Hydro—Thermal Infrastructure Development in Pakistan (2006—2014)

From Materia Islamica
Jump to: navigation, search

147967156634005.png

Energy Shortages:— Pakistan has been suffering from energy shortages for a number of years now[1]—a problem made worse by the incompetency of the Zardari Administration (2008—2013) which mismanaged the problem and the economy during it's tenure in office,[2] despite Pakistan transitioning smoothly over to the next government for the first time in it's sixty-seven year old history.[3] As a result, the country continues to suffer from a massive shortfall in electricity; made worse by the problem of "load shedding" (blackouts),[4] and the stealing of electricity.[5] The estimated shortfall in electric power is thought to be around 4.0 GW per year (4,000 MW per year).[6] As of 2013 however, Chinese companies have invested significantly into the country and started more than 100 energy and road projects, ranging from nuclear to hydroelectric,[6] in an effort to aid the country and expand Chinese economic and political influence. Despite the economic situation in Pakistan, around 10,000 skilled Chinese engineers are thought to work and reside in the country.[6] Approximately $18 billion dollars worth of investment is going to enter the country in the next few years, and of the 100 projects, 15 are directly related to the generation of power.[6] One of the biggest electrical projects is the 2,200 MW power plant close to the country's financial capital, Karachi.[6] Similarly, a 969 MW hydro-electric power plant is also being built in Pakistani liberated Kashmir.[6] Commitments have also been raised to construct an ambitious 6,000 MW project in the country's Sindh provinces, which will come from wind and coal sources.[6]

Pakistan suffers from infrastructure setbacls, despite having ample natural resources.
The Tarbala Dam - the worlds largest hydroelectric dam by volume.[7]

Hydroelectric Potential:— According to several well publicised scientific sources, Pakistan has a vast and untapped reserve of hydroelectric power potential of up to 100,000[8] MW (of which 59,000[8]-60,000[9] MW is economically[9] feasable).[8] As a result, significant investment has been made over the last decade in creating more hydroelectric dams to further exploit this resource. In the year 2000 for example the country had eleven hydroelectric dams in operation,[10][11] but by 2013 this had more than doubled with the creation and almost complete construction of an additional sixteen hydroelectric power plants.[11] Numerous proposals have also been approved of in recent times with numerous more under consideration.[10] The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), the institution responsible for the generation and management of electricity from hydro-power sources, has also stated that most of it's feasibility studies on further construction of hydro-dams is at the advanced stages[8] which are crucial for project implementation.[12] The largest hydroelectric dams in terms of electricity generation include Tarbala,[13] Ghazi Barotha,[14][15] Mangla,[16][17] Basha,[18] Dasu,[18] Kalabagh,[19] Bunji,[20][21] Chor Nallah, Patan,[22] and Thakot,[23][24] which each have a power potential of 1,000 MW or above. The majority of these however, are yet to be completed and the estimated cost of four dams alone is around $27 billion dollars.[24] In the last few years as a result of the country's dismal economic performance from 2008 onwards, Pakistan has sought financing from abroad, sources of which include China, Qatar, and Japan.

Natural Resources:— There are several important regions in the country that hold significant potential for hydroelectric power. These include Azad Jammu and Kashmir (6,450 MW), the Punjab (7,291 MW), Gilgit-Baltistan (21,725 MW) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (24,736 MW) - the latter two of which combined dwarf the former.[25] The Sindh has a small potential for hydroelectric power generation too (193 MW), whereas Balochistan, which is much like the Sindh in it's arid environment, has very little to nothing (0 MW) and perhaps offers more in solar power technology than hydroelectric.[26] Current exploitation of hydroelectric resources is however vastly under-exploited.[25] The distribution of hydroelectric power in 2011 was only 133 MW (in Gilgit-Baltistan), 1,039 MW (in Azad Jammu and Kashmir), 1,699 MW (in the Punjab), and 3,849 MW (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa).[9] There are also around 496 potential sites in the Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh regions alone that further contribute to the hydroelectric economy, along with numerous other sites in other states.[26] However construction in the state of Gilgit-Baltistan has proven challenging as a result of it's mountainous terrain and isolation from the national grid.[25] However despite this, Pakistan ranks 20th in the world for energy production from hydroelectric sources, clocking in approximately 32 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) in 2010.[27][28] On the other hand compared to India (114 billion kWh)[27] and China (722 billion kWh),[27] Pakistan again appears to be under-utilising their resources. Norway alone produces 121 billion kWh of energy.[27][n. 1]

Gilgit-Baltistan, represents the second largest energy production potential in the country.
KESC electrical engineer working on the installation of new electrical meters (Karachi).[29]

Thermal Power:— There are approximately thirty-four thermal power stations in current operation within the country.[30] At least twelve of these are the direct responsibility of the WAPDA authority (which have total capacity of 4,835 MW),[30] with an additional four operated by the Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC) (which has a total capacity of 1,756 MW),[30] with the rest being independent projects operated by a variety of other companies (which in turn have a total capacity of around 5,832 MW[30]-7,123 MW[31]). The biggest of the WAPDA thermal plants include TPS Muzaffar Garh and TPS Guddu (unit 1–4), which are gas powered, and have a combined thermal capacity of around 3,005 MW.[30] In contrast the KESC maintains only one plant capable of producing above the 1,000 MW threshold, the TPS Bin Qasim (which has a total capacity of around 1,260 MW).[30] Conversely, independent operators only have the HUBCO and KAPCO Plant's, which combined have a generational capacity of 2,758 MW.[30][32] In total the thermal generational power capacity of all plants combined is between 12,423 MW[30]-13,978 MW[31] This is in stark contrast to hydroelectric power generation which is a meagre 6,481 MW[33]-6,720 MW,[9] despite having one of the biggest energy potentials within the country. In addition to this number there is also one coal powered station in operation, the "FBC Lakhra", which has a total capacity of 120-150 MW (which is also expected to undergo an extension of 150 MW).[34] In recent years there have also been several proposals to construct new thermal power plants, mainly in the Sindh.[34][n. 2]

American Protests:— American environmental activists are currently campaigning their government, repeatedly, in efforts to prevent Pakistan from building thermal electrical power plants despite the fact that Pakistanis contribute only a tiny percentage to global greenhouse gas emissions (0.5%).[35] Despite the fact that the majority of the worlds pollution is predominantly caused by Whites (38%; European Union, America and Russia), Justin Guay (associate director of the Sierra Club's international climate program) claims that "this is not about domestic, sovereign decisions that the Pakistan government will make" but is more about "holding the U.S. to its policy".[35] In the same article it is noted that GDP growth in Pakistan is 2-5% lower as a result of the lack of electricity generation.[35] However, on December 19, 2013, the World Bank recommended that Pakistan should increase gas supplies to thermal generational plants in an effort to qualify for loans specifically designed for power projects, despite the fact that the current administration is "diverting gas from power producers to industrial units".[36] This diversion of gas supplies, to power producers instead of industrial units could reduce the mounting circular debt that the energy industry currently suffers from, standing at Rs. 225 Billion Rupees ($2.14 Billion Dollars).[36] Independent gas-powered producers are owed at least Rs. 150 Billion Rupees ($1.43 Billion Dollars) from this amount.[36] The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has also pressurised the country to increase their gas production; "add[ing] 200 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd) to the national grid".[36]

Kapco Plant, one of the largest private thermal electrical plants.[37]
Pakistan suffers from infrastructure setbacls, despite having ample natural resources.

Energy Shortages:— Pakistan has been suffering from energy shortages for a number of years now[1]—a problem made worse by the incompetency of the Zardari Administration (2008—2013) which mismanaged the problem and the economy during it's tenure in office,[2] despite Pakistan transitioning smoothly over to the next government for the first time in it's sixty-seven year old history.[3] As a result, the country continues to suffer from a massive shortfall in electricity; made worse by the problem of "load shedding" (blackouts),[4] and the stealing of electricity.[5] The estimated shortfall in electric power is thought to be around 4.0 GW per year (4,000 MW per year).[6] As of 2013 however, Chinese companies have invested significantly into the country and started more than 100 energy and road projects, ranging from nuclear to hydroelectric,[6] in an effort to aid the country and expand Chinese economic and political influence. Despite the economic situation in Pakistan, around 10,000 skilled Chinese engineers are thought to work and reside in the country.[6] Approximately $18 billion dollars worth of investment is going to enter the country in the next few years, and of the 100 projects, 15 are directly related to the generation of power.[6] One of the biggest electrical projects is the 2,200 MW power plant close to the country's financial capital, Karachi.[6] Similarly, a 969 MW hydro-electric power plant is also being built in Pakistani liberated Kashmir.[6] Commitments have also been raised to construct an ambitious 6,000 MW project in the country's Sindh provinces, which will come from wind and coal sources.[6]

The Tarbala Dam - the worlds largest hydroelectric dam by volume.[7]

Hydroelectric Potential:— According to several well publicised scientific sources, Pakistan has a vast and untapped reserve of hydroelectric power potential of up to 100,000[8] MW (of which 59,000[8]-60,000[9] MW is economically[9] feasable).[8] As a result, significant investment has been made over the last decade in creating more hydroelectric dams to further exploit this resource. In the year 2000 for example the country had eleven hydroelectric dams in operation,[10][11] but by 2013 this had more than doubled with the creation and almost complete construction of an additional sixteen hydroelectric power plants.[11] Numerous proposals have also been approved of in recent times with numerous more under consideration.[10] The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), the institution responsible for the generation and management of electricity from hydro-power sources, has also stated that most of it's feasibility studies on further construction of hydro-dams is at the advanced stages[8] which are crucial for project implementation.[12] The largest hydroelectric dams in terms of electricity generation include Tarbala,[13] Ghazi Barotha,[14][15] Mangla,[16][17] Basha,[18] Dasu,[18] Kalabagh,[19] Bunji,[20][21] Chor Nallah, Patan,[22] and Thakot,[23][24] which each have a power potential of 1,000 MW or above. The majority of these however, are yet to be completed and the estimated cost of four dams alone is around $27 billion dollars.[24] In the last few years as a result of the country's dismal economic performance from 2008 onwards, Pakistan has sought financing from abroad, sources of which include China, Qatar, and Japan.

Gilgit-Baltistan, represents the second largest energy production potential in the country.

Natural Resources:— There are several important regions in the country that hold significant potential for hydroelectric power. These include Azad Jammu and Kashmir (6,450 MW), the Punjab (7,291 MW), Gilgit-Baltistan (21,725 MW) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (24,736 MW) - the latter two of which combined dwarf the former.[25] The Sindh has a small potential for hydroelectric power generation too (193 MW), whereas Balochistan, which is much like the Sindh in it's arid environment, has very little to nothing (0 MW) and perhaps offers more in solar power technology than hydroelectric.[26] Current exploitation of hydroelectric resources is however vastly under-exploited.[25] The distribution of hydroelectric power in 2011 was only 133 MW (in Gilgit-Baltistan), 1,039 MW (in Azad Jammu and Kashmir), 1,699 MW (in the Punjab), and 3,849 MW (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa).[9] There are also around 496 potential sites in the Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh regions alone that further contribute to the hydroelectric economy, along with numerous other sites in other states.[26] However construction in the state of Gilgit-Baltistan has proven challenging as a result of it's mountainous terrain and isolation from the national grid.[25] However despite this, Pakistan ranks 20th in the world for energy production from hydroelectric sources, clocking in approximately 32 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) in 2010.[27][28] On the other hand compared to India (114 billion kWh)[27] and China (722 billion kWh),[27] Pakistan again appears to be under-utilising their resources. Norway alone produces 121 billion kWh of energy.[27][n. 3]

KESC electrical engineer working on the installation of new electrical meters (Karachi).[29]

Thermal Power:— There are approximately thirty-four thermal power stations in current operation within the country.[30] At least twelve of these are the direct responsibility of the WAPDA authority (which have total capacity of 4,835 MW),[30] with an additional four operated by the Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC) (which has a total capacity of 1,756 MW),[30] with the rest being independent projects operated by a variety of other companies (which in turn have a total capacity of around 5,832 MW[30]-7,123 MW[31]). The biggest of the WAPDA thermal plants include TPS Muzaffar Garh and TPS Guddu (unit 1–4), which are gas powered, and have a combined thermal capacity of around 3,005 MW.[30] In contrast the KESC maintains only one plant capable of producing above the 1,000 MW threshold, the TPS Bin Qasim (which has a total capacity of around 1,260 MW).[30] Conversely, independent operators only have the HUBCO and KAPCO Plant's, which combined have a generational capacity of 2,758 MW.[30][32] In total the thermal generational power capacity of all plants combined is between 12,423 MW[30]-13,978 MW[31] This is in stark contrast to hydroelectric power generation which is a meagre 6,481 MW[33]-6,720 MW,[9] despite having one of the biggest energy potentials within the country. In addition to this number there is also one coal powered station in operation, the "FBC Lakhra", which has a total capacity of 120-150 MW (which is also expected to undergo an extension of 150 MW).[34] In recent years there have also been several proposals to construct new thermal power plants, mainly in the Sindh.[34][n. 4]

Kapco Plant, one of the largest private thermal electrical plants.[37]

American Protests:— American environmental activists are currently campaigning their government, repeatedly, in efforts to prevent Pakistan from building thermal electrical power plants despite the fact that Pakistanis contribute only a tiny percentage to global greenhouse gas emissions (0.5%).[35] Despite the fact that the majority of the worlds pollution is predominantly caused by Whites (38%; European Union, America and Russia), Justin Guay (associate director of the Sierra Club's international climate program) claims that "this is not about domestic, sovereign decisions that the Pakistan government will make" but is more about "holding the U.S. to its policy".[35] In the same article it is noted that GDP growth in Pakistan is 2-5% lower as a result of the lack of electricity generation.[35] However, on December 19, 2013, the World Bank recommended that Pakistan should increase gas supplies to thermal generational plants in an effort to qualify for loans specifically designed for power projects, despite the fact that the current administration is "diverting gas from power producers to industrial units".[36] This diversion of gas supplies, to power producers instead of industrial units could reduce the mounting circular debt that the energy industry currently suffers from, standing at Rs. 225 Billion Rupees ($2.14 Billion Dollars).[36] Independent gas-powered producers are owed at least Rs. 150 Billion Rupees ($1.43 Billion Dollars) from this amount.[36] The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has also pressurised the country to increase their gas production; "add[ing] 200 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd) to the national grid".[36]

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ A country ~2.5 times smaller than Pakistan.
    1. Pakistan/Norway Size. Wolfram Alpha Search. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  2. ^ These include the "Thar Coal 1", "Thar Coal 2 & 3", "Thar Coal 4 & 5", "Thar Coal 5 & 6", which together will have a total capacity of around 4,200 MW.
    1. PAKISTAN POWER SECTOR. Investor Information Guide. BOARD OF INVESTMENT GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN. p. 15. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  3. ^ A country ~2.5 times smaller than Pakistan.
    1. Pakistan/Norway Size. Wolfram Alpha Search. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  4. ^ These include the "Thar Coal 1", "Thar Coal 2 & 3", "Thar Coal 4 & 5", "Thar Coal 5 & 6", which together will have a total capacity of around 4,200 MW.
    1. PAKISTAN POWER SECTOR. Investor Information Guide. BOARD OF INVESTMENT GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN. p. 15. Retrieved 12 December 2013.

References

  1. ^ a b Jillani, Shahzeb (15 July 2011). Energy crisis threatens to derail Pakistan's growth. BBC News, Karachi. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  2. ^ a b Shahzad, Asif (Sunday, September 8, 2013).Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari steps down as his term ends. The Washington Times (source from the "Associated Press"). Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  3. ^ a b APP. (May 13, 2013). UN chief hails Pakistani polls as major democratic step. The Tribune. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  4. ^ a b INP (Saturday, 28 September 2013 11:13 pm). Load shedding makes life miserable for people. Pakistan Today. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  5. ^ a b Web Edition (March 08, 2013). Pakistan lost Rs90 billion in electricity theft, line losses. The News Internationl. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Agence France-Presse in Islamabad. (Monday, 09 December, 2013, 5:15am). With string of big-money projects, China deepens ties with Pakistan. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  7. ^ a b Geography of Pakistan. HowStuffWorks. p. 2. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Hydro Potential in Pakistan. The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). p. 5. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Zuberi, N.A. (February 2011). Hydro Power Resources of Pakistan. Private Power and Infrastructure Board. p. 12. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d PAKISTAN POWER SECTOR. Investor Information Guide. BOARD OF INVESTMENT GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN. p. 10-14. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d Hydro Potential in Pakistan. The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). p. 12 (or p. 4 in pdf). Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  12. ^ a b Hofstrand, Don. Holz-Clause, Mary. What is a Feasibility Study?. Ag Decision Maker, Department of Economics University Extension. Iowa State University. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  13. ^ a b Tarbala Dam Project. WAPDA (Pakistan). Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  14. ^ a b Ghazi-Barotha Hydroelectric Project. MWH Global Inc. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  15. ^ a b GHAZI BAROTHA HYDROPOWER PROJEC. WAPDA (Pakistan). Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  16. ^ a b Shah, Abid Hussain (September 03, 2013). Mangla Dam will last for over 200 years. The News International. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  17. ^ a b Dawn Reporter (26 August 2013). Mangla becomes country’s largest reservoir. Dawn. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  18. ^ a b c d Staff Reporter (Saturday, December 14, 2013). Govt decides to complete Dasu, Diamer-Bhasha dams. Pak Observer. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  19. ^ a b Our Correspondent. (November 24, 2013). Looking for a way out through the Kalabagh Dam. The Express Tribune. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  20. ^ a b Our Correspondent (May 7, 2013). Blueprints of Bunji Dam complete. The Express Tribune. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  21. ^ a b BUNJI HYDROPOWER PROJECT. WAPDA (Pakistan). Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  22. ^ a b PATAN HYDROPOWER PROJECT. WAPDA (Pakistan). Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  23. ^ a b THAKOT HYDROPOWER PROJECT. WAPDA (Pakistan). Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  24. ^ a b c d Staff Reporter (12 March 2012). Qatar takes interest in water & power projects. The News International. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Zuberi, N.A. (February 2011). Hydro Power Resources of Pakistan. p. 18. Private Power and Infrastructure Board. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  26. ^ a b c d Zuberi, N.A. (February 2011). Hydro Power Resources of Pakistan. p. 14. Private Power and Infrastructure Board. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h Electricity production from hydroelectric sources (kWh) - Country Ranking. Index Mundi. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  28. ^ a b Pakistan - Electricity production from hydroelectric sources. Index Mundi. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  29. ^ a b (May 13, 2010). Picture Gallery. The News International. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p PAKISTAN POWER SECTOR. Investor Information Guide. BOARD OF INVESTMENT GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN. p. 6-8. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  31. ^ a b c d Consulate General of Switzerland in Karachi (6 Sepetember 2011). Pakistan Power sector. p. 8. Osec Business Network Switzerland. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  32. ^ a b Consulate General of Switzerland in Karachi (6 Sepetember 2011). Pakistan Power sector. p. 5. Osec Business Network Switzerland. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  33. ^ a b Consulate General of Switzerland in Karachi (6 Sepetember 2011). Pakistan Power sector. p. 7. Osec Business Network Switzerland. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  34. ^ a b c d PAKISTAN POWER SECTOR. Investor Information Guide. BOARD OF INVESTMENT GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN. p. 15. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  35. ^ a b c d e f Friedman, Lisa. (Monday, December 9, 2013). U.S. pressured to block proposed coal-fired power plant for Pakistan. EeNews. E&E Publishing. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h Bhutta, Zafar. (December 19, 2013). WB suggests enhanced gas supply to power plants. The Express Tribune. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  37. ^ a b Kot Addu Power Company Limited (KAPCO). Private Power and Infrastructure Board. GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN MINISTRY OF WATER & POWER. Retrieved 25 December 2013.

External Links