 83 were killed and 293 were wounded.[127] Despite the numbers, what is known is that the battle only became bloody when the Sikh extremists fired on the army when they called for the Sikhs to first surrender peacefully.[124] The Indians however made the mistake of not using a "surgical" tactical commando strike, thereby prolonging the massacre for up to three days.[124] Intelligence reports were also poor on the Indian side, the militants were far more well equipped than initially believed.[124] Additionally four of the six generals that took part in the battle for the Indian military were Sikhs themselves.[124] The humiliation was not taken lightly nonethless by the Sikhs, and eventually on October 31st, 1984 Indira Ghandi was gunned down in an assassination by two of her personal Sikh bodyguards.[128] This subsequently set off the 1984 Dehli Riots, where up to 3,000 Sikhs were killed.[129] Tully reported that 2,717 were killed; but the Sikhs have claimed 20,000 died (and even claim it as a "genocide"[130]).[129] There was approximately $250 million dollars worth of damage done to property during the riots as well.[129] Years after the defeat of the terrorist separatists, foreign funding to such organisations was still occurring as late as 2008, with a vital portion from the UK.[131]

Pakistan Kashmir.

The concept of Khalistan is curious as it also possesses some potential for threatening the Muslims of Punjab. The concept of a Sikh homeland encompasses lands and territories inside and around India, as well as Pakistan territory.[132] This also includes all other Punjabi speaking areas,[132] despite the fact that such a proposition would make the Sikhs a minority in their own country (since the majority of Punjabis are Muslim).[n. 47] Significantly Pakistani Punjab contains many Sikh holy and historical sites, and even when the Sikhs did have their own "Khalistan", in the form of the empire of the Sikh tyrant,[133][134][158] Ranjit Singh (1780—1839), Muslims were treated horrendously and with much inequality, along with other non-Sikhs.[136] Such examples can be seen from the use of slave labour (forced labour[137]) and matters which concerned murder (for example if a Sikh murdered a Muslim, a fine of 16—20 rupees was to be charged on the Sikh, of which only 2 rupees (10%—12.5%) went to the family of the Muslim victim, and if Hindu four rupees (20%—25%) would be paid to the Hindu relatives, with the rest going to the Sikh state; in essence under Sikh laws Hindus were worth twice more than a Muslim).[136] Also, under Sikh law, Punjabis (90% of whom were Muslim[138]) were taxed 90% of their earnings (but even this was considered too little).[136] Despite this, as late as 2001 Khalastani Sikhs sent a letter to President Musharaff asking for his "support", citing "200,000" Sikhs had been killed by India since 1984, and 75,000 Muslims in Kashmir since 1988, thus expecting help.[139]

Topographic layout of battle (1984).

Khalistan and the Place of Muslims:— Sikh persecution of Muslims remains a significant problem; and there are many examples of Sikhs persecuting Muslims actively. One such example was in April 1997, when, angry at a lack of support from Pakistan to help the Sikhs to form their own homeland, approximately 100 Sikhs went rioting throughout a Pakistani street one night in the UK smashing dozens of houses and cars owned by Muslims in Southall, a constituency in UK.[140] Another such example is several days prior to the 9/11 incident in New York, Sikhs were already cultivating links with racist and fascist organisation known as the BNP, who are against British Muslim rights in the United Kingdom.[141] Sikh leaders were openly meeting with the BNP, with the BBC revealing that Sikh leaders themselves approached the BNP, instead of the other way around.[142] Another is when a gang of Sikhs murdered an Indian Muslim, Muhammad Afzhal, in 2003 who was a rickshaw driver 25 years old.[143] In 2010, the issue of the BNP arose again when it was found that an alliance with the BNP could push the Sikh—Muslim relationship to breaking point in Birmingham, Wolverhampton and Coventry.[144] There have also been numerous allegations by Sikhs of conversion of their girls over to Islam, grooming; accusations of which have never been substantiated, except for one case involving both Hindus and Muslims grooming a Sikh girl. The organisation that testified is suspected to have worked with the EDL.

Pakistani liberated Kashmir.

Despite this, Muslims have helped Sikhs in their struggle for independence, although by how much remains elusive.[159] Pakistan was careful to avoid confrontation with India between 1972 and 1989, but did not wholly avoid it's operations.[146] The Pakistanis provided money, weapons and strategic advice to the Sikh separatist movement.[146] The support was so substatial that India initiated the 1986—1987 Brasstacks Crisis which were done in order to deter Pakistan from supporting the Sikh cause.[146] However Pakistan did not back the Sikh uprising to the extent that they did for their Kashmiri brethren.[146] After 1984 violence, caused by the Sikh rebellion, caused killings to spiral out of control.[146] In 1983 for example there only 135 deaths, in 1986 there were 598 deaths, and in 1987, 1,238.[146] After Operation Blue Star in 1984, Pakistan was galvanized to exploit the situation.[146] However others have said Pakistani support for the Sikh cause waned.[146] There was no military confrontation on behalf of the Sikhs, unlike in stark contrast to the Kargil Crisis where Pakistan attempted to liberate the rest of Kashmir from the yoke of Indian oppression.[146] Hard evidence linking Pakistan to the training of Sikh militants has remained unfounded.[146] Pakistan had several reasons to support the Sikh cause nonetheless, such as destablizing India for the security of Pakistani sovereignty (and even financed it through the ISI selling drugs to finance such ventures).[147] However PM's Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto had differing views supporting Sikhs.[147]

The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

Destroyed Soviet gun-ship.

The Communist Coup:— Mohammad D. Khan was overthrown in April 1978, by communist forces of the Afghan military; lead by Nur M. Taraki.[148] This eventually would lead to the formation of an unstable Marxist-Leninist government called the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan, consisting of the Khalq and Parcham Party's.[148] This new government had very little support from the Afghan peoples.[148] This new government ended up cultivating ties with the Soviet Union, and also lead brutal purges targeted at any opposition movements.[148] Land and social reforms also contributed to the anti-communist feeling in the country.[148] Rebellions sprang up in the urban and tribal areas, and soon collectively these movements became known as the Mujahideen.[148] The uprisings, along with internal political rebellions, lead to the Soviets deciding for military intervention, sending 30,000 troops to invade on December 24th/27th 1979.[148][149] Hafizullah Amin (Khalq leader) was then overthrown and killed, with the Soviets backing Babrak Karmal (Parcham leader).[148] The Mujahideen, now backed by the United States, grew increasingly more powerful, especially when mass desertions occurred in the Afghan army, who's soldiers were against persecuting their own people.[148] The communists then decided to increase their presence (directing 100,000 soldiers), which lead to a stalemate (the Soviets took control of the cities and other areas, whereas the opposing forces moved freely amongst the countryside).[148]

"Soviet Retreat".

The Soviet invasion represented the largest mobilisation of Soviet forces since WWII.[150] They attacked the country in an initially well organised blitzkrieg; however this did not last long, and it withdrew in defeat nine years later (on April 14th, 1988).[149][151] The war became one of the defining moments of the end of the cold war era.[150] The withdrawal agreement that signified Soviet defeat, did nothing more than reaffirm the Soviet Unions wishes to abandon their allies,[151] who had originally supported the overthrowing of the the democratic government of Afghanistan in 1978 (from 1929 to that date the country had been an enormously peaceful country to live and work in).[152] The Soviet support for the communists devastated the country, and saw two additional wars rip the country apart in the coming decades; the second being the overthrow of the communist regime and then the American invasion of Afghanistan.[152] The Soviet Union's war was, however, one of the main factors that lead to the collapse of the empire[153] in several redeeming ways; for instance perceptions on the effectiveness of the Soviet military changed rapidly amongst the Russians, the division between the authority and military command was also widened, the isolation of the Soviet Unions non-Russian citizens proved problematic, and the weakening of the communist political hegemoney was growing.[154] During the course of the conflict Afghan guerrilla forces were portrayed favorably by anti-communist regimes in the West, ignoring the fact that such a force was also involved in the narcotics.[150]

Afghanistan before the Soviet invasion.

Consequences:— The war completely destroyed the economy, society and infrastructure of Afghanistan.[152] Unnatural Afghan deaths amounted to 876,825 dead (1978—1987)[152] which meant, on average, 240 Afghan's were killed on a daily basis by the Russians;[152] and that for every Soviet soldier that died, sixty Afghan's were murdered.[152] Approximately 1,500,000 people were also left disabled;[152] with psychological trauma also significiant.[152] In addition, some 6,000,000 Afghans were displaced externally by the 1990s, with Pakistan and Iran said to have "perform[ed] remarkably well" in regards to the safety and hosting of these refugees[n. 48] (however it should also be noted that many Afghans inside their own country were also displaced en masse).[152] Conditions were however not ideal, and many of Afghanistans skills in trade and farming were lost during this period; with the impact being that societies which continuously lose such structure will suffer from more war and conflict).[152] Women's rights also regressed during this period of Soviet occupation; Afghan women who were escaping the cruel aerial bombardments of the countryside[n. 49] for instance were surprised to see female guards in Kabul's prisons where many of them would be tortured by communist forces.[152] Prior to the war, women wore skirts openly and attitudes were largely liberal and progressive.[149] Despite this, the Afghans celebrated the defeat of the Soviet Union as a victory against an overwhelming and stronger superpower.[152][n. 50]

Narco-routes and the drug trade.

Pakistan sent billions of dollars in aid to the Afghan rebels, supporting them even up to 1996 which resulted in the triumph of the Taliban.[153] Concerning Iran, militarily and politically, Pakistan differed with it on Afghanistan significantly, even in the 1960s.[155] The oppressive and anit-democratic Shah of Iran was only concerned if it become a Soviet satellite-state, having already been surrounded by Ba'athists in the east of his country, and Soviets in the North; wanting to avoid complete encirclement (this fear was made worse in 1972 when the last Afghan king, Zahir Shah, was ousted by his cousin, Muhammad D. Khan, in 1972).[155] The Iranians did however financially support the Afghans.[155] Pakistan, on the other hand, was concerned with the increasing influence of India, notable for it's persecution and genocides against Muslims in their own country. As a result of the Indian threat, Pakistan has attempted always to have a Afghan government friendly to it's interests.[155] It it notable that the Shah also did not want Afghanistan to be under the influence of India either (since the Indians were allies of the Soviets; even an "Aryan Resistance" was proposed under his leadership).[155] Pakistan itself was also influenced by Saudi Arabia, who was "bent"[155] on allaying Iranian influence. Since then Pakistan used Islam to politically influence the Afghans.[155] By 1979, the Iranian Revolution, the Iran—Iraq War (1980—1988) and the Soviet War dramatically changed the positions of both countries.[155] Iranian influences effectively declined, allowing Pakistani influence to grow stronger.[155]

Iranian gun-boat, Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988).

The Soviet war effectively took Iran out of the equation, since it was already fighting for it's survival from the Western-backed Iraq regime.[155] Saying this, Iran, despite suffering massively financially (said to have lost $627—$930 billion dollars owed to the war);[156] accepted almost 3 million refugees from it's neighbour.[155] Iran was however fearful that any brazen support for their Afghan allies would have caused the USSR to focus it's attention on eliminating Iran through it's already ongoing war with Iraq.[155] The country did however support the Shia groups, causing some resentment from the Pakistani and Afghan Sunni population.[155] Iran however effectively lost out politically, culturally and religiously on the Afghan front.[155] After the war, and in 1992 when the native communists were ousted by the Mujahideen and Pakistan, Pakistan's policy in Afghanistan was to seek for a unified and friendly country.[157] Pakistan's involvement in the Soviet War was for good reasons;[157] it was fearful that Moscow's next move would be to instigate conflict in the country, and also may cause war between Pakistan and Afghanistan over territories historically claimed by greater Afghanistan (Khyber Pathunkwa).[157] Moscow had further already been quite hostile to Pakistan for allying itself with the United States (Moscow had already worked with India, supplying it with modern weapons in the 1971 Pakistani Civil War).[157] However Pakistan's interest in the country was about more than getting rid of the Soviets.[157]

Ahmad Shah Masud betrayed Pakistan.

Mujahideen Problems:— The Soviets still had hopes of interfering after their defeat. Pakistan was totally unwilling to let this be, given that the Soviets continued to support their allies, and had left large amounts of ammunitions behind.[157] Militarily, Pakistan had attacked towns such as Jalalabad, in aid of the Mujahideen.[157] Isolated, the Najibullah regime, collapsed.[157] By April 1992, Pakistan united all the groups of the Mujahideen, and formed an interim government; resulting in the "Peshawar Accords", further resulting in the presidency of Sibghatullah Mojeddadi, and afterwards Rabbani (the later of whom triggered a civil war when he refused to step down in 1993 after his tenure had ended).[157] Pakistan was outraged and supported his enemies in order to place him out of power, supporting one Pashtun group after another; feeling the Accords had been dishonored.[157] Pakistan felt even more betrayed after it's sacrifices were ignored by the Afghans, especially the leaders of some Afghan groups (such as Ahmad Shah Masud who was allied to Rabbani).[157] Furthermore such leaders wanted to use Iran, Russia and India to put pressure on Pakistan.[157] Things can to a standstill when four Afghan terrorists hijacked a bus; and were then killed in Islamabad.[157] In revenge, one Pakistani employee was killed in Kabul in the summer of 1994.[157] Pakistan became even more concerned when Rabbani and Masud began to invite Indian intelligence officers into the country to install military installations.[157]

Pakistan battling Taliban in 2015.

Betrayed, Pakistan sought other routes to the threat that now presented itself to the nation.[157] This other route was through the Taliban.[157] This was an entirely pragmatic relationship; the group were strong enough to stablise the Pashtun areas of the country, an important regard in the safety of the Pakistani state.[157] Furthermore the Taliban were able to rid Afghanistan of Indian influence; and increased confidence in the construction of oil pipelines and trade from Central Asia.[157] However, on the domestic and foreign policy fronts this proved to be a heavy price.[157] Domestically, religious fanatacism grew; risking Pakistan falling into the hands of political parties sympathetic to the Taliban (which lead to some success into the infiltration of Pakistani politics); mainly arising from Anti-American feeling and sympathy for the organisation, as well as disenfranchisement with the mainstream and nationalist parties.[157] Strategically however, Pakistan was placed into a far better position than before; but the alliance gave way to a complicated, and later domestically dangerous, relationship.[157] Pakistan's image and policies were now being wholly damaged; the Taliban were internationally seen by Iran and the Central Asian states (as well as the rest of the world) as medieval, harsh and anti-women.[157] With friction rising between the Taliban and the Pakistani state, trade with Central Asians remained an unrealized goal.[157] Given the growth in support for the organization, Pakistan found it very difficult to shake them off.[157]

c. 1990s—c. 2000s

Operation Chagai-I (May 28, 1998). The nuclear blast cracked open a 3km high mountain.[n. 51].

Nuclear Arms Race:— India first tested a nuclear device in 1974 when it commenced [n. 52] "Operation Smiling Buddha".[160][161] The test ultimately proved to yield an unknown amount of power[161] At the same time Pakistan maintained "a policy of deliberate nuclear ambiguity"[n. 53] well into the next decade; but did eventually reveal their own domestic built nuclear reactor in 1982.[160] It is notable that the first Indian test was secretly considered a failure.[160] India launched a second test on May 11th 1998,[162] Pakistan followed suit a fortnight later (on May 28th[162]) in "Operation Chaghai"[n. 54] in the Kharan Desert.[163] A second test, "Operation Chaghai-II" became active on May 30th[162]. Both were successful and yielded between 13—16 kt[162] from two[162] nuclear devices (claimed 40—45 kt[162][164] in a total of seven[162] tests) whilst India's totalled 15 kt[162] from three[162] nuclear devices (claimed 55[164]—60[162] kt in a total of five tests[162]). An independent study revealed that both countries had greatly exaggerated their nuclear capabilities;[162] where "a consortium of 90 research universities that operates a global network of 100 seismic monitoring stations endorsed" the "study's conclusions" that both claims were grossly exaggerated by a "factor of four".[162] On average this meant Pakistan had developed a far stronger nuclear deterrence (6.5—8.0 kt) than India's (5.0 kt) by the late 1990's.[162]

The nuclear tests infuriated the Western powers[165][n. 55] who offered a $15 billion dollar economic package in order to restrain Pakistan (but not India).[166] In 1982 the apartheid state of Israel, which is widely acknowledged to have nuclear weapons itself,[n. 56] (which has always routinely been supported by the United States) even actively planned an attack on Pakistan at the behest of India in an effort to prevent Islamic civilization from acquiring nuclear armed technology,[167] fearing an attack[167] in revenge for the continued genocide of the Palestinian people. However India had decided against it[167] and this was probably owed to the fact that Islamabad was already known as a de-facto nuclear power by the 1980's and was already suspected of having a nuclear weapon in it's possession.[160] Coupled with it's secrecy, the country was able to become the first Muslim nation,[163][168] the third official non-White country, and the seventh nation[163][169][170] in the entire world to successfully test their program. In 2004, Pakistan's 2,000km[160][171]—2,500km[171][172] (Hatf-6 White Falcon) SHAHEEN-II nuclear ballistic missile was tested,[160] and was revealed to reach as a far as the entirety of Israel.[160] However precisely when Pakistan successfully created it's first nuclear weapon remains a mystery, and may have had them for far longer than revealed. Lastly, not much is known about the Taimur, except for alleged diagrams that have appeared on some websites.[n. 57]

Pakistan's missiles (including the rumoured Taimur).
The Ghauri-II missile.

Pakistan's largest missile in current development is the 7,000 km Taimur Missile,[173][174] built in response to India's 5,000 km Agni V rocket.[173] India have tested their rocket several times in recent years near Pakistan. The country is however believed to have a massive stockpile of nuclear weapons (100—120[175]), built in an effort to deter radical Hindus; there has been widespread violence and several government sanctioned genocides against Muslims by fanatical Hindus party's (and Hindu terrorists[176]) who represent a large portion of the Hindu-majority. Hitler is amongst the most popular of figures in the country[177][178] and there are even films[179] and a popular clothing store dedicated to the dictator.[n. 58] Violent misogyny is regularly practiced, made worse by cinema where multiple rape scenes are popular,[180] Muslim women[181][182] and Western tourists[183] are routinely[184] gang raped on the streets by Hindu and Sikh[181] men, whilst raped girls from different religions and castes[185] are not even given a mention in the largely Hindu press. There are also around 50—60 million missing girls in India,[186][187] and many of them are forced to work in brothels[188] or forced to wed[182][188] their captors. The Hindu religion even stipulates that women are inferior[189][190] to men. However despite all these issues American intelligence agencies have repeatedly brought up issues regarding the safety of Pakistan's arsenal in Wikileak cables, despite Pakistan having stringent protection procedures.[191]

India's Muslim Nuclear Weapons Genius:— India's development of nuclear weapons is primarily down to a single distinguished Muslim[192] scientist A. P. J Abdul Kalam, who is known as the father of Indian missile technology,[193] the father of India's integrated guided missle development programme,[194] and as the father of the Indian nuclear bomb.[195][n. 59] He is often cited as the key figure in the development of India's nuclear weapons capability.[34] Kalam's earliest work was on Project SLV-III for ISRO, serving as director[196]; prior to this he worked for the DRDO.[197] In 1982, this time serving as Chief of the DRDO,[198], he penned the designs of a number of successful nuclear ballistic missiles (including work on India's signatory[199] Agni Class[196]),[197] earning him the name of "missile man";[197] This feat includes designs for the Prithvi, Akash, Trishul and Nag classes.[193] He designed the Agni rocket using the SLV-III solid fuel first-stage and a liquid second-stage from the Prithvi missile class.[196] Despite working for a country which vehemently treats Muslims as second -class citizens[200][n. 60] and has hatred for Pakistan, Kalam does not cite security concerns for the development of his missiles.[201] Kalam was born on October 15th, 1931 and graduated with a B.Sc. from St. Josephs College Tiruchirapalli.[202] He studied aeronautical engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology.[202] He died on July 27th, 2015,[195] and was given a state funeral,[203] attended by the "butcher of [Muslim] Gujurat" Narendra Modi.[204]

Abdul Kalam designed all of India's missiles.
Pakistan pounding the Indians during the war.

Third Kashmir Liberation War:— With it's new-found confidence and their nuclear weapons capability publicly declared and demonstrated, Pakistan lead another effort into freeing Kashmir from Hindu hands. The war demonstrated that Pakistan was at a clear advantage for having developed their own indigenous nuclear weapons capability.[205] Pakistan only stopped the war when it came under direct pressure from the United States to stop the battle.[205] Approximately 1,700 mujaheddin,[206] supported by Pakistan, had captured Indian territory on May 3rd, 1999, which later the Indians would claim. The Indians released a report further claiming that 474 of their soldiers had been killed in the fighting (a decade later a general claimed 530 were killed[207] when a mere year after the war the Indians were claiming only 407 were killed[208]), and 1,109 were wounded, whilst also claiming 700 Pakistanis had been killed, along with 243 "militants". However Pakistan figures later released more than a decade after the war, were found to have lost only 453 soldiers. It is interesting that during a political spat between Nawaz Sharif, then Prime Minister of Pakistan, and the military, Sharif made an exaggerated claim that "4,000" soldiers had been killed[209] when Indian estimations (already considered an exaggeration themselves based on previous wars), was a much lower number at 700. The Indian media would later proceed to claim this as "concrete" evidence[210] despite Sharif producing no evidence during the political spat;[n. 61] suggesting it was off the cuff.

Pakistani Nuclear Research Institutions

Shahab-3-exploded-diagram.jpg

Operation Chagai-I (May 28, 1998). The nuclear blast cracked open a 3km high mountain.[n. 63].

Nuclear Arms Race:— India first tested a nuclear device in 1974 when it commenced [n. 64] "Operation Smiling Buddha".[160][161] The test ultimately proved to yield an unknown amount of power[161] At the same time Pakistan maintained "a policy of deliberate nuclear ambiguity"[n. 65] well into the next decade; but did eventually reveal their own domestic built nuclear reactor in 1982.[160] It is notable that the first Indian test was secretly considered a failure.[160] India launched a second test on May 11th 1998,[162] Pakistan followed suit a fortnight later (on May 28th[162]) in "Operation Chaghai"[n. 66] in the Kharan Desert.[163] A second test, "Operation Chaghai-II" became active on May 30th[162]. Both were successful and yielded between 13—16 kt[162] from two[162] nuclear devices (claimed 40—45 kt[162][164] in a total of seven[162] tests) whilst India's totalled 15 kt[162] from three[162] nuclear devices (claimed 55[164]—60[162] kt in a total of five tests[162]). An independent study revealed that both countries had greatly exaggerated their nuclear capabilities;[162] where "a consortium of 90 research universities that operates a global network of 100 seismic monitoring stations endorsed" the "study's conclusions" that both claims were grossly exaggerated by a "factor of four".[162] On average this meant Pakistan had developed a far stronger nuclear deterrence (6.5—8.0 kt) than India's (5.0 kt) by the late 1990's.[162]

Pakistan's missiles (including the rumoured Taimur).

The nuclear tests infuriated the Western powers[165][n. 67] offered a $15 billion dollar economic package in order to restrain Pakistan (but not India).[166] In 1982 the apartheid state of Israel, which is widely acknowledged to have nuclear weapons itself,[n. 68] (which has always routinely been supported by the United States) even actively planned an attack on Pakistan at the behest of India in an effort to prevent Islamic civilization from acquiring nuclear armed technology,[167] fearing an attack[167] in revenge for the continued genocide of the Palestinian people. However India had decided against it[167] and this was probably owed to the fact that Islamabad was already known as a de-facto nuclear power by the 1980's and was already suspected of having a nuclear weapon in it's possession.[160] Coupled with it's secrecy, the country was able to become the first Muslim nation,[163][168] the third official non-White country, and the seventh nation[163][169][170] in the entire world to successfully test their program. In 2004, Pakistan's 2,000km[160][171]—2,500km[171][172] (Hatf-6 White Falcon) SHAHEEN-II nuclear ballistic missile was tested,[160] and was revealed to reach as a far as the entirety of Israel.[160] However precisely when Pakistan successfully created it's first nuclear weapon remains a mystery, and may have had them for far longer than revealed. Lastly, not much is known about the Taimur, except for alleged diagrams that have appeared on some websites.[n. 69]

The Ghauri-II missile.

Pakistan's largest missile in current development is the 7,000 km Taimur Missile,[173][174] built in response to India's 5,000 km Agni V rocket.[173] India have tested their rocket several times in recent years near Pakistan. The country is however believed to have a massive stockpile of nuclear weapons (100—120[175]), built in an effort to deter radical Hindus; there has been widespread violence and several government sanctioned genocides against Muslims by fanatical Hindus party's (and Hindu terrorists[176]) who represent a large portion of the Hindu-majority. Hitler is amongst the most popular of figures in the country[177][178] and there are even films[179] and a popular clothing store dedicated to the dictator.[n. 70] Violent misogyny is regularly practiced, made worse by cinema where multiple rape scenes are popular,[180] Muslim women[181][182] and Western tourists[183] are routinely[184] gang raped on the streets by Hindu and Sikh[181] men, whilst raped girls from different religions and castes[185] are not even given a mention in the largely Hindu press. There are also around 50—60 million missing girls in India,[186][187] and many of them are forced to work in brothels[188] or forced to wed[182][188] their captors. The Hindu religion even stipulates that women are inferior[189][190] to men. However despite all these issues American intelligence agencies have repeatedly brought up issues regarding the safety of Pakistan's arsenal in Wikileak cables, despite Pakistan having stringent protection procedures.[191]

Abdul Kalam designed all of India's missiles.

India's Muslim Nuclear Weapons Genius:— India's development of nuclear weapons is primarily down to a single distinguished Muslim[192] scientist A. P. J Abdul Kalam, who is known as the father of Indian missile technology,[193] the father of India's integrated guided missle development programme,[194] and as the father of the Indian nuclear bomb.[195][n. 71] He is often cited as the key figure in the development of India's nuclear weapons capability.[34] Kalam's earliest work was on Project SLV-III for ISRO, serving as director[196]; prior to this he worked for the DRDO.[197] In 1982, this time serving as Chief of the DRDO,[198], he penned the designs of a number of successful nuclear ballistic missiles (including work on India's signatory[199] Agni Class[196]),[197] earning him the name of "missile man";[197] This feat includes designs for the Prithvi, Akash, Trishul and Nag classes.[193] He designed the Agni rocket using the SLV-III solid fuel first-stage and a liquid second-stage from the Prithvi missile class.[196] Despite working for a country which vehemently treats Muslims as second -class citizens[200][n. 72] and has hatred for Pakistan, Kalam does not cite security concerns for the development of his missiles.[201] Kalam was born on October 15th, 1931 and graduated with a B.Sc. from St. Josephs College Tiruchirapalli.[202] He studied aeronautical engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology.[202] He died on July 27th, 2015,[195] and was given a state funeral,[203] attended by the "butcher of [Muslim] Gujurat" Narendra Modi.[204]

Pakistan pounding the Indians during the war.

Third Kashmir Liberation War:— With it's new-found confidence and their nuclear weapons capability publicly declared and demonstrated, Pakistan lead another effort into freeing Kashmir from Hindu hands. The war demonstrated that Pakistan was at a clear advantage for having developed their own indigenous nuclear weapons capability.[205] Pakistan only stopped the war when it came under direct pressure from the United States to stop the battle.[205] Approximately 1,700 mujaheddin,[206] supported by Pakistan, had captured Indian territory on May 3rd, 1999, which later the Indians would claim. The Indians released a report further claiming that 474 of their soldiers had been killed in the fighting (a decade later a general claimed 530 were killed[207] when a mere year after the war the Indians were claiming only 407 were killed[208]), and 1,109 were wounded, whilst also claiming 700 Pakistanis had been killed, along with 243 "militants". However Pakistan figures later released more than a decade after the war, were found to have lost only 453 soldiers. It is interesting that during a political spat between Nawaz Sharif, then Prime Minister of Pakistan, and the military, Sharif made an exaggerated claim that "4,000" soldiers had been killed[209] when Indian estimations (already considered an exaggeration themselves based on previous wars), was a much lower number at 700. The Indian media would later proceed to claim this as "concrete" evidence[210] despite Sharif producing no evidence during the political spat;[n. 73] suggesting it was off the cuff.

Supplementary Forces

Federal Agencies

The Special Services Group in training.[1]

Tactical Units:— Pakistan also has an elite special force tactical unit known as the Special Services Group (SSG). In 2015 the SSG were ranked number one in the world by the "Australian Business Insider"; as the most formidable special tactical unit in the world.[215] The UK edition ranked Pakistan eighth,[216] whereas India did not even make the list.[216] In 2014, the SSG were ranked in ninth position by "The Richest".[217] Pakistan also has an elite intelligence agency; the Inter-Services Intelligence Agency (ISI) which has also been ranked (several times) as the number one intelligence agency in the world.[218][219] Other sources have ranked it anywhere between seventh position[220][221] to fifth[222] including the Indian media itself ranking it above their own intelligence agency (RAW) placing themselves sixth and Pakistan 5th.[223] Several decades prior to these current rankings, the ISI had already achieved the status as the best intelligence agency in the third world (especially in the 1990s).[224] The ISI also has the lengthiest level of success compared to other intelligence agencies with no defectors on record, the most number of agents at operating at any one time, thought to be 10,000[5] based on 2005 figures (the Indians on the other hand claim that it is much more, at a strength of between 25,000–40,000, with 9,000 agents having retired or been transferred in 1993[225][226]).[5] This is surprising given the fact that it is the least well funded agency of the top ten.[227]

Paramilitary:— Pakistan currently has several paramilitary organizations on active duty, which are the Pakistan Rangers (1958) numbering at some 43,246, Pakistan Coast Guards (1973) at 3,832, Frontier Constabulary (1958) at 19,387, Frontier Corps (1959) at 90,318, and the Gilgit-Baltistan Scouts (2004) at 2,477 in 2014.[228] This totals to 159,260 personnel.[228] Pakistan additionally in 2010 had 409,753 active duty police officers, which is approximately one police officer per 403 people.[228] The largest of these forces is in the Punjab at 177,492, followed by the Sindh at 107,445, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa at 78,300, Balochistan at 33,481, Gilgit-Baltistan at 4,662 and finally 8,373 police officers for Azad Jammu and Kashmir; housed in 1,479 police stations across the country.[228] Other law enforcement organizations include the Levies (1889), 16,562 of whom serve the organisation, the Khasadar Force (1921), which houses 16,242 agents, the Federal Investigation Agency (1975) housing 3,500 officials, the Islamabad Capital Territory Police (1981) who number 10,995, the Anti-Narcotics Force (1995) consisting of 3,100 agents, the National Highways and Motorway Police (1997) at 5,000, the National Accountability Bureau (1999), at 800, the National Police Bureau (2002), at 50, and the National Counter-Terrorism Authority (2009), which consists of 203 agents. Still yet other organisations consists of the Pakistan Railways Police (PRP), at a number of 7,074 servicemen, and the armed Airport Security Force (ASF) at 4,500.[228] In total these "others" consist an additional 68,026.[228]

ISI Agents; "Snake Eaters".
The Special Services Group in training.[2]

Tactical Units:— Pakistan also has an elite special force tactical unit known as the Special Services Group (SSG). In 2015 the SSG were ranked number one in the world by the "Australian Business Insider"; as the most formidable special tactical unit in the world.[215] The UK edition ranked Pakistan eighth,[216] whereas India did not even make the list.[216] In 2014, the SSG were ranked in ninth position by "The Richest".[217] Pakistan also has an elite intelligence agency; the Inter-Services Intelligence Agency (ISI) which has also been ranked (several times) as the number one intelligence agency in the world.[218][219] Other sources have ranked it anywhere between seventh position[220][221] to fifth[222] including the Indian media itself ranking it above their own intelligence agency (RAW) placing themselves sixth and Pakistan 5th.[223] Several decades prior to these current rankings, the ISI had already achieved the status as the best intelligence agency in the third world (especially in the 1990s).[224] The ISI also has the lengthiest level of success compared to other intelligence agencies with no defectors on record, the most number of agents at operating at any one time, thought to be 10,000[5] based on 2005 figures (the Indians on the other hand claim that it is much more, at a strength of between 25,000–40,000, with 9,000 agents having retired or been transferred in 1993[225][226]).[5] This is surprising given the fact that it is the least well funded agency of the top ten.[227]

ISI Agents; "Snake Eaters".

Paramilitary:— Pakistan currently has several paramilitary organizations on active duty, which are the Pakistan Rangers (1958) numbering at some 43,246, Pakistan Coast Guards (1973) at 3,832, Frontier Constabulary (1958) at 19,387, Frontier Corps (1959) at 90,318, and the Gilgit-Baltistan Scouts (2004) at 2,477 in 2014.[228] This totals to 159,260 personnel.[228] Pakistan additionally in 2010 had 409,753 active duty police officers, which is approximately one police officer per 403 people.[228] The largest of these forces is in the Punjab at 177,492, followed by the Sindh at 107,445, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa at 78,300, Balochistan at 33,481, Gilgit-Baltistan at 4,662 and finally 8,373 police officers for Azad Jammu and Kashmir; housed in 1,479 police stations across the country.[228] Other law enforcement organizations include the Levies (1889), 16,562 of whom serve the organisation, the Khasadar Force (1921), which houses 16,242 agents, the Federal Investigation Agency (1975) housing 3,500 officials, the Islamabad Capital Territory Police (1981) who number 10,995, the Anti-Narcotics Force (1995) consisting of 3,100 agents, the National Highways and Motorway Police (1997) at 5,000, the National Accountability Bureau (1999), at 800, the National Police Bureau (2002), at 50, and the National Counter-Terrorism Authority (2009), which consists of 203 agents. Still yet other organisations consists of the Pakistan Railways Police (PRP), at a number of 7,074 servicemen, and the armed Airport Security Force (ASF) at 4,500.[228] In total these "others" consist an additional 68,026.[228]

Gallery

Military Ranks

Honour Medals[229]

SEE DESKTOP VERSION

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ The nine army corps are made up of the 1st Mangla Corps (situated at Kashmir), 2nd Multan Corps (Punjabi), 4th Lahore Corps (Punjab), 5th Karachi Corps (Sindh), 10th Rawalpindi Corps (Punjab), 11th Peshawar Corps (Khyber Pathunkwa), 12th Quetta Corps (Baluchistan), 30th Gujranwala Corps (Punjab), and the 31st Bahawalpur Corps (Punjab).
    1. Professor Scott Gates; Dr Kaushik Roy (4 February 2014). [Professor Scott Gates; Dr Kaushik Roy (4 February 2014). Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4094-3706-2. Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency]. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4094-3706-2.
  2. ^ The nine army corps are made up of the 1st Mangla Corps (situated at Kashmir), 2nd Multan Corps (Punjabi), 4th Lahore Corps (Punjab), 5th Karachi Corps (Sindh), 10th Rawalpindi Corps (Punjab), 11th Peshawar Corps (Khyber Pathunkwa), 12th Quetta Corps (Baluchistan), 30th Gujranwala Corps (Punjab), and the 31st Bahawalpur Corps (Punjab).
    1. Professor Scott Gates; Dr Kaushik Roy (4 February 2014). [Professor Scott Gates; Dr Kaushik Roy (4 February 2014). Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4094-3706-2. Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency]. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4094-3706-2.
  3. ^ Unporven allegations were also made that the drones were of "Chinese origin" by a Western military blogger on the basis that the models "resemble" (look like) the Chinese CH-3 drone; such articles made absolutely no mention of the technology inside the UACV and judged it solely on looks and other speculation. Furthermore, China has not claimed any ownership of Pakistani drone technology.
    1. Such speculatory blogs were those of Doughlas Barrie
    Numerous newspapers (such as the Guardian) and well-respected investigation journalists noted how it was a significant breakthrough for Pakistan.
    1. Jon Boone (13 March 2015). Pakistan military's new combat drone is 'great national achievement'. The Guardian. Retrieved June 25th, 2015.
    2. http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/pakistan-army-fires-indigenous-missile-from-uav-410253/
    3. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/23/pakistan-marks-national-day-with-first-military-parade-in-seven-years
    4. http://www.popsci.com/pakistan-successfully-tests-armed-drones
    5. http://dunyanews.tv/index.php/en/Pakistan/267301-Pakistan-successfully-testfires-its-very-own-arme
  4. ^ The IRGCN (Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps Navy) deployed several types of domestically built UAV's, beginning in 1985, that included having models that "could carry rockets or bombs or undertake “kamikaze” missions" in order to counter U.S. naval presence in the Persian Gulf. A rocket-carrying UAV capable of holding up to six RPG-7 rounds was used in combat against Iraqi ground forces which became the the world’s first combat application of an unmanned combat aerial vehicle in war.
    1. Haghshenass, Fariborz (September 2008). "Iran's Asymmetric Naval Warfare". Policy Focus (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy) (87): 17. Retrieved June 25th, 2015.
  5. ^ American jets appear far too expensive to import for Pakistan with an American built F-16 jet normally costing $125 million dollars, whereas a Chinese J-15 jet only costs $25 million dollars. A batch of 50 jets would cost $1,250 million dollars for the country as opposed to $6,260 million dollars, 500.8% more or a saving of around 80%.
    1. Adnan Rehmat (May 24, 2011). Sky Wars: Pakistan, India and China. Dawn. Retrieved June 28th, 2015.
  6. ^ The JF-17 is also able to carry the Ra'ad cruise missle.
    1. Pakistan successfully test-fired Air Launched Cruise Missile Ra’ad. February 3rd, 2015. Jagran Josh. Retrieved June 28th, 2015.
  7. ^ Unporven allegations were also made that the drones were of "Chinese origin" by a Western military blogger on the basis that the models "resemble" (look like) the Chinese CH-3 drone; such articles made absolutely no mention of the technology inside the UACV and judged it solely on looks and other speculation. Furthermore, China has not claimed any ownership of Pakistani drone technology.
    1. Such speculatory blogs were those of Doughlas Barrie
    Numerous newspapers (such as the Guardian) and well-respected investigation journalists noted how it was a significant breakthrough for Pakistan.
    1. Jon Boone (13 March 2015). Pakistan military's new combat drone is 'great national achievement'. The Guardian. Retrieved June 25th, 2015.
    2. http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/pakistan-army-fires-indigenous-missile-from-uav-410253/
    3. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/23/pakistan-marks-national-day-with-first-military-parade-in-seven-years
    4. http://www.popsci.com/pakistan-successfully-tests-armed-drones
    5. http://dunyanews.tv/index.php/en/Pakistan/267301-Pakistan-successfully-testfires-its-very-own-arme
  8. ^ The IRGCN (Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps Navy) deployed several types of domestically built UAV's, beginning in 1985, that included having models that "could carry rockets or bombs or undertake “kamikaze” missions" in order to counter U.S. naval presence in the Persian Gulf. A rocket-carrying UAV capable of holding up to six RPG-7 rounds was used in combat against Iraqi ground forces which became the the world’s first combat application of an unmanned combat aerial vehicle in war.
    1. Haghshenass, Fariborz (September 2008). "Iran's Asymmetric Naval Warfare". Policy Focus (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy) (87): 17. Retrieved June 25th, 2015.
  9. ^ American jets appear far too expensive to import for Pakistan with an American built F-16 jet normally costing $125 million dollars, whereas a Chinese J-15 jet only costs $25 million dollars. A batch of 50 jets would cost $1,250 million dollars for the country as opposed to $6,260 million dollars, 500.8% more or a saving of around 80%.
    1. Adnan Rehmat (May 24, 2011). Sky Wars: Pakistan, India and China. Dawn. Retrieved June 28th, 2015.
  10. ^ The JF-17 is also able to carry the Ra'ad cruise missle.
    1. Pakistan successfully test-fired Air Launched Cruise Missile Ra’ad. February 3rd, 2015. Jagran Josh. Retrieved June 28th, 2015.
  11. ^ It is also illustrated by the fact that between 1949 and 1950 Pakistan's defense expenditure was taking up much of it's state budgest; 73% of it's GDP in fact, which later fell to 24%—25% at the start of the 21st century. Current levels are somewhere between 6—7% of GDP levels.
    1. Environment, Security and Tourism Development in South Asia: Security and regional aspirations in South Asia. Gyan Publishing House. 2004. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-81-8205-138-6.
  12. ^ Unfortunately however, this completely disregarded the diplomatic costs of Pakistan allying itself to the US.
    1. Environment, Security and Tourism Development in South Asia: Security and regional aspirations in South Asia. Gyan Publishing House. 2004. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-81-8205-138-6.
  13. ^ More specifically it's access to Central Asia and other regional countries.
    1. M. V. Ramana; C. Rammanohar Reddy (1 January 2003). Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream. Orient Blackswan. p. 48. ISBN 978-81-250-2477-4.
  14. ^ For the secure release of Pakistani troops in Bangladesh who had become stranded there after the 1971 Pakistani Civil War.
    1. Shiping Tang; Mingjiang Li; Amitav Acharya (23 June 2009). Living with China. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-230-62262-3.
  15. ^ China further sees the alliance as part of its "value[s] in promoting its image as the Security Council member defending the rights of the developing world".
    1. Thalif Deen (October 28th, 2010). China: 'Pakistan is our Israel'. Al Jazeera. Retrieved July 4th, 2015.
  16. ^ Additionally in June 2015 a Chinese company offered $50 billion dollars worth of investment for Pakistan's hydroelectric projects.
    1. China offers $50b to Pakistan for hydro projects. June 3rd, 2015. Pakistan Today. Retrieved June 4th, 2015.
  17. ^ Things such as Pakistan's donation of $2,000,000 dollars, and 30,000 tents to the victims of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake are not widely known.
    1. Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian (April 22, 2015). China Loves Pakistan … but Most Chinese Don’t. Foreign Policy. Retrieved July 26th, 2015.
  18. ^ This total concerns many funds, the most important of which are the Counter Narcotics Fund, Coalition Support Fund, Child Survival and Health Fund, Development Assistance Fund, Economic Support Fund, Foreign Military Financing Fund, Human Rights and Democracy Fund, International Disaster Assistance Fund, International Military Education and Training Fund, International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Fund, Migration and Refugee Assistance Fund, Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining, and Related Funds, and the Pakistan Counterinsurgency Fund/Counterinsurgency Capability Fund.
    1. K. Alan Kronstadt, Susan Epstein (February 10, 2015). Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations for and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2016. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved September 8th, 2015.
  19. ^ Indeed he was hoping for independence
    1. Karl J. Schmidt. An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. M.E. Sharpe. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-7656-3757-4.
  20. ^

  21. ^ It is also illustrated by the fact that between 1949 and 1950 Pakistan's defense expenditure was taking up much of it's state budgest; 73% of it's GDP in fact, which later fell to 24%—25% at the start of the 21st century. Current levels are somewhere between 6—7% of GDP levels.
    1. Environment, Security and Tourism Development in South Asia: Security and regional aspirations in South Asia. Gyan Publishing House. 2004. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-81-8205-138-6.
  22. ^ Unfortunately however, this completely disregarded the diplomatic costs of Pakistan allying itself to the US.
    1. Environment, Security and Tourism Development in South Asia: Security and regional aspirations in South Asia. Gyan Publishing House. 2004. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-81-8205-138-6.
  23. ^ More specifically it's access to Central Asia and other regional countries.
    1. M. V. Ramana; C. Rammanohar Reddy (1 January 2003). Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream. Orient Blackswan. p. 48. ISBN 978-81-250-2477-4.
  24. ^ For the secure release of Pakistani troops in Bangladesh who had become stranded there after the 1971 Pakistani Civil War.
    1. Shiping Tang; Mingjiang Li; Amitav Acharya (23 June 2009). Living with China. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-230-62262-3.
  25. ^ China further sees the alliance as part of its "value[s] in promoting its image as the Security Council member defending the rights of the developing world".
    1. Thalif Deen (October 28th, 2010). China: 'Pakistan is our Israel'. Al Jazeera. Retrieved July 4th, 2015.
  26. ^ Additionally in June 2015 a Chinese company offered $50 billion dollars worth of investment for Pakistan's hydroelectric projects.
    1. China offers $50b to Pakistan for hydro projects. June 3rd, 2015. Pakistan Today. Retrieved June 4th, 2015.
  27. ^ Things such as Pakistan's donation of $2,000,000 dollars, and 30,000 tents to the victims of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake are not widely known.
    1. Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian (April 22, 2015). China Loves Pakistan … but Most Chinese Don’t. Foreign Policy. Retrieved July 26th, 2015.
  28. ^ This total concerns many funds, the most important of which are the Counter Narcotics Fund, Coalition Support Fund, Child Survival and Health Fund, Development Assistance Fund, Economic Support Fund, Foreign Military Financing Fund, Human Rights and Democracy Fund, International Disaster Assistance Fund, International Military Education and Training Fund, International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Fund, Migration and Refugee Assistance Fund, Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining, and Related Funds, and the Pakistan Counterinsurgency Fund/Counterinsurgency Capability Fund.
    1. K. Alan Kronstadt, Susan Epstein (February 10, 2015). Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations for and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2016. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved September 8th, 2015.
  29. ^ Indeed he was hoping for independence
    1. Karl J. Schmidt. An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. M.E. Sharpe. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-7656-3757-4.
  30. ^

  31. ^ One such issue was that Bengalis only made up 7% of the military, despite being 56% of the population
    1. Manus I. Midlarsky (17 March 2011). Origins of Political Extremism: Mass Violence in the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Cambridge University Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 978-1-139-50077-7.
  32. ^ One such issue was that Bengalis only made up 7% of the military, despite being 56% of the population
    1. Manus I. Midlarsky (17 March 2011). Origins of Political Extremism: Mass Violence in the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Cambridge University Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 978-1-139-50077-7.
  33. ^ India also had to deal with 10 million refugees that eventually lead to inflationary problems; some commodity prices doubled within months, and it was later estimated that the cost of the refugees would run into $800 million dollars a year (India's response was to tax them).
    1. P. Sukumaran Nair (2008). Indo-Bangladesh Relations. APH Publishing. p. 190-191. ISBN 978-81-313-0408-2.
    India also spent 2 billion rupees a week to manage the war.
    1. Shrikant Rao (Sunday Mid-Day, July 4, 1999). THE PRICE OF WAR. p. 10. South Asia Citizens Web. Retrieved August 20th, 2015.
  34. ^ "...this very equation has set off an incredible amount of anti-India feeling within Bangladesh, especially as New Delhi was seen as not reciprocating Dhaka’s “concessions” in equal measure".
    #Uncertainty in Bangladesh. January 1, 2014. The Hindu. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
  35. ^ See for example:
    1. Harris, Gardiner (May 16, 2014). For India’s Persecuted Muslim Minority, Caution Follows Hindu Party’s Victory. New York Times. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
    2. Shaikh Azizur Rahman (10 December 2013). Muslims masquerade as Hindus for India jobs. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
    3. Palash Ghosh (March 19, 2014). India: discrimination prevents Muslims access to education. Muslim Village. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
  36. ^ There were originally two, but the smaller state of Hyderabad had 27,000-40,000 of it's Muslims massacred in the Hyderabad massacre of 1948, when the Muslim Nizam declared for neither India or Pakistan in August 1947; where India then aggressively and savagely invaded and later kept secret of this until the early 2010s.
    1. Mike Thomson (24 September 2013). Hyderabad 1948: India's hidden massacre. BBC News. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
  37. ^ Matthew White (July 2005). Minor Atrocities of the Twentieth Century. Quotes the following books;
    1. Eckhardt, William, in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987-88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
    2. Clodfelter, Michael, Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618-1991.
  38. ^ India also had to deal with 10 million refugees that eventually lead to inflationary problems; some commodity prices doubled within months, and it was later estimated that the cost of the refugees would run into $800 million dollars a year (India's response was to tax them).
    1. P. Sukumaran Nair (2008). Indo-Bangladesh Relations. APH Publishing. p. 190-191. ISBN 978-81-313-0408-2.
    India also spent 2 billion rupees a week to manage the war.
    1. Shrikant Rao (Sunday Mid-Day, July 4, 1999). THE PRICE OF WAR. p. 10. South Asia Citizens Web. Retrieved August 20th, 2015.
  39. ^ "...this very equation has set off an incredible amount of anti-India feeling within Bangladesh, especially as New Delhi was seen as not reciprocating Dhaka’s “concessions” in equal measure".
    #Uncertainty in Bangladesh. January 1, 2014. The Hindu. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
  40. ^ See for example:
    1. Harris, Gardiner (May 16, 2014). For India’s Persecuted Muslim Minority, Caution Follows Hindu Party’s Victory. New York Times. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
    2. Shaikh Azizur Rahman (10 December 2013). Muslims masquerade as Hindus for India jobs. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
    3. Palash Ghosh (March 19, 2014). India: discrimination prevents Muslims access to education. Muslim Village. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
  41. ^ There were originally two, but the smaller state of Hyderabad had 27,000-40,000 of it's Muslims massacred in the Hyderabad massacre of 1948, when the Muslim Nizam declared for neither India or Pakistan in August 1947; where India then aggressively and savagely invaded and later kept secret of this until the early 2010s.
    1. Mike Thomson (24 September 2013). Hyderabad 1948: India's hidden massacre. BBC News. Retrieved 4th December 2014.
  42. ^ Matthew White (July 2005). Minor Atrocities of the Twentieth Century. Quotes the following books;
    1. Eckhardt, William, in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987-88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
    2. Clodfelter, Michael, Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618-1991.
  43. ^ Quote: "Consider the fact that some 100-120 million human beings can be classified as ethnic Punjabis...Eighty million Punjabis live mainly in Pakistan's western Punjab...30 million in India, mainly in Indian eastern Punjab...10 million are dispersed outside the Indian subcontinent."
    1. Ishtiaq Ahmed (May 24th, 2008). Punjabis Without Punjabi. Academy of the Punjab in North America. International The News. Retrieved September 14th, 2015.
  44. ^ The Soviet campaign was so horrendous that 2.8 million and 1.5 million Afghan's sought asylum (and were given it) in Pakistan and Iran.
    1. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (Laura Etheredge and others). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 20th, 2015.
  45. ^ The guerilla tactics eventually forced the Soviets to rethink their strategy, who now started a genocidal campaign to depopulate areas of support (bombing the whole of the countryside).
    1. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (Laura Etheredge and others). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 20th, 2015.
  46. ^ The final blow to the Soviets came in the form of the Afghan's destroying the Soviet air force in the country through anti-aircraft missiles.
    1. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (Laura Etheredge and others). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 20th, 2015.
  47. ^ Quote: "Consider the fact that some 100-120 million human beings can be classified as ethnic Punjabis...Eighty million Punjabis live mainly in Pakistan's western Punjab...30 million in India, mainly in Indian eastern Punjab...10 million are dispersed outside the Indian subcontinent."
    1. Ishtiaq Ahmed (May 24th, 2008). Punjabis Without Punjabi. Academy of the Punjab in North America. International The News. Retrieved September 14th, 2015.
  48. ^ The Soviet campaign was so horrendous that 2.8 million and 1.5 million Afghan's sought asylum (and were given it) in Pakistan and Iran.
    1. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (Laura Etheredge and others). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 20th, 2015.
  49. ^ The guerilla tactics eventually forced the Soviets to rethink their strategy, who now started a genocidal campaign to depopulate areas of support (bombing the whole of the countryside).
    1. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (Laura Etheredge and others). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 20th, 2015.
  50. ^ The final blow to the Soviets came in the form of the Afghan's destroying the Soviet air force in the country through anti-aircraft missiles.
    1. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (Laura Etheredge and others). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 20th, 2015.
  51. ^ This was followed by Operation Chagai-II (May 30, 1998). The Indian Parliament was left furious; India had also lied about it's test on May 13th, which scientists say "never happened"
  52. ^ It could have been launched to provoke a response from Pakistan to see what sort of nuclear deterrence they'd developed.
  53. ^
    1. In March 2005, the former Pakistan Prime minister Benazir Bhutto said Pakistan may have had an atomic weapon long before, and her father had told her from his prison cell that preparations for a nuclear test had been made in 1977, and he expected to have an atomic test of a nuclear device in August 1977. However, the plan was moved on to December 1977 and later it was delayed indefinitely. In an interview with Geo TV, Samar Mubarakmand of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, has said that the team of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission developed the design of atomic bomb in 1978 and had successfully conducted a cold test after developing the first atomic bomb in 1983.[18 ]
      1. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/pakistan/nuke.htm
  54. ^ Also known as "Operation Chaghai-I"
  55. ^ Before 1998 several Western countries had had nuclear hegemony over the entire world and began spreading their own nuclear weapons around the globe placing them at strategically chosen locations, Western countries were producing tens of thousands of nuclear warheads since the end of World War II.
  56. ^ (as of yet "officially" untested)
  57. ^ Such as this website:
    1. MahrKids (October 5th, 2013). Intercontinental Ballistic Missile of Pakistan. F9View. Retrieved August 20th, 2015.
  58. ^ (which only changed it's name following political pressure by Israeli diplomats in 2012).
    1. India's Hitler clothing shop owners to choose new name. 4 September 2012. BBC News. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  59. ^
    1. APJ Abdul Kalam, India's former president, dies. 27 July 2015. BBC. Retrieved August 17th, 2015.
    Quote: "Mr Kalam joined the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in the neighbouring state of Kerala in the 1960s as one of its first three engineers.
    He played a major role in the centre's evolution to a key hub of space research in India, helping to develop the country's first indigenous satellite-launch vehicle. He worked for the Defence Research and Development Organization and the Indian Space Research Organization. Indian scientists have hailed him as the father of the Indian nuclear bomb and its missile delivery systems. He also played a key role when India tested its nuclear weapons in 1998. The former president was proud of his Indian education and liked to describe himself as "Made in India", having never been trained abroad."
  60. ^ Quote: "A day before Memon was hanged, a widely-shared picture on Twitter showed both Memon and Kalam being laid to rest. Kalam had the Indian flag’s chakra above his head, Memon had a green crescent. Kalam was the ‘Indian’, Memon was the ‘Muslim’. When urban, tech-savvy Indians, in their celebratory frenzy, refer only to the Muslim-ness of Memon — with comments such as ‘his meeting with 72 virgins’ — it’s important to remind them that the man they claim to love so much, Mr Kalam, was also Muslim".
    1. Irena Akbar (August 6, 2015). ‘Indian’ Kalam and ‘Muslim’ Memon. The Indian Express. Retrieved August 20th, 2015.
  61. ^ Nawaz Sharif would have unlikely been able to access military records given the fact that he claimed he did not know anything about the war and was politically at conflict with the military itself
  62. ^ Additional facilities in Islamabad, Lahore, Multan, and Peshawar.
  63. ^ This was followed by Operation Chagai-II (May 30, 1998). The Indian Parliament was left furious; India had also lied about it's test on May 13th, which scientists say "never happened"
  64. ^ It could have been launched to provoke a response from Pakistan to see what sort of nuclear deterrence they'd developed.
  65. ^
    1. In March 2005, the former Pakistan Prime minister Benazir Bhutto said Pakistan may have had an atomic weapon long before, and her father had told her from his prison cell that preparations for a nuclear test had been made in 1977, and he expected to have an atomic test of a nuclear device in August 1977. However, the plan was moved on to December 1977 and later it was delayed indefinitely. In an interview with Geo TV, Samar Mubarakmand of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, has said that the team of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission developed the design of atomic bomb in 1978 and had successfully conducted a cold test after developing the first atomic bomb in 1983.[18 ]
      1. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/pakistan/nuke.htm
  66. ^ Also known as "Operation Chaghai-I"
  67. ^ Before 1998 several Western countries had had nuclear hegemony over the entire world and began spreading their own nuclear weapons around the globe placing them at strategically chosen locations, Western countries were producing tens of thousands of nuclear warheads since the end of World War II.
  68. ^ (as of yet "officially" untested)
  69. ^ Such as this website:
    1. MahrKids (October 5th, 2013). Intercontinental Ballistic Missile of Pakistan. F9View. Retrieved August 20th, 2015.
  70. ^ (which only changed it's name following political pressure by Israeli diplomats in 2012).
    1. India's Hitler clothing shop owners to choose new name. 4 September 2012. BBC News. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  71. ^
    1. APJ Abdul Kalam, India's former president, dies. 27 July 2015. BBC. Retrieved August 17th, 2015.
    Quote: "Mr Kalam joined the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in the neighbouring state of Kerala in the 1960s as one of its first three engineers.
    He played a major role in the centre's evolution to a key hub of space research in India, helping to develop the country's first indigenous satellite-launch vehicle. He worked for the Defence Research and Development Organization and the Indian Space Research Organization. Indian scientists have hailed him as the father of the Indian nuclear bomb and its missile delivery systems. He also played a key role when India tested its nuclear weapons in 1998. The former president was proud of his Indian education and liked to describe himself as "Made in India", having never been trained abroad."
  72. ^ Quote: "A day before Memon was hanged, a widely-shared picture on Twitter showed both Memon and Kalam being laid to rest. Kalam had the Indian flag’s chakra above his head, Memon had a green crescent. Kalam was the ‘Indian’, Memon was the ‘Muslim’. When urban, tech-savvy Indians, in their celebratory frenzy, refer only to the Muslim-ness of Memon — with comments such as ‘his meeting with 72 virgins’ — it’s important to remind them that the man they claim to love so much, Mr Kalam, was also Muslim".
    1. Irena Akbar (August 6, 2015). ‘Indian’ Kalam and ‘Muslim’ Memon. The Indian Express. Retrieved August 20th, 2015.
  73. ^ Nawaz Sharif would have unlikely been able to access military records given the fact that he claimed he did not know anything about the war and was politically at conflict with the military itself

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