List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India

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Cscr-featured.png Genetic Bar Graph and Genetic Map of Pakistan Exhibiting the Unique Culture and Racial Characteristics of the Pakistani People Cscr-featured.png

AstronomyAgriculture, Food & BeverageBiology (Paleontology) • ChemistryComputing (Video-gamingBoard-games) • MathematicsMedicine (Disease EradicationGenetics & DiseaseInstruments) • PhysicsEngineering (NavalMechanicalHandtoolTextile (Clothing) • Architectural) • Sport & RecreationDisputedFurther ReadingSources • (FootnotesReferencesAcknowledgements) • External LinksTotal Inventions & Discoveries Listed: 77

Pakistan superimposed on an ancient version of itself (the "Harappan"/"Indus Valley Civilisation").
For many non-Pakistanis, the idea of what and who Pakistanis are can often be a confusing one, since historically speaking Pakistan has never really been known as "Pakistan" throughout much of it's 65,000 year old[n. 1] history (in fact it was only officially known as Pakistan in 1947;[1] and is an anagram of the ancient states Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh and Balochistan[2]). Indeed it's been known by a series of different names; Mehrgarth (c. 7000 BC—c. 2000 BC[3]), the Indus Valley (c. 3300 BC—c. 1300 BC[4]), West India and even India itself (in fact the word "India" itself is not indigenous to South Asia, but comes from old Persian and ancient Greek,[n. 2] meaning "people of the Indus"—it should be noted that the modern-day country of India—born in 1947[1]—has culturally appropriated this name, despite the Indus river basin having nothing to do with the majority of its people with "Ganga-Yamuna" or "Narmada" being far more appropriate names as these are the main river basins of that country[5]). The easiest way to understand Pakistani identity is to understand that Pakistanis are a people who are genetically,[6] linguistically,[n. 3] racially,[6] ethnically,[6] culturally[n. 4] and religiously distinct[n. 5] from other subcontinent people and therefore themselves form a very unique identity.[n. 6] The people who live in Pakistan now have remained the same as those that were there for the past 65,000 years, but unlike other subcontinent peoples Pakistanis have added admixtures of new DNA from the various large scale historical migrations.[n. 7] The recorded history of Pakistan is thus older than the history of modern-day India. Given its extensive age, a significant number of inventions and discoveries have thus rightfully been attributed to Pakistan (since they originate in its lands) and not modern-day India.
Pakistan superimposed on an ancient version of itself (the "Harappan"/"Indus Valley Civilisation").
For many non-Pakistanis, the idea of what and who Pakistanis are can often be a confusing one, since historically speaking Pakistan has never really been known as "Pakistan" throughout much of it's 65,000 year old[n. 8] history (in fact it was only officially known as Pakistan in 1947;[1] and is an anagram of the ancient states Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh and Balochistan[2]). Indeed it's been known by a series of different names; Mehrgarth (c. 7000 BC—c. 2000 BC[3]), the Indus Valley (c. 3300 BC—c. 1300 BC[4]), West India and even India itself (in fact the word "India" itself is not indigenous to South Asia, but comes from old Persian and ancient Greek,[n. 9] meaning "people of the Indus"—it should be noted that the modern-day country of India—born in 1947[1]—has culturally appropriated this name, despite the Indus river basin having nothing to do with the majority of its people with "Ganga-Yamuna" or "Narmada" being far more appropriate names as these are the main river basins of that country[5]). The easiest way to understand Pakistani identity is to understand that Pakistanis are a people who are genetically,[6] linguistically,[n. 10] racially,[6] ethnically,[6] culturally[n. 11] and religiously distinct[n. 12] from other subcontinent people and therefore themselves form a very unique identity.[n. 13] The people who live in Pakistan now have remained the same as those that were there for the past 65,000 years, but unlike other subcontinent peoples Pakistanis have added admixtures of new DNA from the various large scale historical migrations.[n. 14] The recorded history of Pakistan is thus older than the history of modern-day India. Given its extensive age, a significant number of inventions and discoveries have thus rightfully been attributed to Pakistan (since they originate in its lands) and not modern-day India.

Working Title: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India | Original Publisher: Materia Islamica | Publication Date: December 8th, 2019 | Written by: Canadian786 | Artricle No. 94.

Article Methodology

  • In accordance with the principle of peer-review and the hierarchy of evidence and relevance of research papers, this list has been compiled using the best evidence available and has been taken from a range of scientific and historical research databases. The majority of the sources hence can be easily found using the DOI numbers (similar to an ISBN number for books, except which these unique identifiers identify research papers which have undergone thorough checks and re-checks through academic scholarship). This article consists of a List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India. This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

Astronomy & Universe (4)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Nobel Prize.png
  • Electroweak Interaction—Abdus Salam (1926—1996[7][8]) was the first to the discover the phenomenon of electroweak interaction (for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize[9]), along with two other scientists, Sheldon Glashow (1932[8]—Present) and Steven Weinberg (1933[8]—Present) in 1979. It is also notable that Salam was the first to invent the word "electroweak" itself in 1978.[10] The model is also known as the Weinberg-Salam Model,[11] or the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Model[12] or the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam Model.[13] However—although it is named so—really only two of these scientists were truly important to it's discovery; mainly Salam and Weinberg who had actually worked independently of one other.[13] For their discovery, all three of them were equally awarded a split of the prize money (totalling $190,000 dollars; or ~$670,000 in 2019 dollars[14]).[11]
The detection and proof of gravitational waves was finally confirmed in February 2016, the first time ever.
  • Gravitational Waves—In 2010, Nergis Mavalvala (1968—Present) was one of the key[15][16][17][n. 15] people (in fact "a leading figure in the scientific team"[18]) to first detect and prove the existence of gravitational waves.[19] The team is known as the "Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory" (LIGO) Group.[18] Since 1990, she directly helped design and build the LIGO tool to detect gravitational waves (subsequently winning the "MacArthur Fellowship" in 2010[20][21][22]).[20] Over the course of three runs of the LIGO tool, a total of 24 gravitational waves have been discovered as of September 2019.[23] They were first detected in 2016.[24][25][26][27] LIGO began operations in 2002 after decades of funding problems, overall costing $1.1 billion dollars.[28]
    • She is a Pakistani-American[29][30] who comes from the Parsi minority[31] (descendents of the Sassanian Persians, who follow the Zoroastrian religion, who fled to South Asia in 900 A.D. when the Umayyad Arabs defeated the Sassanian Persians[32]), and is particularly notable as she's also a double minority. She is a lesbian,[33][34] and is currently married to an unknown female colleague, and who together have adopted two boys to raise.[35] She currently resides in Arlington, Massachusetts, USA.[35] She was born in Pakistan, raised on McNeil Road, Karachi; and in 1986[36] she and her family migrated to the US.[37]
    • Despite not having visited Pakistan for some 30 years, her mentions in the Pakistani blogosphere pleasantly surprised her.[38] As a result she has been "mindful of what she wants Pakistanis to know about her journey" given the importance of her identity, stating "[a]nybody should be able to succeed — whether you’re a woman, a religious minority or whether you’re gay...Anybody should be able to do those things. And I am proof of that because I am all of those things".[38] She credits part of her success to a "chemistry teacher in Pakistan who let her play with reagents in the lab after school".[31] That school was the "Convent of Jesus and Mary School", Karachi.[31] In 2018 she was invited to and attended the "Pakistani-American Community Center" (PACC).[39]
Plumes from Enceladus (left[40]), Cassini-Huygens (right). Analysing data from the spacecraft is extremely difficult. Khawaja was the first to crack part of it and discovered that it had detected precursors to life on Enceladus.
  • First (Non-Earth Origin) Amino-Acid Precursors—Nozair Khawaja (19??—Present; a Punjabi Pakistani, and a native of Wazirabad[41]), who is a researcher at "Freie Universität Berlin", and astrobiologist led[41][42][43] a team that was the first to discover the presence of amino-acid precursors on Saturn's moon, Enceladus, in 2019 (read here[40]). These precursors are made of nitrogen and oxygen compounds—elements that are essential to the birth of life.[44][45] The discovery is the "first of its kind beyond Earth, making Enceladus" a prospect of harbouring "extraterrestrial life".[46]
    • Khawaja, for his discovery, was awarded the NASA Group Achievement Award (2019); which is an award given out for being successfully capable of decoding, analyzing and discovering new information from the vast amounts of data collected and transmitted by the Cassini-Huygens (1997—2017) spacecraft. The data was extracted from the mass spectrometer results beamed from the spacecraft's "Cosmic Dust Analyzer".[47] It should be noted that the data is extremely difficult to analyze; and will take scientists decades to fully interpret it's complete data stores.[48]
      • The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project between the European Space Agency (ESA), NASA and the Italian Space Agency.[49]
    • The discovery is exciting as the hydrothermal vents in the earth involving these very same elemental precursor compounds is theorized to have lead to life on earth; the process for the birth of life on earth is complex, but is first thought to involve "[s]ea water [mixing] with magma, leading to hydro-thermal springs with temperatures reaching 370 degrees Celsius" and that "[u]nder these conditions, organic compounds are converted to amino acids, and the mineral components allow living organisms to develop and multiply without the help of sunlight".[50]
The Salam-Pati Model, one of three of the "Grand Unified Theories" (GUT) which extends the Standard Model (SM). Indian scientist Jogesh Pati had been for years trying to get into contact with Salaam in order to collaborate with the Pakistani scientist. Salaam then gave him an opportunity to meet him, and after several years the two had come up with the model that bears their name.
  • Salam—Pati Model—Abdus Salam (1926—1996[7][8]) was the first to formulate the Salam—Pati Model, along with another scientist, Jogesh Pati (1937—Present), in 1974.[51] It is one of the three "Grand Unified Theories" (GUT) to have been discovered so far (the others being "SU(5)" and "Spin(10)").[52] These help extend the "Standard Model" (SM) application to lower and higher energies and are thus theorised to complete the model.[52] Interestingly "Spin(10)" GUT reduces down to the Salam-Pati Model.[53]
    • In order to appreciate the significance of this discovery, it is important to understand that physics is described by a set of laws known as the "Standard Model" (SM).[52] However this model tends to break down when describing physics at either lower or higher energies.[52] Thus the SM is an incomplete theory; therefore a "Grand Unified Theory" (GUT) is required to amalgamate everything into making logical sense.[52] This thus lead to the development three GUT's, "SU(5)", "Spin(10)" and "Salam-Pati".
      • However, despite the usefulness of GUT's, although they are not wrong, they are all not entirely wholly perfect (in that they do not fully explain all physical phenomenon).[53] There is for example evidence that the "SU(5)" GUT is wrong, leaving just the other two. However, despite their logical sense, "no empirical [i.e. physical] evidence that any GUT is correct [exists]".[54]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Nobel Prize.png
  • Electroweak Interaction—Abdus Salam (1926—1996[7][8]) was the first to the discover the phenomenon of electroweak interaction (for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize[9]), along with two other scientists, Sheldon Glashow (1932[8]—Present) and Steven Weinberg (1933[8]—Present) in 1979. It is also notable that Salam was the first to invent the word "electroweak" itself in 1978.[10] The model is also known as the Weinberg-Salam Model,[11] or the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Model[12] or the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam Model.[13] However—although it is named so—really only two of these scientists were truly important to it's discovery; mainly Salam and Weinberg who had actually worked independently of one other.[13] For their discovery, all three of them were equally awarded a split of the prize money (totalling $190,000 dollars; or ~$670,000 in 2019 dollars[14]).[11]
The detection and proof of gravitational waves was finally confirmed in February 2016, the first time ever.
  • Gravitational Waves—In 2010, Nergis Mavalvala (1968—Present) was one of the key[15][16][17][n. 16] people (in fact "a leading figure in the scientific team"[18]) to first detect and prove the existence of gravitational waves.[19] The team is known as the "Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory" (LIGO) Group.[18] Since 1990, she directly helped design and build the LIGO tool to detect gravitational waves (subsequently winning the "MacArthur Fellowship" in 2010[20][21][22]).[20] Over the course of three runs of the LIGO tool, a total of 24 gravitational waves have been discovered as of September 2019.[23] They were first detected in 2016.[24][25][26][27] LIGO began operations in 2002 after decades of funding problems, overall costing $1.1 billion dollars.[28]
    • She is a Pakistani-American[29][30] who comes from the Parsi minority[31] (descendents of the Sassanian Persians, who follow the Zoroastrian religion, who fled to South Asia in 900 A.D. when the Umayyad Arabs defeated the Sassanian Persians[32]), and is particularly notable as she's also a double minority. She is a lesbian,[33][34] and is currently married to an unknown female colleague, and who together have adopted two boys to raise.[35] She currently resides in Arlington, Massachusetts, USA.[35] She was born in Pakistan, raised on McNeil Road, Karachi; and in 1986[36] she and her family migrated to the US.[37]
    • Despite not having visited Pakistan for some 30 years, her mentions in the Pakistani blogosphere pleasantly surprised her.[38] As a result she has been "mindful of what she wants Pakistanis to know about her journey" given the importance of her identity, stating "[a]nybody should be able to succeed — whether you’re a woman, a religious minority or whether you’re gay...Anybody should be able to do those things. And I am proof of that because I am all of those things".[38] She credits part of her success to a "chemistry teacher in Pakistan who let her play with reagents in the lab after school".[31] That school was the "Convent of Jesus and Mary School", Karachi.[31] In 2018 she was invited to and attended the "Pakistani-American Community Center" (PACC).[39]
Plumes from Enceladus (left[40]), Cassini-Huygens (right). Analysing data from the spacecraft is extremely difficult. Khawaja was the first to crack part of it and discovered that it had detected precursors to life on Enceladus.
  • First (Non-Earth Origin) Amino-Acid Precursors—Nozair Khawaja (19??—Present; a Punjabi Pakistani, and a native of Wazirabad[41]), who is a researcher at "Freie Universität Berlin", and astrobiologist led[41][42][43] a team that was the first to discover the presence of amino-acid precursors on Saturn's moon, Enceladus, in 2019 (read here[40]). These precursors are made of nitrogen and oxygen compounds—elements that are essential to the birth of life.[44][45] The discovery is the "first of its kind beyond Earth, making Enceladus" a prospect of harbouring "extraterrestrial life".[46]
    • Khawaja, for his discovery, was awarded the NASA Group Achievement Award (2019); which is an award given out for being successfully capable of decoding, analyzing and discovering new information from the vast amounts of data collected and transmitted by the Cassini-Huygens (1997—2017) spacecraft. The data was extracted from the mass spectrometer results beamed from the spacecraft's "Cosmic Dust Analyzer".[47] It should be noted that the data is extremely difficult to analyze; and will take scientists decades to fully interpret it's complete data stores.[48]
      • The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project between the European Space Agency (ESA), NASA and the Italian Space Agency.[49]
    • The discovery is exciting as the hydrothermal vents in the earth involving these very same elemental precursor compounds is theorized to have lead to life on earth; the process for the birth of life on earth is complex, but is first thought to involve "[s]ea water [mixing] with magma, leading to hydro-thermal springs with temperatures reaching 370 degrees Celsius" and that "[u]nder these conditions, organic compounds are converted to amino acids, and the mineral components allow living organisms to develop and multiply without the help of sunlight".[50]
The Salam-Pati Model, one of three of the "Grand Unified Theories" (GUT) which extends the Standard Model (SM). Indian scientist Jogesh Pati had been for years trying to get into contact with Salaam in order to collaborate with the Pakistani scientist. Salaam then gave him an opportunity to meet him, and after several years the two had come up with the model that bears their name.
  • Salam—Pati Model—Abdus Salam (1926—1996[7][8]) was the first to formulate the Salam—Pati Model, along with another scientist, Jogesh Pati (1937—Present), in 1974.[51] It is one of the three "Grand Unified Theories" (GUT) to have been discovered so far (the others being "SU(5)" and "Spin(10)").[52] These help extend the "Standard Model" (SM) application to lower and higher energies and are thus theorised to complete the model.[52] Interestingly "Spin(10)" GUT reduces down to the Salam-Pati Model.[53]
    • In order to appreciate the significance of this discovery, it is important to understand that physics is described by a set of laws known as the "Standard Model" (SM).[52] However this model tends to break down when describing physics at either lower or higher energies.[52] Thus the SM is an incomplete theory; therefore a "Grand Unified Theory" (GUT) is required to amalgamate everything into making logical sense.[52] This thus lead to the development three GUT's, "SU(5)", "Spin(10)" and "Salam-Pati".
      • However, despite the usefulness of GUT's, although they are not wrong, they are all not entirely wholly perfect (in that they do not fully explain all physical phenomenon).[53] There is for example evidence that the "SU(5)" GUT is wrong, leaving just the other two. However, despite their logical sense, "no empirical [i.e. physical] evidence that any GUT is correct [exists]".[54]

Biology (2)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
Polyurethane.
  • Aspergillus tubingensis, Polyester Polyurethane Degradation—In 2017, in a collaboration between Pakistan and China,[55][56][57] Pakistani and Chinese scientists became the first to discover that a fungus called Aspergillus tubingensis—found in landfill sites in Pakistan—was capable of consuming a special type of plastic known as polyester polyurethane (a material made up of repeating ethylurea—C3H8N2O—units[58]).[55][56] It does this by "secret[ing] enzymes which break down the bonds between individual molecules and then use its mycelia to break them apart".[57]
    • The study was lead by Sehroon Khan (19??—Present) of the World Agroforestry Centre at the Kunming Institute of Biology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in China.[55][56][57] It is not the first time that scientists have known that microbial organisms can break down plastics, but what is unique about this study in particular is that it is the first time where Aspergillus tubingensis has been found to break down plastic.[56]
    • Aspergillus tubingensis is a common fungus that lives in soil.[56] However, the study's findings are not as simple as have been reported, as there are a complex range of factors which influence how it behaves; most notably temperature, pH balance of its surrounding and the type of culture medium it is exposed to.[56] Given the right conditions, it is capable of completely breaking down plastic into organic matter within weeks.[56]
Azam's microbial loop. Considered a breakthrough in marine science. It is essentially a food cycle. Two scientists were important to its development and discovery; Farooq Azam and Lawrence Pomeroy.
  • Microbial Loop/Microbial Food Web—In 1983,[59] Farooq Azam (19??—Present) was the first to develop a new marine microbiological theory known as the microbial loop.[60] The theory was so profound that it is still referred to as a "major breakthrough".[60] Since then, science historians and marine biologists deservedly give Azam credit for the theory (alternatively known as the "microbial food web"). His discovery lead to the theory's firm "establishment, formulation and refinement" across literature.[61] In effect, the microbial loop describes what happens to carbon when carbon-based life forms die; simply put DOM(/POM[60]; or dissolved organic matter/particulate organic matter[60] is consumed by) → bacteria → grazers → (then reaching the) higher trophic levels.[62][63]
    • However, some also credit another important researcher alongside him, Lawrence Pomeroy (19??—Present), in the introductory sections of the microbial loop theory in marine microbiology textbooks.[n. 17] However, there are clear differences in their work, and this has been made apparent by fellow marine microbiologist Colin Munn (19??—Present), who details their individual contributions in "Marine Microbiology: Ecology & Applications" (2003):[60]
Quote: "A paper by Lawrence Pomeroy...entitled, The Oceans Food Web; A Changing Paradigm (Pomeroy 1974), is widely credited as being the most significant advance in our thinking about the role of microbes in marines systems. The main arguments in this paper were:
(a) that the main primary producers in the oceans are 'nanoplankton' (small phototrophs less than 60 μm in size) rather than the 'net' phytoplankton previously recognised; (b) that microbes are responsible for most of the metabolic activity in seawater; and (c) that dissolved and particulate organic matter forms an important source of nutrients in marine food webs which is consumed by heterotrophic microbes.
Evidence about the role of the heterotrophic bacterioplankton steadily accumulated until a series of seminal papers was published in the early 1980s by Farooq Azam and co-workers...They developed the concept of the 'microbial loop' to explain the flow and cycling of dissolved organic material (DOM) in the oceans...[which] represent[ed] a true paradigm shift, as thinking about the role of microbes in mineral cycling and food webs underwent a sudden and dramatic change. The original microbial loop model is now realized to be an oversimplification and it has been refined...but the concept remains a major breakthrough".[60]
  • Thus, it is safe to say that Pomeroy came up with the early ideas of microbial food, whilst Azam instead came up with the theory of the microbial loop and microbial loop itself.
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
Polyurethane.
  • Aspergillus tubingensis, Polyester Polyurethane Degradation—In 2017, in a collaboration between Pakistan and China,[55][56][57] Pakistani and Chinese scientists became the first to discover that a fungus called Aspergillus tubingensis—found in landfill sites in Pakistan—was capable of consuming a special type of plastic known as polyester polyurethane (a material made up of repeating ethylurea—C3H8N2O—units[58]).[55][56] It does this by "secret[ing] enzymes which break down the bonds between individual molecules and then use its mycelia to break them apart".[57]
    • The study was lead by Sehroon Khan (19??—Present) of the World Agroforestry Centre at the Kunming Institute of Biology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in China.[55][56][57] It is not the first time that scientists have known that microbial organisms can break down plastics, but what is unique about this study in particular is that it is the first time where Aspergillus tubingensis has been found to break down plastic.[56]
    • Aspergillus tubingensis is a common fungus that lives in soil.[56] However, the study's findings are not as simple as have been reported, as there are a complex range of factors which influence how it behaves; most notably temperature, pH balance of its surrounding and the type of culture medium it is exposed to.[56] Given the right conditions, it is capable of completely breaking down plastic into organic matter within weeks.[56]
Azam's microbial loop. Considered a breakthrough in marine science. It is essentially a food cycle. Two scientists were important to its development and discovery; Farooq Azam and Lawrence Pomeroy.
  • Microbial Loop/Microbial Food Web—In 1983,[59] Farooq Azam (19??—Present) was the first to develop a new marine microbiological theory known as the microbial loop.[60] The theory was so profound that it is still referred to as a "major breakthrough".[60] Since then, science historians and marine biologists deservedly give Azam credit for the theory (alternatively known as the "microbial food web"). His discovery lead to the theory's firm "establishment, formulation and refinement" across literature.[61] In effect, the microbial loop describes what happens to carbon when carbon-based life forms die; simply put DOM(/POM[60]; or dissolved organic matter/particulate organic matter[60] is consumed by) → bacteria → grazers → (then reaching the) higher trophic levels.[62][63]
    • However, some also credit another important researcher alongside him, Lawrence Pomeroy (19??—Present), in the introductory sections of the microbial loop theory in marine microbiology textbooks.[n. 18] However, there are clear differences in their work, and this has been made apparent by fellow marine microbiologist Colin Munn (19??—Present), who details their individual contributions in "Marine Microbiology: Ecology & Applications" (2003):[60]

Quote: "A paper by Lawrence Pomeroy...entitled, The Oceans Food Web; A Changing Paradigm (Pomeroy 1974), is widely credited as being the most significant advance in our thinking about the role of microbes in marines systems. The main arguments in this paper were:

(a) that the main primary producers in the oceans are 'nanoplankton' (small phototrophs less than 60 μm in size) rather than the 'net' phytoplankton previously recognised; (b) that microbes are responsible for most of the metabolic activity in seawater; and (c) that dissolved and particulate organic matter forms an important source of nutrients in marine food webs which is consumed by heterotrophic microbes.

Evidence about the role of the heterotrophic bacterioplankton steadily accumulated until a series of seminal papers was published in the early 1980s by Farooq Azam and co-workers...They developed the concept of the 'microbial loop' to explain the flow and cycling of dissolved organic material (DOM) in the oceans...[which] represent[ed] a true paradigm shift, as thinking about the role of microbes in mineral cycling and food webs underwent a sudden and dramatic change. The original microbial loop model is now realized to be an oversimplification and it has been refined...but the concept remains a major breakthrough".[60]

  • Thus, it is safe to say that Pomeroy came up with the early ideas of microbial food, whilst Azam instead came up with the theory of the microbial loop and microbial loop itself.

Chemistry (5)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
PANiCNQ, the first true non-metallic magnet. For decades scientists across the world had tried to invent the world's first plastic polymer magnet ever since discovering that plastic had very minute traces of magnetism; but all had failed until 2003, when Pakistani scientist and head researcher Naveed A. Zaidi not only invented it, but also made one that was highly customisable in strength and for the first time was actually practical, not requiring near total 0 degree Kelvin conditions to operate. His magnet was also the first permanent plastic magnet. The magnet has a wide range of uses one of which includes food packaging, of which patents are already make its mention. It is the first time in history an object not made of metal has been created that is capable of magnetism.
  • Non-Metallic (Organic Polymer) Magnet—In 2003, the world's first true plastic magnet was invented by the British-Pakistani physicist, and head researcher,[64] Naveed A. Zaidi (19??—Present),[n. 19] at the University of Durham.[65][66][67] His team called it "PANiCNQ".[65] The polymer is made from a combination of monomers of the reagents emeraldine polyaniline (PANI) and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ).[67][68] It is the world's first true non-metallic magnet because it was the first plastic to have passed the elemental test of magnetism.[69]
    • PANiCNQ can be further strengthened and "made to measure" (customised in other words);[69] when PANiCNQ was first revealed to the public the minimum magnetic strength of the plastic was demonstrated to be 1/100th that of a metallic magnet, and was also stable in air and could conduct electricity.[70][71][72] It is workable up to 77°C (350.15 °K) and takes between 2—3 months to produce magnetism after synthesis.[73]
      • Physically PANiCNQ consists of a nitrogen-carrying backbone with charge transfer side groups; which in combination produces a very stable polymer with high density localised spins;[65][68] meaning that its magnetism is permanent.[74] In even more simple terms "[t]he electron transfer from PANI to TCNQ forms two oppositely charged radical species, which in turn governs the magnetic properties of the material".[67]
    • Prior to this, plastic magnetism was only observed at extremely low temperatures and the magnetic force was also found to have been very weak.[75] This was one of the reasons why Durham was not the first to lay claim to such an invention.[69] Others claimed to have invented it as well, but crucially theirs "only function[ed] at extremely low temperatures" or "their magnetism at room temperature [was] too feeble".[69]
      • Temporary room temperature magnetism (called a "phase") was previously detected in the non-polymer—and pure element based compound—Carbon-60.[75] Another team lead by Jerry Torrance in 1988[n. 20] had claimed to have produced a plastic magnet where it's magnetism lasted up to 400°C—but crucially this was not reproducible, and it's documented magnetic effect was very weak because it attempted to use an oxidising process to produce magnetism (where a foreign compound or element is introduced),[75] suggesting it was perhaps only an anomaly.[75] In fact the original author later conceded, describing Zaidi's invention as "a significant scientific breakthrough".[69]
        • Torrance's team was only capable of producing plastic magnetism only when their polymer was constantly oxidised with Iodine.[68] This was a temporary magnetism as the process was inherently destabilising, thus leading to a very, very weak magnetic effect[75]), thus physical magnetism was both created and impeded with the introduction of oxidising agents.[75]
      • In 2001, US researchers at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln laid claim "to have created the world's first plastic magnet",[69] however, their claims were ridiculous as their polymer "only worked below 10 [degrees] kelvin" (-263.15°C).[69] Furthermore, it's magnetism was also very feeble like the many claims before it.[75] Zaidi's invention on the other hand passed "the elementary test of magnetism" at room temperature that others had not—and, furthermore—demonstrated PANiCNQ was the first to have a strongly magnetic strength; as it was directly capable of "pick[ing] up iron filings" (and worked at room temperature); which was the test that other researchers were not able to pass.[69]
Distillation apparatus from ancient Pakistan for producing essential oils (without Avicenna's refrigerated coil).
  • Distillation—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first to invent the refrigerated coil,[76][77][78] which cooled down vapours,[79] condensing them into liquid.[80] He used this invention of his to extract the first essential oil from roses,[81] which were used to make perfume. Indeed, "[t]his is a chilled coil within which the steamed distillate is condensed back into liquid without having to wait for the natural cooling process to take place".[79] Distillation however, was first invented in the Indus Valley (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC).[82]
    • There is evidence which proves that essential oil production was known to the Indus Valley Civilisation, the people of whom's descendants inhabit modern day Pakistan (indeed one of the theories is that some of these people migrated to the south of India, and indeed there is a genetic connection through the LM-20 haplogroup gene which shows modern day Pakistanis are more related to southern Dravidian Indians than northern Gangetic Indians[83]). The Indus Valley Civilisation however didn't use a refrigerated coil (see picture); they used the system shown adjacent.
    • The Indus Valley distillation apparatus was discovered in 1975 by Paolo Rovesti (1902—1983[84]). He discovered it in the museum of Taxila, and noted that it was a "perfectly preserved distillation apparatus made of terracotta" where the "presence of perfume containers also exhibited in the museum dating from the same period, about 3000 BC, confirmed its use for the preparation of aromatic oils".[85] A second distillation apparatus was also discovered in Afghanistan dated to 2,000 BC.[86] Distillation was previously thought to have been no older than a 1,000 years old.[86]
Gold-assaying using lydite rock.
  • Touchstone—An assaying tool to identify the purity levels of metals such as gold are known as touchstones, which consist of a stone of black siliceous schist (a type of lydite rock).[87][88] They are rubbed against objects and then the markings are compared to known pure gold samples.[87][88]
    • Touchstones were first used in the Indus Valley in 3,500 BC.[88] Touchstones were also used in ancient Greece[88] with the earliest archeological evidence for their use in Europe being in the 8th century BC (800 BC—701 BC).[87] The earliest reference in China was in 1387.[87]
    • Evidence from an ancient Harappan jewellers home found in modern day India, in Banawali, in the Hissar district in Haryana (historically a part of the ancient lands of the Punjab until 1966, when it was forcibly renamed to Haryana by the Indian government[89]).[90] The home was filled with a large number of beads of gold, lapis lazuli and carnelian and tiny weights.[90] The touchstone itself showed markings of streaks of gold (indicating that it was indeed used for assaying).[90][91][92]
Xanthated-Arsenic capture generation. Removing arsenic from water was difficult and expensive. However it can now very cheaply be done with modified watermelon rind.
  • Xanthated Salt-Arsenic Capture—In 2018, a major scientific breakthrough was made when scientists at the "University of Agriculture, Faisalabad" were the first to develop a chemical modification to watermelon rind which resulted in the organic structure being fully capable of binding to arsenic.[93] They developed this technology by heating, drying, and oven-firing the rind, crushing it into a fine powder, reacting it with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) which causes it's biopolymer rings to open, exposing many important reactive functional groups.[93] They then bind these exposed functional groups to carbon disulfide (CS2)—sulfide uniquely binds to arsenic—rendering the rind capable of netting arsenic,[93] with a success rate of 94%—100%.[94] It works especially well for Arsenic with a valency of III.[94]
    • The idea was first formulated in 2014 by Nabeel Khan Niazi (19??—Present), who's idea was subsequently funded by "Grand Challenges Canada".[95] The use of biological xanthates is not a novel idea, however, what makes this particularly groundbreaking are three things; the first being the successful integration of watermelon-rind with xanthate salts (whereas prior to this scientists had only used groundnut shell, mango leaf, rice husk and sugarcane bagasse).[95] The second is it's effectiveness (extremely high; whereas previous attempts using biological xanthates met with very "limited success").[95] Lastly, and most importantly, Niazi's filter was the first biological xanthate to have been capable of removing arsenic whereas before it had never been achieved.[95]
    • The importance of the invention is highlighted by the fact that arsenic poisoning affects 150 million people across 50 countries, with 43,000 people dying every year from unsanitized water polluted with the metal.[95] According to "SciDev, "[t]he most affected countries are Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan though arsenic pollution is also present in China, parts of Europe and the Americas".[95] The filter developed by these researchers is able to process 20,000 mls of water per day (approximately 834 mls per hour), and can be used for between 6 to 8 months before needing to be replaced.[95] Each filter costs $32 dollars to purchase.[95]
  • Variable Volume of Distribution Model—Sarfaraz K. Niazi (1949—Present) is a Pakistani-American who in 1976[96] developed the "variable...volume of distribution model for sum of exponential functions based on conservation of mass".[97] This variable volume model implies an explicit relationship between redistribution and the rate of volume of drug distribution expansion in time.[97] In simple terms his model calculates when the drug volume reaches a particular size relative to a drugs volume of distribution inside the body.[97]
    • His model is able to provide new information about time based tissue drug effects for tissue metabolism and/or eliminations.[97]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
PANiCNQ, the first true non-metallic magnet. For decades scientists across the world had tried to invent the world's first plastic polymer magnet ever since discovering that plastic had very minute traces of magnetism; but all had failed until 2003, when Pakistani scientist and head researcher Naveed A. Zaidi not only invented it, but also made one that was highly customisable in strength and for the first time was actually practical, not requiring near total 0 degree Kelvin conditions to operate. His magnet was also the first permanent plastic magnet. The magnet has a wide range of uses one of which includes food packaging, of which patents are already make its mention. It is the first time in history an object not made of metal has been created that is capable of magnetism.
  • Non-Metallic (Organic Polymer) Magnet—In 2003, the world's first true plastic magnet was invented by the British-Pakistani physicist, and head researcher,[64] Naveed A. Zaidi (19??—Present),[n. 21] at the University of Durham.[65][66][67] His team called it "PANiCNQ".[65] The polymer is made from a combination of monomers of the reagents emeraldine polyaniline (PANI) and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ).[67][68] It is the world's first true non-metallic magnet because it was the first plastic to have passed the elemental test of magnetism.[69]
    • PANiCNQ can be further strengthened and "made to measure" (customised in other words);[69] when PANiCNQ was first revealed to the public the minimum magnetic strength of the plastic was demonstrated to be 1/100th that of a metallic magnet, and was also stable in air and could conduct electricity.[70][71][72] It is workable up to 77°C (350.15 °K) and takes between 2—3 months to produce magnetism after synthesis.[73]
      • Physically PANiCNQ consists of a nitrogen-carrying backbone with charge transfer side groups; which in combination produces a very stable polymer with high density localised spins;[65][68] meaning that its magnetism is permanent.[74] In even more simple terms "[t]he electron transfer from PANI to TCNQ forms two oppositely charged radical species, which in turn governs the magnetic properties of the material".[67]
    • Prior to this, plastic magnetism was only observed at extremely low temperatures and the magnetic force was also found to have been very weak.[75] This was one of the reasons why Durham was not the first to lay claim to such an invention.[69] Others claimed to have invented it as well, but crucially theirs "only function[ed] at extremely low temperatures" or "their magnetism at room temperature [was] too feeble".[69]
      • Temporary room temperature magnetism (called a "phase") was previously detected in the non-polymer—and pure element based compound—Carbon-60.[75] Another team lead by Jerry Torrance in 1988[n. 22] had claimed to have produced a plastic magnet where it's magnetism lasted up to 400°C—but crucially this was not reproducible, and it's documented magnetic effect was very weak because it attempted to use an oxidising process to produce magnetism (where a foreign compound or element is introduced),[75] suggesting it was perhaps only an anomaly.[75] In fact the original author later conceded, describing Zaidi's invention as "a significant scientific breakthrough".[69]
        • Torrance's team was only capable of producing plastic magnetism only when their polymer was constantly oxidised with Iodine.[68] This was a temporary magnetism as the process was inherently destabilising, thus leading to a very, very weak magnetic effect[75]), thus physical magnetism was both created and impeded with the introduction of oxidising agents.[75]
      • In 2001, US researchers at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln laid claim "to have created the world's first plastic magnet",[69] however, their claims were ridiculous as their polymer "only worked below 10 [degrees] kelvin" (-263.15°C).[69] Furthermore, it's magnetism was also very feeble like the many claims before it.[75] Zaidi's invention on the other hand passed "the elementary test of magnetism" at room temperature that others had not—and, furthermore—demonstrated PANiCNQ was the first to have a strongly magnetic strength; as it was directly capable of "pick[ing] up iron filings" (and worked at room temperature); which was the test that other researchers were not able to pass.[69]
Distillation apparatus from ancient Pakistan for producing essential oils (without Avicenna's refrigerated coil).
  • Distillation—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first to invent the refrigerated coil,[76][77][78] which cooled down vapours,[79] condensing them into liquid.[80] He used this invention of his to extract the first essential oil from roses,[81] which were used to make perfume. Indeed, "[t]his is a chilled coil within which the steamed distillate is condensed back into liquid without having to wait for the natural cooling process to take place".[79] Distillation however, was first invented in the Indus Valley (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC).[82]
    • There is evidence which proves that essential oil production was known to the Indus Valley Civilisation, the people of whom's descendants inhabit modern day Pakistan (indeed one of the theories is that some of these people migrated to the south of India, and indeed there is a genetic connection through the LM-20 haplogroup gene which shows modern day Pakistanis are more related to southern Dravidian Indians than northern Gangetic Indians[83]). The Indus Valley Civilisation however didn't use a refrigerated coil (see picture); they used the system shown adjacent.
    • The Indus Valley distillation apparatus was discovered in 1975 by Paolo Rovesti (1902—1983[84]). He discovered it in the museum of Taxila, and noted that it was a "perfectly preserved distillation apparatus made of terracotta" where the "presence of perfume containers also exhibited in the museum dating from the same period, about 3000 BC, confirmed its use for the preparation of aromatic oils".[85] A second distillation apparatus was also discovered in Afghanistan dated to 2,000 BC.[86] Distillation was previously thought to have been no older than a 1,000 years old.[86]
Gold-assaying using lydite rock.
  • Touchstone—An assaying tool to identify the purity levels of metals such as gold are known as touchstones, which consist of a stone of black siliceous schist (a type of lydite rock).[87][88] They are rubbed against objects and then the markings are compared to known pure gold samples.[87][88]
    • Touchstones were first used in the Indus Valley in 3,500 BC.[88] Touchstones were also used in ancient Greece[88] with the earliest archeological evidence for their use in Europe being in the 8th century BC (800 BC—701 BC).[87] The earliest reference in China was in 1387.[87]
    • Evidence from an ancient Harappan jewellers home found in modern day India, in Banawali, in the Hissar district in Haryana (historically a part of the ancient lands of the Punjab until 1966, when it was forcibly renamed to Haryana by the Indian government[89]).[90] The home was filled with a large number of beads of gold, lapis lazuli and carnelian and tiny weights.[90] The touchstone itself showed markings of streaks of gold (indicating that it was indeed used for assaying).[90][91][92]
Xanthated-Arsenic capture generation. Removing arsenic from water was difficult and expensive. However it can now very cheaply be done with modified watermelon rind.
  • Xanthated Salt-Arsenic Capture—In 2018, a major scientific breakthrough was made when scientists at the "University of Agriculture, Faisalabad" were the first to develop a chemical modification to watermelon rind which resulted in the organic structure being fully capable of binding to arsenic.[93] They developed this technology by heating, drying, and oven-firing the rind, crushing it into a fine powder, reacting it with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) which causes it's biopolymer rings to open, exposing many important reactive functional groups.[93] They then bind these exposed functional groups to carbon disulfide (CS2)—sulfide uniquely binds to arsenic—rendering the rind capable of netting arsenic,[93] with a success rate of 94%—100%.[94] It works especially well for Arsenic with a valency of III.[94]
    • The idea was first formulated in 2014 by Nabeel Khan Niazi (19??—Present), who's idea was subsequently funded by "Grand Challenges Canada".[95] The use of biological xanthates is not a novel idea, however, what makes this particularly groundbreaking are three things; the first being the successful integration of watermelon-rind with xanthate salts (whereas prior to this scientists had only used groundnut shell, mango leaf, rice husk and sugarcane bagasse).[95] The second is it's effectiveness (extremely high; whereas previous attempts using biological xanthates met with very "limited success").[95] Lastly, and most importantly, Niazi's filter was the first biological xanthate to have been capable of removing arsenic whereas before it had never been achieved.[95]
    • The importance of the invention is highlighted by the fact that arsenic poisoning affects 150 million people across 50 countries, with 43,000 people dying every year from unsanitized water polluted with the metal.[95] According to "SciDev, "[t]he most affected countries are Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan though arsenic pollution is also present in China, parts of Europe and the Americas".[95] The filter developed by these researchers is able to process 20,000 mls of water per day (approximately 834 mls per hour), and can be used for between 6 to 8 months before needing to be replaced.[95] Each filter costs $32 dollars to purchase.[95]
  • Variable Volume of Distribution Model—Sarfaraz K. Niazi (1949—Present) is a Pakistani-American who in 1976[96] developed the "variable...volume of distribution model for sum of exponential functions based on conservation of mass".[97] This variable volume model implies an explicit relationship between redistribution and the rate of volume of drug distribution expansion in time.[97] In simple terms his model calculates when the drug volume reaches a particular size relative to a drugs volume of distribution inside the body.[97]
    • His model is able to provide new information about time based tissue drug effects for tissue metabolism and/or eliminations.[97]

Computing (4)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The first neurochip.
  • PC Virus and Stealth Virus—Brain ("Pakistani Brain"), was the very first PC computer virus,[98][99][n. 23] and the first stealth virus in history.[100][n. 24] It was created in Lahore, Pakistan, and was first formulated in 1984 and released in September 1986.[101] It was spread using bootleg (pirated) copies of American software (such as "Lotus 1-2-3").[102] The virus was created by two 19 year old brothers,[100]—Basit and Amjad Farooq Alvi[103]—who became increasingly frustrated that their own software was also getting pirated.[104][105][n. 25] The creators wanted to punish the pirates and so invented the virus.[102]
  • Neurochip—Also known as the Brain Cell Silicon Chip or the Bionic Chip, the nuerochip was first invented by Naweed Syed (c. 1957—Present) in 2010.[106][107] In 2004 he had already successfully achieved the same feat by using an animal brain cell (specifically that of a snail, which are 4—10 times as large as human brain cells).[106] The development has been considered monumental since it's applications are wide ranging; "raising the possibility of neurochip implants that can operate artificial limbs, help restore sight or language after a stroke, or repair neurons that malfunction in a wide range of brain disorders, from Parkinson's disease to Alzheimer's".[106] In 2019, it was reported that the first human clinical trials using the chip were scheduled later that year.[108]
Smart Eye Helmet.
  • Smart (Mining) Helmet—In 2016, Ali Gul (c. 1995—Present)—from the Balochistan province of Pakistan—became the first person to invent the smart helmet.[109] It contains "sensors to monitor mine conditions, the presence of toxic gases, explosion risks, and the location and health vitals of miners working in a particular mine" as well as being capable of predicting "danger through the use of artificial intelligence (AI)" embedded software.[109][110] This explains the price tag of the helmet at $135 dollars (which according to safety industrial experts is reasonable given it's advanced capabilities).[110]
    • Gul set to work on the design of the helmet when he had heard that his brother had passed out inside a mine and almost died as a result of being unable to detect toxic vapours emanating from trapped gases buried deep within the ground.[109] After discovering how many men and women die (or obtain injuries) every year in these pits, he became determined to resolve the issue and mitigate these unnecessary deaths (and injuries).[109]
      • Balochistan's coal industries employ a staggering 300,000 miners despite its considerably small population.[109] Some 120[109]—200[110] miners die in accidents every year, because the industry does not adequately follow safety standards and laws set by the state.[109] The mining industry is only set to grow further. A single goldmine in Pakistan for example has been found to contain at least $500 billion dollars worth of pure gold.[111]
    • The invention initially started out as a project in 2016 when Gul attended the "University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences" (BUITEMS) in Balochistan. As a result of the value of his invention the "High Education Commission (HEC)" awarded him Rs. 14,000,000 rupees (approximately $100,000 dollars when converted to USD) to further develop the helmet's technology.[110][112]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The first neurochip.
  • PC Virus and Stealth Virus—Brain ("Pakistani Brain"), was the very first PC computer virus,[98][99][n. 26] and the first stealth virus in history.[100][n. 27] It was created in Lahore, Pakistan, and was first formulated in 1984 and released in September 1986.[101] It was spread using bootleg (pirated) copies of American software (such as "Lotus 1-2-3").[102] The virus was created by two 19 year old brothers,[100]—Basit and Amjad Farooq Alvi[103]—who became increasingly frustrated that their own software was also getting pirated.[104][105][n. 28] The creators wanted to punish the pirates and so invented the virus.[102]
  • Neurochip—Also known as the Brain Cell Silicon Chip or the Bionic Chip, the nuerochip was first invented by Naweed Syed (c. 1957—Present) in 2010.[106][107] In 2004 he had already successfully achieved the same feat by using an animal brain cell (specifically that of a snail, which are 4—10 times as large as human brain cells).[106] The development has been considered monumental since it's applications are wide ranging; "raising the possibility of neurochip implants that can operate artificial limbs, help restore sight or language after a stroke, or repair neurons that malfunction in a wide range of brain disorders, from Parkinson's disease to Alzheimer's".[106] In 2019, it was reported that the first human clinical trials using the chip were scheduled later that year.[108]
Smart Eye Helmet.
  • Smart (Mining) Helmet—In 2016, Ali Gul (c. 1995—Present)—from the Balochistan province of Pakistan—became the first person to invent the smart helmet.[109] It contains "sensors to monitor mine conditions, the presence of toxic gases, explosion risks, and the location and health vitals of miners working in a particular mine" as well as being capable of predicting "danger through the use of artificial intelligence (AI)" embedded software.[109][110] This explains the price tag of the helmet at $135 dollars (which according to safety industrial experts is reasonable given it's advanced capabilities).[110]
    • Gul set to work on the design of the helmet when he had heard that his brother had passed out inside a mine and almost died as a result of being unable to detect toxic vapours emanating from trapped gases buried deep within the ground.[109] After discovering how many men and women die (or obtain injuries) every year in these pits, he became determined to resolve the issue and mitigate these unnecessary deaths (and injuries).[109]
      • Balochistan's coal industries employ a staggering 300,000 miners despite its considerably small population.[109] Some 120[109]—200[110] miners die in accidents every year, because the industry does not adequately follow safety standards and laws set by the state.[109] The mining industry is only set to grow further. A single goldmine in Pakistan for example has been found to contain at least $500 billion dollars worth of pure gold.[111]
    • The invention initially started out as a project in 2016 when Gul attended the "University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences" (BUITEMS) in Balochistan. As a result of the value of his invention the "High Education Commission (HEC)" awarded him Rs. 14,000,000 rupees (approximately $100,000 dollars when converted to USD) to further develop the helmet's technology.[110][112]

Video-gaming (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also History of Muslims in the Video-Games Industry (1980—Present)
"Bastion" (2011), an indie game, was the first game to use reactive/real-time narration, which was lauded as "groundbreaking" by critics. This unique feature help it sell millions of copies.
  • Reactive Narration/Real-time[113][n. 29] Narration—In 2011, Amir Rao (19??—Present), a Pakistani American,[114][115][116][117] (and co-founder Gavin Simon; 19??—Present) were the first to conceive of, and apply, the idea of a reactive narrator; which was a unique feature of the game design (which was hailed as "groundbreaking" by critics[118][n. 30]).[119][n. 31][120][n. 32][121][n. 33][122][n. 34] They used this in their storytelling to create "Bastion" (2011), which was the first to have this idea incorporated into it, containing ~3,000 lines of dialogue that specifically have the narrator react to the actions of the player where "every action triggers a unique piece of commentary".[123][124] The game was enormously popular selling over 3 million copies worldwide.[125][126]
    • Interestingly, the legacy of "Bastion's" reactive narrative design has inspired other games to adopt a (partially) similar approach, most notably "Getting Over It With Bennett Foddy" (2017)—a rage-game designed to induce immense anger, frustration and grief in the player.[127]
    • Rao has mistakenly been labelled as "Indian-American"[128] (as Indian news reports have also called him "Indian-origin"; despite the fact that "Amir Rao" is a common Pakistani name and not an Indian one; for example the head of "Microsoft Pakistan" is a Pakistani named Amir Rao, and there is also a Pakistani film director called Amir Rao too[n. 35]). It is certainly possible that they have confused his second name "Rao" as being Hindu (however it is actually Rajput in origin), as it is both used by Hindus and Muslims (in both Pakistan and India). Interestingly the Muslim actor Aamir Khan is married to a Hindu woman called Kiran Rao.[129][130] However, Amir Rao's first name, "Amir", clearly betrays his Muslim heritage; as Amir is a Muslim name (originating from Arabic/Somali) meaning "command", "rule", "princely"', or "born in abundant times".[131][132][133][134][135]
5,000-year-old dice.
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also History of Muslims in the Video-Games Industry (1980—Present)
"Bastion" (2011), an indie game, was the first game to use reactive/real-time narration, which was lauded as "groundbreaking" by critics. This unique feature help it sell millions of copies.
  • Reactive Narration/Real-time[113][n. 36] Narration—In 2011, Amir Rao (19??—Present), a Pakistani American,[114][115][116][117] (and co-founder Gavin Simon; 19??—Present) were the first to conceive of, and apply, the idea of a reactive narrator; which was a unique feature of the game design (which was hailed as "groundbreaking" by critics[118][n. 37]).[119][n. 38][120][n. 39][121][n. 40][122][n. 41] They used this in their storytelling to create "Bastion" (2011), which was the first to have this idea incorporated into it, containing ~3,000 lines of dialogue that specifically have the narrator react to the actions of the player where "every action triggers a unique piece of commentary".[123][124] The game was enormously popular selling over 3 million copies worldwide.[125][126]
    • Interestingly, the legacy of "Bastion's" reactive narrative design has inspired other games to adopt a (partially) similar approach, most notably "Getting Over It With Bennett Foddy" (2017)—a rage-game designed to induce immense anger, frustration and grief in the player.[127]
    • Rao has mistakenly been labelled as "Indian-American"[128] (as Indian news reports have also called him "Indian-origin"; despite the fact that "Amir Rao" is a common Pakistani name and not an Indian one; for example the head of "Microsoft Pakistan" is a Pakistani named Amir Rao, and there is also a Pakistani film director called Amir Rao too[n. 42]). It is certainly possible that they have confused his second name "Rao" as being Hindu (however it is actually Rajput in origin), as it is both used by Hindus and Muslims (in both Pakistan and India). Interestingly the Muslim actor Aamir Khan is married to a Hindu woman called Kiran Rao.[129][130] However, Amir Rao's first name, "Amir", clearly betrays his Muslim heritage; as Amir is a Muslim name (originating from Arabic/Somali) meaning "command", "rule", "princely"', or "born in abundant times".[131][132][133][134][135]
5,000-year-old dice.

Board Games (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also History of Muslims in the Video-Games Industry (1980—Present)
  • Dice (Die), Cubed—The Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC) was the first to invent cubic dice (more specifically during the Harappan Period[136]), which were exported to Mesopotamia (with archeological evidence of these cubic dice being found in Palestine as early as 3,000 BC[137]).[138] The Indus Valley had three different ways to mark dice.[139] The dice were marked with the numbers 1, 2 and 3, and the rest marked with longitudial lines, the second was marked 1 opposite to 2, 3 opposite to 4 and 5 opposite to 6, and the third marked with modern markings, which were 1 opposite to 6, 2 opposite to 5 and 3 opposite to 4.[139]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also History of Muslims in the Video-Games Industry (1980—Present)
  • Dice (Die), Cubed—The Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC) was the first to invent cubic dice (more specifically during the Harappan Period[136]), which were exported to Mesopotamia (with archeological evidence of these cubic dice being found in Palestine as early as 3,000 BC[137]).[138] The Indus Valley had three different ways to mark dice.[139] The dice were marked with the numbers 1, 2 and 3, and the rest marked with longitudial lines, the second was marked 1 opposite to 2, 3 opposite to 4 and 5 opposite to 6, and the third marked with modern markings, which were 1 opposite to 6, 2 opposite to 5 and 3 opposite to 4.[139]

Mathematics (3)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The Aziz—Mackenzie Model.[140]
  • Aziz—MacKenzie Model—In 2016,[n. 43] Haris Aziz (c. 1981—Present[n. 44]) and Simon Mackenzie (c. 1989—Present[n. 45]) were the first to solve a complex mathematical problem in game theory known as "envy-free caking cutting" (which was previously thought impossible to solve[141]). The problem describes a scenario where a limited (non-symmetrical[142][n. 46]) resource (such as a "cake", "time, property settlement, or computing resource"[143]) must be shared equally with an infinite number of people. To put it into simple terms, it is also known as "cake cutting" theory where each person must end up "with a fair share". Whilst this may sound banal, it is actually extremely complicated (see this[144][145]) as it involves a series of complicated steps to achieve true resource equality.
    • Some mathematicians believe the algorithm—although it solves the problem—may be too complicated to apply practically. Aziz somehwat agrees, saying "[n]ot only is the algorithm complex but the number of steps it takes to get the job done can be too high in the worst case. So our result should be viewed as a mathematical result rather than a practical engineering result...[h]aving said that, many experts previously thought that there was no algorithm that takes a bounded number of steps or cuts even for four persons. Now that we have a bounded algorithm, it provides hope to refine the ideas to get better bounds. Some of the mathematical ideas and algorithmic techniques may be useful for other problems".[143]
HDI.
  • Human Development Index (HDI)—Mahbub ul Haq (1934—1998[146]) was the first to invent the HDI in 1990.[147][148][149][150] While he was working on the development of the HDI itself, some were sceptical of its usefulness, but Haq pushed forward and insisted that only a single number could shift the attention of economic policy makers from "material output to human well-being as a measure of progress".[151] Despite his idea courting controversy amongst economists the world over,[150] he was later proven right, and ultimately it was adopted as a valuable economic metric. In 2010 the HDI was further improved with a few changes.
    • The "Barometer of Sustainability" was later directly inspired by the work of Haq.[147] Haq was also the architect of the "World Development Report" for the World Bank.[150] Between 1982 and 1988 he served as the several roles as minister, including in Finance, Commerce and Planning.[150] He also actively helped fund the Pakistani nuclear bomb project (c. 1974—c. 1998).[150] The project itself were very secret, and ultimately cemented Pakistan's position as a nuclear scientific powerhouse. He was succeeded by his wife—Khadija—and two children—Toneema and Farhan—after his death in 1998.[152]
Most scholars of history agree that Brahmagupta was born either in Multan or Sind, in medieval Pakistan. A minority believes he was born in Rajasthan.
  • Zero—The worlds oldest representation of the number zero (i.e. the symbol for "0") is to be found in ancient Pakistan.[153][154] Evidence for this lies in an ancient manuscript called the "Bakhshali",[153] which was discovered by chance by a farmer tending to his fields in 1881 during the reign of the British Raj (1857—1947), and subsequently brought to the attention of the British Indologist A. F. R. Hoernle (1841—1918[155]).[153] The name of the manuscript itself, "Bakhshali", is named after the village from where it was found, 80 km[156] from Peshawar.[153] It was then transferred over to the United Kingdom in 1902 for safekeeping, and has since lain dormant at the University of Oxford (or more specifically at it's prestigious Bodleian Library).[153][154]
    • Interestingly, the famous South Asian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598—668[157]), was born in (or near[158][159]) Multan, Punjab (modern-day Pakistan),[160][161][162][163][164] or Bhillamala, Sind (modern-day Sindh, Pakistan).[165][166][167] Others claim Abu, Rajasthan (modern-day India).[164][168]
      • In the history of mathematics however he is known as "Brahmagupta of Multan" or "Brahmagupta of Sind", who is known to have popularised the use of zero hundreds of years after its conception.[160][169] However, at some point he moved to Ujjain (modern-day Madhya Pradesh) where he lived and worked.[168] To the Chinese he was known as "Pi-lo-mo-lo".[165] His contributions themselves were popularised by al-Biruni (973—1048).[170]
    • Prior to the discovery of the manuscript, it was thought the earliest depiction of zero as a symbol was first developed in modern-day India, as the earliest use was found in a 9th century inscription on the wall of a temple in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.[153] According to the University of Oxford, "[t]he findings are highly significant for the study of the early history of mathematics" as the newer evidence predates the use of zero by at least five centuries. [153]
      • One of the reasons why this wasn't known until only recently is perhaps because the manuscripts used to depict zero were made out of birch bark—a natural biodegradable perishable material that was extensively used in the medieval age (especially in ancient Buddhist Pakistan) prior to the invention of paper in China and its subsequent spread by the Sogdians (Iranian nomads) and Arabs (Abbasids) in the 8th century, after the Battle of Talas (751).
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The Aziz—Mackenzie Model.[140]
  • Aziz—MacKenzie Model—In 2016,[n. 47] Haris Aziz (c. 1981—Present[n. 48]) and Simon Mackenzie (c. 1989—Present[n. 49]) were the first to solve a complex mathematical problem in game theory known as "envy-free caking cutting" (which was previously thought impossible to solve[141]). The problem describes a scenario where a limited (non-symmetrical[142][n. 50]) resource (such as a "cake", "time, property settlement, or computing resource"[143]) must be shared equally with an infinite number of people. To put it into simple terms, it is also known as "cake cutting" theory where each person must end up "with a fair share". Whilst this may sound banal, it is actually extremely complicated (see this[144][145]) as it involves a series of complicated steps to achieve true resource equality.
    • Some mathematicians believe the algorithm—although it solves the problem—may be too complicated to apply practically. Aziz somehwat agrees, saying "[n]ot only is the algorithm complex but the number of steps it takes to get the job done can be too high in the worst case. So our result should be viewed as a mathematical result rather than a practical engineering result...[h]aving said that, many experts previously thought that there was no algorithm that takes a bounded number of steps or cuts even for four persons. Now that we have a bounded algorithm, it provides hope to refine the ideas to get better bounds. Some of the mathematical ideas and algorithmic techniques may be useful for other problems".[143]
HDI.
  • Human Development Index (HDI)—Mahbub ul Haq (1934—1998[146]) was the first to invent the HDI in 1990.[147][148][149][150] While he was working on the development of the HDI itself, some were sceptical of its usefulness, but Haq pushed forward and insisted that only a single number could shift the attention of economic policy makers from "material output to human well-being as a measure of progress".[151] Despite his idea courting controversy amongst economists the world over,[150] he was later proven right, and ultimately it was adopted as a valuable economic metric. In 2010 the HDI was further improved with a few changes.
Most scholars of history agree that Brahmagupta was born either in Multan or Sind, in medieval Pakistan. A minority believes he was born in Rajasthan.
  • Zero—The worlds oldest representation of the number zero (i.e. the symbol for "0") is to be found in ancient Pakistan.[153][154] Evidence for this lies in an ancient manuscript called the "Bakhshali",[153] which was discovered by chance by a farmer tending to his fields in 1881 during the reign of the British Raj (1857—1947), and subsequently brought to the attention of the British Indologist A. F. R. Hoernle (1841—1918[155]).[153] The name of the manuscript itself, "Bakhshali", is named after the village from where it was found, 80 km[156] from Peshawar.[153] It was then transferred over to the United Kingdom in 1902 for safekeeping, and has since lain dormant at the University of Oxford (or more specifically at it's prestigious Bodleian Library).[153][154]
    • Interestingly, the famous South Asian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598—668[157]), was born in (or near[158][159]) Multan, Punjab (modern-day Pakistan),[160][161][162][163][164] or Bhillamala, Sind (modern-day Sindh, Pakistan).[165][166][167] Others claim Abu, Rajasthan (modern-day India).[164][168]
      • In the history of mathematics however he is known as "Brahmagupta of Multan" or "Brahmagupta of Sind", who is known to have popularised the use of zero hundreds of years after its conception.[160][169] However, at some point he moved to Ujjain (modern-day Madhya Pradesh) where he lived and worked.[168] To the Chinese he was known as "Pi-lo-mo-lo".[165] His contributions themselves were popularised by al-Biruni (973—1048).[170]
    • Prior to the discovery of the manuscript, it was thought the earliest depiction of zero as a symbol was first developed in modern-day India, as the earliest use was found in a 9th century inscription on the wall of a temple in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.[153] According to the University of Oxford, "[t]he findings are highly significant for the study of the early history of mathematics" as the newer evidence predates the use of zero by at least five centuries. [153]
      • One of the reasons why this wasn't known until only recently is perhaps because the manuscripts used to depict zero were made out of birch bark—a natural biodegradable perishable material that was extensively used in the medieval age (especially in ancient Buddhist Pakistan) prior to the invention of paper in China and its subsequent spread by the Sogdians (Iranian nomads) and Arabs (Abbasids) in the 8th century, after the Battle of Talas (751).

Medicines (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
Yar was the first to discover the angiogenic properties of 2-deoxy-D-ribose in 2017, which has the ability to repair even impossible to heal ulcers, wounds, cuts and abrasions such as those found in diabetic patients (particularly diabetic foot).
  • Deoxyribose Bandage—Muhammed Yar (19??—Present) was the first to discover the healing properties of a sugar known as 2-deoxy-D-ribose in 2017[171][172][173][174] (the sugar itself was first discovered by Takajiro Mori[175] (????—????) and Phoebus Levene[176] (1869—1940) in 1929).[171]
    • Yar found that it accelerated a process known as angiogensisis, which is the process where new blood vessels form, observing the process "during his research to understand how tumours stimulate new blood vessels" and eventually discovering "that a naturally occurring sugar (2-deoxy-D-ribose) increased when tumours encouraged new blood vessels to be made".[171]
      • It should be noted that 2-deoxy-D-ribose is one of the two parts of a DNA molecule (the other being the bases).[177] By using this specific sugar in the healing process Yar and his team were able to invent and patent a new design of bandages containing the new ingredient.[178]
    • The sugars are conjugated with hydrogels in alginate plasters and actively negate the use of very expensive growth factors.[172] Furthermore the L- and D- isomeric strains of 2-deoxy-D-ribose were unable to have been broken down by certain natural strains of bacteria found on the skin (namely staph. aureus) further reinforcing its long-term durability without necessity of causing, or worsening, infections found in open wounds.[173]
    • The bandages are particularly useful in treating diabetic skin ulcerations such as diabetic foot, but will also be useful for other cuts and abrasions in general.[179] The research was driven by the "Technology Development Fund" (TDF) of the "Higher Education Commission" (HEC) of Pakistan.[180]
      • The patent for the invention is held by both the COMSATS University Islamabad and the University of Sheffield.[181]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
Yar was the first to discover the angiogenic properties of 2-deoxy-D-ribose in 2017, which has the ability to repair even impossible to heal ulcers, wounds, cuts and abrasions such as those found in diabetic patients (particularly diabetic foot).
  • Deoxyribose Bandage—Muhammed Yar (19??—Present) was the first to discover the healing properties of a sugar known as 2-deoxy-D-ribose in 2017[171][172][173][174] (the sugar itself was first discovered by Takajiro Mori[175] (????—????) and Phoebus Levene[176] (1869—1940) in 1929).[171]
    • Yar found that it accelerated a process known as angiogensisis, which is the process where new blood vessels form, observing the process "during his research to understand how tumours stimulate new blood vessels" and eventually discovering "that a naturally occurring sugar (2-deoxy-D-ribose) increased when tumours encouraged new blood vessels to be made".[171]
      • It should be noted that 2-deoxy-D-ribose is one of the two parts of a DNA molecule (the other being the bases).[177] By using this specific sugar in the healing process Yar and his team were able to invent and patent a new design of bandages containing the new ingredient.[178]
    • The sugars are conjugated with hydrogels in alginate plasters and actively negate the use of very expensive growth factors.[172] Furthermore the L- and D- isomeric strains of 2-deoxy-D-ribose were unable to have been broken down by certain natural strains of bacteria found on the skin (namely staph. aureus) further reinforcing its long-term durability without necessity of causing, or worsening, infections found in open wounds.[173]
    • The bandages are particularly useful in treating diabetic skin ulcerations such as diabetic foot, but will also be useful for other cuts and abrasions in general.[179] The research was driven by the "Technology Development Fund" (TDF) of the "Higher Education Commission" (HEC) of Pakistan.[180]
      • The patent for the invention is held by both the COMSATS University Islamabad and the University of Sheffield.[181]

Disease Eradication (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
In 1993, Pakistan became the first country to eradicate Dracunculiasis synthetically.
  • Dracunculiasis Eradication—By the 20th century, the guinea worm—also known as "Dracunculiasis"[182]—had for a long time, been retreating naturally through no eradication efforts, disappearing totally from the Soviet Union in the 1930s and Iran in the 1970s (having originally been spread by nomads, migrants and translocated prisoners).[183] However it continued to flourish in at least 18 countries from which it originated (resulting in a total combined population of 120 million people still being at risk).[183] The disease spreads from drinking water which contain larvae of the parasite "Dracunculiasis medinensis" (hosted and spread by water fleas[184][185]). These are small cyclop shaped organisms which act as intermediate hosts.[186] When ingested and killed, they release the larvae.[186]
    • In 1980,[186] the world's first guinea worm eradication programme was organised by the World Health Assembly in order to combat 400,000 new cases of reported every year. Pakistan successfully managed to eradicate the guinea worm in October 1993[187] (having started in 1987[187]),[188] and thus became the first country in the world to eradicate the disease,[189] where"[m]ethods pioneered in Pakistan’s National Guinea Worm Eradication Program" were then applied in the "remaining endemic countries".[187] Pakistan was subsequently "honored" by the United States "in 2000 for having stopped Guinea worm disease transmission".[188] Thus, by 1996, India eradicated it as well.[190] By 2019, of the 18 endemic countries, only 2 still reported infections (Chad and Angola).[191]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
In 1993, Pakistan became the first country to eradicate Dracunculiasis synthetically.
  • Dracunculiasis Eradication—By the 20th century, the guinea worm—also known as "Dracunculiasis"[182]—had for a long time, been retreating naturally through no eradication efforts, disappearing totally from the Soviet Union in the 1930s and Iran in the 1970s (having originally been spread by nomads, migrants and translocated prisoners).[183] However it continued to flourish in at least 18 countries from which it originated (resulting in a total combined population of 120 million people still being at risk).[183] The disease spreads from drinking water which contain larvae of the parasite "Dracunculiasis medinensis" (hosted and spread by water fleas[184][185]). These are small cyclop shaped organisms which act as intermediate hosts.[186] When ingested and killed, they release the larvae.[186]
    • In 1980,[186] the world's first guinea worm eradication programme was organised by the World Health Assembly in order to combat 400,000 new cases of reported every year. Pakistan successfully managed to eradicate the guinea worm in October 1993[187] (having started in 1987[187]),[188] and thus became the first country in the world to eradicate the disease,[189] where"[m]ethods pioneered in Pakistan’s National Guinea Worm Eradication Program" were then applied in the "remaining endemic countries".[187] Pakistan was subsequently "honored" by the United States "in 2000 for having stopped Guinea worm disease transmission".[188] Thus, by 1996, India eradicated it as well.[190] By 2019, of the 18 endemic countries, only 2 still reported infections (Chad and Angola).[191]

Genetics & Disease (5)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
The Apo-CIII protein, which codes for the APOC3 gene.[192][193]
  • APOC3 Gene, CHD-Link—In 2015, in a groundbreaking collaborative research project between Pakistan, the UK and the USA (lead by Pakistani scientists[194]); researchers were able to discover for the first time that the APOC3 gene was the cause of coronary heart disease (CHD); and that those born without the gene were "protected against coronary heart disease" itself.[195][196] Furthermore, "when compared to other family members who had the gene, individuals with an absence of APOC3 didn’t get a significant postprandial rise in their blood fat levels and were perfectly healthy" which meant they had "little artery-clogging fat in their body".[195][196] The discovery has opened up an opportunity to develop newer, highly specialised medicines (i.e. personalised medicines) to block the gene.[195][196]
    • The study was also the first to discover 1,317 new knockout genes.[195][196] This was groundbreaking since "people who are natural knockouts, that is, they were born missing one or more genes without any obvious medical problems are few and far between".[195][196] Additionally, "the study found 734 genes where both copies were affected by...“double knock-outs”...which had never been described before".[195][196] Lastly, "[t]his Pakistani research study is...the first time where the knockouts found have been tested and their blood biomarkers...have been studied to discover more about their health".[195][196]
    • The conclusions of the study are particularly notable because these discoveries could only have been made in a group that were closely related (for example the total absence of the APOC3 gene, of which everyone has between 1—2 copies, was only ever found in Pakistan).[195][196] This is because in Pakistan cousin marriages are common, which presented a rare opportunity to see how the effects of cousin marriage actually gave advantageous health benefits.[194][195][196] However, for the purposes of balance, cousin marriages can also prove disadvantageous. It is a "double-edged sword".
MARK3 Gene Protein.
  • MARK3 Gene Mutation—In May 2018, Pakistani scientists (along with their Swiss and American counterparts) were the first to discover a gene mutation in the MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3 enzyme (MARK3) that causes "Phthisis bulbi", a disease which causes permanent blindness.[197][198][199] The disease itself has been known for thousands of years[200]—but precisely what caused it remained unknown until 2018.[197] The human genome consists of 20,000 genes, but only 4,141 of them have ever been linked to disease aetiologies, leaving approximately 16,000 of them left undiscovered.[201] One of these was MARK3.[201]
    • Interestingly, Pakistan's first genetic mutation database (called the "Pakistan Genetic Mutation Database" (PGMD)) was set up by Kohat University of Science and Technology in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[202] The database was first set up in 2018, and it's importance is highlighted in the fact that 29 million people out of Pakistan’s 200 million have diseases which are linked to faulty genes.[203] So far it has identified 1,000 genes and 120 syndromic/non-syndromic disorders.[203] The databases existence is further justified as Pakistan has one of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world (amongst close cousins) at 62.7%.[203]
  • Siddiqi Syndrome—In 2017, Saima Siddiqi from the "Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering" in Islamabad, was the first to discover the existence of a deafness–dystonia syndrome known as "Siddiqi Syndrome".[204][205] The disease is caused by a genetic mutation in the "fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2" (FITM2) gene.[204][205] The disease is classified as rare, and the discovery of the disease will be used to screen couples who carry the gene in order to prevent their children from passing it on and developing the condition.[205] The faulty gene's discovery also provides a basis on which to develop future medicines.[205]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
The Apo-CIII protein, which codes for the APOC3 gene.[192][193]
  • APOC3 Gene, CHD-Link—In 2015, in a groundbreaking collaborative research project between Pakistan, the UK and the USA (lead by Pakistani scientists[194]); researchers were able to discover for the first time that the APOC3 gene was the cause of coronary heart disease (CHD); and that those born without the gene were "protected against coronary heart disease" itself.[195][196] Furthermore, "when compared to other family members who had the gene, individuals with an absence of APOC3 didn’t get a significant postprandial rise in their blood fat levels and were perfectly healthy" which meant they had "little artery-clogging fat in their body".[195][196] The discovery has opened up an opportunity to develop newer, highly specialised medicines (i.e. personalised medicines) to block the gene.[195][196]
    • The study was also the first to discover 1,317 new knockout genes.[195][196] This was groundbreaking since "people who are natural knockouts, that is, they were born missing one or more genes without any obvious medical problems are few and far between".[195][196] Additionally, "the study found 734 genes where both copies were affected by...“double knock-outs”...which had never been described before".[195][196] Lastly, "[t]his Pakistani research study is...the first time where the knockouts found have been tested and their blood biomarkers...have been studied to discover more about their health".[195][196]
    • The conclusions of the study are particularly notable because these discoveries could only have been made in a group that were closely related (for example the total absence of the APOC3 gene, of which everyone has between 1—2 copies, was only ever found in Pakistan).[195][196] This is because in Pakistan cousin marriages are common, which presented a rare opportunity to see how the effects of cousin marriage actually gave advantageous health benefits.[194][195][196] However, for the purposes of balance, cousin marriages can also prove disadvantageous. It is a "double-edged sword".
MARK3 Gene Protein.
  • MARK3 Gene Mutation—In May 2018, Pakistani scientists (along with their Swiss and American counterparts) were the first to discover a gene mutation in the MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3 enzyme (MARK3) that causes "Phthisis bulbi", a disease which causes permanent blindness.[197][198][199] The disease itself has been known for thousands of years[200]—but precisely what caused it remained unknown until 2018.[197] The human genome consists of 20,000 genes, but only 4,141 of them have ever been linked to disease aetiologies, leaving approximately 16,000 of them left undiscovered.[201] One of these was MARK3.[201]
    • Interestingly, Pakistan's first genetic mutation database (called the "Pakistan Genetic Mutation Database" (PGMD)) was set up by Kohat University of Science and Technology in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[202] The database was first set up in 2018, and it's importance is highlighted in the fact that 29 million people out of Pakistan’s 200 million have diseases which are linked to faulty genes.[203] So far it has identified 1,000 genes and 120 syndromic/non-syndromic disorders.[203] The databases existence is further justified as Pakistan has one of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world (amongst close cousins) at 62.7%.[203]
  • Siddiqi Syndrome—In 2017, Saima Siddiqi from the "Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering" in Islamabad, was the first to discover the existence of a deafness–dystonia syndrome known as "Siddiqi Syndrome".[204][205] The disease is caused by a genetic mutation in the "fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2" (FITM2) gene.[204][205] The disease is classified as rare, and the discovery of the disease will be used to screen couples who carry the gene in order to prevent their children from passing it on and developing the condition.[205] The faulty gene's discovery also provides a basis on which to develop future medicines.[205]

Medical Instruments (6)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
The Neha Stick. Used in Parkinson's Disease.
  • Catheter Mount, Non-Kink—Ahmad Khan Jamil (1939—Present) was the first to invent the non-kink catheter mount.[206] Catheter mounts are used in anaesthesia, but standard catheter mounts are problematic in that during their use they were often bent out of shape.[206] Jamil at the time devised an ingenious method of producing non-kink catheter mounts which could be twisted 180 degrees without being dented.[206] He developed this using a strong inner armour which prevented kinkage.[206] This mount is used primarily in head, neck and neuro surgeries.
  • Neha Smart Stick—The PD Walking Smart Stick, Walk to Beat or the Neha Smart Stick, was invented by Neha Chaudhary (1993[207]—Present) in the 2010s, in order to help patients who had Parkinson's Disease to walk (the disease itself affects 10 million people globally[208]).[208] In 2010 Chaudhary moved to the UK to start her degree in product design technology at the University of the West of England and developed the stick over a period of several months as part of her final year project.[208] Her invention was driven by the suffering of her grandfather who struggled with Parkinson's for eight years.[208]
    • The invention works by sending mild electrical signals through the hands and subsequently the body of those who suffer from Parkinson's.[209] This prevents patients from suffering from gait and freeze reactions that are common with the condition which leads to hard falls. The stick therefore allows patients to continue to be mobile without suffering from injuries arising from unpredictable falls. Put simply by one report "[h]er invention, Walk to Beat, uses sensors, which detect when a patient freezes and send rhythmic vibrations through its handle, to encourage smooth walking gait".[210]
The Ommaya Reservoir, also known as the cerebrospinal fluid reservoir, was invented by Ayub K. Ommaya.
  • Ommaya Reservoir/Cerebrospinal Fluid Reservoir—In 1963, Ayub K. Ommaya (1930—2008[211]) became the first to invent the cerebrospinal fluid reservoir ("Ommaya Reservoir").[212] It is "a ventricular catheter with a mushroom-shaped dome for administration of intraventricular therapies".[211] The invention was spurred by the necessity of "providing a better channel for intraventricular therapies to his patients with brain infections and cancer...[i]n an effort to save his patients the morbidity and discomfort of serial lumbar punctures".[211] It is used by oncologists/infectious disease physicians specialising in intrathecal administration.[211]
    • Ommaya published over 200 research pieces in his lifetime.[213] He was also informally known as the "singing surgeon" as he had a fondness for singing both before and after surgeries.[214][215] His other contributions include proposing the idea that consciousness is a type of human emotion rather than it being intimately woven with reason; suggesting the emotional core of the brain is responsible for controlling the nervous system and its responses.[216] It is perhaps even more interesting in that Ommaya wanted to return to Pakistan after he graduated and did indeed apply for a job but was unfortunately rejected.[211]
    • Ommaya graduated from the King Edward Medical College in Lahore, Pakistan in 1953 (where he won the College's gold medal for academic achievement), before he won a scholarship as a Rhodes Scholar and attended the University of Oxford at Balliol College in 1954.[211] He then received his training at the Morriston Hospital in Wales for two years before embarking back to the University of Oxford to work on his PhD in Clinical Biochemistry.[211] By 1964 he was appointed as the Hunterian Professor of Surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons.[211] He was cited in 3,212 scientific publications between 1962—2004.[211]
  • Pleura-peritoneal Shunt—Sayed Amjad Hussain (1937—Present[217]) was the first to invent[218] the pleura-peritoneal shunt in 1986.[219] In 2012 he was indicted into the University of Toledo, Texas, Medical Mission Hall of Fame, which is an award to "honor those individuals and organisations who have made significant and substantial contributions to advancing the medical well-being of people".[218][220][221] Hussain was a direct survivor of the 1947 massacres of Muslims in the Punjab by Sikhs and Hindus, and who was then only 9 years old.[222]
    • One of the uses of his device is in treating pleural effusion in chylothorax.[223]
I-gel SAD device, invented in 2002.
V-gel SAD device.[224]
  • I-Gel Supraglottic Airway Rescue Device—Muhammed Aslam Nasir (1961—Present[225]) was the first to invent the I-Gel Supraglottic Airway rescue device (SAD; a video demonstrating it can seen here).[226][n. 51][227][228] The device has been so pivotal that it is currently used in at least 90 countries worldwide (as of 2017 it is used at a rate of 5 times per minute; meaning that every five minutes 25 people have had to use the device in order for their lives to be saved).[229] In medicine it has been praised for having acquired a "reputation for ease of insertion, minimal stimulation, good performance and excellent tolerance".[227]
    • It was released to the public in 2007,[227] with paediatric designs released in 2009.[227] It has been extensively studied in numerous peer reviewed trials involving clinical treatment since it's inception and its efficacy is considered remarkable.[230] Additionally, there are seven different sizes of the device available on the market (ranging in sizes of 1—5) which can be used from birth onward, including very obese adults.[230] It hasn't ever required any modification since it's release.[227]
      • Unlike previous SAD devices, the i-gel "does not use inflatable cuffs to achieve a seal of the esophagus and pharyngeal structures",[231] giving it a major advantage. It was designed using medical-grade thermoplastic which produces its gel like feel (the plastic itself is styrene ethylene butadine styrene).[231] Additionally it is designed to incorporate a bite block and a gastric channel which allows medical professionals to pass a gauge suction catheter through it.[231] It is specifically designed anatomically to fit snugly into the perilaryngeal structures, "essentially mirroring the supralaryngeal anatomy".[231]
    • Nasir first conceived of the idea whilst working at a Karachi hospital in Pakistan (in the 1990s[232]).[229] He enlisted the help of one of his teachers at the Nishtar Medical College to help bring this idea to fruition.[229] Later, he moved to the UK to work at the British military's Royal Air Force Hospitals and NHS Trusts to finance his invention.[229] He specifically started researching the product more intensively in 2002 whilst he was working at the NHS Luton and Dunstable hospital trust.[233] After selling his investments, draining his savings and using further experience he had gained on anaesthesia wards, he finally invented the device.[229]
      • He is also the inventor of v-gel, a veterinary version of the i-gel device.[225][234] It was developed initially for use in rabbits and cats.[232] It was designed in particular for cats because cats are twice as likely to die under anaesthesia than dogs.[235] It is considered "the first true veterinary species specific supraglottic airway device".[236] It has been awarded itself by organisations such as "International Cat Care" who lauded it's abilities to supercede traditional endotracheal intubation.[237] Although more expensive than conventional endotracheal intubation, it can be re-used forty times when sterilised through autoclaving.[238]
        • Nasir is currently in the process of inventing v-gel versions for dogs and horses after the success of the cat and rabbit versions.[224]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age
The Neha Stick. Used in Parkinson's Disease.
  • Catheter Mount, Non-Kink—Ahmad Khan Jamil (1939—Present) was the first to invent the non-kink catheter mount.[206] Catheter mounts are used in anaesthesia, but standard catheter mounts are problematic in that during their use they were often bent out of shape.[206] Jamil at the time devised an ingenious method of producing non-kink catheter mounts which could be twisted 180 degrees without being dented.[206] He developed this using a strong inner armour which prevented kinkage.[206] This mount is used primarily in head, neck and neuro surgeries.
  • Neha Smart Stick—The PD Walking Smart Stick, Walk to Beat or the Neha Smart Stick, was invented by Neha Chaudhary (1993[207]—Present) in the 2010s, in order to help patients who had Parkinson's Disease to walk (the disease itself affects 10 million people globally[208]).[208] In 2010 Chaudhary moved to the UK to start her degree in product design technology at the University of the West of England and developed the stick over a period of several months as part of her final year project.[208] Her invention was driven by the suffering of her grandfather who struggled with Parkinson's for eight years.[208]
    • The invention works by sending mild electrical signals through the hands and subsequently the body of those who suffer from Parkinson's.[209] This prevents patients from suffering from gait and freeze reactions that are common with the condition which leads to hard falls. The stick therefore allows patients to continue to be mobile without suffering from injuries arising from unpredictable falls. Put simply by one report "[h]er invention, Walk to Beat, uses sensors, which detect when a patient freezes and send rhythmic vibrations through its handle, to encourage smooth walking gait".[210]
The Ommaya Reservoir, also known as the cerebrospinal fluid reservoir, was invented by Ayub K. Ommaya.
  • Ommaya Reservoir/Cerebrospinal Fluid Reservoir—In 1963, Ayub K. Ommaya (1930—2008[211]) became the first to invent the cerebrospinal fluid reservoir ("Ommaya Reservoir").[212] It is "a ventricular catheter with a mushroom-shaped dome for administration of intraventricular therapies".[211] The invention was spurred by the necessity of "providing a better channel for intraventricular therapies to his patients with brain infections and cancer...[i]n an effort to save his patients the morbidity and discomfort of serial lumbar punctures".[211] It is used by oncologists/infectious disease physicians specialising in intrathecal administration.[211]
    • Ommaya published over 200 research pieces in his lifetime.[213] He was also informally known as the "singing surgeon" as he had a fondness for singing both before and after surgeries.[214][215] His other contributions include proposing the idea that consciousness is a type of human emotion rather than it being intimately woven with reason; suggesting the emotional core of the brain is responsible for controlling the nervous system and its responses.[216] It is perhaps even more interesting in that Ommaya wanted to return to Pakistan after he graduated and did indeed apply for a job but was unfortunately rejected.[211]
    • Ommaya graduated from the King Edward Medical College in Lahore, Pakistan in 1953 (where he won the College's gold medal for academic achievement), before he won a scholarship as a Rhodes Scholar and attended the University of Oxford at Balliol College in 1954.[211] He then received his training at the Morriston Hospital in Wales for two years before embarking back to the University of Oxford to work on his PhD in Clinical Biochemistry.[211] By 1964 he was appointed as the Hunterian Professor of Surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons.[211] He was cited in 3,212 scientific publications between 1962—2004.[211]
  • Pleura-peritoneal Shunt—Sayed Amjad Hussain (1937—Present[217]) was the first to invent[218] the pleura-peritoneal shunt in 1986.[219] In 2012 he was indicted into the University of Toledo, Texas, Medical Mission Hall of Fame, which is an award to "honor those individuals and organisations who have made significant and substantial contributions to advancing the medical well-being of people".[218][220][221] Hussain was a direct survivor of the 1947 massacres of Muslims in the Punjab by Sikhs and Hindus, and who was then only 9 years old.[222]
    • One of the uses of his device is in treating pleural effusion in chylothorax.[223]
I-gel SAD device, invented in 2002.
V-gel SAD device.[224]
  • I-Gel Supraglottic Airway Rescue Device—Muhammed Aslam Nasir (1961—Present[225]) was the first to invent the I-Gel Supraglottic Airway rescue device (SAD; a video demonstrating it can seen here).[226][n. 52][227][228] The device has been so pivotal that it is currently used in at least 90 countries worldwide (as of 2017 it is used at a rate of 5 times per minute; meaning that every five minutes 25 people have had to use the device in order for their lives to be saved).[229] In medicine it has been praised for having acquired a "reputation for ease of insertion, minimal stimulation, good performance and excellent tolerance".[227]
    • It was released to the public in 2007,[227] with paediatric designs released in 2009.[227] It has been extensively studied in numerous peer reviewed trials involving clinical treatment since it's inception and its efficacy is considered remarkable.[230] Additionally, there are seven different sizes of the device available on the market (ranging in sizes of 1—5) which can be used from birth onward, including very obese adults.[230] It hasn't ever required any modification since it's release.[227]
      • Unlike previous SAD devices, the i-gel "does not use inflatable cuffs to achieve a seal of the esophagus and pharyngeal structures",[231] giving it a major advantage. It was designed using medical-grade thermoplastic which produces its gel like feel (the plastic itself is styrene ethylene butadine styrene).[231] Additionally it is designed to incorporate a bite block and a gastric channel which allows medical professionals to pass a gauge suction catheter through it.[231] It is specifically designed anatomically to fit snugly into the perilaryngeal structures, "essentially mirroring the supralaryngeal anatomy".[231]
    • Nasir first conceived of the idea whilst working at a Karachi hospital in Pakistan (in the 1990s[232]).[229] He enlisted the help of one of his teachers at the Nishtar Medical College to help bring this idea to fruition.[229] Later, he moved to the UK to work at the British military's Royal Air Force Hospitals and NHS Trusts to finance his invention.[229] He specifically started researching the product more intensively in 2002 whilst he was working at the NHS Luton and Dunstable hospital trust.[233] After selling his investments, draining his savings and using further experience he had gained on anaesthesia wards, he finally invented the device.[229]
      • He is also the inventor of v-gel, a veterinary version of the i-gel device.[225][234] It was developed initially for use in rabbits and cats.[232] It was designed in particular for cats because cats are twice as likely to die under anaesthesia than dogs.[235] It is considered "the first true veterinary species specific supraglottic airway device".[236] It has been awarded itself by organisations such as "International Cat Care" who lauded it's abilities to supercede traditional endotracheal intubation.[237] Although more expensive than conventional endotracheal intubation, it can be re-used forty times when sterilised through autoclaving.[238]
        • Nasir is currently in the process of inventing v-gel versions for dogs and horses after the success of the cat and rabbit versions.[224]

Physics (5)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also Project-706/726 Pakistani Nuclear Weapons Project
Comparison.jpg
  • Heavy Water Probe (SBM)—In the 1970's, Pakistani scientist Sultan B. Mahmood (c. 19??[239]—Present) invented the SBM Probe.[240] This device was capable of detecting heavy water leaks through steam pipes.[240] Mahmood patented the device in the West (in Canada).[240] The device's invention can be traced to the fact that during the development of Pakistan's nuclear programme, heavy water was being bought from Canada, which was expensive.[241] Pakistan could not afford to waste such a resource to leaks.[241] Since foreign assistance at preventing these leaks was non-existent, Pakistan was forced to innovate.[241]
    • Heavy water—not be confused with hard water or tritiated water—is a type of liquid that contains deuterium ions in the form of deuterium oxide or deuterium protium oxide.[242] In other words it is highly enriched water and can contain up to 100% deuterium oxide.[242] This type of water has a different bond energy and thus its physical, chemical and biological properties are also different to conventional water.[242] Pakistan was using this water as a modulator and coolant.[241]
    • Despite his genius, Mahmood holds several strange beliefs that have lead to be ridiculed or have lead him to trouble with state authorities.[243] One of these is in his belief that djinns—unseen beings made of fire according to Islam—can be used to harvest energy, and another being that the Taliban—an Afghan based fundamentalist Muslim group who fought and won against the Soviets in the 1980's—are the way forward for Pakistan.[243]
Honeycomb structure; electricity in oil.
Photograph of the ions. Note the ionic wind pattern.
  • Electric Honeycomb Ion Movement, First Proof, First Photograph—Muhammad Shaheer Niazi (2000—Present[244][n. 53]) was the first to prove and photograph the movement of ions in oil through an electric phenomenon known as "rose window instability" (also known as the "electric honeycomb") which "revealed fundamental principles about how electricity moves through fluids".[244][245] He achieved this feat in 2016 using the shadowgraphy technique (published in 2017[246]).
    • He was also the first to discover that heat was generated at the needle tip caused by friction generated between the ions and oil, something which was not observed before.[247][248] His research was so profound that when he was contacted by The New York Times, they mistakenly referred to him as "Dr. Niazi", despite the fact that he was not legally even an adult.[249]
    • It should however be noted that scientists were aware of the honeycomb phenomenon for decades; Alberto T. Pérez Izquierdo (19??—Present), and others before him, wrote papers on it, but crucially all of them had failed to spot any of Niazi's discoveries.[247][248] The field is still very new; only a few papers have ever been published before Niazi's research.[249]
Chinese vs. Muslim rockets. The Chinese didn't think of making their rockets with metal.
The "Congreve Rocket" are exact copies of the rockets developed by Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan.
  • Metal Rockets/Missiles—Rocket technology featured prominently in the design of Haider Ali (1720—1782[250]) and Tipu Sultan's (1750—1799[250]) weaponry. Although the Muslims had not invented rockets per se, they did invent metal rockets (known as "Bana"[251]).[n. 54] Previously the Chinese had described paper rockets in the "Wu Pei Chih" (c. 1620s), which stated that explosive warheads were launched from wooden boxes, divided into cells that held 100 projectiles.[252] However the Muslims were the first to make them out of metal, which made them far superior and far more powerful.
    • Mysore in effect had invented a new set of rockets (indeed they "were the first ironcased rockets successfully deployed for military use"[253]) when they decided to manufacture them with metal instead of bamboo and pasteboard. The value of these rockets was so immense that Mysore attached a company of rocketeers to each of their army brigades, and were capable of raising well over 5,000—6,000 rocket carrying troops by the 1790s.[254][255] Adding iron to the devices boosted their impact on field, allowing weapon smiths to make them increasingly more powerful, destructive and loud without worrying about the fear of exploding the container from the expansion of the exhaust gases when firing them.[252]
      • The extra thrust that this provided more than compensated for their overall weight.[252] When Sultan was killed by the British, a smorgasbord of artillery was found in the ammunition stores of the Mysore military (or the "Rocket Court").[256] There were 600 launchers, 700 serviceable rockets and over 9,000 empty rockets.[256] Between 5—10 rockets were fired from a single wheeled rocket ramp, with the target coordinates customised by adjusting the angle of projection (made possible from "calculat[ing]...the diameter of the cylinder and the distance of the target".[257] These rockets were capable of bombing targets more than 1.5 miles away[258][259][260] (7,920 feet; more than the distance of certain modern sniper rifles).
    • Mysore rockets were constructed using four crucial moieties; which were iron, steel, gunpowder and a specialised mechanical design.[257] At least two surviving specimens exist; remaining preserved at the Royal Artillery Museum (under the "Woolwich Arsenal" collection).[257] One of these specimens is a 2.3 inch outer diameter casing, by 10 inches in length, tied with strips of leather forming a hide to an adjacent 3 foot, 4 inch long sword blade (1.02 m in length).[257] The second is a 1.5 inch by 7.8 inch casing with hide, but tied to a bamboo pole of 6 foot and 3 inches length (1.90m).[257]
      • The casings are made of steel (whereas the cylinders themselves were made up of soft iron), which were coupled with mutli-nozzle holes, along with a sword blade acting as the directional warhead. The propellant consisted of a specially designed gunpowder (which had been modified to produce striking aggressive bursts of energy, spreading a rapid unpleasant strong odour as well as producing smoke, along with creating a sudden and deafening sound; also unusual for it's time, the gunpowder was highly resistant to moisture ingress; making the rockets extremely durable, during even the most intense of monsoons). Altogether the rockets weighed approximately 2kg—5.4kg each,[259] with the propellant making up at least half of the rockets weight. They were capable of being fired simultaneously, making their use devastatingly efficient.[257]
    • Rocket technology never ceased to be researched after 1799; the year where Mysore collapsed under the British Empire. T.L. Varghese, V.N. Krishnamurthy, writing in "The Chemistry and Technology of Solid Rocket Propellants" (2017), show in great detail the vast and eclectic consequences the spread of this Muslim technology had been, and how it spurred European scientists to further innovate (including Alfred Nobel (1833—1896) who developed a blasting gel by using nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose) to vastly improve rocket chemistry over the coming century.[261]
      • The British eventually copied the designs and transported them to Europe where they were used during the Napoleonic Wars (having also unjustly claimed credit for their invention).[262] The Napoleonic Wars (1801—1815) were a series of intracontinental conflicts in Europe caused by the French that lead to the deaths of 5,925,048 people.[263]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also Project-706/726 Pakistani Nuclear Weapons Project
Comparison.jpg
  • Heavy Water Probe (SBM)—In the 1970's, Pakistani scientist Sultan B. Mahmood (c. 19??[239]—Present) invented the SBM Probe.[240] This device was capable of detecting heavy water leaks through steam pipes.[240] Mahmood patented the device in the West (in Canada).[240] The device's invention can be traced to the fact that during the development of Pakistan's nuclear programme, heavy water was being bought from Canada, which was expensive.[241] Pakistan could not afford to waste such a resource to leaks.[241] Since foreign assistance at preventing these leaks was non-existent, Pakistan was forced to innovate.[241]
    • Heavy water—not be confused with hard water or tritiated water—is a type of liquid that contains deuterium ions in the form of deuterium oxide or deuterium protium oxide.[242] In other words it is highly enriched water and can contain up to 100% deuterium oxide.[242] This type of water has a different bond energy and thus its physical, chemical and biological properties are also different to conventional water.[242] Pakistan was using this water as a modulator and coolant.[241]
    • Despite his genius, Mahmood holds several strange beliefs that have lead to be ridiculed or have lead him to trouble with state authorities.[243] One of these is in his belief that djinns—unseen beings made of fire according to Islam—can be used to harvest energy, and another being that the Taliban—an Afghan based fundamentalist Muslim group who fought and won against the Soviets in the 1980's—are the way forward for Pakistan.[243]
Honeycomb structure; electricity in oil.
Photograph of the ions. Note the ionic wind pattern.
  • Electric Honeycomb Ion Movement, First Proof, First Photograph—Muhammad Shaheer Niazi (2000—Present[244][n. 55]) was the first to prove and photograph the movement of ions in oil through an electric phenomenon known as "rose window instability" (also known as the "electric honeycomb") which "revealed fundamental principles about how electricity moves through fluids".[244][245] He achieved this feat in 2016 using the shadowgraphy technique (published in 2017[246]).
    • He was also the first to discover that heat was generated at the needle tip caused by friction generated between the ions and oil, something which was not observed before.[247][248] His research was so profound that when he was contacted by The New York Times, they mistakenly referred to him as "Dr. Niazi", despite the fact that he was not legally even an adult.[249]
    • It should however be noted that scientists were aware of the honeycomb phenomenon for decades; Alberto T. Pérez Izquierdo (19??—Present), and others before him, wrote papers on it, but crucially all of them had failed to spot any of Niazi's discoveries.[247][248] The field is still very new; only a few papers have ever been published before Niazi's research.[249]
Chinese vs. Muslim rockets. The Chinese didn't think of making their rockets with metal.
The "Congreve Rocket" are exact copies of the rockets developed by Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan.
  • Metal Rockets/Missiles—Rocket technology featured prominently in the design of Haider Ali (1720—1782[250]) and Tipu Sultan's (1750—1799[250]) weaponry. Although the Muslims had not invented rockets per se, they did invent metal rockets (known as "Bana"[251]).[n. 56] Previously the Chinese had described paper rockets in the "Wu Pei Chih" (c. 1620s), which stated that explosive warheads were launched from wooden boxes, divided into cells that held 100 projectiles.[252] However the Muslims were the first to make them out of metal, which made them far superior and far more powerful.
    • Mysore in effect had invented a new set of rockets (indeed they "were the first ironcased rockets successfully deployed for military use"[253]) when they decided to manufacture them with metal instead of bamboo and pasteboard. The value of these rockets was so immense that Mysore attached a company of rocketeers to each of their army brigades, and were capable of raising well over 5,000—6,000 rocket carrying troops by the 1790s.[254][255] Adding iron to the devices boosted their impact on field, allowing weapon smiths to make them increasingly more powerful, destructive and loud without worrying about the fear of exploding the container from the expansion of the exhaust gases when firing them.[252]
      • The extra thrust that this provided more than compensated for their overall weight.[252] When Sultan was killed by the British, a smorgasbord of artillery was found in the ammunition stores of the Mysore military (or the "Rocket Court").[256] There were 600 launchers, 700 serviceable rockets and over 9,000 empty rockets.[256] Between 5—10 rockets were fired from a single wheeled rocket ramp, with the target coordinates customised by adjusting the angle of projection (made possible from "calculat[ing]...the diameter of the cylinder and the distance of the target".[257] These rockets were capable of bombing targets more than 1.5 miles away[258][259][260] (7,920 feet; more than the distance of certain modern sniper rifles).
    • Mysore rockets were constructed using four crucial moieties; which were iron, steel, gunpowder and a specialised mechanical design.[257] At least two surviving specimens exist; remaining preserved at the Royal Artillery Museum (under the "Woolwich Arsenal" collection).[257] One of these specimens is a 2.3 inch outer diameter casing, by 10 inches in length, tied with strips of leather forming a hide to an adjacent 3 foot, 4 inch long sword blade (1.02 m in length).[257] The second is a 1.5 inch by 7.8 inch casing with hide, but tied to a bamboo pole of 6 foot and 3 inches length (1.90m).[257]
      • The casings are made of steel (whereas the cylinders themselves were made up of soft iron), which were coupled with mutli-nozzle holes, along with a sword blade acting as the directional warhead. The propellant consisted of a specially designed gunpowder (which had been modified to produce striking aggressive bursts of energy, spreading a rapid unpleasant strong odour as well as producing smoke, along with creating a sudden and deafening sound; also unusual for it's time, the gunpowder was highly resistant to moisture ingress; making the rockets extremely durable, during even the most intense of monsoons). Altogether the rockets weighed approximately 2kg—5.4kg each,[259] with the propellant making up at least half of the rockets weight. They were capable of being fired simultaneously, making their use devastatingly efficient.[257]
    • Rocket technology never ceased to be researched after 1799; the year where Mysore collapsed under the British Empire. T.L. Varghese, V.N. Krishnamurthy, writing in "The Chemistry and Technology of Solid Rocket Propellants" (2017), show in great detail the vast and eclectic consequences the spread of this Muslim technology had been, and how it spurred European scientists to further innovate (including Alfred Nobel (1833—1896) who developed a blasting gel by using nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose) to vastly improve rocket chemistry over the coming century.[261]
      • The British eventually copied the designs and transported them to Europe where they were used during the Napoleonic Wars (having also unjustly claimed credit for their invention).[262] The Napoleonic Wars (1801—1815) were a series of intracontinental conflicts in Europe caused by the French that lead to the deaths of 5,925,048 people.[263]

Naval Engineering (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
A Bengal Rice Ship (1823—1836; foreground) built in Bengal,[n. 57] named "Diana".[264][265] Depicted in a painting during the First Burma War (1824—1826).[264][265] This had added steam-driven capability.[264][265] It was the first steam vessel ever used in war.[264][265]
Liquified petroleum carrier's for example (also known as LPG's) still use a flushed deck design.[266]
Aircraft carriers use a flushed deck design, inspired from the Bengal Rice Ship.
  • Flush Deck—A maritime innovation known as the "flush deck" can directly be traced back to rule of the Mughal Sultanate (or Mughal Empire) in the Bengal's Mughal period from where it originated.[267][268][269] In the 1700s, Mughal Bengal was worth in excess of $1 trillion USD dollars (and made up 12% of the world's entire GDP alone[n. 58]).[270] In the 1760s, after the annexation of the Subah Bangalah (or Bengal Subah; 1576—1757[271]) by the British Empire (c. 1500s—1945[272]), the British became aware of a technological innovation that had never been seen before.[267] This was what they later named the flush deck in English. This design was then spread throughout the rest of the world.[267]
    • A flush deck can be visualised as a deck that runs from the beginning of a ship to the end of a ship, which is continuous and unbroken.[273][274][275] In the 20th century this type of ship design was especially used for a new class of aircraft carriers operated by the USA (most notably, the USA's first aircraft carrier, the USS Langley, first commissioned in 1922[276]) and several classes of American destroyers (most notably the Caldwell-classes, Wickes-classes and Clemson-classes which were all fully flushed deck designs that were used in WWII[277]). There are many classes of ship that still use the flush deck design, most notably LPG-carriers.[266]
    • According to Western historians, this Bengali invention was "duplicated" by the naval architect[278] Gabriel Snodgrass (1719—1799[279]), who directly copied it from the "the hull pattern of a Bengal rice ship" in the 1760s,[267] Snodgrass clearly saw the advantageous nature of the design; which consisted of a "single, strong, well-cambered flush deck with watertight hatches that could be battened down against heavy seas".[267] They were adopted by the British because the flush decks made the hulls stiffer and "less prone to leak[ages]" and also meant that ships would not "occasionally disintegrate in heavy seas".[267] This would go on to give the British significant advantages.
  • Bengal rice ships were enormously profitable vessels, capable to generating vast amounts of trade because of their design.[280] For example, in 1800, according to British chroniclers, a Bengal "rice ship making four runs annually across the Bay of Bengal could clear a profit of £9,500 after paying operating costs".[280] According to the Bank of England, in 2018, taking inflation into account, this would amount to a grand total of £781,674.07 pounds per ship.[281] The Mughals were known to have built more than 3,000 of them. This trade made them so rich that the Subah Bangala accounted for over 50% of the Mughal Empire's gross domestic product (GDP). This industry was destroyed by the British who transferred all the money generated here to Britain, which fueled the Industrial Revolution.
  • The British East India Company had their own ships, which were separate from those of the British Royal Navy and which were called East Indiamen (the latter used their own vessels which were known as the King's Ships).[268] These ships gradually "attained a degree of superiority" over time, mainly through the Company's contacts in the Bengal.[268] Gabriel Snodgrass (1719—1799) was sent here to work as a shipwright at sometime in the the 18th century, only returning to the United Kingdom in 1757.[268] He was the chief surveyor of Britain and worked right up to 1796.[268] In 1771 and 1791, he presented all that he learned in the Bengal to the House of Commons, who began introducing reforms to the Navy which ended up having some "vitally important results".[268]
    • One of these was the introduction of the "flush deck" (or "flush upper deck").[268] Snodgrass directly copied the design from, and indeed "everything seems to point to the conclusion that it was", the Muslim Bengalis.[269] This design was radical because it meant that ships that had previously had a deep waist took on water, which was very difficult to get rid of.[268] It meant that water would accumulate and trap itself on the ship.[268] This was particularly dangerous in storms or heavy seas, as there was a significant risk of the ship capsizing.[268] With this new design, water escaped as quickly it came in.[268] The justification for it's use became all the more important when significant numbers of deep-waisted ships kept sinking whereas the new ships wouldn't.[268]
      • Another particularly important advantage of having the flush deck was in combating piracy.[269] It was only on the flush deck designs that pirates were able to be "confined to the upper deck", making it substantially easier to defend against them.[269]
  • Flush decks had never been seen before in Europe; "[s]ince medieval times, European ships had a stepped deck, raised at both ends and lower in the middle".[282][283][284] These European ships "offered an effective fighting platform but at the cost of seaworthiness: the low waist deck caused the vessel to ship water each time it dipped in a heavy sea, flooding lower decks. As well as being prone to foundering, these ships were structurally weak".[282] As a result, the Bengali design was adopted. It was later further developed in Europe, with "increas[ed] use of iron, first to attach decks securely to hulls, and then to brace ships more generally".[267]
    • Interestingly the British Royal Navy was resistant to the idea, and did not adopt this design until the 1830s, even though the British East India Company did well before them.[282][283][284] However, once adopted, it gave them a significant military edge.
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
A Bengal Rice Ship (1823—1836; foreground) built in Bengal,[n. 59] named "Diana".[264][265] Depicted in a painting during the First Burma War (1824—1826).[264][265] This had added steam-driven capability.[264][265] It was the first steam vessel ever used in war.[264][265]
Liquified petroleum carrier's for example (also known as LPG's) still use a flushed deck design.[266]
Aircraft carriers use a flushed deck design, inspired from the Bengal Rice Ship.
  • Flush Deck—A maritime innovation known as the "flush deck" can directly be traced back to rule of the Mughal Sultanate (or Mughal Empire) in the Bengal's Mughal period from where it originated.[267][268][269] In the 1700s, Mughal Bengal was worth in excess of $1 trillion USD dollars (and made up 12% of the world's entire GDP alone[n. 60]).[270] In the 1760s, after the annexation of the Subah Bangalah (or Bengal Subah; 1576—1757[271]) by the British Empire (c. 1500s—1945[272]), the British became aware of a technological innovation that had never been seen before.[267] This was what they later named the flush deck in English. This design was then spread throughout the rest of the world.[267]
    • A flush deck can be visualised as a deck that runs from the beginning of a ship to the end of a ship, which is continuous and unbroken.[273][274][275] In the 20th century this type of ship design was especially used for a new class of aircraft carriers operated by the USA (most notably, the USA's first aircraft carrier, the USS Langley, first commissioned in 1922[285]) and several classes of American destroyers (most notably the Caldwell-classes, Wickes-classes and Clemson-classes which were all fully flushed deck designs that were used in WWII[277]). There are many classes of ship that still use the flush deck design, most notably LPG-carriers.[266]
    • According to Western historians, this Bengali invention was "duplicated" by the naval architect[278] Gabriel Snodgrass (1719—1799[279]), who directly copied it from the "the hull pattern of a Bengal rice ship" in the 1760s,[267] Snodgrass clearly saw the advantageous nature of the design; which consisted of a "single, strong, well-cambered flush deck with watertight hatches that could be battened down against heavy seas".[267] They were adopted by the British because the flush decks made the hulls stiffer and "less prone to leak[ages]" and also meant that ships would not "occasionally disintegrate in heavy seas".[267] This would go on to give the British significant advantages.
  • Bengal rice ships were enormously profitable vessels, capable to generating vast amounts of trade because of their design.[280] For example, in 1800, according to British chroniclers, a Bengal "rice ship making four runs annually across the Bay of Bengal could clear a profit of £9,500 after paying operating costs".[280] According to the Bank of England, in 2018, taking inflation into account, this would amount to a grand total of £781,674.07 pounds per ship.[281] The Mughals were known to have built more than 3,000 of them. This trade made them so rich that the Subah Bangala accounted for over 50% of the Mughal Empire's gross domestic product (GDP). This industry was destroyed by the British who transferred all the money generated here to Britain, which fueled the Industrial Revolution.
  • The British East India Company had their own ships, which were separate from those of the British Royal Navy and which were called East Indiamen (the latter used their own vessels which were known as the King's Ships).[268] These ships gradually "attained a degree of superiority" over time, mainly through the Company's contacts in the Bengal.[268] Gabriel Snodgrass (1719—1799) was sent here to work as a shipwright at sometime in the the 18th century, only returning to the United Kingdom in 1757.[268] He was the chief surveyor of Britain and worked right up to 1796.[268] In 1771 and 1791, he presented all that he learned in the Bengal to the House of Commons, who began introducing reforms to the Navy which ended up having some "vitally important results".[268]
    • One of these was the introduction of the "flush deck" (or "flush upper deck").[268] Snodgrass directly copied the design from, and indeed "everything seems to point to the conclusion that it was", the Muslim Bengalis.[269] This design was radical because it meant that ships that had previously had a deep waist took on water, which was very difficult to get rid of.[268] It meant that water would accumulate and trap itself on the ship.[268] This was particularly dangerous in storms or heavy seas, as there was a significant risk of the ship capsizing.[268] With this new design, water escaped as quickly it came in.[268] The justification for it's use became all the more important when significant numbers of deep-waisted ships kept sinking whereas the new ships wouldn't.[268]
      • Another particularly important advantage of having the flush deck was in combating piracy.[269] It was only on the flush deck designs that pirates were able to be "confined to the upper deck", making it substantially easier to defend against them.[269]
  • Flush decks had never been seen before in Europe; "[s]ince medieval times, European ships had a stepped deck, raised at both ends and lower in the middle".[282][283][284] These European ships "offered an effective fighting platform but at the cost of seaworthiness: the low waist deck caused the vessel to ship water each time it dipped in a heavy sea, flooding lower decks. As well as being prone to foundering, these ships were structurally weak".[282] As a result, the Bengali design was adopted. It was later further developed in Europe, with "increas[ed] use of iron, first to attach decks securely to hulls, and then to brace ships more generally".[267]
    • Interestingly the British Royal Navy was resistant to the idea, and did not adopt this design until the 1830s, even though the British East India Company did well before them.[282][283][284] However, once adopted, it gave them a significant military edge.

Mechanical Engineering (7)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
The Worm-gear/Worm-drive. It's double helix design prevents back-turning, guaranteeing forward motion.
  • Worm Gear—It is not known who exactly the worm gear was built by, but it first appeared in the 13th—14th centuries in the Delhi Sultanate (1206—1526;[286] modern day South Asia[287]).[288][n. 61] Worm gears are "used to secure by compact means, a large reduction of speed between driving and driven shafts with a proportionate increase (except for frictional losses) in the torque of the driven shaft".[289] It is very useful because the helix thread prevents back-turning (locking itself in place) thus it being incapable of backwards rotation.[289] It is still for this today.[289] It was first used in geared sugar mills (see below).
    • Geared Sugar Mills—The first geared sugar mills were built sometime between the 13th—17th centuries in the Delhi Sultanate (1206—1526[286]) empire or the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[290]) in what is now today Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.[291] Cotton gin rollers (itself a Subcontinent invention) reached China in the 13th century, but crucially the Chinese do not mention having used worm gears at all even through to the 14th century.[291] Wang Zhen (fl. 1290—1333[292]) for example in 1313 depicted the cotton gin rollers which were clearly being used in China, but from his drawings it clearly lacked a depiction of a worm gear.[291] This thus indicates that the first geared sugar mills originated in the Indian subcontinent during Muslim rule.
  • Draw Bar—The draw bar was first invented in Taxila (modern day Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan) in the 5th century where the earliest archaeological evidence of such a device comes from.[293] It was used to complete a full circular motion of oxen when ploughing fields in agriculture.[293] It was subsequently then mentioned in writing in c. 950 in the Abhidhanaratnamala, then again in c. 1050 in the Vaijayanti and then again in c. 1100 in the Ramacharita.[293] The invention was revolutionary as it's use could be used for a range of different applications.[293] One was in pressing out oil from plants (perhaps in 804).[293]
Windmills were invented in medieval Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • Horizontal Axis Windmill—The first horizontal axis windmills were invented in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.[294][n. 62] These were invented in the ninth (801—900) or tenth (901—1000) centuries.[294] These were used to grind grain, pumping water and crushing sugar-cane so that sugar could be extracted.[294] Horizontal axis windmills did not appear in Europe until the 12th century (1101—1200),[295] or 13th century (1201—1300), when they were brought back by the crusaders during the European crusading period.[296] They were so valuable that planting trees near them was forbidden, and feudal lords could only authorise their construction.[296]
    • Windpump—The first windpumps were invented in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the ninth (801—900) or tenth (901—1000) centuries as part of the functions of the horizontal axis windmills.[294][297] The Europeans later copied these windmills and spread them all across Europe.[297] These windpumps would be built in low-lying areas in order to drain water so that the fields may become drier than usual (which would improve agricultural production[298]).[297] These pumps were also used for pumping water out of wells.[298] The efficiency of the windpumps varies between 7% —30% depending on the types of blades and pumps used.[298]
  • Lost Wax Casting—The earliest known object to have been caste using the lost-wax casting technique originates from the Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC). The object is a 6,000 year old amulet found in Mehrgarh, Baluchistan, Pakistan.[299] The process is also known as "cire perdue"; it works by shaping wax into a complex design.[300] It is then coated in clay, and then placed into an oven and fired.[300] As the wax runs out, it replaces it with metal.[300] The mould is then smashed and the object retrieved.[300] This technique was later used by medieval Muslims to invent seamless globes (see below).
    • Seamless Celestial Globe—Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman (c. 16th century) was the first person in history to invent the seamless metal globe between 1589—1590.[301][302][303] They were invented in Kashmir, modern day Pakistan, and were also produced in Lahore, also in Pakistan (the latter created by a family of specialists consisting of a family of four generations).[304] Up until the 1985,[305] producing spheres without seams was considered a technical impossibility, even with technology available in the time, until this was re-discovered.[301][306] At least 21 of these globes have survived into the present.[301]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
The Worm-gear/Worm-drive. It's double helix design prevents back-turning, guaranteeing forward motion.
  • Worm Gear—It is not known who exactly the worm gear was built by, but it first appeared in the 13th—14th centuries in the Delhi Sultanate (1206—1526;[286] modern day South Asia[287]).[288][n. 63] Worm gears are "used to secure by compact means, a large reduction of speed between driving and driven shafts with a proportionate increase (except for frictional losses) in the torque of the driven shaft".[289] It is very useful because the helix thread prevents back-turning (locking itself in place) thus it being incapable of backwards rotation.[289] It is still for this today.[289] It was first used in geared sugar mills (see below).
    • Geared Sugar Mills—The first geared sugar mills were built sometime between the 13th—17th centuries in the Delhi Sultanate (1206—1526[286]) empire or the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[290]) in what is now today Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.[291] Cotton gin rollers (itself a Subcontinent invention) reached China in the 13th century, but crucially the Chinese do not mention having used worm gears at all even through to the 14th century.[291] Wang Zhen (fl. 1290—1333[307]) for example in 1313 depicted the cotton gin rollers which were clearly being used in China, but from his drawings it clearly lacked a depiction of a worm gear.[291] This thus indicates that the first geared sugar mills originated in the Indian subcontinent during Muslim rule.
  • Draw Bar—The draw bar was first invented in Taxila (modern day Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan) in the 5th century where the earliest archaeological evidence of such a device comes from.[293] It was used to complete a full circular motion of oxen when ploughing fields in agriculture.[293] It was subsequently then mentioned in writing in c. 950 in the Abhidhanaratnamala, then again in c. 1050 in the Vaijayanti and then again in c. 1100 in the Ramacharita.[293] The invention was revolutionary as it's use could be used for a range of different applications.[293] One was in pressing out oil from plants (perhaps in 804).[293]
Windmills were invented in medieval Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • Horizontal Axis Windmill—The first horizontal axis windmills were invented in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.[294][n. 64] These were invented in the ninth (801—900) or tenth (901—1000) centuries.[294] These were used to grind grain, pumping water and crushing sugar-cane so that sugar could be extracted.[294] Horizontal axis windmills did not appear in Europe until the 12th century (1101—1200),[295] or 13th century (1201—1300), when they were brought back by the crusaders during the European crusading period.[296] They were so valuable that planting trees near them was forbidden, and feudal lords could only authorise their construction.[296]
    • Windpump—The first windpumps were invented in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the ninth (801—900) or tenth (901—1000) centuries as part of the functions of the horizontal axis windmills.[294][297] The Europeans later copied these windmills and spread them all across Europe.[297] These windpumps would be built in low-lying areas in order to drain water so that the fields may become drier than usual (which would improve agricultural production[298]).[297] These pumps were also used for pumping water out of wells.[298] The efficiency of the windpumps varies between 7% —30% depending on the types of blades and pumps used.[298]
  • Lost Wax Casting—The earliest known object to have been caste using the lost-wax casting technique originates from the Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC). The object is a 6,000 year old amulet found in Mehrgarh, Baluchistan, Pakistan.[299] The process is also known as "cire perdue"; it works by shaping wax into a complex design.[300] It is then coated in clay, and then placed into an oven and fired.[300] As the wax runs out, it replaces it with metal.[300] The mould is then smashed and the object retrieved.[300] This technique was later used by medieval Muslims to invent seamless globes (see below).
    • Seamless Celestial Globe—Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman (c. 16th century) was the first person in history to invent the seamless metal globe between 1589—1590.[301][302][303] They were invented in Kashmir, modern day Pakistan, and were also produced in Lahore, also in Pakistan (the latter created by a family of specialists consisting of a family of four generations).[304] Up until the 1985,[305] producing spheres without seams was considered a technical impossibility, even with technology available in the time, until this was re-discovered.[301][306] At least 21 of these globes have survived into the present.[301]

Handtool Engineering (3)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
Bead created using Drills.[308]
  • Bow Drill—Between 3,000 BC and 5,000 BC ancient Pakistani people of the Mergarh invented the bow drill.[309] According to historians "[t]he drill was made of green jasper and was used to drill holes into beads made of lapis lazuli, turquoise and cornelian. Similar drills were found at Shahr-i-Sokhta in eastern Iran and at Chanhu-Daro in the Indus valley but these drills belong to a period which is about one millennium later".[309] Amazingly enough bow drills were also independently invented by Native American in the year 1000 (prior to external contact) which were made up of seal leg bone (4,000 to 6,000 years after the Mergarh people had first invented it).[309][310]
  • Metal Drill—Between 6,000 BC and 7,000 BC metal drills were first invented in ancient Pakistan in Mehrgarh.[311][n. 65] These were used to prepare beads in lapis lazuli, turquoise and steatite.[311] Bead making, metal working and shell working was practised all over ancient Pakistan.[308] The Pakistani and Gujarat coasts in particular were rich resources for conch shell, whilst Shortughai was for lapis lazuli, all for the purposes of jewellery and craft making.[308] The craft-makers of Mehrgarh were so extremely skilled that historians believe Mehrgarh was a center of technological creativity and innovation, with much importing and exporting of goods.[312]
    • Amazingly enough metal drill bits were also independently invented by Native American tribes between 3,000 BC and 5,000 BC (about 1,000 to 4,000 years later than the Mehrgarh people).[310] They were developed by the Paleo-Indian Native Americans who lived in the Great Lakes area, and was similarly made of copper.[310]
  • Spiral-threaded (Metal) Drill—Previously thought to be an innovation of the Iron age, it was discovered that spiral threaded (metal) drills were invented between 3,000 BC and 4,000 BC in Mehrgarh, ancient Pakistan.[311][n. 66]These were made up of copper.[311] These spiral drills bits superseded non-spiral quartz drill bits that were used before, with the replacement of quartz occurring around the same time that the metal spiral drills were invented.[311] Interestingly direct evidence that they were used in handcraft and jewellery making is shown by a physical example; a broken spiral copper drill was found inside a jewellery bead in Mehrgarh dated c. 2,600 BC.[311]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
Bead created using Drills.[308]
  • Bow Drill—Between 3,000 BC and 5,000 BC ancient Pakistani people of the Mergarh invented the bow drill.[309] According to historians "[t]he drill was made of green jasper and was used to drill holes into beads made of lapis lazuli, turquoise and cornelian. Similar drills were found at Shahr-i-Sokhta in eastern Iran and at Chanhu-Daro in the Indus valley but these drills belong to a period which is about one millennium later".[309] Amazingly enough bow drills were also independently invented by Native American in the year 1000 (prior to external contact) which were made up of seal leg bone (4,000 to 6,000 years after the Mergarh people had first invented it).[309][310]
  • Metal Drill—Between 6,000 BC and 7,000 BC metal drills were first invented in ancient Pakistan in Mehrgarh.[311][n. 67] These were used to prepare beads in lapis lazuli, turquoise and steatite.[311] Bead making, metal working and shell working was practised all over ancient Pakistan.[308] The Pakistani and Gujarat coasts in particular were rich resources for conch shell, whilst Shortughai was for lapis lazuli, all for the purposes of jewellery and craft making.[308] The craft-makers of Mehrgarh were so extremely skilled that historians believe Mehrgarh was a center of technological creativity and innovation, with much importing and exporting of goods.[312]
    • Amazingly enough metal drill bits were also independently invented by Native American tribes between 3,000 BC and 5,000 BC (about 1,000 to 4,000 years later than the Mehrgarh people).[310] They were developed by the Paleo-Indian Native Americans who lived in the Great Lakes area, and was similarly made of copper.[310]
  • Spiral-threaded (Metal) Drill—Previously thought to be an innovation of the Iron age, it was discovered that spiral threaded (metal) drills were invented between 3,000 BC and 4,000 BC in Mehrgarh, ancient Pakistan.[311][n. 68]These were made up of copper.[311] These spiral drills bits superseded non-spiral quartz drill bits that were used before, with the replacement of quartz occurring around the same time that the metal spiral drills were invented.[311] Interestingly direct evidence that they were used in handcraft and jewellery making is shown by a physical example; a broken spiral copper drill was found inside a jewellery bead in Mehrgarh dated c. 2,600 BC.[311]

Textile Engineering (3)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
Tussah silk print using an Indus Valley copper plate. White is Tussah silk.
  • Printing, Woodblock Printing and Printing Plates—There is some confusion over the perceptions of who invented printing. Printing itself was not invented in China but is much older, and several civilisations lay claim to it's first invention. To illustrate, the first printing devices are said to have been stencils (the oldest prints to have been found were discovered in a cave in Indonesia, dating to back to at least 40,000 years[313]) and the next oldest are cylinder seals from the Middle-east which were first used for imprinting on rocky materials in 3,500 BC (over 5,500 years ago).[314] Neither of these techniques is truly printing.
    • China claims to have invented woodblock printing in the year 200 (over 1,800 years ago),[315] or between 7th—8th century (which is more generally accepted).[316][n. 69] However woodblock printing in China was only "fairly widespread" only in the early 9th century onwards.[317] However woodblock printing itself is far older; indeed the ajrakh (or ajrak) technique is known to use printed woodblocks to replicate intricate patterns on fabrics.[318][319] It is 3,500 years old, and was first invented in Sindh, Pakistan, between 2,300 BC and 1,750 BC.[320] Thus, Chinese claims of having invented woodblock printing appear very weak.
      • Other sources say woodblock printing first appeared in China in the year 700,[321] whilst the "Oxford Handbook of Publishing" notes that Chinese woodblock printing dates only to the 7th century.[322] Given this information, it is likely China was not the first to invent it, but probably did popularise the technique.
    • In 2014, a similar technique to woodblock printing was discovered in the Indus Valley dating to 4,000 and 4,600 years ago, but instead of using wood, they used copper plates to print designs. Specifically they used them to imprint ferric oxide ink on silk fabrics.[318] This was tested using copper plate designs that were only recently found at archeological sites and when tested, were found to have produced remarkable results when they were imprinted on tussah silk.[318] The Indus people thus developed the "world’s earliest known printing plates, and moreover, would have provided the world’s earliest printed works of art".[318]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
Tussah silk print using an Indus Valley copper plate. White is Tussah silk.
  • Printing, Woodblock Printing and Printing Plates—There is some confusion over the perceptions of who invented printing. Printing itself was not invented in China but is much older, and several civilisations lay claim to it's first invention. To illustrate, the first printing devices are said to have been stencils (the oldest prints to have been found were discovered in a cave in Indonesia, dating to back to at least 40,000 years[313]) and the next oldest are cylinder seals from the Middle-east which were first used for imprinting on rocky materials in 3,500 BC (over 5,500 years ago).[314] Neither of these techniques is truly printing.
    • China claims to have invented woodblock printing in the year 200 (over 1,800 years ago),[315] or between 7th—8th century (which is more generally accepted).[316][n. 70] However woodblock printing in China was only "fairly widespread" only in the early 9th century onwards.[317] However woodblock printing itself is far older; indeed the ajrakh (or ajrak) technique is known to use printed woodblocks to replicate intricate patterns on fabrics.[318][319] It is 3,500 years old, and was first invented in Sindh, Pakistan, between 2,300 BC and 1,750 BC.[320] Thus, Chinese claims of having invented woodblock printing appear very weak.
      • Other sources say woodblock printing first appeared in China in the year 700,[321] whilst the "Oxford Handbook of Publishing" notes that Chinese woodblock printing dates only to the 7th century.[322] Given this information, it is likely China was not the first to invent it, but probably did popularise the technique.
    • In 2014, a similar technique to woodblock printing was discovered in the Indus Valley dating to 4,000 and 4,600 years ago, but instead of using wood, they used copper plates to print designs. Specifically they used them to imprint ferric oxide ink on silk fabrics.[318] This was tested using copper plate designs that were only recently found at archeological sites and when tested, were found to have produced remarkable results when they were imprinted on tussah silk.[318] The Indus people thus developed the "world’s earliest known printing plates, and moreover, would have provided the world’s earliest printed works of art".[318]

Clothing (2)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Peshwari Sandles (female; by Mochari).
Kaptaan Peshwari Sandles (male).
  • Peshawari Sandals—A unique type sandal originating from Peshawar, Punjab, known as the Peshawar Sandal or the Peshawar Chappal was first invented in Pakistan in the early-modern period (at least over 100 years ago, whilst others are more specific saying the 19th century[323]). They are made by skilled cordwainers (shoemakers who work primarily with leather). There are many different designs of the sandal; however the most famous are the Charsadda, Kaptaan, Khyber, Afridi, Norozi and Lahori sandals.[323] The oldest market that makes Peshwari sandals can be found at Nazimabad No. 2.[324] It was founded 150 years ago (c. 1869), and may possibly be older, containing over 70 shops selling chappals alone.[324] They are mostly worn with traditional Pakistani outfits, such as the Shalwar Kameez.[325]
    • The chappals are exported to places such as the UK, US, Canada and Gulf States.[326] They are also vastly popular in India and France; countries where the Pakistani diaspora has very little presence.[327] They can be bought in the West from authentic indigenous international brands such as Markhor (previously known as Hometown or Hometown Shoes[328]) who also export them to 17 different countries.[327][328] Fans of the Peshawari Chappal have even included one of the chief executives of Google.[328] Interestingly Google ended up partnering with Markhor and the Punjab Government to help expand the business.[328]
      • In 2014, Paul Smith (1946—Present[329]) produced a "knock-off" of the Sandal in the UK,[330] that drew significant outrage,[331] as he did not any give credit to Pakistan (and hence inspiration).[332] It was widely seen as an obvious attempt to culturally appropriate Pakistani culture as Western culture.[333] He bizarrely called the sandals "Robert Sandals"[334][335]—and priced them at £300 ($595[327]). The sandals are sold in Pakistan for the price of about $5 (or £15[336]).[330] Interestingly craftmakers in Pakistan were not so much outraged at the price than at the actual design (and lack of credit); it was from 1960s or 1970s.[330]
      • In 2019, another Western designer (Christian Louboutin (1963—Present[337]), a Frenchman, who previously toured Pakistan in 2017 for a holiday) decided to create and sell sandals inspired by the Peshawari Chappal (priced at £380), but, unlike Smith, actually gave credit to Pakistan for it's inspiration upon their release.[338] Specifically, he named the sandals after it's Pakistani designer, Imran Qureshi.[338][339] The Pakistani website, Siasat Blogs, called the sandals "colourful, glitzy and super eye-catchy" and said they were "a perfect blend of contemporary cultural design and modern vibe".[338]
    • The craft is currently in danger of dying out, primarily because of the ease of availability of cheap, poor quality[340] Chinese (and Thai[340]) open flat sandals (by contrast, Peshawari sandals are higher quality, handmade, and more expensive to produce).[341] One craftmaker noted how during the Eid period he would be able to sell 1,500 pairs, but it dropped to 600—800.[341] Young people in particular find them difficult to purchase because they don't match with cheap modern outfits, and the fact that "young people are not fascinated by traditional things".[326] Some young people however have recognised the "need to safeguard the art".[326]
    • They vary in price between Rs. 300—800 rupees.[341] Others say Rs. 800—1,000 rupees.[326] However, more skilled cordwainers are able to produce even higher quality versions of the sandals, known as "Kaptaan Sandals" (or "Kaptaan Chappal"), which are sold for Rs. 10,000 rupees (others say Rs. 5,000—10,000 rupees[342]) each (and hence those can afford them are primarily the well-off, parliamentarians and government officials).[326] It is also sometimes spelled as "Captain's Chappal".[342] They're also expensive because last very long (10 years) without wearing out (making them "perfect for...rugged terrain").[334]
  • Windy-City Hat—Sarfaraz K. Niazi (1949—Present) is a Pakistani-American who was the first to invent a strapless hat that was incapable of being blown away by the wind known as the windy-city hat.[343][344] He registered his invention with the US patent office on April 21st, 2012.[343] The invention consists of a brim-vented hat, made up of holes around the crown's rim; which themselves are surrounded by a thin film of porous material for air to pass through that prevents the hat from being lifted by strong winds.[343]
    • As of 2014, he had at least seventy patients to his name.[344] He serves as a professor for the University of Illinois, Chicago.[343]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Peshwari Sandles (female; by Mochari).
Kaptaan Peshwari Sandles (male).
  • Peshawari Sandals—A unique type sandal originating from Peshawar, Punjab, known as the Peshawar Sandal or the Peshawar Chappal was first invented in Pakistan in the early-modern period (at least over 100 years ago, whilst others are more specific saying the 19th century[323]). They are made by skilled cordwainers (shoemakers who work primarily with leather). There are many different designs of the sandal; however the most famous are the Charsadda, Kaptaan, Khyber, Afridi, Norozi and Lahori sandals.[323] The oldest market that makes Peshwari sandals can be found at Nazimabad No. 2.[324] It was founded 150 years ago (c. 1869), and may possibly be older, containing over 70 shops selling chappals alone.[324] They are mostly worn with traditional Pakistani outfits, such as the Shalwar Kameez.[325]
    • The chappals are exported to places such as the UK, US, Canada and Gulf States.[326] They are also vastly popular in India and France; countries where the Pakistani diaspora has very little presence.[327] They can be bought in the West from authentic indigenous international brands such as Markhor (previously known as Hometown or Hometown Shoes[328]) who also export them to 17 different countries.[327][328] Fans of the Peshawari Chappal have even included one of the chief executives of Google.[328] Interestingly Google ended up partnering with Markhor and the Punjab Government to help expand the business.[328]
      • In 2014, Paul Smith (1946—Present[329]) produced a "knock-off" of the Sandal in the UK,[330] that drew significant outrage,[331] as he did not any give credit to Pakistan (and hence inspiration).[332] It was widely seen as an obvious attempt to culturally appropriate Pakistani culture as Western culture.[333] He bizarrely called the sandals "Robert Sandals"[334][335]—and priced them at £300 ($595[327]). The sandals are sold in Pakistan for the price of about $5 (or £15[336]).[330] Interestingly craftmakers in Pakistan were not so much outraged at the price than at the actual design (and lack of credit); it was from 1960s or 1970s.[330]
      • In 2019, another Western designer (Christian Louboutin (1963—Present[337]), a Frenchman, who previously toured Pakistan in 2017 for a holiday) decided to create and sell sandals inspired by the Peshawari Chappal (priced at £380), but, unlike Smith, actually gave credit to Pakistan for it's inspiration upon their release.[338] Specifically, he named the sandals after it's Pakistani designer, Imran Qureshi.[338][339] The Pakistani website, Siasat Blogs, called the sandals "colourful, glitzy and super eye-catchy" and said they were "a perfect blend of contemporary cultural design and modern vibe".[338]
    • The craft is currently in danger of dying out, primarily because of the ease of availability of cheap, poor quality[340] Chinese (and Thai[340]) open flat sandals (by contrast, Peshawari sandals are higher quality, handmade, and more expensive to produce).[341] One craftmaker noted how during the Eid period he would be able to sell 1,500 pairs, but it dropped to 600—800.[341] Young people in particular find them difficult to purchase because they don't match with cheap modern outfits, and the fact that "young people are not fascinated by traditional things".[326] Some young people however have recognised the "need to safeguard the art".[326]
    • They vary in price between Rs. 300—800 rupees.[341] Others say Rs. 800—1,000 rupees.[326] However, more skilled cordwainers are able to produce even higher quality versions of the sandals, known as "Kaptaan Sandals" (or "Kaptaan Chappal"), which are sold for Rs. 10,000 rupees (others say Rs. 5,000—10,000 rupees[342]) each (and hence those can afford them are primarily the well-off, parliamentarians and government officials).[326] It is also sometimes spelled as "Captain's Chappal".[342] They're also expensive because last very long (10 years) without wearing out (making them "perfect for...rugged terrain").[334]
  • Windy-City Hat—Sarfaraz K. Niazi (1949—Present) is a Pakistani-American who was the first to invent a strapless hat that was incapable of being blown away by the wind known as the windy-city hat.[343][344] He registered his invention with the US patent office on April 21st, 2012.[343] The invention consists of a brim-vented hat, made up of holes around the crown's rim; which themselves are surrounded by a thin film of porous material for air to pass through that prevents the hat from being lifted by strong winds.[343]
    • As of 2014, he had at least seventy patients to his name.[344] He serves as a professor for the University of Illinois, Chicago.[343]

Architectural Engineering (4)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
Stadiums were invented over 4,000 years ago in Pakistan.
  • Stadium—The Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC) was the first to invent the concept of stadiums (which were very much like modern stadiums[345]). Indeed the earliest stadium known in history is to be found in Dholavira, Gujarat, India, which was once a part of ancient Pakistan (where a famous 10 lettered signboard was also discovered[346]).[347] This, along with several other structures provides concrete evidence that public activities were carried out in this civilisation (where the stadiums in particular were used for ceremonies[348]).[349] The stadiums were built sometime between the 2,500 BC and 2,200 BC.[346]
    • The site at Dholavira contains at least two stadiums, along with several other public spaces.[350][346] Of these two, "one was small and compact and the other one vast", extending 283 meters by 45 to 47.5 meters, and it "also had the arrangement to accommodate spectators the way a modern stadium does".[345] It also had it's own drainage system to prevent water stagnating its grounds.[351] Dholavira was substantially populated well before 3,000 BC to at least up to 2,000 BC.[350]
    • Additionally; "...the stadium had stands in all the directions. They had the privilege of stepping construction for the ease of spectators, the broadest of which was 12 meters wide and included three or four terraces in ascending order...[t]he aforementioned stands built for the spectators were also a sort of abatement for the defensive walls of the castle and bailey" and that "east of the stadium, atop the huge defensive walls there were seating steps for the spectators too".[345]
    • After the Indus Valley Civilisation, Greece has the oldest stadiums, the oldest being built in 776 BC.[352] However these stadiums were still much more primitive than the ones that the Harappans built; with Greek stadiums "often carved out of hillsides to allow a clear view", rather than being actual buildings.[353]
Toilets found at Mound ET in the Harappa digging site, Pakistan. They toilets were not mechanical but did use flushing.
  • Orthogonal Grid City/Town Planning—In the first half of the 4th millenium BC (c. 3,500 BC;[354] others say c. 2,300 BC to 1,750 BC[354]) the Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC) was the first to invent city/town planning (also known as orthogonal grid planning[354]).[355] This was demonstrated by the active planning of cities using the grid pattern.[356] This was where the streets were designed to be straight and actively intersected with other streets also made into straight lines, having met at right angles.[356] The development of the grid pattern can directly be traced to ancient Greece, ancient Rome and medieval Europe from the Indus Valley.[356] Many Hellenistic cities and towns were found to have replicated this design.[357]
  • Flushing Toilet–Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the mechanical flushing mechanism, which allowed water to be flushed away using a handle/lever and then refilled with water; preceding the modern flushing mechanism by several hundred years.[358] When the lever is pulled water flushes away, but after this, a female automaton refills the basin with water.[358] Historians thus credit him with the invention of the mechanical flushing mechanism,[358] with some going as far as saying he invented the flushing toilet.[359]
    • Flushing toilets (without handles/levers) were already used for a long time.[360][n. 71] The Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC[361]) in Pakistan were the first to invent the concept of flushing toilets.[362] There was a toilet in every house connected to a drainage sewage system.[363][364][365] The plumbing inside houses was so advanced that flush toilets were found as high as second floors.[366] Toilets were flushed using jars of water.[365] Hygiene in Pakistan seems to have carried on from the Indus, as only about a tenth (~12%) of Pakistanis openly defecate today,[367] whereas in India a staggering 524 million (or 40%) of them do.[368]
Dams in ancient Pakistan are 4,600—5,300 years old and may possibly be as old as 9,000 years old.
  • Dam—The oldest known dam (according to some scholars as this is disputed amongst academia) is the Jawa Dam found in Jordan which has been dated to 3,000 BC (and may possibly be even older[369]).[n. 72] However the oldest definite use of dams can be found in pre-historic Pakistan, specifically in Mergarh, dated 7,000 BC to 2,500 BC (some scholars haved dated the dams to the early Harappan period;[370] 3,300 BC—2,600 BC[371]), whilst other information suggests that they may have been used as early as 9,000 years ago given that this was when terrace agriculture first appeared in Pakistan.[372][373]
    • The dams in Pakistan were constructed as "stone walls built along slopes in association with torrents", where the "function of these walls was to trap and/or collect water for various purposes such as terracing fields, making water tanks, diverting and channelizing reservoirs".[372]
    • Interestingly, the earliest evidence of agriculture itself first appeared in both Yemen and Pakistan between 10,000 and 13,000 years ago (the older culture being in the Baluchistan region of Pakistan where agriculture was first invented and developed), with China being the second oldest at 8,500 to 10,000 years old.[373] However, it must be noted that this is disputed, as agriculture may be even older than this by at least between 25,000 and 105,000 years.
      • The third oldest region is Papua New Guinea at 9,000 years old, the Mediterranean at 8,000 years old, North Africa at 6,500 years old and joint 6th is the non-Baluchistan regions of Pakistan and Europe at 5,000 to 7,000 years old.[373] Subsaharan Africa was late 3,000 to 5,000 years old.[373]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. See also List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age
Stadiums were invented over 4,000 years ago in Pakistan.
  • Stadium—The Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC) was the first to invent the concept of stadiums (which were very much like modern stadiums[345]). Indeed the earliest stadium known in history is to be found in Dholavira, Gujarat, India, which was once a part of ancient Pakistan (where a famous 10 lettered signboard was also discovered[346]).[374] This, along with several other structures provides concrete evidence that public activities were carried out in this civilisation (where the stadiums in particular were used for ceremonies[348]).[349] The stadiums were built sometime between the 2,500 BC and 2,200 BC.[346]
    • The site at Dholavira contains at least two stadiums, along with several other public spaces.[350][346] Of these two, "one was small and compact and the other one vast", extending 283 meters by 45 to 47.5 meters, and it "also had the arrangement to accommodate spectators the way a modern stadium does".[345] It also had it's own drainage system to prevent water stagnating its grounds.[351] Dholavira was substantially populated well before 3,000 BC to at least up to 2,000 BC.[350]
    • Additionally; "...the stadium had stands in all the directions. They had the privilege of stepping construction for the ease of spectators, the broadest of which was 12 meters wide and included three or four terraces in ascending order...[t]he aforementioned stands built for the spectators were also a sort of abatement for the defensive walls of the castle and bailey" and that "east of the stadium, atop the huge defensive walls there were seating steps for the spectators too".[345]
    • After the Indus Valley Civilisation, Greece has the oldest stadiums, the oldest being built in 776 BC.[352] However these stadiums were still much more primitive than the ones that the Harappans built; with Greek stadiums "often carved out of hillsides to allow a clear view", rather than being actual buildings.[353]
Toilets found at Mound ET in the Harappa digging site, Pakistan. They toilets were not mechanical but did use flushing.
  • Orthogonal Grid City/Town Planning—In the first half of the 4th millenium BC (c. 3,500 BC;[354] others say c. 2,300 BC to 1,750 BC[354]) the Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC) was the first to invent city/town planning (also known as orthogonal grid planning[354]).[355] This was demonstrated by the active planning of cities using the grid pattern.[356] This was where the streets were designed to be straight and actively intersected with other streets also made into straight lines, having met at right angles.[356] The development of the grid pattern can directly be traced to ancient Greece, ancient Rome and medieval Europe from the Indus Valley.[356] Many Hellenistic cities and towns were found to have replicated this design.[357]
  • Flushing Toilet–Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the mechanical flushing mechanism, which allowed water to be flushed away using a handle/lever and then refilled with water; preceding the modern flushing mechanism by several hundred years.[358] When the lever is pulled water flushes away, but after this, a female automaton refills the basin with water.[358] Historians thus credit him with the invention of the mechanical flushing mechanism,[358] with some going as far as saying he invented the flushing toilet.[359]
    • Flushing toilets (without handles/levers) were already used for a long time.[360][n. 73] The Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC[361]) in Pakistan were the first to invent the concept of flushing toilets.[362] There was a toilet in every house connected to a drainage sewage system.[363][364][365] The plumbing inside houses was so advanced that flush toilets were found as high as second floors.[366] Toilets were flushed using jars of water.[365] Hygiene in Pakistan seems to have carried on from the Indus, as only about a tenth (~12%) of Pakistanis openly defecate today,[367] whereas in India a staggering 524 million (or 40%) of them do.[368]
Dams in ancient Pakistan are 4,600—5,300 years old and may possibly be as old as 9,000 years old.
  • Dam—The oldest known dam (according to some scholars as this is disputed amongst academia) is the Jawa Dam found in Jordan which has been dated to 3,000 BC (and may possibly be even older[369]).[n. 74] However the oldest definite use of dams can be found in pre-historic Pakistan, specifically in Mergarh, dated 7,000 BC to 2,500 BC (some scholars haved dated the dams to the early Harappan period;[370] 3,300 BC—2,600 BC[371]), whilst other information suggests that they may have been used as early as 9,000 years ago given that this was when terrace agriculture first appeared in Pakistan.[372][373]
    • The dams in Pakistan were constructed as "stone walls built along slopes in association with torrents", where the "function of these walls was to trap and/or collect water for various purposes such as terracing fields, making water tanks, diverting and channelizing reservoirs".[372]
    • Interestingly, the earliest evidence of agriculture itself first appeared in both Yemen and Pakistan between 10,000 and 13,000 years ago (the older culture being in the Baluchistan region of Pakistan where agriculture was first invented and developed), with China being the second oldest at 8,500 to 10,000 years old.[373] However, it must be noted that this is disputed, as agriculture may be even older than this by at least between 25,000 and 105,000 years.
      • The third oldest region is Papua New Guinea at 9,000 years old, the Mediterranean at 8,000 years old, North Africa at 6,500 years old and joint 6th is the non-Baluchistan regions of Pakistan and Europe at 5,000 to 7,000 years old.[373] Subsaharan Africa was late 3,000 to 5,000 years old.[373]

Paleontology (10)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Titanosaurs and their bones. Note the vertebrae which are used to distinguish species of titanosauria.
  • Balochisaurus malkani—In 2004,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he named "Balochisaurus Malkani" (etymologically "Balochi, honoring the Baloch tribes of Pakistan, as they host the Kachi Bohri locality from Central Sulaiman Range; saurus means reptiles", and "Malkani" named eponymously).[375][376] It belongs to the titanosaurs dinosaur group.[377] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
  • Khetranisaurus barkhani—In 2004,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Khetranisaurus barkhani" (etymologically "Khetrani, honoring the Khetran tribe of Barkhan district; saurus means reptiles...barkhani, honoring the Barkhan which is the host District of dinosaurs").[375] It belongs to the titanosaurs dinosaur group.[377] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the Indian subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
  • Malakhelisaurus mianwali—In 2007, a new species of dinosaur was discovered by M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) called "Malakhelisaurus mianwali" (etymologically from "Malakhel...the name of the area; Saurus is for reptile and Mianwali...the host district of the site",[379] it was previously known as "Malasaurus").[380][381] It was a close relation of the largest herbivore titanosaurian sauropods.[379] The distinguishing features were that it had a "huge body, small head and fat neck with pillar-like legs", which "was 30 feet long and almost 10 to 15 feet high", and "weigh[ing] more than 30 tones".[379][n. 75] It was discovered when paleontologists found footprints carved into rock, "a print of nearly one meter in moist clay or on wet muddy surface".[379]
Titanosaur size.
  • Marisaurus jeffi—In 2003,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Marisaurus jeffi" (etymologically "Mari, honoring the Mari tribes Bohri locality from Central Sulaiman Range; saurus means reptiles. The species specific epithet jeffi, honoring the Dr Jeffery A. Wilson").[375][376] It belongs to the titanosaurs dinosaur group.[377] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the Indian subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
  • Pakisaurus balochistani—In 2004,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Pakisaurus balochistani" (etymologically "Paki, from Pakistan, which is the country of origin; saurus means reptiles...balochistani refers to the province of origin as Balochistan").[375][377] His discovery was that of a new medium-to-large species of titanosaurs.[375] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the Indian subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
An artists rendition of Vitakridrinda sulaimani, a carnivorous predator found in the Balochistan region, by Robinson Kunz (2013). It's name comes from Urdu and Seraiki (M. S. Malkani).
  • Samanadrinda surghari—In 2007,[380][382] a new dinosaur species called "Samanadrinda surghari" (etymologically "Samana...the geological formation of the site, Drinda means beast in Urdu and Saraiki language while Surghari is dedicated to the name of Surghar range which hosts the area"[379]) was discovered at Baroch Nala, Malakhel,[383] by M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) "which was a larged-body beast resembling the famous tyrannosaurs...but with smaller teeth".[379] It was 10—12 ft. tall, weighing 8—10 tons.[379] Other sources however claim it was 8.1 meters tall and weighed 860 kg, although the same source which claims this also erroneously calls Pakistan "Hindustan" for some bizarre reason).[384]
  • Sulaimanisaurus gingerichi—In 2004,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Sulaimanisaurus gingerichi" (etymologically "from Sulaiman foldbelt, which is the host mountain range...saurus means reptiles...gingerichi, honoring...Philip D. Gingerich").[375] It belongs to the titanosaurs group.[377] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the Indian subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
  • Vitakridrinda sulaimani—In 2004,[375] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Vitakridrinda sulaimani" (etymologically "Vitakri, honoring the dinosaurs’ type locality; drinda Urdu and Seraiki word means beast...sulaimani, after the name of Sulaiman foldbelt").[375] It belongs to the abelisaurids dinosaur group. Abelisaurids were "the best represented group of predatory dinosaurs from the Cretaceous deposits in both number of specimens and species diversity".[385] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] Since the first discovery, at least 5 more "collections" have been found.[386][387]
Strepsirrhine primates once existed in ancient Pakistan.
  • Vitakrisaurus saraiki—Weighing 5.3 kg, "Vitakrisaurus saraiki" (etymologically, honouring the "the Vitakri host locality; saurus means lizard...[s]pecies name is in honor of the Saraiki language of locals of Sulaiman Range"[388]) was a small dinosaur about 1.55 meters tall, and 0.42 meters wide.[389] It was first discovered in 2010 by M. S. Malkani (19??—Present).[389] They are believed to have been small game hunters (or "piscivores", which are dinosaurs that primarily eat fish[390]).[389] Despite its small size, it has been classified as a "Medium Sized Theropod of South Asia".[388] It is one of two therapods discovered in Pakistan so far.[388] The fossils can be found in the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", Quetta.[388]
  • Bugtilemur mathesoni—In 2001, a collaborative project between Pakistani, French, Thai and Mexican scientists, discovered an ancient species of lemur in Bugti hills, Pakistan, called Bugtilemur mathesoni.[391] Ibrahim M. Baloch (19??—Present) of the University of Balochistan represented Pakistan, who found "handful of tiny teeth" that lead to the discovery that lemurs (strepsirrhine primates) once existed in Pakistan.[391] It is the earliest known lemur species to have ever been found, dating back to at least 30 million years.[391] The fossil "was recovered from a site teaming with...fossil specimens...[f]ossilized tree parts, pollen, and fruit indicate that Bugtilemur lived in an environment that...resembled a...tropical forest".[391]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Titanosaurs and their bones. Note the vertebrae which are used to distinguish species of titanosauria.
  • Balochisaurus malkani—In 2004,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he named "Balochisaurus Malkani" (etymologically "Balochi, honoring the Baloch tribes of Pakistan, as they host the Kachi Bohri locality from Central Sulaiman Range; saurus means reptiles", and "Malkani" named eponymously).[375][376] It belongs to the titanosaurs dinosaur group.[377] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
  • Khetranisaurus barkhani—In 2004,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Khetranisaurus barkhani" (etymologically "Khetrani, honoring the Khetran tribe of Barkhan district; saurus means reptiles...barkhani, honoring the Barkhan which is the host District of dinosaurs").[375] It belongs to the titanosaurs dinosaur group.[377] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the Indian subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
  • Malakhelisaurus mianwali—In 2007, a new species of dinosaur was discovered by M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) called "Malakhelisaurus mianwali" (etymologically from "Malakhel...the name of the area; Saurus is for reptile and Mianwali...the host district of the site",[379] it was previously known as "Malasaurus").[380][381] It was a close relation of the largest herbivore titanosaurian sauropods.[379] The distinguishing features were that it had a "huge body, small head and fat neck with pillar-like legs", which "was 30 feet long and almost 10 to 15 feet high", and "weigh[ing] more than 30 tones".[379][n. 76] It was discovered when paleontologists found footprints carved into rock, "a print of nearly one meter in moist clay or on wet muddy surface".[379]
Titanosaur size.
  • Marisaurus jeffi—In 2003,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Marisaurus jeffi" (etymologically "Mari, honoring the Mari tribes Bohri locality from Central Sulaiman Range; saurus means reptiles. The species specific epithet jeffi, honoring the Dr Jeffery A. Wilson").[375][376] It belongs to the titanosaurs dinosaur group.[377] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the Indian subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
  • Pakisaurus balochistani—In 2004,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Pakisaurus balochistani" (etymologically "Paki, from Pakistan, which is the country of origin; saurus means reptiles...balochistani refers to the province of origin as Balochistan").[375][377] His discovery was that of a new medium-to-large species of titanosaurs.[375] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the Indian subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
An artists rendition of Vitakridrinda sulaimani, a carnivorous predator found in the Balochistan region, by Robinson Kunz (2013). It's name comes from Urdu and Seraiki (M. S. Malkani).
  • Samanadrinda surghari—In 2007,[380][382] a new dinosaur species called "Samanadrinda surghari" (etymologically "Samana...the geological formation of the site, Drinda means beast in Urdu and Saraiki language while Surghari is dedicated to the name of Surghar range which hosts the area"[379]) was discovered at Baroch Nala, Malakhel,[383] by M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) "which was a larged-body beast resembling the famous tyrannosaurs...but with smaller teeth".[379] It was 10—12 ft. tall, weighing 8—10 tons.[379] Other sources however claim it was 8.1 meters tall and weighed 860 kg, although the same source which claims this also erroneously calls Pakistan "Hindustan" for some bizarre reason).[384]
  • Sulaimanisaurus gingerichi—In 2004,[375][376] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Sulaimanisaurus gingerichi" (etymologically "from Sulaiman foldbelt, which is the host mountain range...saurus means reptiles...gingerichi, honoring...Philip D. Gingerich").[375] It belongs to the titanosaurs group.[377] Titanosaurs were the most diverse and widespread species of sauropod dinosaurs.[378] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta.[375] It is one of 11 species of sauropoda to have been discovered on the Indian subcontinent (interestingly 5 of the 11 have been discovered by Malkani alone).[376]
  • Vitakridrinda sulaimani—In 2004,[375] M. S. Malkani (19??—Present) was the first to discover a new species of dinosaur, which he had the honour of naming "Vitakridrinda sulaimani" (etymologically "Vitakri, honoring the dinosaurs’ type locality; drinda Urdu and Seraiki word means beast...sulaimani, after the name of Sulaiman foldbelt").[375] It belongs to the abelisaurids dinosaur group. Abelisaurids were "the best represented group of predatory dinosaurs from the Cretaceous deposits in both number of specimens and species diversity".[385] The specimens can be found at the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", in Quetta, Balochistan.[375] Since the first discovery, at least 5 more "collections" have been found.[386][387]
Strepsirrhine primates once existed in ancient Pakistan.
  • Vitakrisaurus saraiki—Weighing 5.3 kg, "Vitakrisaurus saraiki" (etymologically, honouring the "the Vitakri host locality; saurus means lizard...[s]pecies name is in honor of the Saraiki language of locals of Sulaiman Range"[388]) was a small dinosaur about 1.55 meters tall, and 0.42 meters wide.[389] It was first discovered in 2010 by M. S. Malkani (19??—Present).[389] They are believed to have been small game hunters (or "piscivores", which are dinosaurs that primarily eat fish[390]).[389] Despite its small size, it has been classified as a "Medium Sized Theropod of South Asia".[388] It is one of two therapods discovered in Pakistan so far.[388] The fossils can be found in the "Museum of Geological Survey of Pakistan", Quetta.[388]
  • Bugtilemur mathesoni—In 2001, a collaborative project between Pakistani, French, Thai and Mexican scientists, discovered an ancient species of lemur in Bugti hills, Pakistan, called Bugtilemur mathesoni.[391] Ibrahim M. Baloch (19??—Present) of the University of Balochistan represented Pakistan, who found "handful of tiny teeth" that lead to the discovery that lemurs (strepsirrhine primates) once existed in Pakistan.[391] It is the earliest known lemur species to have ever been found, dating back to at least 30 million years.[391] The fossil "was recovered from a site teaming with...fossil specimens...[f]ossilized tree parts, pollen, and fruit indicate that Bugtilemur lived in an environment that...resembled a...tropical forest".[391]

Agriculture, Food & Beverage (5)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Kulfi (ice cream lollies) were invented by the Mughals (1526—1857).
  • Kulfi—The kulfi (from Persian, "qulfi"; meaning "covered up"—although not invented by Persians) was first invented in the 16th century (1501—1600) by indigenous Mughal sweet-makers during the reign of the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[290]) in the Punjab, Delhi[392] (modern day India).[393] The kulfi is an ice cream (lolly), made from dense evaporated milk (the latter of which was already commonly used in South Asia at the time), but with the newly added ingredients of flavoured pistachios, saffron and ice slurry, which was then packed into cones.[393] The development of the kulfi coincided when the Mughals discovered how to chill water using saltpeter (which freezes H2O molecules).[393] Subsequently, the Mughals frequently imported ice and snow from the Himalayas to make it.
  • Rogan Josh—The origin of "rogan josh" is unclear. Some claim it originated in Persia (with "rogan" meaning "clarified butter" and "josh" meaning hot in Persian).[394] However, the dish is also thought to have its origins from the Kashmiri Muslim ethnic group, who were the first to use a dried plant known as a cockscomb (or maval)—indigenous to Kashmir—and incorporate this into mutton to create a bright, highly flavoured, red coloured dish (hence giving the dishes name, "rogan josh"; "rogan" meaning "red" in Kashmiri).[394] Some say the dish is completely indigenous to South Asia, and wasn't one that was imported or adapted from abroad,[395] but as has already been stated this isn't clear.[394] Hindu Kashmiris also have their own version; not using garlic or onions.[394]
Roof Afza is 114-years-old. It was first invented by H. H. A. Majeed in 1906. Most of his family fled to Pakistan during the 1947 partition, and founded "Hamdard (Pakistan)".
  • Rooh Afza—A drink consisting of a unique mixture of ingredients[396][397] known as "Rooh Afza" (meaning "soothing to the soul" in Persian; chosen as the brand name because a character called "Rooh Afza" featured in the "Masnavi Gulzar-e-Nasim" (1838[398]), a poetry story book, written by Urdu poet P. D. S. Nasim (1811—1843[399])[n. 77])—also known as "The Original Red Drink"[400]—was first invented by the Muslim H. H. A. Majeed (1883—1922[401][402])[n. 78] in 1906 (others say 1907[396][403][404] or 1908[402]) in Delhi (Punjab), British Raj (1858—1947[405][406]).[396][407] Annually, 40 million bottles are sold in Pakistan and India combined.
    • In 1947, the British Raj split into Pakistan and India, with one of the sons of H. H. A. Majeed, S. H. M. Said[n. 79] (1920—1998[408]), making the dangerous journey to Pakistan from India on January 9th, 1948.[409] After surviving the rapacious and murderous Sikh mobs who were wrecking havoc all over the Punjab at the time, he was finally able to set up production once there (initially "in two rented rooms in Karachi's old area of Arambagh, with Rs 12 (Dh0.42) worth of rented furniture").[409] It is particularly interesting to note that the entire family of Majeed migrated over to Pakistan, but part of his family chose to remain in India.[409]
    • Hamdard Pakistan, the makers of Rooh Afza in Pakistan, have further created recipes for incorporating the syrupy drink into many different Pakistani dishes, used as an ingredient well apart from using it as a drink alone. Rooh Afza can be used in Almond Milkshakes, Kashmiri Chai, Chinese Chicken, Butter Rice, Sweet & Sour Chicken Balls, Chatkharaydar Aaloo Chaat, Khatta Meetha Sauce, Cheese Cake, Feerni, Mango Custard and Frozen Yoghurt.[410] Every year, annual sales of Rooh Afza amount to a total of 20 million bottles in Pakistan.[411] Hamdard Pakistan currently exports their product to at least 25 countries worldwide.[411]
    • The drink is also enormously popular in India, with sales exceeding ₹2,000,000,000 Indian rupees[412][n. 80][413][n. 81] ($28 million USD dollars) per year (sold through 450,000 retailers).[409][407] Similar to Pakistan, sales in India amount to 20 million bottles a year.[413][414] It is both popular with Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and other faiths alike.[415] Hamdard India additionally has a portfolio of 600 other products, 580 of them medicinal,[414] and has also set up the "Institute of History of Medicine and Medical Research" in Delhi in 1970.[414] Approximately 40% of Hamdard India's revenue comes from the sale of Roof Afza.[396]
The "Shish Mahal" (founded in 1964—Present), Glasgow, Scotland, UK; as it appeared in a photo taken in 1979 with a line of customers waiting to be allowed entry.[416]
  • Chicken Tikka Masala—Tikka (which are boneless pieces of cooked meat) were originally brought to South Asia by the Mughals.[417] On the other hand, Chicken Tikka Masala was invented in Glasgow, Scotland, by Pakistani chef Ali Ahmed Aslam (????—????) in the 1970s.[418] More specifically it was invented in 1972; out of necessity rather than through experimentation.[419] He developed the recipe after customers were complaining that the tikka he was giving them was very dry; and so he devised a way to make it more palatable, hence becoming the first to invent it.[419][n. 82]
    • The origin of chicken tikka masala has however been disputed, not least by India. However, historians in modern-day India are not really known for their reliability, as they have a "rich history" of laying claims to a whole host of inventions and discoveries clearly never invented or even discovered by them.[420] See these footnotes for more information on a host of claims made by Indian historians and scientists that are outright falsified.[n. 83][n. 84] Crucially, Amit Roy—an Indian investigative journalist—writing on the history of chicken tikka masala found no evidence to suggest that it was actually from India at all; noting it is "a dish which does not exist in Indian cuisine".[421]
      • Thus its "Indian origins" can at least be discounted.[421][n. 85]
    • What is particularly notable is that news sites discussing the invention, including the "Culture Trip", note that the Pakistani claim appears the "the most convincing", as the other claims on the origin of its invention remain disputed themselves.[422] It is further particularly notable that one of the largest travel publishers, "Lonely Planet", names the Shish Mahal "as the best place of earth to try the dish" in "The World’s Best Spicy Food".[423]
    • The next most credible claim of it's origin is from the British Bengali community. Research by food historians Peter Grove (1942—2016)[424] and Colleen Grove (????—????),[425] conclude that the dish "was most certainly invented in Britain, probably by a Bangladeshi chef".[421]
  • New Sindheri Kharbooza—In 2013, "Fresh Plaza", an industry information based portal in the Netherlands which reports on the latest developments in the fresh produce business,[426] reported that Pakistani scientists were the first to create a new melon variety called the "new sindheri melon".[427] It was developed by the department of Plant Breeding and Genetics at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.[427] The melon was first made public by Asif Ali who is the director of research, innovation and commercialisation at the university.[427] The school itself has a close relationship with the "All Pakistan Fruit & Vegetable Exporters, Importers and Merchants Association" (PFVA) which funds agricultural PhD programmes at the university.[427]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Kulfi (ice cream lollies) were invented by the Mughals (1526—1857).
  • Kulfi—The kulfi (from Persian, "qulfi"; meaning "covered up"—although not invented by Persians) was first invented in the 16th century (1501—1600) by indigenous Mughal sweet-makers during the reign of the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[290]) in the Punjab, Delhi[392] (modern day India).[393] The kulfi is an ice cream (lolly), made from dense evaporated milk (the latter of which was already commonly used in South Asia at the time), but with the newly added ingredients of flavoured pistachios, saffron and ice slurry, which was then packed into cones.[393] The development of the kulfi coincided when the Mughals discovered how to chill water using saltpeter (which freezes H2O molecules).[393] Subsequently, the Mughals frequently imported ice and snow from the Himalayas to make it.
  • Rogan Josh—The origin of "rogan josh" is unclear. Some claim it originated in Persia (with "rogan" meaning "clarified butter" and "josh" meaning hot in Persian).[394] However, the dish is also thought to have its origins from the Kashmiri Muslim ethnic group, who were the first to use a dried plant known as a cockscomb (or maval)—indigenous to Kashmir—and incorporate this into mutton to create a bright, highly flavoured, red coloured dish (hence giving the dishes name, "rogan josh"; "rogan" meaning "red" in Kashmiri).[394] Some say the dish is completely indigenous to South Asia, and wasn't one that was imported or adapted from abroad,[395] but as has already been stated this isn't clear.[394] Hindu Kashmiris also have their own version, but unlike the Muslim one, it does not use garlic or onions.[394]
Roof Afza is 114-years-old. It was first invented by H. H. A. Majeed in 1906. Most of his family fled to Pakistan during the 1947 partition, and founded "Hamdard (Pakistan)".
  • Rooh Afza—A drink consisting of a unique mixture of ingredients[396][397] known as "Rooh Afza" (meaning "soothing to the soul" in Persian; chosen as the brand name because a character called "Rooh Afza" featured in the "Masnavi Gulzar-e-Nasim" (1838[398]), a poetry story book, written by Urdu poet P. D. S. Nasim (1811—1843[399])[n. 86])—also known as "The Original Red Drink"[400]—was first invented by the Muslim H. H. A. Majeed (1883—1922[401][402])[n. 87] in 1906 (others say 1907[396][403][404] or 1908[402]) in Delhi (Punjab), British Raj (1858—1947[405][406]).[396][407] Annually, 40 million bottles are sold in Pakistan and India combined.
    • In 1947, the British Raj split into Pakistan and India, with one of the sons of H. H. A. Majeed, S. H. M. Said[n. 88] (1920—1998[408]), making the dangerous journey to Pakistan from India on January 9th, 1948.[409] After surviving the rapacious and murderous Sikh mobs who were wrecking havoc all over the Punjab at the time, he was finally able to set up production once there (initially "in two rented rooms in Karachi's old area of Arambagh, with Rs 12 (Dh0.42) worth of rented furniture").[409] It is particularly interesting to note that the entire family of Majeed migrated over to Pakistan, but part of his family chose to remain in India.[409]
    • Hamdard Pakistan, the makers of Rooh Afza in Pakistan, have further created recipes for incorporating the syrupy drink into many different Pakistani dishes, used as an ingredient well apart from using it as a drink alone. Rooh Afza can be used in Almond Milkshakes, Kashmiri Chai, Chinese Chicken, Butter Rice, Sweet & Sour Chicken Balls, Chatkharaydar Aaloo Chaat, Khatta Meetha Sauce, Cheese Cake, Feerni, Mango Custard and Frozen Yoghurt.[410] Every year, annual sales of Rooh Afza amount to a total of 20 million bottles in Pakistan.[411] Hamdard Pakistan currently exports their product to at least 25 countries worldwide.[411]
    • The drink is also enormously popular in India, with sales exceeding ₹2,000,000,000 Indian rupees[412][n. 89][413][n. 90] ($28 million USD dollars) per year (sold through 450,000 retailers).[409][407] Similar to Pakistan, sales in India amount to 20 million bottles a year.[413][414] It is both popular with Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and other faiths alike.[415] Hamdard India additionally has a portfolio of 600 other products, 580 of them medicinal,[414] and has also set up the "Institute of History of Medicine and Medical Research" in Delhi in 1970.[414] Approximately 40% of Hamdard India's revenue comes from the sale of Roof Afza.[396]
The "Shish Mahal" (founded in 1964—Present), Glasgow, Scotland, UK; as it appeared in a photo taken in 1979 with a line of customers waiting to be allowed entry.[416]
  • Chicken Tikka Masala—Tikka (which are boneless pieces of cooked meat) were originally brought to South Asia by the Mughals.[417] On the other hand, Chicken Tikka Masala was invented in Glasgow, Scotland, by Pakistani chef Ali Ahmed Aslam (????—????) in the 1970s.[418] More specifically it was invented in 1972; out of necessity rather than through experimentation.[419] He developed the recipe after customers were complaining that the tikka he was giving them was very dry; and so he devised a way to make it more palatable, hence becoming the first to invent it.[419][n. 91]
    • The origin of chicken tikka masala has however been disputed, not least by India. However, historians in modern-day India are not really known for their reliability, as they have a "rich history" of laying claims to a whole host of inventions and discoveries clearly never invented or even discovered by them.[420] See these footnotes for more information on a host of claims made by Indian historians and scientists that are outright falsified.[n. 92][n. 93] Crucially, Amit Roy—an Indian investigative journalist—writing on the history of chicken tikka masala found no evidence to suggest that it was actually from India at all; noting it is "a dish which does not exist in Indian cuisine".[421] Thus its "Indian origins" can at least be discounted.[421][n. 94]
    • What is particularly notable is that news sites discussing the invention, including the "Culture Trip", note that the Pakistani claim appears the "the most convincing", as the other claims on the origin of its invention remain disputed themselves.[422] It is further particularly notable that one of the largest travel publishers, "Lonely Planet", names the Shish Mahal "as the best place of earth to try the dish" in "The World’s Best Spicy Food".[423]
    • The next most credible claim of it's origin is from the British Bengali community. Research by food historians Peter Grove (1942—2016)[424] and Colleen Grove (????—????),[425] conclude that the dish "was most certainly invented in Britain, probably by a Bangladeshi chef".[421]
  • New Sindheri Kharbooza—In 2013, "Fresh Plaza", an industry information based portal in the Netherlands which reports on the latest developments in the fresh produce business,[426] reported that Pakistani scientists were the first to create a new melon variety called the "new sindheri melon".[427] It was developed by the department of Plant Breeding and Genetics at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.[427] The melon was first made public by Asif Ali who is the director of research, innovation and commercialisation at the university.[427] The school itself has a close relationship with the "All Pakistan Fruit & Vegetable Exporters, Importers and Merchants Association" (PFVA) which funds agricultural PhD programmes at the university.[427]

Sport & Recreation (2)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The Mughal Empire.
  • Huqqah (Hookah)—Hakim Aboul Futteh Ghilani (d. 1588[428]) was the first to invent the hookah; a pneumatic pipe that allows smoke to pass through water and subsequently be smoked. The West knew it at the time as the "pipe of India".[429]
    • However "Encyclopaedia Iranica" disputes this, as they claim Persia to have invented it first.[428] They base this on a single quatrain (a stanza from a poem that consists of "four lines, especially one having alternate rhymes") from Ahli Sirazo (d. 1535) which makes mention of the use of the word Gilyan, which apparently dates "its use [to] at least as early as the time of Ṭahmāsp I (930-84/1524-76)".[428] However, apart from this rather vague line, nothing else substantive exists to suggests it was ever used or invented in Persia.
      • The Encyclopedia even expressly admits this, saying "[t]he exact date of the first use of ḡalyān in Persia is not known".[428]
    • More substantive historical evidence however notes that it was the court doctor of Emperor Akbar (1542—1605) who first invented it.[430] This coincided with the introduction of tobacco leaves into the Mughal Empire (1526—1857) by the Portuguese, and subsequently European style smoking pipes.[430] Akbar was given one and decided to take a smoke, but his physician was worried the fumes would be too toxic for his health, and suggested that the smoke be passed over water before being inhaled.[430]
      • It soon became extremely popular with Akbar's court and noblemen and then spread all across the empire and into the adjacent regions.[430]
A tape ball.
  • Tape Ball Cricket—Pakistan was the first to invent a game called tape ball cricket, which is an informal version of the actual game of cricket, except the difference is that instead of using an expensive, dense, hardball, tape ball cricket uses a tennis ball wrapped in electrical tape.[431] It "flourishes spontaneously in gullies (streets) and small patches of concrete...[d]istinctly urban and designed for Asia’s hot and humid conditions, it rarely commences before dusk and is often played after dark under lights, not least during Ramadan".[432] This both makes the game safer and far more accessible to millions of casual players.
    • It was invented by Pakistan's poor.[432] More specifically it was invented in the 1970s—1980s in Karachi.[432] It has also developed a gambling culture around itself (despite gambling being illegal); "[i]ts imprint is most evident in “single wicket” challenges, where individual players bat and bowl to one another without fielders to see who can clock up the most runs in a six-ball over. Announced at the last minute through word of mouth to avoid visits from the police, these compressed encounters, the cricketing equivalent of a penalty shoot out, make T20 look positively long-winded. Dozens can be seen on YouTube, but these clips convey little of the real life intensity of single wicket fixtures, which attract thousands of raucous spectators".[432]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The Mughal Empire.
  • Huqqah (Hookah)—Hakim Aboul Futteh Ghilani (d. 1588[428]) was the first to invent the hookah; a pneumatic pipe that allows smoke to pass through water and subsequently be smoked. The West knew it at the time as the "pipe of India".[429]
    • However "Encyclopaedia Iranica" disputes this, as they claim Persia to have invented it first.[428] They base this on a single quatrain (a stanza from a poem that consists of "four lines, especially one having alternate rhymes") from Ahli Sirazo (d. 1535) which makes mention of the use of the word Gilyan, which apparently dates "its use [to] at least as early as the time of Ṭahmāsp I (930-84/1524-76)".[428] However, apart from this rather vague line, nothing else substantive exists to suggests it was ever used or invented in Persia.
      • The Encyclopedia even expressly admits this, saying "[t]he exact date of the first use of ḡalyān in Persia is not known".[428]
    • More substantive historical evidence however notes that it was the court doctor of Emperor Akbar (1542—1605) who first invented it.[430] This coincided with the introduction of tobacco leaves into the Mughal Empire (1526—1857) by the Portuguese, and subsequently European style smoking pipes.[430] Akbar was given one and decided to take a smoke, but his physician was worried the fumes would be too toxic for his health, and suggested that the smoke be passed over water before being inhaled.[430]
      • It soon became extremely popular with Akbar's court and noblemen and then spread all across the empire and into the adjacent regions.[430]
A tape ball.
  • Tape Ball Cricket—Pakistan was the first to invent a game called tape ball cricket, which is an informal version of the actual game of cricket, except the difference is that instead of using an expensive, dense, hardball, tape ball cricket uses a tennis ball wrapped in electrical tape.[431] It "flourishes spontaneously in gullies (streets) and small patches of concrete...[d]istinctly urban and designed for Asia’s hot and humid conditions, it rarely commences before dusk and is often played after dark under lights, not least during Ramadan".[432] This both makes the game safer and far more accessible to millions of casual players.
    • It was invented by Pakistan's poor.[432] More specifically it was invented in the 1970s—1980s in Karachi.[432] It has also developed a gambling culture around itself (despite gambling being illegal); "[i]ts imprint is most evident in “single wicket” challenges, where individual players bat and bowl to one another without fielders to see who can clock up the most runs in a six-ball over. Announced at the last minute through word of mouth to avoid visits from the police, these compressed encounters, the cricketing equivalent of a penalty shoot out, make T20 look positively long-winded. Dozens can be seen on YouTube, but these clips convey little of the real life intensity of single wicket fixtures, which attract thousands of raucous spectators".[432]

Disputed (2)

Mechanical Engineering (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The spinning wheel.
  • Spinning Wheel—It is not exactly known when the spinning wheel was invented, but there are two civilisations which have claims on it.[433] One is Indian and the other is Arabic Muslim.[433] Some have given India the credit for having invented it between 500 and 1000 AD,[434] although Indian historians themselves have noted that "references to cotton spinning are so vague that none clearly identifies a wheel...[t]he references could equally indicate earlier methods of hand spinning".[433][n. 95] The earliest reference is made in 1350, saying they were first used in the previous century.[433] This was not ambiguous.[433]
    • The earliest physical evidence for the spinning wheel comes from Baghdad in 1237.[433] China first depicted it in c. 1270 and Europe in c. 1280.[433] However the earliest written reference to spinning wheels comes from the Islamic world in c. 1030, whereas it was alluded to next in China in c. 1090.[433][n. 96] It is also notable that China at the time due to technological constraints in the materials that they worked with which were incapable of being spun; therefore they wouldn't have been able to invent the spinning wheel.[433] Therefore, the strongest claimant appears to be Muslim civilisation.[433]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The spinning wheel.
  • Spinning Wheel—It is not exactly known when the spinning wheel was invented, but there are two civilisations which have claims on it.[433] One is Indian and the other is Arabic Muslim.[433] Some have given India the credit for having invented it between 500 and 1000 AD,[434] although Indian historians themselves have noted that "references to cotton spinning are so vague that none clearly identifies a wheel...[t]he references could equally indicate earlier methods of hand spinning".[433][n. 97] The earliest reference is made in 1350, saying they were first used in the previous century.[433] This was not ambiguous.[433]
    • The earliest physical evidence for the spinning wheel comes from Baghdad in 1237.[433] China first depicted it in c. 1270 and Europe in c. 1280.[433] However the earliest written reference to spinning wheels comes from the Islamic world in c. 1030, whereas it was alluded to next in China in c. 1090.[433][n. 98] It is also notable that China at the time due to technological constraints in the materials that they worked with which were incapable of being spun; therefore they wouldn't have been able to invent the spinning wheel.[433] Therefore, the strongest claimant appears to be Muslim civilisation.[433]

Agriculture (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Animals such as oxen were first used by the Indus Valley Civilisation to drive ploughs between 3,000 BC and 2,000 BC. Note: This must not be confused with animal-driven ards and hoes.
  • Animal-drawn Plough—The "ard" was first invented in Mesopotamia between 5,000 BC and 4,000 BC,[435] however, the first animal drawn ploughs were invented in ancient Pakistan between 3,000 BC and 2,000 BC.[435][436] It should also be noted that the predecessor to the plough was the ard.[437] This was the device that is being referred to above that was used by the Mesopotamians.[435] However these ploughs were too simple to be considered true ploughs, and scholars have preferred to give the Indus Valley credit for developing the "[u]se of animal-driven plow[s]" rather than the Mesopotamians.[435]
    • A small terra-cotta model of the plough was discovered in Banawali, which showed that it was a narrow design, and had a pointed share in order to gouge through the soil, with a curved shaft by which it was drawn along.[438] However the model is problematic in that it doesn't show the scale of the plough that was originally being used by these ancient Pakistanis.[438] For example it could have been small enough to have been drawn by a single man, although "it is more likely that a yoke for a plow team of two oxen would have been attached to the shaft".[438] Prior to the plough, the ard was being pulled by animals.[439]
    • The exact definition of what a plough is can be confusing as "ard" and "plough" are used interchangeably. To be clear an ard is a device without a mouldboard, whereas a plough is a device with a mouldboard.[437] And to further elaborate, the earliest ploughing device was a simple hoe that was drawn through the ground, with one man with a rope pulling the front, whilst another was behind digging it into the soil.[440] In 3,500 BC, this hoe was being pulled by cattle, and between 2,686 BC and 2,134 BC it was being pulled by oxen in Egypt.[440] These ploughs were made of wood; by 750 BC that they were made out of steel.[440]

Overall, historians do not universally agree on who was the first to use the animal-drawn plough (since the terminology used to describe the plough itself is often confusing—as has been described above) but there appears to be somewhat of a consensus that the concept was invented in the Indus Valley.[435]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Animals such as oxen were first used by the Indus Valley Civilisation to drive ploughs between 3,000 BC and 2,000 BC. Note: This must not be confused with animal-driven ards and hoes.
  • Animal-drawn Plough—The "ard" was first invented in Mesopotamia between 5,000 BC and 4,000 BC,[435] however, the first animal drawn ploughs were invented in ancient Pakistan between 3,000 BC and 2,000 BC.[435][436] It should also be noted that the predecessor to the plough was the ard.[437] This was the device that is being referred to above that was used by the Mesopotamians.[435] However these ploughs were too simple to be considered true ploughs, and scholars have preferred to give the Indus Valley credit for developing the "[u]se of animal-driven plow[s]" rather than the Mesopotamians.[435]
    • A small terra-cotta model of the plough was discovered in Banawali, which showed that it was a narrow design, and had a pointed share in order to gouge through the soil, with a curved shaft by which it was drawn along.[438] However the model is problematic in that it doesn't show the scale of the plough that was originally being used by these ancient Pakistanis.[438] For example it could have been small enough to have been drawn by a single man, although "it is more likely that a yoke for a plow team of two oxen would have been attached to the shaft".[438] Prior to the plough, the ard was being pulled by animals.[439]
    • The exact definition of what a plough is can be confusing as "ard" and "plough" are used interchangeably. To be clear an ard is a device without a mouldboard, whereas a plough is a device with a mouldboard.[437] And to further elaborate, the earliest ploughing device was a simple hoe that was drawn through the ground, with one man with a rope pulling the front, whilst another was behind digging it into the soil.[440] In 3,500 BC, this hoe was being pulled by cattle, and between 2,686 BC and 2,134 BC it was being pulled by oxen in Egypt.[440] These ploughs were made of wood; by 750 BC that they were made out of steel.[440]

Overall, historians do not universally agree on who was the first to use the animal-drawn plough (since the terminology used to describe the plough itself is often confusing—as has been described above) but there appears to be somewhat of a consensus that the concept was invented in the Indus Valley.[435]

Further Reading

Greater Pakistan, or the Greater Indus Territories. The region encompasses all the states who share a direct racial lineage with one another, distinct from modern North and South Indians.

Additional Achievements
  • Nobel Prize.png Pakistan was the first Muslim country to receive the Nobel Prize in a science related field (Physics; 1979).
  • Nuclear-34997 960 720.png Pakistan was the first Muslim country to invent their own nuclear bombs. Secretly in 1977, publicly in 1998.
Articles
Books
Related Articles

Greater Pakistan, or the Greater Indus Territories. The region encompasses all the states who share a direct racial lineage with one another, distinct from modern North and South Indians.

Additional Achievements

  • Nobel Prize.png Pakistan was the first Muslim country to receive the Nobel Prize in a science related field (Physics; 1979).
  • Nuclear-34997 960 720.png Pakistan was the first Muslim country to invent their own nuclear bombs. Secretly in 1977, publicly in 1998.

Articles

Books

Related Articles

Sources

References

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Footnotes

  1. ^ Quote: "The study showed that there were two major migrations into India in the last 10,000 years. The first one originated from the Zagros region in south-western Iran (which has the world's first evidence for goat domestication) and brought agriculturists, most likely herders, to India. This would have been between 7,000 and 3,000BCE. These Zagrosian herders mixed with the earlier inhabitants of the subcontinent - the First Indians, descendants of the Out of Africa (OoA) migrants who had reached India around 65,000 years ago - and together, they went on to create the Harappan civilisation".
    1. Tony Joseph (30th December 2018). How ancient DNA may rewrite prehistory in India. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
  2. ^ According to several sources, including the "Oxford English Dictionary", the name "India" has been used since the 16th century and is Latin, taken from the ancient Greek word "Indike";† itself taken from the ancient Persian word "Hind", derived from the Sanskrit word "Sindhu", meaning "river"‡ (referring to the Indus River↑ which is to be found in Sindh, modern-day Pakistan).
    Quote: "India (ˈɪndɪə)[a. L [Latin]. India, a. Gr [Greek]. Ἰνδία, f. Ἰνδός the (river) Indus, a. Pers [Persian]. hind, OPers [Old Persian]. (Achæmenian) hiñd'u, Zend heñdu, Skr [Sanskrit]. sindhu `river', spec [specifically]. the river Indus; hence the region of the Indus, the province Sindh; gradually extended by Persians and Greeks to all the country east of the Indus. OE. had India from L.; but the ME. form from Fr. was Ynde, Inde, Ind (cf. Afric), now archaic and poetic; the early 16th c. adaptation of L. was Indie, Indy (cf. Italy, Germany), of which the pl. Indies is still in use. The current use of India appears to date from the 16th c., and may partly reflect Spanish, or Portuguese usage.]"—Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, CD-ROM version.‡
    The word "Hinduism" isn't even an indigenous word either in South Asia and originally meant something completely different to how it is used today (i.e. it is now used to refer to a religion or religious group);↓ instead it is a foreign word "building on centuries-old usages of the word Hindu" (the latter of which itself in the 16th century became primarily a religious "rather than ethnic, geographic, or cultural" identification as it was used previously before (i.e. it exclusively arose from foreigners who were referring to the Sindhi people of the Sindh region of Pakistan); "[s]ince the late 19th century, Hindus have reacted to the term Hinduism in several ways" with "[s]ome hav[ing] rejected it in favour of indigenous formulations" whereas others have simply accepted it).↓
    1. †Catherine Clémentin-Ojha (2014). ‘India, that is Bharat…’: One Country, Two Names. South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal. Issue No. 10. ISSN 1960-6060. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
    2. Oxford English Dictionary: Single User Version. Oxford University Press. January 2005. pp. (CD–ROM, hence no page number, search "India" within software). ISBN 978-0-19-522217-3.
    3. ↑Walter Bruno Henning; Mary Boyce; Ilya Gershevitch (1970). W. B. Henning Memorial Volume. Lund Humphries. pp. 447–450.
    4. ↓Kathleen Kuiper Manager, Arts and Culture (15 August 2010). The Culture of India. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-1-61530-149-2.
  3. ^
    A clear difference in languages is a clear indication that the culture differs from that of India. The languages of Pakistan are clearly different to those of India.
    The languages of Pakistan can be seen here:
    1. Languages of Pakistan. Ethnologue. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
    The languages of India can be seen here:
    1. Languages of India. Ethnologue. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
  4. ^ Quote: "Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literary traditions. They neither intermarry nor eat together, and indeed they belong to two different civilisations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions".
    1. Secunder Kermani (18th August 2017). How Jinnah's ideology shapes Pakistan's identity. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
  5. ^ Quote: "Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literary traditions. They neither intermarry nor eat together, and indeed they belong to two different civilisations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions".
    1. Secunder Kermani (18th August 2017). How Jinnah's ideology shapes Pakistan's identity. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
  6. ^ For example, have a look at the accompanying images on the genetic map of Pakistan and the genetic bar graph of Pakistan. Compared to India, most Pakistanis share a common unified genetic heritage (with the exception of the Kalash people who's genetics are so unique they do not fully match either those in Pakistan or the modern-day nation state of India).
    1. Rosenberg, Noah A.; Mahajan, Saurabh; Gonzalez-Quevedo, Catalina; Blum, Michael G. B.; Nino-Rosales, Laura; Ninis, Vasiliki; Das, Parimal; Hegde, Madhuri; Molinari, Laura; Zapata, Gladys; Weber, James L.; Belmont, John W.; Patel, Pragna I. (2006). Low Levels of Genetic Divergence across Geographically and Linguistically Diverse Populations from India. PLoS Genetics. 2 (12): e215. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020215. ISSN 1553-7390.
  7. ^ See this article for more information:
    Quote: "These Zagrosian herders mixed with the earlier inhabitants of the subcontinent - the First Indians, descendants of the Out of Africa (OoA) migrants who had reached India around 65,000 years ago - and together, they went on to create the Harappan civilisation...the best way to understand the Indian population is to imagine it as a pizza, with the first Indians forming its base. Though the base of this rather irregular pizza is thin in some places and thick in others, it still serves as the support that the rest of the pizza is built upon because studies show that 50% to 65% of the genetic ancestry of Indians derives from the First Indians."
    1. Tony Joseph (30th December 2018). How ancient DNA may rewrite prehistory in India. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
    Also see this source's bar graph (cited within this article on "Materia Islamica" itself at the top of the page) where it shows the genetic variation amongst Pakistanis and the differences between Pakistani groups versus Indian groups (Pakistan's genetic heritage is far more diverse than that of modern-day India's):
    1. Rosenberg, Noah A.; Mahajan, Saurabh; Gonzalez-Quevedo, Catalina; Blum, Michael G. B.; Nino-Rosales, Laura; Ninis, Vasiliki; Das, Parimal; Hegde, Madhuri; Molinari, Laura; Zapata, Gladys; Weber, James L.; Belmont, John W.; Patel, Pragna I. (2006). Low Levels of Genetic Divergence across Geographically and Linguistically Diverse Populations from India. PLoS Genetics. 2 (12): e215. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020215. ISSN 1553-7390.
  8. ^ Quote: "The study showed that there were two major migrations into India in the last 10,000 years. The first one originated from the Zagros region in south-western Iran (which has the world's first evidence for goat domestication) and brought agriculturists, most likely herders, to India. This would have been between 7,000 and 3,000BCE. These Zagrosian herders mixed with the earlier inhabitants of the subcontinent - the First Indians, descendants of the Out of Africa (OoA) migrants who had reached India around 65,000 years ago - and together, they went on to create the Harappan civilisation".
    1. Tony Joseph (30th December 2018). How ancient DNA may rewrite prehistory in India. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
  9. ^ According to several sources, including the "Oxford English Dictionary", the name "India" has been used since the 16th century and is Latin, taken from the ancient Greek word "Indike";† itself taken from the ancient Persian word "Hind", derived from the Sanskrit word "Sindhu", meaning "river"‡ (referring to the Indus River↑ which is to be found in Sindh, modern-day Pakistan).
    Quote: "India (ˈɪndɪə)[a. L [Latin]. India, a. Gr [Greek]. Ἰνδία, f. Ἰνδός the (river) Indus, a. Pers [Persian]. hind, OPers [Old Persian]. (Achæmenian) hiñd'u, Zend heñdu, Skr [Sanskrit]. sindhu `river', spec [specifically]. the river Indus; hence the region of the Indus, the province Sindh; gradually extended by Persians and Greeks to all the country east of the Indus. OE. had India from L.; but the ME. form from Fr. was Ynde, Inde, Ind (cf. Afric), now archaic and poetic; the early 16th c. adaptation of L. was Indie, Indy (cf. Italy, Germany), of which the pl. Indies is still in use. The current use of India appears to date from the 16th c., and may partly reflect Spanish, or Portuguese usage.]"—Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, CD-ROM version.‡
    The word "Hinduism" isn't even an indigenous word either in South Asia and originally meant something completely different to how it is used today (i.e. it is now used to refer to a religion or religious group);↓ instead it is a foreign word "building on centuries-old usages of the word Hindu" (the latter of which itself in the 16th century became primarily a religious "rather than ethnic, geographic, or cultural" identification as it was used previously before (i.e. it exclusively arose from foreigners who were referring to the Sindhi people of the Sindh region of Pakistan); "[s]ince the late 19th century, Hindus have reacted to the term Hinduism in several ways" with "[s]ome hav[ing] rejected it in favour of indigenous formulations" whereas others have simply accepted it).↓
    1. †Catherine Clémentin-Ojha (2014). ‘India, that is Bharat…’: One Country, Two Names. South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal. Issue No. 10. ISSN 1960-6060. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
    2. Oxford English Dictionary: Single User Version. Oxford University Press. January 2005. pp. (CD–ROM, hence no page number, search "India" within software). ISBN 978-0-19-522217-3.
    3. ↑Walter Bruno Henning; Mary Boyce; Ilya Gershevitch (1970). W. B. Henning Memorial Volume. Lund Humphries. pp. 447–450.
    4. ↓Kathleen Kuiper Manager, Arts and Culture (15 August 2010). The Culture of India. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-1-61530-149-2.
  10. ^
    A clear difference in languages is a clear indication that the culture differs from that of India. The languages of Pakistan are clearly different to those of India.
    The languages of Pakistan can be seen here:
    1. Languages of Pakistan. Ethnologue. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
    The languages of India can be seen here:
    1. Languages of India. Ethnologue. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
  11. ^ Quote: "Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literary traditions. They neither intermarry nor eat together, and indeed they belong to two different civilisations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions".
    1. Secunder Kermani (18th August 2017). How Jinnah's ideology shapes Pakistan's identity. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
  12. ^ Quote: "Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literary traditions. They neither intermarry nor eat together, and indeed they belong to two different civilisations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions".
    1. Secunder Kermani (18th August 2017). How Jinnah's ideology shapes Pakistan's identity. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
  13. ^ For example, have a look at the accompanying images on the genetic map of Pakistan and the genetic bar graph of Pakistan. Compared to India, most Pakistanis share a common unified genetic heritage (with the exception of the Kalash people who's genetics are so unique they do not fully match either those in Pakistan or the modern-day nation state of India).
    1. Rosenberg, Noah A.; Mahajan, Saurabh; Gonzalez-Quevedo, Catalina; Blum, Michael G. B.; Nino-Rosales, Laura; Ninis, Vasiliki; Das, Parimal; Hegde, Madhuri; Molinari, Laura; Zapata, Gladys; Weber, James L.; Belmont, John W.; Patel, Pragna I. (2006). Low Levels of Genetic Divergence across Geographically and Linguistically Diverse Populations from India. PLoS Genetics. 2 (12): e215. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020215. ISSN 1553-7390.
  14. ^ See this article for more information:
    Quote: "These Zagrosian herders mixed with the earlier inhabitants of the subcontinent - the First Indians, descendants of the Out of Africa (OoA) migrants who had reached India around 65,000 years ago - and together, they went on to create the Harappan civilisation...the best way to understand the Indian population is to imagine it as a pizza, with the first Indians forming its base. Though the base of this rather irregular pizza is thin in some places and thick in others, it still serves as the support that the rest of the pizza is built upon because studies show that 50% to 65% of the genetic ancestry of Indians derives from the First Indians."
    1. Tony Joseph (30th December 2018). How ancient DNA may rewrite prehistory in India. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2019.
    Also see this source's bar graph (cited within this article on "Materia Islamica" itself at the top of the page) where it shows the genetic variation amongst Pakistanis and the differences between Pakistani groups versus Indian groups (Pakistan's genetic heritage is far more diverse than that of modern-day India's):
    1. Rosenberg, Noah A.; Mahajan, Saurabh; Gonzalez-Quevedo, Catalina; Blum, Michael G. B.; Nino-Rosales, Laura; Ninis, Vasiliki; Das, Parimal; Hegde, Madhuri; Molinari, Laura; Zapata, Gladys; Weber, James L.; Belmont, John W.; Patel, Pragna I. (2006). Low Levels of Genetic Divergence across Geographically and Linguistically Diverse Populations from India. PLoS Genetics. 2 (12): e215. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020215. ISSN 1553-7390.
  15. ^ Some of her key contributions have been;
    'Quote: Having the "crucial role" of "developing the quantum optics used in the upgrade from LIGO to Advanced LIGO".
    1. Hamish Johnston (12th January 2016). Has Advanced LIGO found gravitational waves?. Physics World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 12th, 2019.
    Quote: She "[d]esigned a key system for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project while earning her Ph.D. in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1997" and "[w]as involved in building the LIGO detectors as a postdoctoral research and staff scientist at the California Institute of Technology from 1997 to 2002".
    1. Catherine Caruso (Summer 2018). A COSMIC BREAKTHROUGH. Wellesley Magazine. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 12th, 2019.
    Quote: "To my fellow researchers of the LIGO Squeezed Injection team-Nergis Mavalvala, Michael Landry, Robert Schofield, Matthew Evans, Cheryl Vorvick, Richard Gustafson, Grant Meadors, Maxim Factourovich, Alexander Khalaidovski and Nick Smith-Lefebvre. Thank you for your contributions essential to the success of the project. In particular, thank you to Nergis Mavalvala at MIT and Michael Landry at Hanford, whom without making available the resources and time allocation, would have made the squeezing experiment impossible to complete".
    1. Sheon S. Y. Chua (9 May 2015). Quantum Enhancement of a 4 km Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Detector. Springer. p. 12. ISBN 978-3-319-17686-4.
  16. ^ Some of her key contributions have been;
    'Quote: Having the "crucial role" of "developing the quantum optics used in the upgrade from LIGO to Advanced LIGO".
    1. Hamish Johnston (12th January 2016). Has Advanced LIGO found gravitational waves?. Physics World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 12th, 2019.
    Quote: She "[d]esigned a key system for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project while earning her Ph.D. in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1997" and "[w]as involved in building the LIGO detectors as a postdoctoral research and staff scientist at the California Institute of Technology from 1997 to 2002".
    1. Catherine Caruso (Summer 2018). A COSMIC BREAKTHROUGH. Wellesley Magazine. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 12th, 2019.
    Quote: "To my fellow researchers of the LIGO Squeezed Injection team-Nergis Mavalvala, Michael Landry, Robert Schofield, Matthew Evans, Cheryl Vorvick, Richard Gustafson, Grant Meadors, Maxim Factourovich, Alexander Khalaidovski and Nick Smith-Lefebvre. Thank you for your contributions essential to the success of the project. In particular, thank you to Nergis Mavalvala at MIT and Michael Landry at Hanford, whom without making available the resources and time allocation, would have made the squeezing experiment impossible to complete".
    1. Sheon S. Y. Chua (9 May 2015). Quantum Enhancement of a 4 km Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Detector. Springer. p. 12. ISBN 978-3-319-17686-4.
  17. ^ Some books also credit other authors in passing mentions as contributing to the theory in the introductory chapters of marine microbiology textbooks when discussing the microbial loop (or microbial food web), but it is unclear precisely what their contributions were since their mentions are so generically and hastility put together without actually any reference to precisely what makes them notable or unique. These other scientists include John Stout (1963), Amyan Macfadyan (1963), Williams (1981), Sieburth & Davies (1982).
    1. David C. Coleman (2010). Big Ecology: The Emergence of Ecosystem Science. University of California Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-520-26475-5.
    2. K. Salonen; T. Kairesalo; R.I. Jones (6 December 2012). Dissolved Organic Matter in Lacustrine Ecosystems: Energy Source and System Regulator. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 107. ISBN 978-94-011-2474-4.
    Most scholars and historians however do not credit them at all, but solely give credit to Azam and Pomeroy.
    1. Johanna Laybourn-Parry; Jemma Wadham (14 August 2014). Antarctic Lakes. OUP Oxford. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-164932-5.
    2. Colin Munn (16 October 2003). Marine Microbiology: Ecology & Applications. Garland Science. pp. 147–148. ISBN 978-0-203-50311-9.
  18. ^ Some books also credit other authors in passing mentions as contributing to the theory in the introductory chapters of marine microbiology textbooks when discussing the microbial loop (or microbial food web), but it is unclear precisely what their contributions were since their mentions are so generically and hastility put together without actually any reference to precisely what makes them notable or unique. These other scientists include John Stout (1963), Amyan Macfadyan (1963), Williams (1981), Sieburth & Davies (1982).
    1. David C. Coleman (2010). Big Ecology: The Emergence of Ecosystem Science. University of California Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-520-26475-5.
    2. K. Salonen; T. Kairesalo; R.I. Jones (6 December 2012). Dissolved Organic Matter in Lacustrine Ecosystems: Energy Source and System Regulator. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 107. ISBN 978-94-011-2474-4.
    Most scholars and historians however do not credit them at all, but solely give credit to Azam and Pomeroy.
    1. Johanna Laybourn-Parry; Jemma Wadham (14 August 2014). Antarctic Lakes. OUP Oxford. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-164932-5.
    2. Colin Munn (16 October 2003). Marine Microbiology: Ecology & Applications. Garland Science. pp. 147–148. ISBN 978-0-203-50311-9.
  19. ^ Additional information on Zaidi can be found from the following which was found from the University of Durham website. Quote: "I graduated with a PhD in synthetic organic chemistry from Loughborough University. In 1990 I started my first postdoctoral position at Durham with Professor O'Hagan in the chemistry department, working on several projects leading to polymers, in 1997 collaborating with the IRC (Prof. Jim Feast) in polyamide research. After spending a year on the joint project between chemistry (Prof. Martin Bryce) and physics (Dr. Graham Cross) on the optoelectronic materials. I joined Andy Monkman's OEM group in 1999, and we are currently leading the way into preparing high molecular weight polyaniline at low temperature and also investigating into a better dopant than the one in use at present. I am a keen squash & badminton player and often beat Andy at badminton to stay even. In summer I play cricket for the staff at Durham, weather permitting, and we have a lovely ground with a good view of countryside. My wife is an excellent cook and my two daughters Ayman and Zarlush keep me busy at home.".
    1. Dr Naveed Zaidi. Undated. Durham University. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved May 24th, 2019.
  20. ^ Hussain and Mishra (2018) have accidentally written 1998 for Torrance's experiment, as opposed to 1988. The paper was actually written in 1988 and can be found within this footnote.
    1. Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain; Ajay Kumar Mishra (24 April 2018). Nanocomposites for Pollution Control. CRC Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-351-38793-4.
    2. Torrance, J. B.; Bagus, P. S.; Johannsen, I.; Nazzal, A. I.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Batail, P. (1988). Ferromagnetic interactions in organic solids: An overview of theory and experiment (invited). Journal of Applied Physics. 63 (8): 2962–2965. doi:10.1063/1.340916. ISSN 0021-8979.
  21. ^ Additional information on Zaidi can be found from the following which was found from the University of Durham website. Quote: "I graduated with a PhD in synthetic organic chemistry from Loughborough University. In 1990 I started my first postdoctoral position at Durham with Professor O'Hagan in the chemistry department, working on several projects leading to polymers, in 1997 collaborating with the IRC (Prof. Jim Feast) in polyamide research. After spending a year on the joint project between chemistry (Prof. Martin Bryce) and physics (Dr. Graham Cross) on the optoelectronic materials. I joined Andy Monkman's OEM group in 1999, and we are currently leading the way into preparing high molecular weight polyaniline at low temperature and also investigating into a better dopant than the one in use at present. I am a keen squash & badminton player and often beat Andy at badminton to stay even. In summer I play cricket for the staff at Durham, weather permitting, and we have a lovely ground with a good view of countryside. My wife is an excellent cook and my two daughters Ayman and Zarlush keep me busy at home.".
    1. Dr Naveed Zaidi. Undated. Durham University. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved May 24th, 2019.
  22. ^ Hussain and Mishra (2018) have accidentally written 1998 for Torrance's experiment, as opposed to 1988. The paper was actually written in 1988 and can be found within this footnote.
    1. Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain; Ajay Kumar Mishra (24 April 2018). Nanocomposites for Pollution Control. CRC Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-351-38793-4.
    2. Torrance, J. B.; Bagus, P. S.; Johannsen, I.; Nazzal, A. I.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Batail, P. (1988). Ferromagnetic interactions in organic solids: An overview of theory and experiment (invited). Journal of Applied Physics. 63 (8): 2962–2965. doi:10.1063/1.340916. ISSN 0021-8979.
  23. ^ After Brain, a multitude of other viruses were created, which chiefly included viruses such as Jerusalem, Miami, Alameda, Cascade, and Lehigh.
    1. Peter H. Gregory (9 May 2011). Computer Viruses For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 217. ISBN 978-1-118-08547-9.
  24. ^ Quote: The Brain virus was reported in 1990 as comprising around 7 per cent of all reported infection incidents. The virus was also the first case of limited camouflage being employed. When the virus was active in memory no alteration of the boot sector (from its standard value) could be detected.
    1. David Ferbrache (6 December 2012). A Pathology of Computer Viruses. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4471-1774-2.
  25. ^ Quote: Computer viruses are a special concern of computer users everywhere. Computer viruses were first brought to public attention in 1988, when the Pakistani virus (or Pakistani brain virus) became widespread in personal and office computers across the United States. The Paksitani virus was created by Amjad Farooq Alvi and his brother, Basit Farooq Alvi, two cut-rate computer sofr-ware dealers in Lahore, Pakistan. The Alvi brothers made copies of costly software products and were dealers in Lahore, Pakistan. The Alvi brothers made copies of costly software products and sold them at low prices, mostly to Western shoppers looking for a bargain. Motivated by convoluted logic, the brothers hid a virus on each disk they sold to punish buyers for seeking to evade copyright law.
    1. Frank Schmalleger (2007). Criminal justice today: an introductory text for the twenty-first century. Prentice Hall. p. 708. ISBN 978-0-13-171965-1.
  26. ^ After Brain, a multitude of other viruses were created, which chiefly included viruses such as Jerusalem, Miami, Alameda, Cascade, and Lehigh.
    1. Peter H. Gregory (9 May 2011). Computer Viruses For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 217. ISBN 978-1-118-08547-9.
  27. ^ Quote: The Brain virus was reported in 1990 as comprising around 7 per cent of all reported infection incidents. The virus was also the first case of limited camouflage being employed. When the virus was active in memory no alteration of the boot sector (from its standard value) could be detected.
    1. David Ferbrache (6 December 2012). A Pathology of Computer Viruses. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4471-1774-2.
  28. ^ Quote: Computer viruses are a special concern of computer users everywhere. Computer viruses were first brought to public attention in 1988, when the Pakistani virus (or Pakistani brain virus) became widespread in personal and office computers across the United States. The Paksitani virus was created by Amjad Farooq Alvi and his brother, Basit Farooq Alvi, two cut-rate computer sofr-ware dealers in Lahore, Pakistan. The Alvi brothers made copies of costly software products and were dealers in Lahore, Pakistan. The Alvi brothers made copies of costly software products and sold them at low prices, mostly to Western shoppers looking for a bargain. Motivated by convoluted logic, the brothers hid a virus on each disk they sold to punish buyers for seeking to evade copyright law.
    1. Frank Schmalleger (2007). Criminal justice today: an introductory text for the twenty-first century. Prentice Hall. p. 708. ISBN 978-0-13-171965-1.
  29. ^ Quote: "Bastion uses real-time narration extensively. Its purpose is to deliver story and exposition, and to build atmosphere, investment, and immersion in close partnership with the gameplay.".
    1. In-Depth: Writing Bastion. October 26th, 2010. Supergiant Games. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  30. ^ Quote: "Between its groundbreaking incorporation of narrative, challenging combat system, and incredibly artful production, Bastion doesn’t need the, “for a downloadable game” qualifier. It is simply one of the best games you will play this year".
    1. Bitmob (September 27th, 2011). Bastion Makes Me Wish there was a Narrator in My Life Too. Venture Beat. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  31. ^ Quote: "Bastion's unique storytelling device was the reactive narrator. While the player is moving around and going through the levels, you can hear the voice of the narrator commenting on the events. Most of the comments are pre-canned about the level itself, but there are plenty that come from how the player is playing. Such as if the player is taking a lot of damage, or what weapons they decide to use. While the effect is basic, it does show how the player's use of the mechanics could affect how the narrative is being told".
    1. Josh Bycer (11th June 2012). Extreme Storytelling: The Use of Narrative Mechanics. Gamasutra. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  32. ^ Quote: " Bastion introduces a one-of-a-kind reactive narration system, which gradually reveals a rich back story as the narrator reacts to the player’s actions, allowing for the player to have a truly personalized gameplay experience. The game features thousands of lines of narration. No player will be able to hear it all the first time through the game".
    1. Bastion Fact Sheet. June 7th, 2011. Gaming Phanatic. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  33. ^ Quote: "The game fleshed out slowly as the Supergiant team grew naturally, organically. Adding new minds and new perspectives to the project bred different ideas. Some of the game’s most popular elements didn’t come until after this happened..."A lot of what was special about Bastion actually came...when we tried certain ideas, like the reactive narration"...".
    1. Adam Rosenberg (February 15th, 2013). Bastion was a massive success on multiple platforms; its designer explains how. Digital Trends. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  34. ^ Quote: "The true marvel of Bastion is that underneath the gameplay mechanics rests a deep, enriching experience that truly pushes the envelope with what videogames are capable of...Bastion appears at first glance as though a story book. Its world is bright and colorful, though broken, and it hints at a certain whimsical charm that instantly draws you in. It seems almost natural, then, that there should be a narrator. The inclusion of the Narrator is Bastion’s most unique feature as well as one of its greatest triumphs".
    1. Bitmob (December 7th, 2011). Why Bastion is a Masterpiece. Venture Beat. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  35. ^ A significant amount of Pakistanis are known as Amir Rao. This includes film directors and IT directors.
    1. Staff Report (September 13th, 2017). Pakistani artists to participate in cultural events in China. Daily Times. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 14th, 2019.
    2. Shoaib Khalil (July 9th, 2013). Microsoft Pakistan empowers businesses through Technology innovation: Amir Rao Asia Net Pakistan. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 14th, 2019.
  36. ^ Quote: "Bastion uses real-time narration extensively. Its purpose is to deliver story and exposition, and to build atmosphere, investment, and immersion in close partnership with the gameplay.".
    1. In-Depth: Writing Bastion. October 26th, 2010. Supergiant Games. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  37. ^ Quote: "Between its groundbreaking incorporation of narrative, challenging combat system, and incredibly artful production, Bastion doesn’t need the, “for a downloadable game” qualifier. It is simply one of the best games you will play this year".
    1. Bitmob (September 27th, 2011). Bastion Makes Me Wish there was a Narrator in My Life Too. Venture Beat. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.