List of Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine During the Islamic Golden Age

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Skeleton (1394–1409).
The Islamic Golden Age was brought about by three dynasties; the Abbasids (750—1258[1]), the Fatimids (909—1171[2]) and the Umayyads of Cordoba (929—1031[3]).[4] The Abbasids were directly descended from Muhammad's (571—632[5]) bloodline through his uncle,[6][7] the Fatimids were descended from the daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah (605—633[8]),[4] and the Umayyad's claimed no direct ancestry.[9] The longest of these periods was that of the Abbasids, who were pivotal in leading two crucial revolutions, one military and the other intellectual (particularly following the Battle of Talas (751) which was hugely influential in spreading the technology of paper-making throughout the world—which until then, had remained a tightly guarded secret; although this is somewhat disputed as some evidence suggests that it was already known to the Muslims). The rise of the Islamic Golden Age thus begins in 750 and ends in 1258, when all the dynasties had ceased to exist. The end of the Abbasid dynasty was particularly traumatic, as the Mongols (who were largely illiterate[10]) devastated the capital of Baghdad,[11] destroying much of it's intellectual and historical heritage, and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire (the only people spared were Nestorian Christians, who at the request of Hulagu Khan's (1218—1265[12]) Christian wife, Dokuz Khatun (d. 1265[13]), asked only for them not to be massacred[14]). Many Armenians (12,000 cavalrymen and 40,000 infantrymen[15])[16] and Georgians also participated in the massacre—of genocidal proportion—murdering between 800,000—2,000,000 people.[17] Khan died several years after the siege and was buried on Shahi Island, Iran, along with his wealth that is yet to be found.[18] The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1198—1375[19]) itself ceased to exist in 1375,[20] when the Mamluk Empire (1250—1517[21]) conquered it.[22]

Working Title: List of Inventions and Discoveries in the Islamic World (Medicine) | Original Publisher: Materia Islamica | Publication Date: January 25th, 2019. | Written by: Canadian786 | Artricle No. 87.

Working Title: List of Inventions and Discoveries in the Islamic World (Medicine) | Original Publisher: Materia Islamica | Publication Date: January 25th, 2019. | Written by: Canadian786 | Artricle No. 87.

Skeleton (1394–1409).
The Islamic Golden Age was brought about by three dynasties; the Abbasids (750—1258[1]), the Fatimids (909—1171[2]) and the Umayyads of Cordoba (929—1031[3]).[4] The Abbasids were directly descended from Muhammad's (571—632[5]) bloodline through his uncle,[6][7] the Fatimids were descended from the daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah (605—633[8]),[4] and the Umayyad's claimed no direct ancestry.[9] The longest of these periods was that of the Abbasids, who were pivotal in leading two crucial revolutions, one military and the other intellectual (particularly following the Battle of Talas (751) which was hugely influential in spreading the technology of paper-making throughout the world—which until then, had remained a tightly guarded secret; although this is somewhat disputed as some evidence suggests that it was already known to the Muslims). The rise of the Islamic Golden Age thus begins in 750 and ends in 1258, when all the dynasties had ceased to exist. The end of the Abbasid dynasty was particularly traumatic, as the Mongols (who were largely illiterate[10]) devastated the capital of Baghdad,[11] destroying much of it's intellectual and historical heritage, and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire (the only people spared were Nestorian Christians, who at the request of Hulagu Khan's (1218—1265[12]) Christian wife, Dokuz Khatun (d. 1265[13]), asked only for them not to be massacred[14]). Many Armenians (12,000 cavalrymen and 40,000 infantrymen[15])[16] and Georgians also participated in the massacre—of genocidal proportion—murdering between 800,000—2,000,000 people.[17] Khan died several years after the siege and was buried on Shahi Island, Iran, along with his wealth that is yet to be found.[18] The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1198—1375[19]) itself ceased to exist in 1375,[20] when the Mamluk Empire (1250—1517[21]) conquered it.[22]

Article Methodology

  • In accordance with the principle of peer-review and the hierarchy of evidence and relevance of research papers, this list has been compiled using the best evidence available and has been taken from a range of scientific and historical research databases. The majority of the sources hence can be easily found using the DOI numbers (similar to an ISBN number for books, except which these unique identifiers identify research papers which have undergone thorough checks and re-checks through academic scholarship). This article consists of a List of Inventions and Discoveries in the Islamic World with respect to the history of Islamic medicine. This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

List of Physicians

Hippocrates, Avicenna and Galen in Western art.
  • Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi[23] (R(h)azes; 865—925[24])—Razi’s best known books are "al-Hawi Fi al-Tibb"[25] (or "The Comprehensive Book in Medicine"[25]) and "Kitab Al-Mansuri".[26] The former is known in Europe as the "Liber Continens",[27] consisting of 23[25]—24 volumes.[28]
  • Abi Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina[29] (Avicenna; 980—1037[30])—Ibn Sina wrote 270 different publications (450 treatises[31]), with his best known work being the "al-Qanun fi al-Tibb"[31] (or "The Canon of Medicine"[31]) written in Jurjan, and finished in Ray around 1020.[32]
  • Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham[33] (Alhazen; 965—1040[34])—He wrote the "Kitab al-Manazir"[35] (or the "Book of Optics"[36]), which was hugely influential until the 17th century.[37] In writing it, his goal was to separate truth from error and explain the phenomena of light and vision.[37]
  • Abu l-Walid Muḥammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd[38] (Averroes; 1126—1198[39])—Ibn Rushd wrote 20 books on medicine, the most important called the "al-Kulliyat Fi al-Tibb"[40] (or the "Generalities of General Medicine";[37] known in Latin as the "Colliget").[37] It consisted of 25 chapters.[37]
  • Abu Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Al Zahrawi (Zahrawi; 936—1013)—He wrote a 30-volume treatise,[41] on medicine called the "Kitab al-Tasrif" (or the "Textbook of Surgery"[42], or "The Method of Medicine").[43] He was also known as "Zahravius".[44] It was influential up until the 19th century.
Razi's Liber Continens in Latin. His best known work is the "al-Hawi Fi al-Tibb".
  • Abubakr Rabi ibn Ahmad al-Akhawayni al-Bokhari[45] (Joveini; d. 983[46])—His only surviving medical work is known as the "Hidayat al-Mutallemin fi al-Tibb" (or "A Scholar’s Guide to Medicine"). It is the first medical text written in new Persian (or "Farsi Dari"), consisting of between 184—200 chapters.[37]
  • Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Majusi[47] (Haly Abbas; 930—994[48])—Ibn Abbas wrote the "Ketab Kamel al-Sena-a al-Tebiah" (or "The Complete Art of Medicine"), known also as the "al-Ketab al-Malki" (or "The Royal Book" in Baghdad). It was originally written in Arabic.[37]
  • Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi[49] (1162—1231[49])—He wrote around 147 books in different areas including medicine.[37] One of his famous books is called the "al-Ifada wa’l-I’tibar" which detail a famine in Egypt where he was able to observe a large number of bodies for medical research.[37]
  • Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi[50] (Ibn Nafis; 1210—1288[51])—He wrote "The Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna’s Canon".[37] The book contains important new discoveries never seen before, such as the pulmonary system.[51]
  • Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf Ibn Ilyas[52] (1380—1422[52])—He wrote a book called "Tasrih-i Mansuri" (or "Mansur’s Anatomy"; which was also known as the "Tashrih-i Badan-i Insan" or "Human Anatomy") and was written in Persian.[37]
Hippocrates, Avicenna and Galen in Western art.
  • Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi[23] (R(h)azes; 865—925[24])—Razi’s best known books are "al-Hawi Fi al-Tibb"[25] (or "The Comprehensive Book in Medicine"[25]) and "Kitab Al-Mansuri".[26] The former is known in Europe as the "Liber Continens",[27] consisting of 23[25]—24 volumes.[53]
  • Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina[29] (Avicenna; 980—1037[30])—Ibn Sina wrote 270 different publications (450 treatises[31]), with his best known work being the "al-Qanun fi al-Tibb"[31] (or "The Canon of Medicine"[31]) written in Jurjan, and finished in Ray around 1020.[32]
  • Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham[33] (Alhazen; 965—1040[34])—He wrote the "Kitab al-Manazir"[35] (or the "Book of Optics"[36]), which was hugely influential until the 17th century.[37] In writing it, his goal was to separate truth from error and explain the phenomena of light and vision.[37]
  • Abu l-Walid Muḥammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd[38] (Averroes; 1126—1198[39])—Ibn Rushd wrote 20 books on medicine, the most important called the "al-Kulliyat Fi al-Tibb"[40] (or the "Generalities of General Medicine";[37] known in Latin as the "Colliget").[37] It consisted of 25 chapters.[37]
  • Abu Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Al Zahrawi (Zahrawi; 936—1013)—He wrote a 30-volume treatise,[41] on medicine called the "Kitab al-Tasrif" (or the "Textbook of Surgery"[42], or "The Method of Medicine").[43] He was also known as "Zahravius".[44] It was influential up until the 19th century.
Razi's Liber Continens in Latin. His best known work is the "al-Hawi Fi al-Tibb".
  • Abubakr Rabi ibn Ahmad al-Akhawayni al-Bokhari[45] (Joveini; d. 983[46])—His only surviving medical work is known as the "Hidayat al-Mutallemin fi al-Tibb" (or "A Scholar’s Guide to Medicine"). It is the first medical text written in new Persian (or "Farsi Dari"), consisting of between 184—200 chapters.[37]
  • Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Majusi[47] (Haly Abbas; 930—994[48])—Ibn Abbas wrote the "Ketab Kamel al-Sena-a al-Tebiah" (or "The Complete Art of Medicine"), known also as the "al-Ketab al-Malki" (or "The Royal Book" in Baghdad). It was originally written in Arabic.[37]
  • Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi[49] (1162—1231[49])—He wrote around 147 books in different areas including medicine.[37] One of his famous books is called the "al-Ifada wa’l-I’tibar" which detail a famine in Egypt where he was able to observe a large number of bodies for medical research.[37]
  • Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi[50] (Ibn Nafis; 1210—1288[51])—He wrote "The Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna’s Canon".[37] The book contains important new discoveries never seen before, such as the pulmonary system.[51]
  • Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf Ibn Ilyas[52] (1380—1422[52])—He wrote a book called "Tasrih-i Mansuri" (or "Mansur’s Anatomy"; which was also known as the "Tashrih-i Badan-i Insan" or "Human Anatomy") and was written in Persian.[37]

Notable Libraries

  • The Library of the House of Wisdom—In the 12th century, this library contained at least 700,000 hand-written volumes.[54] There were 63 libraries littered across ancient Baghdad,[55] with one of the smaller libraries alone containing 150,000 volumes.[54] For context, the University of Oxford in England around this time hardly had a few chests-worth of volumes.[54]
  • The Library of Al-Azhar University—The library of the University of Al-Azhar was founded in 969 in Egypt. It is still in operation, over 1,050 years since it's founding. In 1977, it's collection contains 80,000 volumes and 20,000 historical manuscripts.[55] By 2016, the ancient manuscript collection grew to some 40,000, but many of them still require urgent digitization.[56]
  • The Library of Cordova—Established in 976 in Cordova, Spain, it contained 400,000—600,000 hand-written volumes.[57] Approximately 500 people were employed to maintain it. It was one of 70 libraries established by the Muslims in Spain. After the end of the Cordoba Caliphate in 1031, the books were scattered amongst various Moorish Muslim kingdoms.[57]
  • The Library of the House of Science—The library was established in 1004, in Cairo, by the Fatimad Caliphate, and contained 100,000—600,000 hand-written volumes of bound books, and 2,400 copies of the Qu'ran written in gold and silver. The library contained volumes on "jurisprudence, grammar, rhetoric, history, biography, astronomy, and chemistry".[57]
  • The Library of Tripoli, Syria—This library contained 3,000,000 hand-written volumes. It contained 50,000 copies of the Qu'ran, and 80,000 commentaries. The rest were all on science. It was deliberately burned down by a European Christian priest during the First Crusade, his reason being that the library contained copies of the Qu'ran. Foreigners used to study in it.[57]
  • The Library of the House of Wisdom—In the 12th century, this library contained at least 700,000 hand-written volumes.[54] There were 63 libraries littered across ancient Baghdad,[55] with one of the smaller libraries alone containing 150,000 volumes.[54] For context, the University of Oxford in England around this time hardly had a few chests-worth of volumes.[54]
  • The Library of Al-Azhar University—The library of the University of Al-Azhar was founded in 969 in Egypt. It is still in operation, over 1,050 years since it's founding. In 1977, it's collection contains 80,000 volumes and 20,000 historical manuscripts.[55] By 2016, the ancient manuscript collection grew to some 40,000, but many of them still require urgent digitization.[56]
  • The Library of Cordova—Established in 976 in Cordova, Spain, it contained 400,000—600,000 hand-written volumes.[57] Approximately 500 people were employed to maintain it. It was one of 70 libraries established by the Muslims in Spain. After the end of the Cordoba Caliphate in 1031, the books were scattered amongst various Moorish Muslim kingdoms.[57]
  • The Library of the House of Science—The library was established in 1004, in Cairo, by the Fatimad Caliphate, and contained 100,000—600,000 hand-written volumes of bound books, and 2,400 copies of the Qu'ran written in gold and silver. The library contained volumes on "jurisprudence, grammar, rhetoric, history, biography, astronomy, and chemistry".[57]
  • The Library of Tripoli, Syria—This library contained 3,000,000 hand-written volumes. It contained 50,000 copies of the Qu'ran, and 80,000 commentaries. The rest were all on science. It was deliberately burned down by a European Christian priest during the First Crusade, his reason being that the library contained copies of the Qu'ran. Foreigners used to study in it.[57]

Scientific Theories (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Metabolism—The theory of biological metabolism was first discovered and formulated by Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Ibn Nafis; 1210—1288) in 1260 who noted "the body and its parts are in a continuous state of dissolution and nourishment, so they are inevitably undergoing permanent change".[58] This description can be found in "The Treatise of Kamil on the Prophet’s Biography", which "concisely...describes what metabolism indeed is".[59] By the 19th century proof was found in the form of enzymatic reactions.[58] Metabolic processes are vital for survival, as they regulate body weight; nature has evolved these processes in order to help the body cope with periods of famine.[60]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

  • Metabolism—The theory of biological metabolism was first discovered and formulated by Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Ibn Nafis; 1210—1288) in 1260 who noted "the body and its parts are in a continuous state of dissolution and nourishment, so they are inevitably undergoing permanent change".[58] This description can be found in "The Treatise of Kamil on the Prophet’s Biography", which "concisely...describes what metabolism indeed is".[59] By the 19th century proof was found in the form of enzymatic reactions.[58] Metabolic processes are vital for survival, as they regulate body weight; nature has evolved these processes in order to help the body cope with periods of famine.[60]

Medical Institutions (3)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Pharmacy—The first drug stores in the world were created in Baghdad, Iraq in 754 (or 750[61]), where Islamic pharmacists sold over 2,000 medicinal herbs and formulations (these institutions were privately owned).[62][63][64][65][66][67] They were created under the leadership of Caliph Al-Mansur (714—775), who wanted to excel all forms of academia, especially medicine.[61] Baghdad itself was finally built complete in 762, with construction accelerated in 758 (with the cities original name being "Madinat al-Islam"; or the "city of peace").[61]
  • Mental Health Hospital—The first mental health hospital was created in 872 in Cairo, Egypt by Ahmad ibn Tulun (835—884[68]).[69] In Arabic they were known as "maristans", which "developed a worldwide reputation for their humane care".[69] These hospitals served all people of different faiths and incomes.[69] The first mental health hospitals in Europe were also created by Muslims, in 1365, in Granada, Spain.[69] The reason these hospitals were built was because Islam has a culture of treating people with mental illness with compassion.[69]
  • Medical Academy/Medical School—The world's first medical school was created in Baghdad, Iraq in 931. Similar academies were later founded by the Fatimids in Egypt. According to information provided by the Fatimids; the academies' curriculum consisted of learning of mastering mathematics, astronomy, medicine and grammar; additionally specific meeting places were set up where "traditionists, jurists, grammarians, doctors, astronomers, logicians and mathematicians" would meet to discuss their advancements in their respective fields.[55]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

  • Pharmacy—The first drug stores in the world were created in Baghdad, Iraq in 754 (or 750[61]), where Islamic pharmacists sold over 2,000 medicinal herbs and formulations (these institutions were privately owned).[62][63][64][65][66][67] They were created under the leadership of Caliph Al-Mansur (714—775), who wanted to excel all forms of academia, especially medicine.[61] Baghdad itself was finally built complete in 762, with construction accelerated in 758 (with the cities original name being "Madinat al-Islam"; or the "city of peace").[61]
  • Mental Health Hospital—The first mental health hospital was created in 872 in Cairo, Egypt by Ahmad ibn Tulun (835—884[68]).[69] In Arabic they were known as "maristans", which "developed a worldwide reputation for their humane care".[69] These hospitals served all people of different faiths and incomes.[69] The first mental health hospitals in Europe were also created by Muslims, in 1365, in Granada, Spain.[69] The reason these hospitals were built was because Islam has a culture of treating people with mental illness with compassion.[69]
  • Medical Academy/Medical School—The world's first medical school was created in Baghdad, Iraq in 931. Similar academies were later founded by the Fatimids in Egypt. According to information provided by the Fatimids; the academies' curriculum consisted of learning of mastering mathematics, astronomy, medicine and grammar; additionally specific meeting places were set up where "traditionists, jurists, grammarians, doctors, astronomers, logicians and mathematicians" would meet to discuss their advancements in their respective fields.[55]

Experimentation & Theory (4)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Peer review.
  • Peer Review Process—The peer review process was first formulated in Syria, and the process was first documented in a book called "Ethics of the Physician" by the Muslim[70] physician Ishap bin Ali Al-Rahwi (854–931).[n. 1][71][72][73][74] The process helps"validate research, establish a method by which it can be evaluated, and increase networking possibilities within research communities", and furthermore it is "the only widely accepted method for research validation".[75] During the early Islamic period, the peer review process involved physicians making copious amounts of notes on their patients, which would then be evaluated by a team of other physicians unconnected to the patient or doctor to ensure the best treatment had been given.
  • Randomised Clinical Trials (RCT's)—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first person in history to invent the concept of systematic clinical trials in 1025; [76] where he "wrote a precise guide for practical experimentation in the process of discovering and proving the effectiveness of new drugs and medications, which still form the basis of modern clinical trials".[77][78] Some ~100 years earlier Rhazes invented the concept of treatment and control groups, important for randomisation.[79] Today RCT's remain an integral part of the research process, and are important when it comes to the hierarchy of evidence (specifically in the construction of systematic reviews), and researching the safety and efficacy of drugs.
Razi introduced animal-drug testing.
  • Animal-Human Drug Testing—Islamic physicians introduced the use of drug testing on animals into medicine in order to improve the safety and efficacy of human medicines.[80] The first recorded animal for a drugs test was a monkey, which was given mercury by Rhazes (846—930) specifically to test it's affects on the human body.[80][81] Prior, predecessors had never used drugs testing in animals; Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen's animal experiments were entirely anatomical/physiologically based,[82][83] and devoid of pharmacological testing,[n. 2][84][n. 3] Ibn Sina was also the first to recognise the discrepancy in testing drugs on animals, as he stated that it's effects on animals may or may not have the same effect on humans[85]
  • Animal-Human Surgical Testing—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) became the first person in history to combine animal dissections with surgery, using animal bodies to test human surgical procedures before doing carrying them out on humans, thus ensuring the safety and efficacy of his surgeries.[86][87][88][89][90] Galen's animal experiments were purely to understand anatomy, rather than for the purposes of applying surgical experimentation,[n. 4] and thus very poorly translated over to his understanding of human anatomy.[91] However his work was important as it helped formulate an understanding of basic physiology since animals and humans share some similarities anatomically, though not all.

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

Peer review.
  • Peer Review Process—The peer review process was first formulated in Syria, and the process was first documented in a book called "Ethics of the Physician" by the Muslim[70] physician Ishap bin Ali Al-Rahwi (854–931).[n. 5][71][72][73][74] The process helps"validate research, establish a method by which it can be evaluated, and increase networking possibilities within research communities", and furthermore it is "the only widely accepted method for research validation".[75] During the early Islamic period, the peer review process involved physicians making copious amounts of notes on their patients, which would then be evaluated by a team of other physicians unconnected to the patient or doctor to ensure the best treatment had been given.
  • Randomised Clinical Trials (RCT's)—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first person in history to invent the concept of systematic clinical trials in 1025; [76] where he "wrote a precise guide for practical experimentation in the process of discovering and proving the effectiveness of new drugs and medications, which still form the basis of modern clinical trials".[77][78] Some ~100 years earlier Rhazes invented the concept of treatment and control groups, important for randomisation.[79] Today RCT's remain an integral part of the research process, and are important when it comes to the hierarchy of evidence (specifically in the construction of systematic reviews), and researching the safety and efficacy of drugs.
Razi introduced animal-drug testing.
  • Animal-Human Drug Testing—Islamic physicians introduced the use of drug testing on animals into medicine in order to improve the safety and efficacy of human medicines.[80] The first recorded animal for a drugs test was a monkey, which was given mercury by Rhazes (846—930) specifically to test it's affects on the human body.[80][81] Prior, predecessors had never used drugs testing in animals; Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen's animal experiments were entirely anatomical/physiologically based,[82][83] and devoid of pharmacological testing,[n. 6][84][n. 7] Ibn Sina was also the first to recognise the discrepancy in testing drugs on animals, as he stated that it's effects on animals may or may not have the same effect on humans[85]
  • Animal-Human Surgical Testing—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) became the first person in history to combine animal dissections with surgery, using animal bodies to test human surgical procedures before doing carrying them out on humans, thus ensuring the safety and efficacy of his surgeries.[86][87][88][89][90] Galen's animal experiments were purely to understand anatomy, rather than for the purposes of applying surgical experimentation,[n. 8] and thus very poorly translated over to his understanding of human anatomy.[91] However his work was important as it helped formulate an understanding of basic physiology since animals and humans share some similarities anatomically, though not all.

Human Anatomy (21)

The earliest anatomical theories were first formulated in ancient Egypt (3050 BC—641 AD[92]) where the ancient Greeks (500 BC—146 BC[93]) first learnt of science, and carried on the tradition.[94] However, human dissections did not first occur until at least the Islamic period (624—Present), when evidence first began emerging on new anatomical discoveries and corrections of previous medical works.[94] Prior to this the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans (27 BC—1453 AD[95]) held taboos against human dissection,[96] and the practice was never carried out.[97] The Roman period was also marked with disinterest in medicine.[98][n. 9] One particular erroneous example of the knowledge attained up to the point where the Islamic period begins, is with the Graeco-Roman physician Galen (130—210[99]), who attempted to learn of human anatomy through animal dissection. It is well known that Galen never dissected human bodies,[100] but applied his animal anatomical discoveries to that of humans.[94] Naturally this lead to many errors,[100] but Galen's perceived prestige was such that his work was heavily regarded as totally infallible until the Islamic period began,[94] where scientists and physicians first began questioning and critiquing Galen's works publicly,[94] starting in the 8th century.[94] It is notable that there is nothing within the religious texts of Islam which prohibit human dissection, and indeed nothing appears in the Qur'an or hadith which prohibit such a practice. It is known Muslim physicians carried out human dissection.[94] Indeed, there is much written evidence left from these physicians and scientists which heavily promotes the art of dissection and learning about human anatomy.[94] It is only recently that, on examination of ancient Muslim texts, that this has come to light. As a result, much is still left undiscovered (the known are listed below).
Islamic manuscript.
Islamic manuscript.
The earliest anatomical theories were first formulated in ancient Egypt (3050 BC—641 AD[92]) where the ancient Greeks (500 BC—146 BC[93]) first learnt of science, and carried on the tradition.[94] However, human dissections did not first occur until at least the Islamic period (624—Present), when evidence first began emerging on new anatomical discoveries and corrections of previous medical works.[94] Prior to this the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans (27 BC—1453 AD[95]) held taboos against human dissection,[96] and the practice was never carried out.[97] The Roman period was also marked with disinterest in medicine.[98][n. 10] One particular erroneous example of the knowledge attained up to the point where the Islamic period begins, is with the Graeco-Roman physician Galen (130—210[99]), who attempted to learn of human anatomy through animal dissection. It is well known that Galen never dissected human bodies,[100] but applied his animal anatomical discoveries to that of humans.[94] Naturally this lead to many errors,[100] but Galen's perceived prestige was such that his work was heavily regarded as totally infallible until the Islamic period began,[94] where scientists and physicians first began questioning and critiquing Galen's works publicly,[94] starting in the 8th century.[94] It is notable that there is nothing within the religious texts of Islam which prohibit human dissection, and indeed nothing appears in the Qur'an or hadith which prohibit such a practice. It is known Muslim physicians carried out human dissection.[94] Indeed, there is much written evidence left from these physicians and scientists which heavily promotes the art of dissection and learning about human anatomy.[94] It is only recently that, on examination of ancient Muslim texts, that this has come to light. As a result, much is still left undiscovered (the known are listed below).

Body & Organs

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The stomach.
  • Brain, Spinal Cord & Ventricles—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first person to discover that the brain, spinal cord, and ventricles were entirely separate entities.[37] Previously it was believed it was a combined organ with a single purpose, instead of three separate systems.[37] The brain is responsible for thinking, signalling and control, the spinal cord; coordination,[103] and the ventricles; unknown.[104]
  • Stomach Muscles—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) discovered that the stomach is made up of three layers (outer longitudinal, middle circular, and the inner oblique).[37] Previously it was believed that the stomach was only made up of two strata.[37] As a result of the layers it makes the stomach one of the strongest bodily organs.[105] However it isn't invulnerable; being still susceptible to many cancers.[106]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

The stomach.
  • Brain, Spinal Cord & Ventricles—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first person to discover that the brain, spinal cord, and ventricles were entirely separate entities.[37] Previously it was believed it was a combined organ with a single purpose, instead of three separate systems.[37] The brain is responsible for thinking, signalling and control, the spinal cord; coordination,[103] and the ventricles; unknown.[104]
  • Stomach Muscles—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) discovered that the stomach is made up of three layers (outer longitudinal, middle circular, and the inner oblique).[37] Previously it was believed that the stomach was only made up of two strata.[37] As a result of the layers it makes the stomach one of the strongest bodily organs.[105] However it isn't invulnerable; being still susceptible to many cancers.[106]

Nerves & Tendons

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Trochlear Nerve.
  • Nerves and Tendons—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover that the nerves and tendons were separate entities, which was previously erroneously considered a single entity.[37] Tendons are structural supports made of collagen whereas nerves transmit signals. Nerves are also much more flexible than tendons, although are more prone to injury.
    • Tendon Suture—Avicenna was the first person in history to successfully suture tendons in order to repair them. Although this is disputed by Western historians who claim Galen knew of the procedure and practised it, Galen however actually clearly stated that tendons could not be repaired as they were composed of a mixture of ligament and nerve. Avicenna proved him wrong by distinguishing that tendons were separate from nerves and hence this allowed for them to sutured which he commonly practised and eventually popularised.[107] Galen warned against it however, noting that any mere attempt would result in severe pain.[108]
  • Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) discovered that the recurrent laryngeal nerve was a mixed sensory and motor nerve.[37] He was also the first to discover the double recurrent nerve.[109][n. 11] The nerve is problematic in surgery as it is found in the trachea;[110] and is responsible for lots of muscle activity include vocals.[111]
The Circle of Willis.
  • Trochlear Nerve—In a extensive systematic literature review (the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) the trochlear nerve was first discovered by 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Ibn Abbas; 982—994), something which previous scientists failed to see.[37] It has mistakenly been given credit for first having been discovered in Europe in 1520.[112] The nerve is responsible for innervating the superior obliquie extraocular muscle, and is a part of the eye motor.[113]
  • Facialis Nerve—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Ibn Abbas; 982—994) found two separate nerves for the face and ear (facialis and vestibulocochlearis), something which was never mentioned before.[37] It has been mistakenly been given credit to a European scientist in 1762.[112] The nerve is important since it's failure is the most common cause of facial paralysis.[114]
  • Vestibulocochlearis Nerve—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Ibn Abbas; 982—994) found two separate nerves for the face and ear (facialis and vestibulocochlearis), something which was never mentioned before.[37] Galen knew of a nerve from his animal studies, but failed to recognise that the nerve was actually two separate nerves with independent functions.[37]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

Trochlear Nerve.
  • Nerves and Tendons—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover that the nerves and tendons were separate entities, which was previously erroneously considered a single entity.[37] Tendons are structural supports made of collagen whereas nerves transmit signals. Nerves are also much more flexible than tendons, although are more prone to injury.
    • Tendon Suture—Avicenna was the first person in history to successfully suture tendons in order to repair them. Although this is disputed by Western historians who claim Galen knew of the procedure and practised it, Galen however actually clearly stated that tendons could not be repaired as they were composed of a mixture of ligament and nerve. Avicenna proved him wrong by distinguishing that tendons were separate from nerves and hence this allowed for them to sutured which he commonly practised and eventually popularised.[107] Galen warned against it however, noting that any mere attempt would result in severe pain.[108]
  • Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) discovered that the recurrent laryngeal nerve was a mixed sensory and motor nerve.[37] He was also the first to discover the double recurrent nerve.[109][n. 12] The nerve is problematic in surgery as it is found in the trachea;[110] and is responsible for lots of muscle activity include vocals.[111]
The Circle of Willis.
  • Trochlear Nerve—In a extensive systematic literature review (the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) the trochlear nerve was first discovered by 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Ibn Abbas; 982—994), something which previous scientists failed to see.[37] It has mistakenly been given credit for first having been discovered in Europe in 1520.[112] The nerve is responsible for innervating the superior obliquie extraocular muscle, and is a part of the eye motor.[113]
  • Facialis Nerve—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Ibn Abbas; 982—994) found two separate nerves for the face and ear (facialis and vestibulocochlearis), something which was never mentioned before.[37] It has been mistakenly been given credit to a European scientist in 1762.[112] The nerve is important since it's failure is the most common cause of facial paralysis.[114]
  • Vestibulocochlearis Nerve—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Ibn Abbas; 982—994) found two separate nerves for the face and ear (facialis and vestibulocochlearis), something which was never mentioned before.[37] Galen knew of a nerve from his animal studies, but failed to recognise that the nerve was actually two separate nerves with independent functions.[37]

Blood & Circulation

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Capillaries were discovered by Ibn Abbas in the 10th century.
  • Circle of Willis—At the base of the brain exists what is today commonly known as the "Circle of Willis", known as "an anastomotic circle".[115] It was formerly given credit to Thomas Willis (1621–1675),[116] but the first to discover it was Abubakr Rabi ibn Ahmad Joveini Bukhari (Joveini; d. 983).[117] However it has been disputed that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) may have gotten there first.[117] Prior to this descriptions from antiquity did not mention the circle existing at all.[118] It is a "compensatory system in the case of arterial occlusion".[119]
  • Pulmonary Circulation—Ibn Al-Nafis (1210—1288) was the first person in history to discover pulmonary circulation (though he may have been preceded by Al-Akhawayni Bukhari (Joveini; d. 983) who stated "blood moves from the right side of the heart to the lungs and then back from the lungs to the left side of the heart"), one of the two circulations of the heart (the other being coronary). He noted how "blood moves to the lung through vena arteriosa (pulmonary arteries)...[t]here, it mixes...and is filtered, then it moves back to the left cavity via the arteria venosa (pulmonary vein)".[91]
  • Capillaries—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Ibn Abbas; 982—994) was the first to discover the existence of capillaries, by examining the connection between the arterial and venous systems.[37] Capillaries are a network of blood vessels bringing nutrients and oxygen to tissues and removing waste products; and are also important in gaseous exchange.

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

Capillaries were discovered by Ibn Abbas in the 10th century.
  • Circle of Willis—At the base of the brain exists what is today commonly known as the "Circle of Willis", known as "an anastomotic circle".[115] It was formerly given credit to Thomas Willis (1621–1675),[116] but the first to discover it was Abubakr Rabi ibn Ahmad Joveini Bukhari (Joveini; d. 983).[117] However it has been disputed that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) may have gotten there first.[117] Prior to this descriptions from antiquity did not mention the circle existing at all.[118] It is a "compensatory system in the case of arterial occlusion".[119]
  • Pulmonary Circulation—Ibn Al-Nafis (1210—1288) was the first person in history to discover pulmonary circulation (though he may have been preceded by Al-Akhawayni Bukhari (Joveini; d. 983) who stated "blood moves from the right side of the heart to the lungs and then back from the lungs to the left side of the heart"), one of the two circulations of the heart (the other being coronary). He noted how "blood moves to the lung through vena arteriosa (pulmonary arteries)...[t]here, it mixes...and is filtered, then it moves back to the left cavity via the arteria venosa (pulmonary vein)".[91]
  • Capillaries—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Ibn Abbas; 982—994) was the first to discover the existence of capillaries, by examining the connection between the arterial and venous systems.[37] Capillaries are a network of blood vessels bringing nutrients and oxygen to tissues and removing waste products; and are also important in gaseous exchange.

Skeleton & Bone

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Coccyx Bone—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); found that Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover that the coccyx was made up of three bones instead of five which previously held widespread belief as a result of Galen (and is still mistakenly sometimes referred to as having five, despite having three[120]).[37] The coccyx's function is to complete the spine and can become bruised or fractured.[121]

Eyesight & Vision

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The optic chiasm.
  • Optic Chaism—Zayn al-Din Sayyed Isma‘il ibn Husayn Gorgani[122] (Jurjani; 1040—1136[123]) was the first person in history to discover the optic chiasm, being the first to mention that it crossed over despite Galen's disagreements that it didn't (since he never dissected human bodies, only animals[100]), as well as being the first to understand it's functional purpose.[124] The optic chiasm is "formed when the optic nerves come together...to allow for the crossing of fibers" enabling "visual inputs from the nasal half of the contralateral eye and the temporal half of the ipsilateral eye to be processed by the occipital lobe, vital for visual processing".[125]
  • Lens Magnification—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen; 965–1040) discovered that the lens in the eye was capable of magnifying images.[37] He later went onto to be known as the father of optics for his work in the field of optical lenses. Interestingly the Ottomans would go on to invent the telescope independently (without any foreign knowledge at all) in the 1500s.[126]
  • Theory of Vision—Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen; 965—1040 AD) wrote an highly influential book called the Kita-b Al-Manazir ("Book of Optics"), which contains the earliest scientific diagrams of the eye, and it's connections to the brain, thus possibly being the first to discover it's key components (the word "retina" for example has an Arabic etymological origin).[91] His close analysis of the eye also lead him to discover that light emanates from objects rather than light emanating from the eyes, as was previously erroneously believed for thousands of years from the times of the Greeks and Romans.[91]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

The optic chiasm.
  • Optic Chaism—Zayn al-Din Sayyed Isma‘il ibn Husayn Gorgani[122] (Jurjani; 1040—1136[123]) was the first person in history to discover the optic chiasm, being the first to mention that it crossed over despite Galen's disagreements that it didn't (since he never dissected human bodies, only animals[100]), as well as being the first to understand it's functional purpose.[124] The optic chiasm is "formed when the optic nerves come together...to allow for the crossing of fibers" enabling "visual inputs from the nasal half of the contralateral eye and the temporal half of the ipsilateral eye to be processed by the occipital lobe, vital for visual processing".[125]
  • Lens Magnification—In a extensive systematic literature review (considered the highest form of evidence in science[101] as it resolves common contradictory claims[102]) of numerous historical scientific papers, Alghamdi, Ziermann and Diogo et al. (2017); Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen; 965–1040) discovered that the lens in the eye was capable of magnifying images.[37] He later went onto to be known as the father of optics for his work in the field of optical lenses. Interestingly the Ottomans would go on to invent the telescope independently (without any foreign knowledge at all) in the 1500s.[126]
  • Theory of Vision—Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen; 965—1040 AD) wrote an highly influential book called the Kita-b Al-Manazir ("Book of Optics"), which contains the earliest scientific diagrams of the eye, and it's connections to the brain, thus possibly being the first to discover it's key components (the word "retina" for example has an Arabic etymological origin).[91] His close analysis of the eye also lead him to discover that light emanates from objects rather than light emanating from the eyes, as was previously erroneously believed for thousands of years from the times of the Greeks and Romans.[91]

Dislocations & Fractures

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The Bennett Fracture.
  • Trapeze, Ball and Pestle Splints—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented the trapeze, ball and pestle splints used for simple and compound fractures.[128][n. 13] The trapeze splint is used for reducing humerus bone fractures, which consists of a smooth, thin stick in the shape of a bow with two strings, each attached to one end of the stick. Ball splints are used for small hand fractures, and pestle splints are used for shoulder dislocations. Zahrawi would also use egg and flour and add it to plaster to immobilise shoulders.
  • Bennett's Fracture—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first to describe Bennet's Fracture.[129][n. 14] Bennet's fracture is caused at the base of the metacarpal bone and results from an "axially directed force on the thumb metacarpal while it is partially flexed".[130] Essentially any fracture at the base of the first metacarpal bone are known as and named Bennet's Fractures, which in simple terms is a fracture dislocation of the hand,[131] caused by the thumb experiencing a blow while it is flexed, which causes the trauma.[132] It is one of the most common injuries seen in sports, particularly in handling equipment.
  • Kocher's Dislocation—The treatment known as "Kocher's Dislocation" was incorrectly attributed to the Egyptians in 3000 BC in 1968.[133][n. 15] As a result of the vagueness involved, and the dependence on a single picture without descriptors for interpretation as well as assumption,[133] for this reason, it has largely been credited to Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) by mainstream scholarship.[134][135][136][137] It was named after the Swiss physician in the 20th century, who was previously thought to have discovered it first.[138] That European's name was Theodore Kocher, who also won a Nobel Prize in 1909.[139]
  • Penile Fractures—The first ever documented case of a penile fracture was discovered by Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013).[140][128][n. 16] It is an extremely rare condition, but Zahrawi was the first to discover it and provide treatment (known as the "conservative treatment"[141]) which is still used today.[142] It is defined as the "rupture of the tunica albuginea of the erect penis", which is 0.25mm thick fibrous tissue which expands to 2mm thickness when flacid; therefore during erections it is vulnerable to rupture.[143]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

The Bennett Fracture.
  • Trapeze, Ball and Pestle Splints—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented the trapeze, ball and pestle splints used for simple and compound fractures.[128][n. 17] The trapeze splint is used for reducing humerus bone fractures, which consists of a smooth, thin stick in the shape of a bow with two strings, each attached to one end of the stick. Ball splints are used for small hand fractures, and pestle splints are used for shoulder dislocations. Zahrawi would also use egg and flour and add it to plaster to immobilise shoulders.
  • Bennett's Fracture—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first to describe Bennet's Fracture.[129][n. 18] Bennet's fracture is caused at the base of the metacarpal bone and results from an "axially directed force on the thumb metacarpal while it is partially flexed".[130] Essentially any fracture at the base of the first metacarpal bone are known as and named Bennet's Fractures, which in simple terms is a fracture dislocation of the hand,[131] caused by the thumb experiencing a blow while it is flexed, which causes the trauma.[132] It is one of the most common injuries seen in sports, particularly in handling equipment.
  • Kocher's Dislocation—The treatment known as "Kocher's Dislocation" was incorrectly attributed to the Egyptians in 3000 BC in 1968.[133][n. 19] As a result of the vagueness involved, and the dependence on a single picture without descriptors for interpretation as well as assumption,[133] for this reason, it has largely been credited to Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) by mainstream scholarship.[134][135][136][137] It was named after the Swiss physician in the 20th century, who was previously thought to have discovered it first.[138] That European's name was Theodore Kocher, who also won a Nobel Prize in 1909.[139]
  • Penile Fractures—The first ever documented case of a penile fracture was discovered by Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013).[140][128][n. 20] It is an extremely rare condition, but Zahrawi was the first to discover it and provide treatment (known as the "conservative treatment"[141]) which is still used today.[142] It is defined as the "rupture of the tunica albuginea of the erect penis", which is 0.25mm thick fibrous tissue which expands to 2mm thickness when flacid; therefore during erections it is vulnerable to rupture.[143]

Muscles

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Diaphragm—Zayn al-Din Sayyed Isma‘il ibn Husayn Gorgani (Jurjani; 1040—1136) was the first to discover the functional role of the diaphragm (a muscle which is responsible for breathing and respiration).[144] Jurjani was the first to recognise that it was a unique muscle, and functionally acts like two separate muscles.[144] It was the first time in history where it was found it was made up of two principal layers; the external intercostal muscles, which aid in quiet and forced inhalation and the internal intercostal muscles, which aid in forced expiration.[144]

Disease & Illness (31)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Meningitis was first discovered and defined by Ibn Sina in the 10th century.
  • Haemophilia—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, was the first person in history to discover haemophilia.[145][146][n. 21] he also discovered that it was hereditary[147][148][149] (mainly passed along the male line[146]). Zahrawi observed repeatedly that males born who had the disease would bleed excessively over the surgical procedure of circumcision, and also through minor cuts.[146]
  • Measles—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) scientifically[150][151][n. 22] discovered measles by distinguishing it from smallpox,[152][153][151][154] and chickenpox.[155][156] According to the "Pediatric Annals" measles "was first recognised as a unique infection during the time of Rhazes (approximately 900 AD), who noted the severe complications of th[e] disease".[157] Rhazes noted headaches associated with nausea, agitation and anxiety were more common with measles, and back pain was almost entirely absent.[158]
  • Meningitis—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first person in history to recognise meningitis as a distinct disease, and therefore receives credit for discovering it.[159][160][161][162][163][n. 23] The description of the disease can be found in the "Kitab al-Qanun" ("The Canon of Medicine"), which details it as an "...inflammation or tumour of the envelopes of the brain...".[164] Prior to Sina, medical professionals confused the disease only as an "acute [affection] accompanied by delirium".[164]
Smallpox was first discovered and defined by Rhazes in the 9th century.
  • Smallpox—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) scientifically[150][151][n. 24] discovered smallpox by distinguishing it from measles and chickenpox.[152][153][151][154] He noted it caused fever, prodromal back pain, nasal itching, nightmares, prickling, face swelling, inflamed skin/colon, shiny red eyes/gums, fatigue, lethargy, heavyness, yawning, stretching, throat/chest pain, breathing difficulties, coughing, thick saliva and hoarseness.[158] He also discovered its origin, and demonstrated it can only be obtained once.[165]
  • Whooping Cough—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first person in history to recognise whooping cough (also known as "pertussis"[166]) as a distinct disease in 1010,[167][168] and therefore receives credit for discovering it.[169] Prior to this antiquity never mentioned the disease existing.[170] A later Muslim also discovered it, Muhammad Husayni Nurbakhski in the 15th century in Safavid Iran (1501—1736).[171] Guillaume de Baillou (1538—1616) is the first European to describe it.[167]
  • Dysmenorrhea—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] was the first person in history to explain dysmenorrhea, where he described the condition in detail, thereby having discovered it.[172][n. 25][173] The disease state affects women, involving "painful menstrual cramps...begin[ning] a few hours before the onset of menstrual flow...last[ing] for 2 to 3 days".[173] Not all women suffer from dysmenorrhea, but it affects between 28% and 71.7% of women.[174]
Trigeminal Neuralgia.
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia—The history of TN (or "tic douloureux") is complicated. Revisionist historians in the West tried to claim it was first described by the Greeks (despite the fact that mainstream Western historians believe it originated in the Middle-east).[175] The Greek description was so generic that it could be any number of things (such as migraine or cluster headache; added to the fact that they didn't even mention nerves were involved).[176] The first true description, and hence discovery, was by both Ibn Sina and Jurjani who noted the involvement of nerves, and also explained how it was caused.[175][n. 26]
  • Spina Bifeda—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) discovered the condition of spina bifeda for the first time, which hadn't ever been described before.[177][178][179][180] This is a "congenital malformation that occurs early during embryogenesis, resulting in a certain number of affected foetuses being spontaneously aborted".[181] It hadn't ever been written about before in world history until Rhazes published the first treatise in paediatrics in 900, which was known by it's Latin title, "Practica Puerorum".[182][n. 27]
  • Spina Ventosa—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) discovered the condition of spina ventosa for the first time, which hadn't ever been described before.[183][184][180] Spina Ventosa has incorrectly been attributed to Hippocrates, despite mainstream historical Western scholarship attributing the discovery to Rhazes.[183] Such authors making the incorrect claim have misused sources, and claimed them as proof, despite the fact that such sources don't even contain any descriptions of Hippocrates and spina ventosa.[n. 28]
  • Hydrocephalus—Some historians credit ancient Greek, Roman and Egyptian scientists as having discovered hydrocephalus, but such claims are disputed since descriptions of it are so poor and mainly attribute it to Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013);[n. 29] however other historians credit Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) as having discovered the condition first.[185] However regardless of who discovered the condition, the first true human operation (and the first clinical description[186]) of hydrocephalus was by Zahrawi who devised ways of treating it by surgery.[187] Before this, nothing went past animal experimentation (see internal footnote in this paragraph for extensive detail).[187]
The carotid artery is the thickest artery in the head.
  • Facial Palsy—Also known as Bell's Palsy, is a common cause of facial paralysis[188] (and is a weakness of the facial muscles[189]); Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover facial palsy (and to differentiate peripheral, bilateral and central facial palsies).[190][n. 30] Prior to his discovery some basic symptoms of the condition were known in antiquity, although "no Greek or Roman physician described classic facial palsy" and that "the first comprehensive description was by the 9th-century Persian physician Razi".[190]
  • Heterotopic Ossification—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, was the first person in history to discover heterotopic ossification in 1000.[191][192][193] It is also known as ectopic ossification and myositis ossificans, is where bones begin to form outside the skeletal system, and appearing just below the level of injury or trauma, affecting the hips, knees, elbows and shoulders and is a particular concern in those who have spinal injuries.[194]
  • Vasovagal Syncope—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first to discover vasovagal syncope.[195] VS is triggered by orthostatic stress, blood drawing and distressing psychological and emotional stress.[196] Younger people are more susceptible to the condition than older adults, largely because baroreceptor sensitivity decline.[197] The condition physiologically occurs when there is compression of the carotid artery (the main artery where atherosclerotic disease occurs, leading to stroke[198]).[195] The condition can also happen if a very tight shirt is worn.
  • Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first to discover carotid sinus hypersensitivity (or carotid sinus syndrome[199]).[195] The condition consists of "stimulation of the carotid artery baroreceptors in the neck", which "results in a greater than expected fall in heart rate and drop in blood pressure", which further "results in vagal activation and/or sympathetic inhibition".[200] It is a type of syncope (caused by cerebral perfusion to the brain[201]), and can lead to death.[202]
Otitis Media.
  • Peyronie's Disease—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first person to discover Peyronie's Disease,[203] which is a disease of the shaft of the penis which is caused by the accumulation of hardened collagen fibres which form onto the tunica albuginea of the penis, resulting in the formation of a plaque, which results in the permanent unintentional curving of the penis, causing painful erections and eventually erectile dysfunction.[204] Europe first knew of the disease in the 13th century.[204]
  • Otitis Media—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover Otitis Media, which had never been described before.[88][205][206][207] The disease is a fungal ear infection which causes inflammation of the middle-ear (specifically the mucous membrane and the tympanic membrane),[208] and is nowadays treated with antibiotics (namely amoxcillin).[209] The condition commonly affects children.[208] Europe didn't find out about the disease until the 17th century.[210]
  • Thrombophlebitis—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover thrombophlebitis,[88][211][212][213] also known as "phlebitis" of the vein, which is a condition caused by damage or injury to the vein, or caused by infection.[214] Blood flow is disturbed, which can lead to the formation of clots (known as thrombi), which stick to the walls of the blood vessels.[214] It most commonly occurs in the leg, and can lead to deep vein thrombosis.[214] It is also caused by fatty acids.[214]
Cancers of the alimentary canal (esophagus, stomach and colon) were not discovered or written about until Ibn Zuhr discovered them.
  • Scabies—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to prove what causes scabies and hence discover it's origin.[215] He was the first to see a causative link between the scabies mite and scabies, through dissections and autopsy,[216] proving that the scabies mite, scabies sarcoptes (or acarus scabiei[217]), was responsible for causing the condition, and hence its removal would cure the disease (and also recommended killing it[218]).[215] Thus, later determining it's full aetiology.[219][220] This theory was important as it demolished the theory of the "four humours", believed since the Greeks.[215] He is thus known as the "Father of Parasitology" for his discovery that parasites cause disease.[215]
  • Pericaditis—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover pericarditis,[88] which is an inflammation of the tissue that forms the sac around the heart.[221] He was also the first to describe fibrinous pericarditis (which was previously thought to have been discovered by a European scientist of the 15th century[222]), chronic fibrous pericarditis, acute purulent pericarditis and involvement of the pericardium in cases of acute carditis with hectic fever (and distinguished between wet and dry pericarditis).[223][224]
  • Allergic Rhinitis/Hayfever—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover seasonal allergic rhinitis and its causes (also known as hayfever).[225][226] He labelled it then as "rose fever", and realised that people who smelt a rose had an incredibly bad reaction to it.[227][228] It can be found in his book the "Resale Shammieh".[229][230] Hayfever was never mentioned in antiquity, that is prior to Rhazes.[231] Not only did he discover it, he was also the first to treat it, giving the very first remedies.[232] The first mention of hayfever in the West was by John Bostock (1773—1846).[233]
  • Allergic Asthma—There is some controversy over who discovered asthma first (some say Celsus,[234] some say Aretaeus,[235] others say Hippocrates, whilst others say descriptions of it date back to the 28th Century BC in Egypt and China).[236] However, some scholars credit Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) as the first to truly have discovered asthma, or rather a specific type of asthma known as allergic asthma.[226][225][237] It is notable that the concept of "allergy" itself wasn't first described in the West until 1906.[238]
Thrombophlebitis was discovered by Zahrawi.
  • Esophageal Cancer—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover the existence of esophageal cancer.[239][240][241] He was also the first to use esophageal sounds in order to diagnose the disease.[242] It is one of the deadliest cancers, and incredibly difficult to treat; in 2012 alone around 418,000 cases were diagnosed globally.[243] The causes of the disease are alcohol, tobacco and another condition known as GORD (or GERD), which stands for gastro-(o)esophageal reflux disease.[244][245]
  • Stomach Cancer—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover the existence of stomach cancer.[239][240][241][246] Infections by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk risk factor of stomach cancer developing; including an unhealthy diet (high consumption of foods which contain salt, tobacco smoking and alcohol physically induce cell mutational changes leading to cancer).[247] Purging the bacterium however is most often used for primary prevention.[247]
  • Colon Cancer—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover colon cancer.[248] The renowned surgeon Al-Zahrawi even failed to discover this type of cancer himself, despite his extensive experience with surgery.[248] Colon cancer is an extremely common type of cancer, making up 9% of all cancer cases; and "is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of death".[249] Survival rates are between 10%—90% depending on the level of severity.[249]
Aural polyps.
  • Pharyngitis—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to describe the inflammation of the throat known as pharyngitis.[88][250] The disease is a bacterial and viral condition, and has many complications, and compounding problems is that it shares similar symptoms with diphtheria, gonorrhoea, epiglottitis and tracheitis.[251] As late as the 16th century Quercus Robur L. bark (containing quericitin) and Rubus Sanctus Schreb leaves (containing diterpine glycosides) were used to treat the condition.[252]
  • Apoplexy (Stroke)—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) discovered three different types of stroke, which he classified as "chronic incurable", "curable" and "rapidly fatal".[253] The classification remains in use today.[253] However it wasn't until 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Haly Abbas; d. 982—994) who was the first to truly manage to explain how a stroke occurred; being the first to mention that trapped thickened (congealed) blood was the trigger of a stroke.[254] Modern medical understanding is that congealed blood cause stroke vis-a-vis a clot.[255] Modern medicine attempts to thin the blood in order to avoid triggering strokes, most notably through the use of Warfarin or the NOAC medicines.[256][257]
  • Aural Polyps—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first person in history to discover aural polyps (also known as otic polyps).[258] They have been described as "well-circumscribed, soft, fleshy masses frequently found in the EACs [external auditory canal[259]] of patients presenting with otorrhea and hearing loss...usually inflammatory and suggest active middle ear disease", and are associated with "cholesteatoma, especially in children".[260] Some 95% of patients who have these also have chronic otitis media.[261]
Scarlet Fever.
  • Hematuria—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover one of the most common causes[262] of hematuria (blood found in the urine) when he discovered that bladder stones were the cause (known as urolithiasis).[263][n. 31] He also first found that the bile duct and the intestines can be obstructed by cancer.[263] Between 18—49% of those who have hematuria, urolithiasis is the main underlying cause.[264] Other causes of the disease are "urinary tract infection, malignancy, iatrogenic causes and trauma".[265]
  • Scarlet-fever—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first person in history to discover scarlet fever.[266][n. 32] Scarlet-fever is mostly a childhood disease,[267] although adults can also contract it.[268] It is characterised by small round-shape pimple rash, and also a strawberry tongue[269] (at it's centre appearing white,[270] and then red in colour[269]). It can be fatal in children and was at one point a leading cause of death in the early decades of the 20th century.[271] Other scholars have given Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes; 865—925) credit.
  • Rubella (German Measles)—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first to discover "German measles" (also known as "rubella"), who called it "hhamikah".[272][273] By the time of it's discovery, Muslim physicians had already differentiated it from smallpox, scarlet fever and measles.[272] In the West it was first described in 1619 by Daniel Sennert (1572—1637[274]), and popularised by German physicians in the 1750s when outbreaks occurred (hence the name "German" measles).[272] It was one of the first viruses known to cause miscarriage and birth defects.[275]
  • Grave's Disease—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) and al-Din Sayyed Isma‘il ibn Husayn Gorgani (Joveini; 1040—1136) were the first people in history to discover the existence of Grave's disease.[276][277][278][279][144][280] Although two individual symptoms of Grave's disease were known to the ancients, they were never inter-related until the time of these Persian scientists who recognised their relationship and other additional symptoms, that it was uniformly placed into one singular clinical state.[281][n. 33]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

Meningitis was first discovered and defined by Ibn Sina in the 10th century.
  • Haemophilia—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, was the first person in history to discover haemophilia.[145][146][n. 34] he also discovered that it was hereditary[147][148][149] (mainly passed along the male line[146]). Zahrawi observed repeatedly that males born who had the disease would bleed excessively over the surgical procedure of circumcision, and also through minor cuts.[146]
  • Measles—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) scientifically[150][151][n. 35] discovered measles by distinguishing it from smallpox,[152][153][151][154] and chickenpox.[155][282] According to the "Pediatric Annals" measles "was first recognised as a unique infection during the time of Rhazes (approximately 900 AD), who noted the severe complications of th[e] disease".[283] Rhazes noted headaches associated with nausea, agitation and anxiety were more common with measles, and back pain was almost entirely absent.[158]
  • Meningitis—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first person in history to recognise meningitis as a distinct disease, and therefore receives credit for discovering it.[159][160][161][162][163][n. 36] The description of the disease can be found in the "Kitab al-Qanun" ("The Canon of Medicine"), which details it as an "...inflammation or tumour of the envelopes of the brain...".[164] Prior to Sina, medical professionals confused the disease only as an "acute [affection] accompanied by delirium".[164]
Smallpox was first discovered and defined by Rhazes in the 9th century.
  • Smallpox—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) scientifically[150][151][n. 37] discovered smallpox by distinguishing it from measles and chickenpox.[152][153][151][154] He noted it caused fever, prodromal back pain, nasal itching, nightmares, prickling, face swelling, inflamed skin/colon, shiny red eyes/gums, fatigue, lethargy, heavyness, yawning, stretching, throat/chest pain, breathing difficulties, coughing, thick saliva and hoarseness.[158] He also discovered its origin, and demonstrated it can only be obtained once.[165]
  • Whooping Cough—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first person in history to recognise whooping cough (also known as "pertussis"[284]) as a distinct disease in 1010,[167][168] and therefore receives credit for discovering it.[169] Prior to this antiquity never mentioned the disease existing.[170] A later Muslim also discovered it, Muhammad Husayni Nurbakhski in the 15th century in Safavid Iran (1501—1736).[171] Guillaume de Baillou (1538—1616) is the first European to describe it.[167]
  • Dysmenorrhea—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] was the first person in history to explain dysmenorrhea, where he described the condition in detail, thereby having discovered it.[172][n. 38][173] The disease state affects women, involving "painful menstrual cramps...begin[ning] a few hours before the onset of menstrual flow...last[ing] for 2 to 3 days".[173] Not all women suffer from dysmenorrhea, but it affects between 28% and 71.7% of women.[174]
Trigeminal Neuralgia.
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia—The history of TN (or "tic douloureux") is complicated. Revisionist historians in the West tried to claim it was first described by the Greeks (despite the fact that mainstream Western historians believe it originated in the Middle-east).[175] The Greek description was so generic that it could be any number of things (such as migraine or cluster headache; added to the fact that they didn't even mention nerves were involved).[176] The first true description, and hence discovery, was by both Ibn Sina and Jurjani who noted the involvement of nerves, and also explained how it was caused.[175][n. 39]
  • Spina Bifeda—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) discovered the condition of spina bifeda for the first time, which hadn't ever been described before.[177][285][179][180] This is a "congenital malformation that occurs early during embryogenesis, resulting in a certain number of affected foetuses being spontaneously aborted".[181] It hadn't ever been written about before in world history until Rhazes published the first treatise in paediatrics in 900, which was known by it's Latin title, "Practica Puerorum".[182][n. 40]
  • Spina Ventosa—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) discovered the condition of spina ventosa for the first time, which hadn't ever been described before.[183][184][180] Spina Ventosa has incorrectly been attributed to Hippocrates, despite mainstream historical Western scholarship attributing the discovery to Rhazes.[183] Such authors making the incorrect claim have misused sources, and claimed them as proof, despite the fact that such sources don't even contain any descriptions of Hippocrates and spina ventosa.[n. 41]
  • Hydrocephalus—Some historians credit ancient Greek, Roman and Egyptian scientists as having discovered hydrocephalus, but such claims are disputed since descriptions of it are so poor and mainly attribute it to Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013);[n. 42] however other historians credit Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) as having discovered the condition first.[185] However regardless of who discovered the condition, the first true human operation (and the first clinical description[186]) of hydrocephalus was by Zahrawi who devised ways of treating it by surgery.[187] Before this, nothing went past animal experimentation (see internal footnote in this paragraph for extensive detail).[187]
The carotid artery is the thickest artery in the head.
  • Facial Palsy—Also known as Bell's Palsy, is a common cause of facial paralysis[188] (and is a weakness of the facial muscles[189]); Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover facial palsy (and to differentiate peripheral, bilateral and central facial palsies).[190][n. 43] Prior to his discovery some basic symptoms of the condition were known in antiquity, although "no Greek or Roman physician described classic facial palsy" and that "the first comprehensive description was by the 9th-century Persian physician Razi".[190]
  • Heterotopic Ossification—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, was the first person in history to discover heterotopic ossification in 1000.[191][192][193] It is also known as ectopic ossification and myositis ossificans, is where bones begin to form outside the skeletal system, and appearing just below the level of injury or trauma, affecting the hips, knees, elbows and shoulders and is a particular concern in those who have spinal injuries.[194]
  • Vasovagal Syncope—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first to discover vasovagal syncope.[195] VS is triggered by orthostatic stress, blood drawing and distressing psychological and emotional stress.[196] Younger people are more susceptible to the condition than older adults, largely because baroreceptor sensitivity decline.[197] The condition physiologically occurs when there is compression of the carotid artery (the main artery where atherosclerotic disease occurs, leading to stroke[198]).[195] The condition can also happen if a very tight shirt is worn.
  • Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first to discover carotid sinus hypersensitivity (or carotid sinus syndrome[199]).[195] The condition consists of "stimulation of the carotid artery baroreceptors in the neck", which "results in a greater than expected fall in heart rate and drop in blood pressure", which further "results in vagal activation and/or sympathetic inhibition".[200] It is a type of syncope (caused by cerebral perfusion to the brain[201]), and can lead to death.[202]
Otitis Media.
  • Peyronie's Disease—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first person to discover Peyronie's Disease,[203] which is a disease of the shaft of the penis which is caused by the accumulation of hardened collagen fibres which form onto the tunica albuginea of the penis, resulting in the formation of a plaque, which results in the permanent unintentional curving of the penis, causing painful erections and eventually erectile dysfunction.[204] Europe first knew of the disease in the 13th century.[204]
  • Otitis Media—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover Otitis Media, which had never been described before.[88][205][206][207] The disease is a fungal ear infection which causes inflammation of the middle-ear (specifically the mucous membrane and the tympanic membrane),[208] and is nowadays treated with antibiotics (namely amoxcillin).[209] The condition commonly affects children.[208] Europe didn't find out about the disease until the 17th century.[210]
  • Thrombophlebitis—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover thrombophlebitis,[88][211][212][213] also known as "phlebitis" of the vein, which is a condition caused by damage or injury to the vein, or caused by infection.[214] Blood flow is disturbed, which can lead to the formation of clots (known as thrombi), which stick to the walls of the blood vessels.[214] It most commonly occurs in the leg, and can lead to deep vein thrombosis.[214] It is also caused by fatty acids.[214]
Cancers of the alimentary canal (esophagus, stomach and colon) were not discovered or written about until Ibn Zuhr discovered them.
  • Scabies—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to prove what causes scabies and hence discover it's origin.[215] He was the first to see a causative link between the scabies mite and scabies, through dissections and autopsy,[216] proving that the scabies mite, scabies sarcoptes (or acarus scabiei[217]), was responsible for causing the condition, and hence its removal would cure the disease (and also recommended killing it[218]).[215] Thus, later determining it's full aetiology.[219][220] This theory was important as it demolished the theory of the "four humours", believed since the Greeks.[215] He is thus known as the "Father of Parasitology" for his discovery that parasites cause disease.[215]
  • Pericaditis—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover pericarditis,[88] which is an inflammation of the tissue that forms the sac around the heart.[221] He was also the first to describe fibrinous pericarditis (which was previously thought to have been discovered by a European scientist of the 15th century[222]), chronic fibrous pericarditis, acute purulent pericarditis and involvement of the pericardium in cases of acute carditis with hectic fever (and distinguished between wet and dry pericarditis).[223][224]
  • Allergic Rhinitis/Hayfever—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover seasonal allergic rhinitis and its causes (also known as hayfever).[225][226] He labelled it then as "rose fever", and realised that people who smelt a rose had an incredibly bad reaction to it.[227][228] It can be found in his book the "Resale Shammieh".[229][230] Hayfever was never mentioned in antiquity, that is prior to Rhazes.[231] Not only did he discover it, he was also the first to treat it, giving the very first remedies.[232] The first mention of hayfever in the West was by John Bostock (1773—1846).[233]
  • Allergic Asthma—There is some controversy over who discovered asthma first (some say Celsus,[286] some say Aretaeus,[235] others say Hippocrates, whilst others say descriptions of it date back to the 28th Century BC in Egypt and China).[236] However, some scholars credit Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) as the first to truly have discovered asthma, or rather a specific type of asthma known as allergic asthma.[226][225][237] It is notable that the concept of "allergy" itself wasn't first described in the West until 1906.[238]
Thrombophlebitis was discovered by Zahrawi.
  • Esophageal Cancer—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover the existence of esophageal cancer.[239][240][241] He was also the first to use esophageal sounds in order to diagnose the disease.[242] It is one of the deadliest cancers, and incredibly difficult to treat; in 2012 alone around 418,000 cases were diagnosed globally.[243] The causes of the disease are alcohol, tobacco and another condition known as GORD (or GERD), which stands for gastro-(o)esophageal reflux disease.[244][245]
  • Stomach Cancer—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover the existence of stomach cancer.[239][240][241][246] Infections by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk risk factor of stomach cancer developing; including an unhealthy diet (high consumption of foods which contain salt, tobacco smoking and alcohol physically induce cell mutational changes leading to cancer).[247] Purging the bacterium however is most often used for primary prevention.[247]
  • Colon Cancer—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover colon cancer.[248] The renowned surgeon Al-Zahrawi even failed to discover this type of cancer himself, despite his extensive experience with surgery.[248] Colon cancer is an extremely common type of cancer, making up 9% of all cancer cases; and "is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of death".[249] Survival rates are between 10%—90% depending on the level of severity.[249]
Aural polyps.
  • Pharyngitis—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to describe the inflammation of the throat known as pharyngitis.[88][250] The disease is a bacterial and viral condition, and has many complications, and compounding problems is that it shares similar symptoms with diphtheria, gonorrhoea, epiglottitis and tracheitis.[251] As late as the 16th century Quercus Robur L. bark (containing quericitin) and Rubus Sanctus Schreb leaves (containing diterpine glycosides) were used to treat the condition.[252]
  • Apoplexy (Stroke)—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) discovered three different types of stroke, which he classified as "chronic incurable", "curable" and "rapidly fatal".[253] The classification remains in use today.[253] However it wasn't until 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (Haly Abbas; d. 982—994) who was the first to truly manage to explain how a stroke occurred; being the first to mention that trapped thickened (congealed) blood was the trigger of a stroke.[254] Modern medical understanding is that congealed blood cause stroke vis-a-vis a clot.[255] Modern medicine attempts to thin the blood in order to avoid triggering strokes, most notably through the use of Warfarin or the NOAC medicines.[256][257]
  • Aural Polyps—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first person in history to discover aural polyps (also known as otic polyps).[258] They have been described as "well-circumscribed, soft, fleshy masses frequently found in the EACs [external auditory canal[259]] of patients presenting with otorrhea and hearing loss...usually inflammatory and suggest active middle ear disease", and are associated with "cholesteatoma, especially in children".[260] Some 95% of patients who have these also have chronic otitis media.[261]
Scarlet Fever.
  • Hematuria—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover one of the most common causes[262] of hematuria (blood found in the urine) when he discovered that bladder stones were the cause (known as urolithiasis).[263][n. 44] He also first found that the bile duct and the intestines can be obstructed by cancer.[263] Between 18—49% of those who have hematuria, urolithiasis is the main underlying cause.[264] Other causes of the disease are "urinary tract infection, malignancy, iatrogenic causes and trauma".[265]
  • Scarlet-fever—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first person in history to discover scarlet fever.[266][n. 45] Scarlet-fever is mostly a childhood disease,[267] although adults can also contract it.[268] It is characterised by small round-shape pimple rash, and also a strawberry tongue[269] (at it's centre appearing white,[270] and then red in colour[269]). It can be fatal in children and was at one point a leading cause of death in the early decades of the 20th century.[271] Other scholars have given Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes; 865—925) credit.
  • Rubella (German Measles)—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first to discover "German measles" (also known as "rubella"), who called it "hhamikah".[272][273] By the time of it's discovery, Muslim physicians had already differentiated it from smallpox, scarlet fever and measles.[272] In the West it was first described in 1619 by Daniel Sennert (1572—1637[274]), and popularised by German physicians in the 1750s when outbreaks occurred (hence the name "German" measles).[272] It was one of the first viruses known to cause miscarriage and birth defects.[275]
  • Grave's Disease—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) and al-Din Sayyed Isma‘il ibn Husayn Gorgani (Joveini; 1040—1136) were the first people in history to discover the existence of Grave's disease.[276][277][278][279][144][280] Although two individual symptoms of Grave's disease were known to the ancients, they were never inter-related until the time of these Persian scientists who recognised their relationship and other additional symptoms, that it was uniformly placed into one singular clinical state.[281][n. 46]

Drugs & Dressings (16)

Medical Dressings

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The adhesive plaster.
  • Adhesive Bandage & Adhesive Plaster—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented the adhesive bandage.[287][288][289][290] While civilisations before had used linen wraps to tighten wounds, Zahrawi added other materials which allowed them to stick to the skin. His bandages were primarily used to treat fractures and open wounds. Today bandages are the mainstay of open wound treatment. Muslim scientists were also aware of infections, and also invented antiseptic bandages made of mercury compounds.
  • Plaster of Paris—In the 10th century, both Abu Mansur Muwaffaq and Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) invented the "plaster of Paris", which is a plaster which hardens and settles around a wound after being copiously pasted around the affected limb (and is particularly advantageous in the field of fractures).[291][292][293] Razi and Muwaffaq added gypsa to calcium sulfate dihydrate, combined it with water, and then chemically calcined it to remove more than four fifths H20, leading to it's crystallization.[293] For years it was incorrectly given credit to a Frenchman called Mathysen since 1852.[294]
  • Cotton Dressing—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, was the first medical professional in history to use cotton as a dressing for controlling haemorrhage.[n. 47] The word "cotton" itself is an Arabic word. The idea first came to Zahrawi when he noted that hematoma was a complication of gynecomastia surgery, and the only way to suppress bleeding was to use cotton, which hadn't ever been used before.[295] The word cotton itself is etymologically Arabic (being derived from the word "qutn" or "qutun").[296]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

The adhesive plaster.
  • Adhesive Bandage & Adhesive Plaster—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented the adhesive bandage.[287][288][289][290] While civilisations before had used linen wraps to tighten wounds, Zahrawi added other materials which allowed them to stick to the skin. His bandages were primarily used to treat fractures and open wounds. Today bandages are the mainstay of open wound treatment. Muslim scientists were also aware of infections, and also invented antiseptic bandages made of mercury compounds.
  • Plaster of Paris—In the 10th century, both Abu Mansur Muwaffaq and Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) invented the "plaster of Paris", which is a plaster which hardens and settles around a wound after being copiously pasted around the affected limb (and is particularly advantageous in the field of fractures).[291][292][293] Razi and Muwaffaq added gypsa to calcium sulfate dihydrate, combined it with water, and then chemically calcined it to remove more than four fifths H20, leading to it's crystallization.[293] For years it was incorrectly given credit to a Frenchman called Mathysen since 1852.[294]
  • Cotton Dressing—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, was the first medical professional in history to use cotton as a dressing for controlling haemorrhage.[n. 48] The word "cotton" itself is an Arabic word. The idea first came to Zahrawi when he noted that hematoma was a complication of gynecomastia surgery, and the only way to suppress bleeding was to use cotton, which hadn't ever been used before.[295] The word cotton itself is etymologically Arabic (being derived from the word "qutn" or "qutun").[296]

Substances

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Pure ethanol (alcohol) was first distilled by Rhazes, who used it in medicine.
  • Sulphuric Acid—Rhazes used his discovery[297][298] of sulphuric acid as a disinfectant.[299] Prior to his isolation of sulphuric acid as a pure compound, it was not known to the ancients in it's pure form, but instead only as a mixed-compound; "[t]he mineral substances referred to here as vitriol are recognized in modern science as hydrated sulfates of iron, copper, and even magnesium and zinc, all of which form as secondary minerals within the weathering zones of metallic sulfide deposits".[300] The discovery of sulphuric acid may also have been discovered by Jabir al-Hayyan (721—815; Geber).
    • Certain European historians have attempted to claim that Jabir al-Hayyan was a "true" European in disguise,[300] even though it is known only his less important contributions were later claimed by his followers; "...scholars generally believe that many of his less important manuscripts were actually written by his students, collaborators, and later followers, and therefore this group of scholars became known as the Jabirian Corpus".[301]
    • The pre-eminent Middle-eastern historian Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, successfully disproved[302] the Geber "problem" theory, by proving that such a claim originated from an inherently biased French author Marcellin Berthelot (1827—1907), an amateur historian, amongst others, who's works were entirely based on assumptions, poor translations, leaps in logic, and outright forgery in an effort to discredit al-Hayyan.[n. 49] The incorrect claims are still used as citations in Western scholarship and have been given undue weight in how the West views Arabian alchemy and chemistry.
  • Alcohol (al-Kohl)—Rhazes was the first person in history to discover chemical alcohol (ethanol),[303] and thus give it's name, and the first person to use it in medicine.[304] He discovered the process of dry distillation, which he used to isolate alcohol (although he may have been preceded by Jabir al-Hayyan (Geber; 721—815) who may have known of the process).[305][306] He distilled alcohol using fermented sugar and starchy material.[299] In medicine he was the first to discover that alcohol could be used as an antiseptic.[307][n. 50] He also introduced its use as an anaesthetic in medicine.[308]
Sulphuric acid was discovered by Razi, although it may have been discovered earlier by Jabir.
  • Mercuric Chloride (Mercury(II) chloride)—In sepsis, dressings were lathered with Mercuric Chloride (the first widely-known synthetic compound ever made;[309] although Mercurous Chloride (Mercury(I) Chloride) exists naturally as Colomel) in an effort to prevent infection/sepsis of open wounds for the first time.[310][311][312][313] Although mercury was known since at least 2000 BC,[314] it's chloride compound was first discovered and used in sterilisation by medieval Arabs (Jabir or Razi[309]). It is made by sublimation of NaCl and mercuric sulfate;[315] and now has other modern uses (photography).[316]
  • Benzoin—Also known as "Luban Jawi", "Gum Benjamin", "Sumatra", "Belly", or "Gum Benzoin".[317] It is an oleo-resin that is obtained from the Sytrax Benzoin species and Styrax Tonkinese.[317] It was first discovered in the 14th century by ʾAbū ʿAbd al-Lāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Lāh l-Lawātī ṭ-Ṭanǧī ibn Baṭūṭah (Ibn Battuta; 1304—1377) while he was in Sumatra.[317][318][319] It was extracted with alcohol (discovered by the Rhazes centuries prior) or benzene.[317] Aside from it's use as a fragrance, it was also used in cancer chemotherapy.[320] Benzoin's alternative chemical name is α-Hydroxy-α-phenylacetophenone, α-Hydroxybenzyl phenyl ketone, 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylacetophenone. It's other uses are as a photoinitiator in the synthesis of degradable hydrogels.[321]
  • Laudanum—A mixture of alcohol and opium is known as "laudanum",[322] and was first invented by pre-Islamic Arabians,[323] well before Europeans knew of the substance.[324] It has been mistakenly given credit to Paracelsus (1493—1541); who himself described that his laudanum was made of "gold leaf and dissolved pearls" (however this has no medical benefit).[324] Furthermore, it isn't even known if Paracelsus even used opium.[325] It is known that the ancient Greeks mixed opium with wine,[326] but as per the Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484 BC—c. 425 BC), this was an Arab invention.[323] Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925), who was also the first to isolate pure alcohol, recommend using the tincture medicinally to treat cancer.[320]
  • Opium—The natural substance has long been used to treat pain. The Arabs were also the first to use it militarily, during the Islamic conquests in order to stave off hunger and fatigue.[327] However, the first person to use it as an anaesthetic was Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925).[328][88] General anaesthesia first came to Europe in the 1840s,[329] although Muslims had invented other anaesthetics such as diethyl-ether (also known as "ether") since at least the 8th century (credited to Jabir al-Hayyan (721—815; Geber)).[330] Other opioids that are used for anaesthesia include fentanyl.[329]
Bezoars were discovered by Ibn Zuhr or Rhazes.
  • Anaesthetic Sponge—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) invented the anaesthetic sponge; which has been described as a "sporific sponge (impregnanted with aromatics and narcotics and held under the patients's nose), which preceded modern anesthesia".[331][332][n. 51] Accordingly, the ingredients used in the sponge consisted of "cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called zoan".[333] Others claim Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to develop it.[334] Others give credit to Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925).[335] Before them, its use was never known (although there have been allegations, no evidence has been found in the historical record and has thus been considered a fraudulent claim).[n. 52]
  • Ice For Fever Diseases—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first person to ever use ice in medicine, who used it to treat diseases of fever, where temperatures exceed 37oC.[80][336][337] Ice wasn't a rarity in the desert, largely thanks to the efforts of Persian engineers in 400 BC who mastered the art of refrigeration by constructing huge domed ice-stores (called "Yakh-Chal"; literally "ice chamber"), which were the first above-ground[338] ice stores, which could not only store ice in the desert, but create it[339] (even if temperatures did not fall below the freezing point of water[340]). Ice was mass produced and cut when it reached a thickness of 30—40cm.[339] The first people however, to successfully store ice below ground, were the Iraqis in 1700 BC; that is over 3,700 years ago.[338]
  • Bezoar—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first person in history to use bezoars in medicine,[341][342] which are hard stones found inside the stomach, and have also throughout out history achieved legendary status as mythical protective objects.[343][344] However, it is also believed the "Ghāyat al-Ḥakīm" (translated in 1256—1258 in Europe as the "Picatrix"[345][346]), written by a Muslim author,[347][n. 53] between the 10th—11th century,[348][349] also makes references to the stones.[341] The word "bezoar" is corruption of the word "bad-zuhr" or "pat-zuhr".[350][351] Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) however is thought to have discovered it first, since his manuscripts mention it.[351] They were also believed to be universal antidotes to poisons.
Diethyl-ether, the world's first synthetic anaesthetic.
Catgut, which is still used today.
  • Catgut—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to discover the use catgut in medicine[352] (which he often fashioned into yarns before surgeries[353]).[354][355][66] It was used as a thread to suture internal wounds (specifically making mention of suturing the intestines[356])).[357] Others credit Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925). This was completely new to the field of medicine.[358][359] It would naturally dissolve slowly after a time, leading to no foreign accumulation within the body, since it is completely hydrolysed after sixty days.[360][361] The word "catgut" is also Arabic (taken from "kitgut"; which indicates that it was previously used in the construction of musical strings), and is not taken from cats, but sheep intestines.[361] Additionally, the claim that the use of catgut in medicine occurred before Rhazes or Zahrawi appears fraudulent (see footnote).[n. 54]
  • Diethyl-Ether—Jabir al-Hayyan (Geber; 721—815) developed the worlds first synthetic anaesthetic known as diethyl-ether (also known as "ether"). The anaesthetic is easily made provided that pure sulphuric acid and pure ethanol (alcohol) are available;[362] both of which only ever appear during the early Abbassid era. Although the discovery of sulphuric acid itself is disputed, it is only disputed between Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) and Jabir; with the same being the case with ethanol, whom Jabir may have purified himself.[306]
    • Amongst revisionist historians, the history of the discovery of diethyl-ether is controversial, whilst mainstream scholarship is quite clear on the matter. Some of these revisionist scholars note that Jabir al-Hayyan (also known as Djafar Yeber) has been given credit for the discovery for centuries,[363] but make it a point to call this point false—doubting his existence in favour of the "Geber Problem" theory—citing other publications, which all lead back to a claim by the revisionist Frenchman and amateur historian who came up with this claim, Marcellin Berthelot (1827—1907); for example, this paper,[363] cites this paper,[364] which traces it's origins back to Bertholot's work as the sole authority on the claim that Jabir did not invent it.[364]
    • However, Berthelot's work has been found to have serious problems both with his research methodology and academic honesty;[n. 55] and as a result his claims haven't been taken seriously by reliable historians of Near Eastern and Middle-eastern history, namely, Ahmad Y. H. Gabarin (also known as Ahmad Y. al-Hassan; 1925—2012[365]); who was the head of the History of Arabic Science at the University of Aleppo, Syria and an Ordre National de la Légion d'Honneur recipient (France's highest civilian and military decoration for his contributions to the field of science).[365][366]
      • This "Geber Problem" theory, has been adopted as fact by some European historians, who have attempted to claim that Jabir was also actually a "true" European in disguise,[300] even though it is known only his less important contributions (unlike his important contributions) were later claimed by his followers; "...scholars generally believe that many of his less important manuscripts were actually written by his students, collaborators, and later followers, and therefore this group of scholars became known as the Jabirian Corpus".[301]
      • The pre-eminent Middle-eastern historian Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, successfully disproved[302] the Geber "problem" theory, by proving that such a claim originated from an inherently biased French author Marcellin Berthelot (1827—1907), an amateur historian, amongst others, who's works were entirely based on assumptions, poor translations, leaps in logic, and outright forgery in an effort to discredit al-Hayyan in favour of Europeans having made these achievements.[n. 56] Unfortunately, Berthelot's works have remained unquestioned by Western scholars despite being problematic.
  • Mercurial Ointment—Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes; 865—925) was the first to develop mercurial ointments,[367][368] which were later extensively used in the treatment of skin diseases,[369] particularly syphilis after 16th century.[370] Razi also used a mercurial ointment called bichloride to resolve itch on the skin (Avicenna also used this compound and was the first to doubt the complete poisonous nature of mercury as had been claimed prior, when he first gave it to his patients and it passed through their bodies unchanged without any significant side effects).[371] The ointments are still in use today.[372] They are also known as "quicksilver", or "blue" ointment.[373][374]
  • Copper Sulphate—Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes; 865—925) was the first in history to use copper sulphate as a drug in medicine.[375][376] Previously in Western historiography it was thought Paracelsus (1493—1541) had introduced it.[377] Copper itself was used as a medicine for the first time in 4,000 BC, by the Middle-eastern Sumerian civilisation, with other civilisations perhaps independently also discovering its properties.[378] However, most scholars realistically credit Razi with introducing copper sulphate into medicine.[375][376] However it is also possible that he too independently discovered it's properties since none before him within his own civilisation mentions using it externally in medicine.

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

Pure ethanol (alcohol) was first distilled by Rhazes, who used it in medicine.
  • Sulphuric Acid—Rhazes used his discovery[297][298] of sulphuric acid as a disinfectant.[299] Prior to his isolation of sulphuric acid as a pure compound, it was not known to the ancients in it's pure form, but instead only as a mixed-compound; "[t]he mineral substances referred to here as vitriol are recognized in modern science as hydrated sulfates of iron, copper, and even magnesium and zinc, all of which form as secondary minerals within the weathering zones of metallic sulfide deposits".[300] The discovery of sulphuric acid may also have been discovered by Jabir al-Hayyan (721—815; Geber).
    • Certain European historians have attempted to claim that Jabir al-Hayyan was a "true" European in disguise,[300] even though it is known only his less important contributions were later claimed by his followers; "...scholars generally believe that many of his less important manuscripts were actually written by his students, collaborators, and later followers, and therefore this group of scholars became known as the Jabirian Corpus".[301]
    • The pre-eminent Middle-eastern historian Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, successfully disproved[302] the Geber "problem" theory, by proving that such a claim originated from an inherently biased French author Marcellin Berthelot (1827—1907), an amateur historian, amongst others, who's works were entirely based on assumptions, poor translations, leaps in logic, and outright forgery in an effort to discredit al-Hayyan.[n. 57] The incorrect claims are still used as citations in Western scholarship and have been given undue weight in how the West views Arabian alchemy and chemistry.
  • Alcohol (al-Kohl)—Rhazes was the first person in history to discover chemical alcohol (ethanol),[303] and thus give it's name, and the first person to use it in medicine.[304] He discovered the process of dry distillation, which he used to isolate alcohol (although he may have been preceded by Jabir al-Hayyan (Geber; 721—815) who may have known of the process).[305][306] He distilled alcohol using fermented sugar and starchy material.[299] In medicine he was the first to discover that alcohol could be used as an antiseptic.[307][n. 58] He also introduced its use as an anaesthetic in medicine.[308]
Sulphuric acid was discovered by Razi, although it may have been discovered earlier by Jabir.
  • Mercuric Chloride (Mercury(II) chloride)—In sepsis, dressings were lathered with Mercuric Chloride (the first widely-known synthetic compound ever made;[309] although Mercurous Chloride (Mercury(I) Chloride) exists naturally as Colomel) in an effort to prevent infection/sepsis of open wounds for the first time.[310][311][312][313] Although mercury was known since at least 2000 BC,[314] it's chloride compound was first discovered and used in sterilisation by medieval Arabs (Jabir or Razi[309]). It is made by sublimation of NaCl and mercuric sulfate;[315] and now has other modern uses (photography).[316]
  • Benzoin—Also known as "Luban Jawi", "Gum Benjamin", "Sumatra", "Belly", or "Gum Benzoin".[317] It is an oleo-resin that is obtained from the Sytrax Benzoin species and Styrax Tonkinese.[317] It was first discovered in the 14th century by ʾAbū ʿAbd al-Lāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Lāh l-Lawātī ṭ-Ṭanǧī ibn Baṭūṭah (Ibn Battuta; 1304—1377) while he was in Sumatra.[317][318][319] It was extracted with alcohol (discovered by the Rhazes centuries prior) or benzene.[317] Aside from it's use as a fragrance, it was also used in cancer chemotherapy.[320] Benzoin's alternative chemical name is α-Hydroxy-α-phenylacetophenone, α-Hydroxybenzyl phenyl ketone, 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylacetophenone. It's other uses are as a photoinitiator in the synthesis of degradable hydrogels.[321]
  • Laudanum—A mixture of alcohol and opium is known as "laudanum",[322] and was first invented by pre-Islamic Arabians,[323] well before Europeans knew of the substance.[324] It has been mistakenly given credit to Paracelsus (1493—1541); who himself described that his laudanum was made of "gold leaf and dissolved pearls" (however this has no medical benefit).[324] Furthermore, it isn't even known if Paracelsus even used opium.[325] It is known that the ancient Greeks mixed opium with wine,[326] but as per the Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484 BC—c. 425 BC), this was an Arab invention.[323] Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925), who was also the first to isolate pure alcohol, recommend using the tincture medicinally to treat cancer.[320]
  • Opium—The natural substance has long been used to treat pain. The Arabs were also the first to use it militarily, during the Islamic conquests in order to stave off hunger and fatigue.[327] However, the first person to use it as an anaesthetic was Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925).[328][88] General anaesthesia first came to Europe in the 1840s,[329] although Muslims had invented other anaesthetics such as diethyl-ether (also known as "ether") since at least the 8th century (credited to Jabir al-Hayyan (721—815; Geber)).[330] Other opioids that are used for anaesthesia include fentanyl.[329]
Bezoars were discovered by Ibn Zuhr or Rhazes.
  • Anaesthetic Sponge—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) invented the anaesthetic sponge; which has been described as a "sporific sponge (impregnanted with aromatics and narcotics and held under the patients's nose), which preceded modern anesthesia".[331][332][n. 59] Accordingly, the ingredients used in the sponge consisted of "cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called zoan".[333] Others claim Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to develop it.[334] Others give credit to Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925).[335] Before them, its use was never known (although there have been allegations, no evidence has been found in the historical record and has thus been considered a fraudulent claim).[n. 60]
  • Ice For Fever Diseases—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first person to ever use ice in medicine, who used it to treat diseases of fever, where temperatures exceed 37oC.[80][336][337] Ice wasn't a rarity in the desert, largely thanks to the efforts of Persian engineers in 400 BC who mastered the art of refrigeration by constructing huge domed ice-stores (called "Yakh-Chal"; literally "ice chamber"), which were the first above-ground[338] ice stores, which could not only store ice in the desert, but create it[339] (even if temperatures did not fall below the freezing point of water[340]). Ice was mass produced and cut when it reached a thickness of 30—40cm.[339] The first people however, to successfully store ice below ground, were the Iraqis in 1700 BC; that is over 3,700 years ago.[338]
  • Bezoar—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first person in history to use bezoars in medicine,[341][342] which are hard stones found inside the stomach, and have also throughout out history achieved legendary status as mythical protective objects.[343][344] However, it is also believed the "Ghāyat al-Ḥakīm" (translated in 1256—1258 in Europe as the "Picatrix"[345][346]), written by a Muslim author,[347][n. 61] between the 10th—11th century,[348][349] also makes references to the stones.[341] The word "bezoar" is corruption of the word "bad-zuhr" or "pat-zuhr".[350][351] Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) however is thought to have discovered it first, since his manuscripts mention it.[351] They were also believed to be universal antidotes to poisons.
Diethyl-ether, the world's first synthetic anaesthetic.
Catgut, which is still used today.
  • Catgut—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to discover the use catgut in medicine[352] (which he often fashioned into yarns before surgeries[353]).[354][355][66] It was used as a thread to suture internal wounds (specifically making mention of suturing the intestines[356])).[357] Others credit Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925). This was completely new to the field of medicine.[358][359] It would naturally dissolve slowly after a time, leading to no foreign accumulation within the body, since it is completely hydrolysed after sixty days.[360][361] The word "catgut" is also Arabic (taken from "kitgut"; which indicates that it was previously used in the construction of musical strings), and is not taken from cats, but sheep intestines.[361] Additionally, the claim that the use of catgut in medicine occurred before Rhazes or Zahrawi appears fraudulent (see footnote).[n. 62]
  • Diethyl-Ether—Jabir al-Hayyan (Geber; 721—815) developed the worlds first synthetic anaesthetic known as diethyl-ether (also known as "ether"). The anaesthetic is easily made provided that pure sulphuric acid and pure ethanol (alcohol) are available;[362] both of which only ever appear during the early Abbassid era. Although the discovery of sulphuric acid itself is disputed, it is only disputed between Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) and Jabir; with the same being the case with ethanol, whom Jabir may have purified himself.[306]
    • Amongst revisionist historians, the history of the discovery of diethyl-ether is controversial, whilst mainstream scholarship is quite clear on the matter. Some of these revisionist scholars note that Jabir al-Hayyan (also known as Djafar Yeber) has been given credit for the discovery for centuries,[363] but make it a point to call this point false—doubting his existence in favour of the "Geber Problem" theory—citing other publications, which all lead back to a claim by the revisionist Frenchman and amateur historian who came up with this claim, Marcellin Berthelot (1827—1907); for example, this paper,[363] cites this paper,[364] which traces it's origins back to Bertholot's work as the sole authority on the claim that Jabir did not invent it.[364]
    • However, Berthelot's work has been found to have serious problems both with his research methodology and academic honesty;[n. 63] and as a result his claims haven't been taken seriously by reliable historians of Near Eastern and Middle-eastern history, namely, Ahmad Y. H. Gabarin (also known as Ahmad Y. al-Hassan; 1925—2012[365]); who was the head of the History of Arabic Science at the University of Aleppo, Syria and an Ordre National de la Légion d'Honneur recipient (France's highest civilian and military decoration for his contributions to the field of science).[365][366]
      • This "Geber Problem" theory, has been adopted as fact by some European historians, who have attempted to claim that Jabir was also actually a "true" European in disguise,[300] even though it is known only his less important contributions (unlike his important contributions) were later claimed by his followers; "...scholars generally believe that many of his less important manuscripts were actually written by his students, collaborators, and later followers, and therefore this group of scholars became known as the Jabirian Corpus".[301]
      • The pre-eminent Middle-eastern historian Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, successfully disproved[302] the Geber "problem" theory, by proving that such a claim originated from an inherently biased French author Marcellin Berthelot (1827—1907), an amateur historian, amongst others, who's works were entirely based on assumptions, poor translations, leaps in logic, and outright forgery in an effort to discredit al-Hayyan in favour of Europeans having made these achievements.[n. 64] Unfortunately, Berthelot's works have remained unquestioned by Western scholars despite being problematic.
  • Mercurial Ointment—Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes; 865—925) was the first to develop mercurial ointments,[367][368] which were later extensively used in the treatment of skin diseases,[369] particularly syphilis after 16th century.[370] Razi also used a mercurial ointment called bichloride to resolve itch on the skin (Avicenna also used this compound and was the first to doubt the complete poisonous nature of mercury as had been claimed prior, when he first gave it to his patients and it passed through their bodies unchanged without any significant side effects).[371] The ointments are still in use today.[372] They are also known as "quicksilver", or "blue" ointment.[373][374]
  • Copper Sulphate—Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes; 865—925) was the first in history to use copper sulphate as a drug in medicine.[375][376] Previously in Western historiography it was thought Paracelsus (1493—1541) had introduced it.[377] Copper itself was used as a medicine for the first time in 4,000 BC, by the Middle-eastern Sumerian civilisation, with other civilisations perhaps independently also discovering its properties.[378] However, most scholars realistically credit Razi with introducing copper sulphate into medicine.[375][376] However it is also possible that he too independently discovered it's properties since none before him within his own civilisation mentions using it externally in medicine.

Obs. & Pregnancy (5)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Lithotomy Position
  • Antenatal (Prenatal) Care—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first to person in history to come up with the concept of antenatal care.[379] According to the National Health Service in the UK, antenatal is defined as "pregnancy care or maternity care", where patients are "offered appointments with a midwife, or sometimes a doctor who specialises in pregnancy and birth".[380] The entire methodology of providing antenatal care is to keep the baby as healthy as possible.[380]
  • Uterine Contractions—Al-Majusi (d. c. 1000), disproved the Greek notion of the "fetus swim[ming] out of womb", and instead discovered birth was aided by a series of uterine contractions.[381][n. 65] This was an important distinction, as the former infers the fetus is able to bring itself out without aid, whereas the latter is guided by an inherent hormonal process,[382][383] which in disease states isn't able to occur, requiring medical intervention, as it is life-threatening.[384][385] The concept explains miscarriage,[386] and is important in abortion.[387][388] Interestingly, abortions are allowed in Islam within specific times.[389]
Walcher's Position.
  • Walcher Position—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to describe the "Walcher Position" in obstetrics to aid labour in pregnancy.[390][n. 66][391][392][393][394][395] It was incorrectly given credit to Gustav Adolf Walcher (1856—1935) who drew attention to it at the International Obstetric and Gynecologic Congress in Amsterdam in 1899;[396] although it traces it's first Western known origin to a professor of surgery at Venice, named Milli (1713—1750).[397] The position involves lying on a table, with the thighs dangling over the edge; and is very useful in obese patients.[397]
  • Credes Method for Extraction of Retained Placenta—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to describe "Crede's Method" for the extraction of retained placentas after labour.[398][399][n. 67][400] The placenta is discarded at birth but during it's use "acts as the lungs, gut, kidneys, and liver of the fetus".[401] The method is important as it never leads to cases of septicaemia.[402][403] It is where "[t]he uterus is pushed toward the birth canal by pressure exerted by the thumb of one hand on the posterior surface of the abdomen and the other hand on the anterior surface".[404]
  • Lithotomy Position—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to teach the lithotomy position for vaginal operations.[405][n. 68][406][407] Before Zahrawi's proposition, the West didn't know of the positions existence.[408] At one point it was the most common position to use for birthing a child, but is now secondary to other positions.[409] it's use has not fallen out of place and is still use in a wide variety of other operations (namely in urologic and gynecologic operations where it is the second most common position).[410] The disadvantage of the position is embarassment.[411]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

Lithotomy Position
  • Antenatal (Prenatal) Care—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first to person in history to come up with the concept of antenatal care.[379] According to the National Health Service in the UK, antenatal is defined as "pregnancy care or maternity care", where patients are "offered appointments with a midwife, or sometimes a doctor who specialises in pregnancy and birth".[380] The entire methodology of providing antenatal care is to keep the baby as healthy as possible.[380]
  • Uterine Contractions—Al-Majusi (d. c. 1000), disproved the Greek notion of the "fetus swim[ming] out of womb", and instead discovered birth was aided by a series of uterine contractions.[381][n. 69] This was an important distinction, as the former infers the fetus is able to bring itself out without aid, whereas the latter is guided by an inherent hormonal process,[382][383] which in disease states isn't able to occur, requiring medical intervention, as it is life-threatening.[384][385] The concept explains miscarriage,[386] and is important in abortion.[387][388] Interestingly, abortions are allowed in Islam within specific times.[389]
Walcher's Position.
  • Walcher Position—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to describe the "Walcher Position" in obstetrics to aid labour in pregnancy.[390][n. 70][391][392][393][394][395] It was incorrectly given credit to Gustav Adolf Walcher (1856—1935) who drew attention to it at the International Obstetric and Gynecologic Congress in Amsterdam in 1899;[396] although it traces it's first Western known origin to a professor of surgery at Venice, named Milli (1713—1750).[397] The position involves lying on a table, with the thighs dangling over the edge; and is very useful in obese patients.[397]
  • Credes Method for Extraction of Retained Placenta—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to describe "Crede's Method" for the extraction of retained placentas after labour.[398][412][n. 71][413] The placenta is discarded at birth but during it's use "acts as the lungs, gut, kidneys, and liver of the fetus".[401] The method is important as it never leads to cases of septicaemia.[402][414] It is where "[t]he uterus is pushed toward the birth canal by pressure exerted by the thumb of one hand on the posterior surface of the abdomen and the other hand on the anterior surface".[404]
  • Lithotomy Position—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to teach the lithotomy position for vaginal operations.[405][n. 72][406][407] Before Zahrawi's proposition, the West didn't know of the positions existence.[408] At one point it was the most common position to use for birthing a child, but is now secondary to other positions.[409] it's use has not fallen out of place and is still use in a wide variety of other operations (namely in urologic and gynecologic operations where it is the second most common position).[410] The disadvantage of the position is embarassment.[411]

Dent./Surgery Tools (15)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The modern surgical scissor was invented by Zahrawi in the 10th century who conducted operations using this design.
  • Abscess Knife (Concealed)—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, who invented a stealthy abscess cutter,[415][416] which was concealed from the patient's eyes, used in dentistry. It lanced growing abscesses found in the mouth, and was specifically designed so as not to alarm the patient. It was also used to cut open abscesses,[417] and tumours. It was also commonly known as the "deceiver".[418][n. 73][419][n. 74]
  • Modern Surgical Scissors—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented[420][n. 75][n. 76][421] the surgical scissor ("miqass"[422] or "true scissors").[423][n. 77][n. 78] He was also the first to describe the dissection technique of circumcision using these scissors[424] (previously circumcision was carried out using a knife). These types of scissor are different in design[425] from conventional scissors which cut fabric, and which have been around for thousands of years.
  • Aneurysm Needle—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] invented the aneurysm needle,[426][427][n. 79] and was first used the fine-needle aspiration examination, which is an examination to extract cells as he wanted to examine the cells of the goitre in thyroid cytology.[428] The aneurysm needle isn't actually a true needle, but is hooked in shape, with a blunt end.[429] They also have uses in other surgeries, namely cerclage surgery.[430]
The surgical needle was invented by Zahrawi in the 10th century.
  • Surgical Needle—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] invented the surgical needle.[431][432][433][307][n. 80] Surgical needles are specialised curved needles which are used to stitch wounds together, and there are different variations currently available; the most preferable one is where it has a reverse cutting edge, where the cutting edge is on the outside of the curve, thus minimising damage.[434]
  • Glass Injection Piston Syringe:—Ammar Ali al-Mawsili, invented the modern syringe.[435] Historians previously used to lay claim that the glass syringe was (defined as "a glass barrel and sharp needle"[436]) was invented in the mid-1800s in Europe.[436] However it's invention can be attributed to a description found in "Choice of Eye Diseases" by Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili (d. 1000), where he details it's construction (the needle was made of glass and also used a piston[437][438]).[439] His needle avoided cataracts re-migrating to the centre, as occurred in "couching" (the original cataract operation).[439]
  • Parental Feeding—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to use parenteral feeding in the feeding of his patients.[440][441] He did this by preparing feeds and using a silver needle to inject nutritious substances into their bodies (thus being the first to use hypodermic needles for artificial feeding[88]).[440][441] Parenteral feeding is also known as "Parenteral Nutrition" (PN); which "has become standard practice in a variety of patients who are unable to maintain adequate nutrition with enteral feeding".[442]
Tongue depressor.[443]
  • Lithotrite—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented[423][n. 81][n. 82] a forcep called a "Kalalib", used for crushing large vesical stones through perineal cystotomy; also known as a lithotrite. Al-Zahrawi techniques of lithotomy/lithotripsy were distinct from the Roman era, and greatly influenced European practice, with his ideas for lithotripsy being the foundation for many of the first popular lithotrites, including Civiale's trilabe in 1818.[444]
  • Tooth Extractor—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented the tooth extractor to pull out healthy,[n. 83] decayed and loose teeth.[445][446][n. 84] It was distinct from the Greeks who only knew of extracting loose teeth, but not rooted teeth.[447] There is no evidence that they used a tooth extractor tool before Zahrawi (indeed it has always just been assumed[n. 85] that the Greeks, Romans and Byzantines knew of them despite not appearing anywhere in the historical record[448]), until Zahrawi gave the first illustrations of (at least 14[n. 86]) dental instruments he himself designed.[447] with customised step-by-step[n. 87] instructions.
    • Orthodontics/Tooth Repair—Al-Zahrawi (936–1013), better known as Abulcasis, was the first to write about the field of orthodontia as a distinct discipline.[449][405][n. 88][450][451] Orthodontics is a way of straightening or moving teeth, in order to improve their apperance, and how they work.[452] Prior to this, the Greeks and Romans had poor understanding of teeth (believing them to be bones, or applied "finger" pressure to budge them, which didn't work).[453] Zahrawi however, was the first to extract, repair, improve and then replant teeth back to their original socket.[454][455]
  • Tongue Depressor—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented the tongue depressor.[456][390][n. 89][446][n. 90][457][458] He also developed the tongue-depressor mouth gag.[456] Tongue-depressors have a wide variety of use, besides depressing the tongue to examine the back of the throat and around the mouth.[459] One of them is in speech therapy, to manipulate kinesthetic cues.[460]
Types of warts; plantar, periungal, common and flat. Zahrawi designed a wart remover which would drill these out of existence. Anaesthetic was available during his time (see above).
  • Monofilament Suture—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first to create the monofilament suture, which he made out of a pig's bristle.[461][462][463][464] Monofilament sutures are single strand sutures, and tend to go through materials better than multifilament sutures, as a result of having less drag, and are also less prone to infection; thus, they are primarily used in vascular surgery, and are, in fact, the preferred choice.[465] Modern examples include prolene and PDF-II.[465]
  • Wart Remover—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to invent an iron tube and caustic metal wart remover.[466] It was used as a boring (drilling) instrument.[466] Warts are abnormal bumps on the skin, which are shaped like cauliflowers, are raised, are demarcated, and greyish in colour in comparison to the surrounding skin.[467] They are irregularly shaped and have different projections.[467] They are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and are still incurable although treatments are available.[467]
  • Hot Rod Cauterizer—In cauterisation, Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) invented the hot rod cauterizer to close bleeding wounds.[468] It appears the process was dramatic but patients were known to survive (however complications such as wound infection still persisted in some cases).[469] Cauterisation is a procedure which involves destroying tissues through either heat, cold, corrosive chemicals, electricity or lasers.[470] Cauterisation also has other uses, aside from stopping bleeding such as removing tissue.[471]
  • Knotted Nasal Polyp Rope—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first person in history to construct the knotted nasal polyp rope tool in order to remove nasal polyps.[357] It would be driven through the nose and pulled out from the back of the throat, whilst tearing away the polyps.[357] Nasal polyps are extremely unpleasant growths. They are benign and painless in nature, and their aetiology still remains unclear, although in modern times they affect up to 4% of the population.[472]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

The modern surgical scissor was invented by Zahrawi in the 10th century who conducted operations using this design.
  • Abscess Knife (Concealed)—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, who invented a stealthy abscess cutter,[415][416] which was concealed from the patient's eyes, used in dentistry. It lanced growing abscesses found in the mouth, and was specifically designed so as not to alarm the patient. It was also used to cut open abscesses,[417] and tumours. It was also commonly known as the "deceiver".[418][n. 91][419][n. 92]
  • Modern Surgical Scissors—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented[420][n. 93][n. 94][421] the surgical scissor ("miqass"[422] or "true scissors").[423][n. 95][n. 96] He was also the first to describe the dissection technique of circumcision using these scissors[424] (previously circumcision was carried out using a knife). These types of scissor are different in design[425] from conventional scissors which cut fabric, and which have been around for thousands of years.
  • Aneurysm Needle—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] invented the aneurysm needle,[426][473][n. 97] and was first used the fine-needle aspiration examination, which is an examination to extract cells as he wanted to examine the cells of the goitre in thyroid cytology.[428] The aneurysm needle isn't actually a true needle, but is hooked in shape, with a blunt end.[429] They also have uses in other surgeries, namely cerclage surgery.[430]
The surgical needle was invented by Zahrawi in the 10th century.
  • Surgical Needle—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] invented the surgical needle.[431][432][433][307][n. 98] Surgical needles are specialised curved needles which are used to stitch wounds together, and there are different variations currently available; the most preferable one is where it has a reverse cutting edge, where the cutting edge is on the outside of the curve, thus minimising damage.[434]
  • Glass Injection Piston Syringe:—Ammar Ali al-Mawsili, invented the modern syringe.[435] Historians previously used to lay claim that the glass syringe was (defined as "a glass barrel and sharp needle"[436]) was invented in the mid-1800s in Europe.[436] However it's invention can be attributed to a description found in "Choice of Eye Diseases" by Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili (d. 1000), where he details it's construction (the needle was made of glass and also used a piston[437][438]).[439] His needle avoided cataracts re-migrating to the centre, as occurred in "couching" (the original cataract operation).[439]
  • Parental Feeding—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to use parenteral feeding in the feeding of his patients.[440][441] He did this by preparing feeds and using a silver needle to inject nutritious substances into their bodies (thus being the first to use hypodermic needles for artificial feeding[88]).[440][441] Parenteral feeding is also known as "Parenteral Nutrition" (PN); which "has become standard practice in a variety of patients who are unable to maintain adequate nutrition with enteral feeding".[442]
Tongue depressor.[443]
  • Lithotrite—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented[423][n. 99][n. 100] a forcep called a "Kalalib", used for crushing large vesical stones through perineal cystotomy; also known as a lithotrite. Al-Zahrawi techniques of lithotomy/lithotripsy were distinct from the Roman era, and greatly influenced European practice, with his ideas for lithotripsy being the foundation for many of the first popular lithotrites, including Civiale's trilabe in 1818.[444]
  • Tooth Extractor—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented the tooth extractor to pull out healthy,[n. 101] decayed and loose teeth.[445][446][n. 102] It was distinct from the Greeks who only knew of extracting loose teeth, but not rooted teeth.[447] There is no evidence that they used a tooth extractor tool before Zahrawi (indeed it has always just been assumed[n. 103] that the Greeks, Romans and Byzantines knew of them despite not appearing anywhere in the historical record[448]), until Zahrawi gave the first illustrations of (at least 14[n. 104]) dental instruments he himself designed.[447] with customised step-by-step[n. 105] instructions.
    • Orthodontics/Tooth Repair—Al-Zahrawi (936–1013), better known as Abulcasis, was the first to write about the field of orthodontia as a distinct discipline.[449][405][n. 106][450][451] Orthodontics is a way of straightening or moving teeth, in order to improve their apperance, and how they work.[474] Prior to this, the Greeks and Romans had poor understanding of teeth (believing them to be bones, or applied "finger" pressure to budge them, which didn't work).[453] Zahrawi however, was the first to extract, repair, improve and then replant teeth back to their original socket.[454][455]
  • Tongue Depressor—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013), also known as al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis or Abukasis,[127] an Andalusian Muslim, invented the tongue depressor.[456][390][n. 107][446][n. 108][457][458] He also developed the tongue-depressor mouth gag.[456] Tongue-depressors have a wide variety of use, besides depressing the tongue to examine the back of the throat and around the mouth.[459] One of them is in speech therapy, to manipulate kinesthetic cues.[460]
Types of warts; plantar, periungal, common and flat. Zahrawi designed a wart remover which would drill these out of existence. Anaesthetic was available during his time (see above).
  • Monofilament Suture—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (980—1037) was the first to create the monofilament suture, which he made out of a pig's bristle.[461][462][463][464] Monofilament sutures are single strand sutures, and tend to go through materials better than multifilament sutures, as a result of having less drag, and are also less prone to infection; thus, they are primarily used in vascular surgery, and are, in fact, the preferred choice.[465] Modern examples include prolene and PDF-II.[465]
  • Wart Remover—Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) was the first to invent an iron tube and caustic metal wart remover.[466] It was used as a boring (drilling) instrument.[466] Warts are abnormal bumps on the skin, which are shaped like cauliflowers, are raised, are demarcated, and greyish in colour in comparison to the surrounding skin.[467] They are irregularly shaped and have different projections.[467] They are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and are still incurable although treatments are available.[467]
  • Hot Rod Cauterizer—In cauterisation, Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi al-Ansari (936—1013) invented the hot rod cauterizer to close bleeding wounds.[468] It appears the process was dramatic but patients were known to survive (however complications such as wound infection still persisted in some cases).[469] Cauterisation is a procedure which involves destroying tissues through either heat, cold, corrosive chemicals, electricity or lasers.[470] Cauterisation also has other uses, aside from stopping bleeding such as removing tissue.[471]
  • Knotted Nasal Polyp Rope—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first person in history to construct the knotted nasal polyp rope tool in order to remove nasal polyps.[357] It would be driven through the nose and pulled out from the back of the throat, whilst tearing away the polyps.[357] Nasal polyps are extremely unpleasant growths. They are benign and painless in nature, and their aetiology still remains unclear, although in modern times they affect up to 4% of the population.[472]

Veterinary Medicine (2)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Jaagsietke Disease.
  • Jaagsiekte Disease—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover what became known as Jaagsiekte Disease in 1904.[88] This is a viral disease (caused by the β-retrovirus[475] known as the Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus; or JSRV, which affects the lung cells[476]) and occurs in sheep, and is also known as "running sickness".[88] This disease is very similar to that of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma found in humans.[88] Jaagsiekte is also known as "ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma".[476] It should be noted that Jaagsiekte's disease is very contagious[477] and extremely dangerous to animals.[478]
  • Morbillivirus—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover the existence of the morbillivirus, with no one prior to him describing the viruses existence.[479][480] The existence of the viruses however may be older, but requires the presence of 200,000—300,000 people in order to sustain infections.[479] Sub-species of the virus include Canine (CDV), Cetacean (CeMV), Feline (FeMV), Measles (MeV), Ovine Rinderpest (PPRV), Phocine (PDV) and Rinderpest (RPV) viruses.[481] These are both human and animal transmissible viruses. Interestingly Rinderpest was totally eradicated in the wild in 2011.[482]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

Jaagsietke Disease.
  • Jaagsiekte Disease—Abu-Marwan Abd al-Malik ibn Abi al-Ala Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar; 1094—1162) was the first to discover what became known as Jaagsiekte Disease in 1904.[88] This is a viral disease (caused by the β-retrovirus[475] known as the Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus; or JSRV, which affects the lung cells[476]) and occurs in sheep, and is also known as "running sickness".[88] This disease is very similar to that of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma found in humans.[88] Jaagsiekte is also known as "ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma".[476] It should be noted that Jaagsiekte's disease is very contagious[477] and extremely dangerous to animals.[478]
  • Morbillivirus—Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes; 854—925) was the first to discover the existence of the morbillivirus, with no one prior to him describing the viruses existence.[479][480] The existence of the viruses however may be older, but requires the presence of 200,000—300,000 people in order to sustain infections.[479] Sub-species of the virus include Canine (CDV), Cetacean (CeMV), Feline (FeMV), Measles (MeV), Ovine Rinderpest (PPRV), Phocine (PDV) and Rinderpest (RPV) viruses.[481] These are both human and animal transmissible viruses. Interestingly Rinderpest was totally eradicated in the wild in 2011.[482]

Miscellaneous (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Founding of Physiology and Anatomy—Abu l-Walid Muḥammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd (1126–1198) was the first person in history to separate physiology from anatomy, thus founding the two fields known today.[483] He notably declared that "he who undertakes dissection draws near to God’".[483] The distinction between the two fields are evident from his book, the "Kitab al Kulliyat al-Tibb", better known as the "Colliget" in the Latin West.[483][484] The book took 16 years to write,[485] and was translated into Latin by a Jewish author in 1255.[485]

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

  • Founding of Physiology and Anatomy—Abu l-Walid Muḥammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd (1126–1198) was the first person in history to separate physiology from anatomy, thus founding the two fields known today.[483] He notably declared that "he who undertakes dissection draws near to God’".[483] The distinction between the two fields are evident from his book, the "Kitab al Kulliyat al-Tibb", better known as the "Colliget" in the Latin West.[483][484] The book took 16 years to write,[485] and was translated into Latin by a Jewish author in 1255.[485]

References & Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ Quote: "...the first documented description of a peer-review process is in a book called Ethics of the Physician by Ishap bin Ali Al Rahwi (CE 854–931) of Al Raha, Syria. This work, and its later variants or manuals, states that it is the duty of a visiting physician to make duplicate notes of the condition of the patient on each visit. When the patient had been cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local council of physicians, who would adjudicate as to whether the physician had performed according to the standards that then prevailed. On the basis of their rulings, the practising physician could be sued for damages by a maltreated patient."
    1. Spier, Ray (2002). "The history of the peer-review process". Trends in Biotechnology. 20 (8): 357–358. doi:10.1016/S0167-7799(02)01985-6. ISSN 0167-7799.
  2. ^ For example, Western scholarship regarding the history of animal experiments with a European view, make no mention of pharmacological experiments on animals by Aristotle, Hippocrates or Galen or indeed anyone else.
    1. Franco, Nuno (2013). Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective. Animals. 3 (1): 238–273. doi:10.3390/ani3010238. ISSN 2076-2615.
  3. ^ Quote: "These experiments were not in the name of medical research, they were done to gain knowledge about the animals themselves".
    1. Marte Thomassen, Ellen Trolid, Tonje Arondsen, Marit Gystøl (2006). Animal Testing In Medical Research. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Naturvitenskapelige Universite). p. 2. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 25th, 2018.
  4. ^ Indeed Galen wrongly believed anatomy was useless in saving human lives.
    1. Margaret J. Osler (September 2010). Reconfiguring the World: Nature, God, and Human Understanding from the Middle Ages to Early Modern Europe. JHU Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8018-9655-2.
  5. ^ Quote: "...the first documented description of a peer-review process is in a book called Ethics of the Physician by Ishap bin Ali Al Rahwi (CE 854–931) of Al Raha, Syria. This work, and its later variants or manuals, states that it is the duty of a visiting physician to make duplicate notes of the condition of the patient on each visit. When the patient had been cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local council of physicians, who would adjudicate as to whether the physician had performed according to the standards that then prevailed. On the basis of their rulings, the practising physician could be sued for damages by a maltreated patient."
    1. Spier, Ray (2002). "The history of the peer-review process". Trends in Biotechnology. 20 (8): 357–358. doi:10.1016/S0167-7799(02)01985-6. ISSN 0167-7799.
  6. ^ For example, Western scholarship regarding the history of animal experiments with a European view, make no mention of pharmacological experiments on animals by Aristotle, Hippocrates or Galen or indeed anyone else.
    1. Franco, Nuno (2013). Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective. Animals. 3 (1): 238–273. doi:10.3390/ani3010238. ISSN 2076-2615.
  7. ^ Quote: "These experiments were not in the name of medical research, they were done to gain knowledge about the animals themselves".
    1. Marte Thomassen, Ellen Trolid, Tonje Arondsen, Marit Gystøl (2006). Animal Testing In Medical Research. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Naturvitenskapelige Universite). p. 2. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 25th, 2018.
  8. ^ Indeed Galen wrongly believed anatomy was useless in saving human lives.
    1. Margaret J. Osler (September 2010). Reconfiguring the World: Nature, God, and Human Understanding from the Middle Ages to Early Modern Europe. JHU Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8018-9655-2.
  9. ^ Quote: "The Romans were far less learned than the Greeks, had no basic knowledge of medicine, and had no physicians of their own. However, the medical skills of Greek physicians who were educated in Alexandria were recognized by the Romans, and citizenship, free housing, salaried positions, and tax exemptions were offered to those who were willing to settle in Rome.11 Among the Greek physicians who accepted the generous offer was Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 bc to ad 50), a native of Greece".
    1. Hajdu, Steven I. (2016). Pathfinders in oncology from ancient times to the end of the Middle Ages. Cancer. 122 (11): 1638–1646. doi:10.1002/cncr.29955. ISSN 0008-543X.
  10. ^ Quote: "The Romans were far less learned than the Greeks, had no basic knowledge of medicine, and had no physicians of their own. However, the medical skills of Greek physicians who were educated in Alexandria were recognized by the Romans, and citizenship, free housing, salaried positions, and tax exemptions were offered to those who were willing to settle in Rome.11 Among the Greek physicians who accepted the generous offer was Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 bc to ad 50), a native of Greece".
    1. Hajdu, Steven I. (2016). Pathfinders in oncology from ancient times to the end of the Middle Ages. Cancer. 122 (11): 1638–1646. doi:10.1002/cncr.29955. ISSN 0008-543X.
  11. ^ Quote: "AI-Razi (841-926 A.C.) was the first to mention the double recurrent nerves, the infratrochlear branch of the nasal nerve, the trigeminal nerve, etc.· It is interesting to speculate how he found out the nerves without dissecting human bodies."
    1. Muazzam, M.G.; Muazzam, N. (1989). "Important Contributions of Early Muslim Period to Medical Science. II. Clinical Sciences". Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America. 21 (2). doi:10.5915/21-2-5514. ISSN 2160-9829.
  12. ^ Quote: "AI-Razi (841-926 A.C.) was the first to mention the double recurrent nerves, the infratrochlear branch of the nasal nerve, the trigeminal nerve, etc.· It is interesting to speculate how he found out the nerves without dissecting human bodies."
    1. Muazzam, M.G.; Muazzam, N. (1989). "Important Contributions of Early Muslim Period to Medical Science. II. Clinical Sciences". Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America. 21 (2). doi:10.5915/21-2-5514. ISSN 2160-9829.
  13. ^ Quote: "Al-Zahrawi invented different types of splints (Arabic: jabira) for simple and compound fractures. The trapeze splint was used for reducing fractures of the humerus. The splint consists of a smooth, thin stick in the shape of a bow with two strings, each attached to one end of the stick. Ball splints were used for small hand fractures, while pestle splints were used for reducing shoulder dislocations [15], [48]. He added egg and flour to a plaster for shoulder immobilization [15], [17], [25], [48]. He treated the fracture of the femoral shaft with the knee in flexion using a coaptation splint [49].".
    1. Mohamed N. Saad (March 14th, 2016). Could Al-Zahrawi Be Considered a Biomedical Engineer?. IEEE Pulse. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  14. ^ Quote: "Ibn Sina...is the first to describe the antiseptic properties of wine. We can also attribute to him the first description of Bennet’s fracture and his description of late splintage of fractures, now we now know as described by George Perkins. He had a great influence on the practice of medicine in the later centuries."
    1. Beg H. (July 2015). Surgical principles of Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 14. No. 3. pg. 217-220. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 8th, 2018. doi: 10.3329/bjms.v14i3.22776.
  15. ^ It has been speculated that ancient Egyptians knew of the technique in 3000 BC, which has been inferred from a single drawing dating back from that period. However, the author who made the claim admitted that he wasn't even sure if the alleged picture was depicting a physician, let alone relying solely on speculation. The problem with the drawing has been that it could also simply be depicting an Egyptian picking up another Egyptian who has fallen over, and differs from the kochler's position mainly in that the alleged "patient" is propping himself up using his other hand.
    1. Hussein, M. Kamel (1968). Kocfier's Method Is 3,000 Years Old. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British volume. 50-B (3): 669–671. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.50B3.669. ISSN 0301-620X.
  16. ^ Quote: "He was the first to describe penile fracture, managing the painful event by introducing the penis into a goose’s neck or a cannula. Thereafter, the penis was wrapped and bandaged [35]."
    1. Mohamed N. Saad (March 14th, 2016). Could Al-Zahrawi Be Considered a Biomedical Engineer?. IEEE Pulse. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  17. ^ Quote: "Al-Zahrawi invented different types of splints (Arabic: jabira) for simple and compound fractures. The trapeze splint was used for reducing fractures of the humerus. The splint consists of a smooth, thin stick in the shape of a bow with two strings, each attached to one end of the stick. Ball splints were used for small hand fractures, while pestle splints were used for reducing shoulder dislocations [15], [48]. He added egg and flour to a plaster for shoulder immobilization [15], [17], [25], [48]. He treated the fracture of the femoral shaft with the knee in flexion using a coaptation splint [49].".
    1. Mohamed N. Saad (March 14th, 2016). Could Al-Zahrawi Be Considered a Biomedical Engineer?. IEEE Pulse. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  18. ^ Quote: "Ibn Sina...is the first to describe the antiseptic properties of wine. We can also attribute to him the first description of Bennet’s fracture and his description of late splintage of fractures, now we now know as described by George Perkins. He had a great influence on the practice of medicine in the later centuries."
    1. Beg H. (July 2015). Surgical principles of Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 14. No. 3. pg. 217-220. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 8th, 2018. doi: 10.3329/bjms.v14i3.22776.
  19. ^ It has been speculated that ancient Egyptians knew of the technique in 3000 BC, which has been inferred from a single drawing dating back from that period. However, the author who made the claim admitted that he wasn't even sure if the alleged picture was depicting a physician, let alone relying solely on speculation. The problem with the drawing has been that it could also simply be depicting an Egyptian picking up another Egyptian who has fallen over, and differs from the kochler's position mainly in that the alleged "patient" is propping himself up using his other hand.
    1. Hussein, M. Kamel (1968). Kocfier's Method Is 3,000 Years Old. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British volume. 50-B (3): 669–671. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.50B3.669. ISSN 0301-620X.
  20. ^ Quote: "He was the first to describe penile fracture, managing the painful event by introducing the penis into a goose’s neck or a cannula. Thereafter, the penis was wrapped and bandaged [35]."
    1. Mohamed N. Saad (March 14th, 2016). Could Al-Zahrawi Be Considered a Biomedical Engineer?. IEEE Pulse. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  21. ^ Quote: "The Arab surgeon, Al-Zahrawi, was the first to describe hemophilia."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  22. ^ Quote: "Al Razi was the first to describe smallpox and measles. He was accurate to such a degree that nothing has been added since then."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  23. ^ Quote: "He was the first to describe meningitis and made rich contributions to anatomy, gynecology and child health. Also, he was the first physician to who suggested the treatment for lachrymal fistula and introduced medical probe the channel...In Since was the first scientist to describe the minute and graphic description of different parts of the eye, such as conjunctive sclera, come, choroids, iris, retina, layer lens, aqueous humor, optic nerve and optic chiasm."
    1. Hamid Wahed Alikuzai (October 2013). A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes. Trafford Publishing. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-4907-1446-2.
  24. ^ Quote: "Al Razi was the first to describe smallpox and measles. He was accurate to such a degree that nothing has been added since then."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  25. ^ Quote: "While searching ancient PM texts during 9th -19th A.D., there are many overlapping conditions, which may mimic this disorder. There are not any particular terms and definitions for dysmenorrhea, while, it is mentioned in Persian Medicine literature under different names such as Oja-e Rahem (Uterus pain), Osr-o Tams (dysmenorrhea) and Oja-e Zahr (back pain). There are many management lines for women in the TPM literature which have been of great interest to physicians throughout the history, but among menstrual changes, dysmenorrhea is not the earliest concern. First explanation of dysmenorrhea was found in the Al-Zahrawi‘s masterpiece of Al-tasrif in detail. It can be helpful to test these suggestions as ideas for clinical researches."
    1. Elham Behmanesh, Seyyed Ali Mozaffarpur (August 2017). Al-Zahrawi, The First Physician who Described Dysmenorrhea. Journal of Research For the The History of Persian Medicine. Vol 6. No. 3. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  26. ^ The most serious Western historiography maintains that the earliest descriptions of trigeminal neuralgia in the Western world was in 1773, by John Fothergill. However the same historians also note how trigeminal neuralgia is directly mentioned in a section by Avicenna himself.
    1. Mojtaba Heydari, Mesbah Shams, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur, Arman Zargaran, Behnam Dalfardi, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi (2015). THE ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN EARLY MEDIEVAL PERSIA (9TH-12TH CENTURY CE). Acta Med Hist Adriat 2015; 13(Supl. 2);9-22. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 28th, 2018.
  27. ^ It was disputed by certain authors in 2001, but they admitted they didn't understand the translations and were limited as a result in their interpretation, but an examination by the "American Journal of Diseases of Children" in 1971 had already clarified the matter, by confirming that Rhazes was indeed the first person in history to discover spina bifeda.
    1. Smith, G. Keys (2001). The history of spina bifida, hydrocephalus, paraplegia, and incontinence. Pediatric Surgery International. 17 (5–6): 424–432. doi:10.1007/s003830000553. ISSN 0179-0358.
    2. Radbill, Samuel X. (1971). The First Treatise on Pediatrics. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 122 (5): 369. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1971.02110050039001. ISSN 1072-4710.
  28. ^ For example Schmitt in 2017 fabricated a claim that Hippocrates discovered the disease, citing Lew, D. P., & Waldvogel, F. A. (2004). However Lew, D. P., & Waldvogel, F. A. (2004) did not make a single reference to Hippocrates or the disease.
    1. Schmitt, S. K. (2017). Osteomyelitis. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 31(2), 325–338. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2017.01.010.
    2. Lew, D. P., & Waldvogel, F. A. (2004). Osteomyelitis. The Lancet, 364(9431), 369–379. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(04)16727-5.
  29. ^ Hydrocephalus has been known for a long time, since at least ancient Egyptian times, dating to 2,500 BC, however the first surgery would not occur until 1000 AD.
    1. Tomycz, Luke D.; Hale, Andrew T.; George, Timothy M. (2017). Emerging Insights and New Perspectives on the Nature of Hydrocephalus. Pediatric Neurosurgery. 52 (6): 361–368. doi:10.1159/000484173. ISSN 1016-2291.
    There is no enough evidence to suggest that the Greeks treated the condition surgically; "Hippocrates...is often cited as the first to have performed ventricular punctures, although this point is debated, as it is possible he was merely draining the subdural or subarachnoid space". Indeed, "Hippocrates is thought to have recognised that water accumulating in the head caused it to swell and although he is credited with puncturing the dilated cerebral ventricles, hey may have only drained the subdural space, underlining the inability of ancient physicians to clearly distinguish between fluid collections inside or outside the brain, or even inside or outside the skull". Additionally on Hippocrates, the allegations that did surgery on hydrocephaly "remains no more than speculation and seems improbable, in view of the deficient anatomical knowledge of the time and the general preference of a conservative therapy". The Romans also lacked knowledge (as did the Byzantines); Galen, was entirely wrong about the condition and it lead to many mis-diagnosis and useless treatments. This also remained the case when it came to the Byzantines. Furthermore, according to Western historians, "[p]rior to the late 19th century" treatment in the West for hydrocephalus "involved more observation than intervention".
    1. Lifshutz, Jason I.; Johnson, Walter D. (2001). History of hydrocephalus and its treatments. Neurosurgical Focus: 1–5. doi:10.3171/foc.2001.11.2.2. ISSN 1092-0684.
    2. James M Drake; C. Sainte Rose (27 February 1995). The Shunt Book. Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-86542-220-9.
    3. Aschoff, A.; Kremer, Paul; Hashemi, Bahram; Kunze, Stefan (1999). The scientific history of hydrocephalus and its treatment. Neurosurgical Review. 22 (2–3): 67–93. doi:10.1007/s101430050035. ISSN 0344-5607.
    Furthermore, although claims of surgery have been spread in Western scholarship in the past, it is now recognised that "[o]perative procedures used in ancient times are neither proven by skull findings today nor clearly reported in the literature", but that "[e]vacuation of superficial intracranial fluid in hydrocephalic children was first described in detail in the tenth century by Abulkassim Al Zahrawi".
    1. Aschoff, A.; Kremer, Paul; Hashemi, Bahram; Kunze, Stefan (1999). The scientific history of hydrocephalus and its treatment. Neurosurgical Review. 22 (2–3): 67–93. doi:10.1007/s101430050035. ISSN 0344-5607.
    Zahrawi wrote how to successfully surgically operate and treat hydrocephalus; saying "[t]he skull of a newborn baby is often full of liquid, either because the matron has compressed it excessively or for other, unknown reasons. The volume of the skull then increases daily, so that the bones of the skull fail to close. In this case, we must open the middle of the skull in three places, make the liquid flow out, then close the wound and tighten the skull with a bandage", which strongly suggests that "this mode of therapy was actually practiced" successfully.
    1. Aschoff, A.; Kremer, Paul; Hashemi, Bahram; Kunze, Stefan (1999). The scientific history of hydrocephalus and its treatment. Neurosurgical Review. 22 (2–3): 67–93. doi:10.1007/s101430050035. ISSN 0344-5607.
    2. El Khamlichi, A. (1998). African neurosurgery part I: Historical outline. Surgical Neurology. 49 (2): 222–227. doi:10.1016/S0090-3019(96)00422-3. ISSN 0090-3019.
    From this analysis, it is clear that the Greeks, Romans and Byzantines did not understand hydrocephaly, and nor did they know how to successfully treat it. For this reason it has been disputed as to who actually truly discovered hydrocephaly first, and in Western scholarship it is recognised that Hippocrates, Galen and Zahrawi all discovered it first ("[i]ts discovery and treatment dates back to Hippocrates (fifth century B.C.), Galen (130–200 A.D.), and Al-Zahrawi (936–1013) who were the first to observe, describe, and propose treatment for hydrocephalus"), but certainly the evidence for Zahrawi indicates he was the first to discover it, since he both understand hydrocephaly itself leading him to successfully practice surgery in order treat it.
    1. Watson, Caroline C.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Loukas, Marios; Blount, Jeffrey P.; Tubbs, R. Shane (2013). William Watson Cheyne (1852–1932): a life in medicine and his innovative surgical treatment of congenital hydrocephalus. Child's Nervous System. 29 (11): 1961–1965. doi:10.1007/s00381-013-2220-7. ISSN 0256-7040.
  30. ^ Quote: "It was Razi who first divided facial distortion into spastic and paralytic disorders, described central and peripheral palsy and gave the first description of loss of forehead wrinkling in peripheral facial palsy".
    1. Aaron Fay; Peter J Dolman (4 November 2016). Diseases and Disorders of the Orbit and Ocular Adnexa E-Book: Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 579. ISBN 978-0-323-37724-9.
  31. ^ Quote "He delineated for the first time that hematuria may be caused by bladder stones and tumors and that the bile ducts and the intestines can be obstructed by cancer".
    1. Hajdu, Steven I. (2016). Pathfinders in oncology from ancient times to the end of the Middle Ages. Cancer. 122 (11): 1638–1646. doi:10.1002/cncr.29955. ISSN 0008-543X.
  32. ^ For example in, John Harper's "The History of Pediatric Dermatology", 3rd Edition, directly states "Avicenna (980-1037), whose Canon of Medicine exerted a great influence on medieval medicine, described an eruptive condition now considered to be scarlet fever".
    1. Harper, John (2011). The History of Paediatric Dermatology: 1–5. doi:10.1002/9781444345384.ch1.
  33. ^ Quote: "They also described that both these diseases form a single clinical entity and it is also associated with increased appetite in which satiety is not reached even after ingestion of great quantities of food. They considered lassitude of the extraocular muscles as the cause of this protrusion of eyes".
    1. Niazi, AsfandyarKhan; Irfan, Awais; Kalra, Sanjay; Islam, Aliya (2011). Thyroidology over the ages. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 15 (6): 121. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.83347. ISSN 2230-8210.
  34. ^ Quote: "The Arab surgeon, Al-Zahrawi, was the first to describe hemophilia."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  35. ^ Quote: "Al Razi was the first to describe smallpox and measles. He was accurate to such a degree that nothing has been added since then."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  36. ^ Quote: "He was the first to describe meningitis and made rich contributions to anatomy, gynecology and child health. Also, he was the first physician to who suggested the treatment for lachrymal fistula and introduced medical probe the channel...In Since was the first scientist to describe the minute and graphic description of different parts of the eye, such as conjunctive sclera, come, choroids, iris, retina, layer lens, aqueous humor, optic nerve and optic chiasm."
    1. Hamid Wahed Alikuzai (October 2013). A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes. Trafford Publishing. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-4907-1446-2.
  37. ^ Quote: "Al Razi was the first to describe smallpox and measles. He was accurate to such a degree that nothing has been added since then."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  38. ^ Quote: "While searching ancient PM texts during 9th -19th A.D., there are many overlapping conditions, which may mimic this disorder. There are not any particular terms and definitions for dysmenorrhea, while, it is mentioned in Persian Medicine literature under different names such as Oja-e Rahem (Uterus pain), Osr-o Tams (dysmenorrhea) and Oja-e Zahr (back pain). There are many management lines for women in the TPM literature which have been of great interest to physicians throughout the history, but among menstrual changes, dysmenorrhea is not the earliest concern. First explanation of dysmenorrhea was found in the Al-Zahrawi‘s masterpiece of Al-tasrif in detail. It can be helpful to test these suggestions as ideas for clinical researches."
    1. Elham Behmanesh, Seyyed Ali Mozaffarpur (August 2017). Al-Zahrawi, The First Physician who Described Dysmenorrhea. Journal of Research For the The History of Persian Medicine. Vol 6. No. 3. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  39. ^ The most serious Western historiography maintains that the earliest descriptions of trigeminal neuralgia in the Western world was in 1773, by John Fothergill. However the same historians also note how trigeminal neuralgia is directly mentioned in a section by Avicenna himself.
    1. Mojtaba Heydari, Mesbah Shams, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur, Arman Zargaran, Behnam Dalfardi, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi (2015). THE ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN EARLY MEDIEVAL PERSIA (9TH-12TH CENTURY CE). Acta Med Hist Adriat 2015; 13(Supl. 2);9-22. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 28th, 2018.
  40. ^ It was disputed by certain authors in 2001, but they admitted they didn't understand the translations and were limited as a result in their interpretation, but an examination by the "American Journal of Diseases of Children" in 1971 had already clarified the matter, by confirming that Rhazes was indeed the first person in history to discover spina bifeda.
    1. Smith, G. Keys (2001). The history of spina bifida, hydrocephalus, paraplegia, and incontinence. Pediatric Surgery International. 17 (5–6): 424–432. doi:10.1007/s003830000553. ISSN 0179-0358.
    2. Radbill, Samuel X. (1971). The First Treatise on Pediatrics. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 122 (5): 369. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1971.02110050039001. ISSN 1072-4710.
  41. ^ For example Schmitt in 2017 fabricated a claim that Hippocrates discovered the disease, citing Lew, D. P., & Waldvogel, F. A. (2004). However Lew, D. P., & Waldvogel, F. A. (2004) did not make a single reference to Hippocrates or the disease.
    1. Schmitt, S. K. (2017). Osteomyelitis. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 31(2), 325–338. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2017.01.010.
    2. Lew, D. P., & Waldvogel, F. A. (2004). Osteomyelitis. The Lancet, 364(9431), 369–379. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(04)16727-5.
  42. ^ Hydrocephalus has been known for a long time, since at least ancient Egyptian times, dating to 2,500 BC, however the first surgery would not occur until 1000 AD.
    1. Tomycz, Luke D.; Hale, Andrew T.; George, Timothy M. (2017). Emerging Insights and New Perspectives on the Nature of Hydrocephalus. Pediatric Neurosurgery. 52 (6): 361–368. doi:10.1159/000484173. ISSN 1016-2291.
    There is no enough evidence to suggest that the Greeks treated the condition surgically; "Hippocrates...is often cited as the first to have performed ventricular punctures, although this point is debated, as it is possible he was merely draining the subdural or subarachnoid space". Indeed, "Hippocrates is thought to have recognised that water accumulating in the head caused it to swell and although he is credited with puncturing the dilated cerebral ventricles, hey may have only drained the subdural space, underlining the inability of ancient physicians to clearly distinguish between fluid collections inside or outside the brain, or even inside or outside the skull". Additionally on Hippocrates, the allegations that did surgery on hydrocephaly "remains no more than speculation and seems improbable, in view of the deficient anatomical knowledge of the time and the general preference of a conservative therapy". The Romans also lacked knowledge (as did the Byzantines); Galen, was entirely wrong about the condition and it lead to many mis-diagnosis and useless treatments. This also remained the case when it came to the Byzantines. Furthermore, according to Western historians, "[p]rior to the late 19th century" treatment in the West for hydrocephalus "involved more observation than intervention".
    1. Lifshutz, Jason I.; Johnson, Walter D. (2001). History of hydrocephalus and its treatments. Neurosurgical Focus: 1–5. doi:10.3171/foc.2001.11.2.2. ISSN 1092-0684.
    2. James M Drake; C. Sainte Rose (27 February 1995). The Shunt Book. Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-86542-220-9.
    3. Aschoff, A.; Kremer, Paul; Hashemi, Bahram; Kunze, Stefan (1999). The scientific history of hydrocephalus and its treatment. Neurosurgical Review. 22 (2–3): 67–93. doi:10.1007/s101430050035. ISSN 0344-5607.
    Furthermore, although claims of surgery have been spread in Western scholarship in the past, it is now recognised that "[o]perative procedures used in ancient times are neither proven by skull findings today nor clearly reported in the literature", but that "[e]vacuation of superficial intracranial fluid in hydrocephalic children was first described in detail in the tenth century by Abulkassim Al Zahrawi".
    1. Aschoff, A.; Kremer, Paul; Hashemi, Bahram; Kunze, Stefan (1999). The scientific history of hydrocephalus and its treatment. Neurosurgical Review. 22 (2–3): 67–93. doi:10.1007/s101430050035. ISSN 0344-5607.
    Zahrawi wrote how to successfully surgically operate and treat hydrocephalus; saying "[t]he skull of a newborn baby is often full of liquid, either because the matron has compressed it excessively or for other, unknown reasons. The volume of the skull then increases daily, so that the bones of the skull fail to close. In this case, we must open the middle of the skull in three places, make the liquid flow out, then close the wound and tighten the skull with a bandage", which strongly suggests that "this mode of therapy was actually practiced" successfully.
    1. Aschoff, A.; Kremer, Paul; Hashemi, Bahram; Kunze, Stefan (1999). The scientific history of hydrocephalus and its treatment. Neurosurgical Review. 22 (2–3): 67–93. doi:10.1007/s101430050035. ISSN 0344-5607.
    2. El Khamlichi, A. (1998). African neurosurgery part I: Historical outline. Surgical Neurology. 49 (2): 222–227. doi:10.1016/S0090-3019(96)00422-3. ISSN 0090-3019.
    From this analysis, it is clear that the Greeks, Romans and Byzantines did not understand hydrocephaly, and nor did they know how to successfully treat it. For this reason it has been disputed as to who actually truly discovered hydrocephaly first, and in Western scholarship it is recognised that Hippocrates, Galen and Zahrawi all discovered it first ("[i]ts discovery and treatment dates back to Hippocrates (fifth century B.C.), Galen (130–200 A.D.), and Al-Zahrawi (936–1013) who were the first to observe, describe, and propose treatment for hydrocephalus"), but certainly the evidence for Zahrawi indicates he was the first to discover it, since he both understand hydrocephaly itself leading him to successfully practice surgery in order treat it.
    1. Watson, Caroline C.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Loukas, Marios; Blount, Jeffrey P.; Tubbs, R. Shane (2013). William Watson Cheyne (1852–1932): a life in medicine and his innovative surgical treatment of congenital hydrocephalus. Child's Nervous System. 29 (11): 1961–1965. doi:10.1007/s00381-013-2220-7. ISSN 0256-7040.
  43. ^ Quote: "It was Razi who first divided facial distortion into spastic and paralytic disorders, described central and peripheral palsy and gave the first description of loss of forehead wrinkling in peripheral facial palsy".
    1. Aaron Fay; Peter J Dolman (4 November 2016). Diseases and Disorders of the Orbit and Ocular Adnexa E-Book: Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 579. ISBN 978-0-323-37724-9.
  44. ^ Quote "He delineated for the first time that hematuria may be caused by bladder stones and tumors and that the bile ducts and the intestines can be obstructed by cancer".
    1. Hajdu, Steven I. (2016). Pathfinders in oncology from ancient times to the end of the Middle Ages. Cancer. 122 (11): 1638–1646. doi:10.1002/cncr.29955. ISSN 0008-543X.
  45. ^ For example in, John Harper's "The History of Pediatric Dermatology", 3rd Edition, directly states "Avicenna (980-1037), whose Canon of Medicine exerted a great influence on medieval medicine, described an eruptive condition now considered to be scarlet fever".
    1. Harper, John (2011). The History of Paediatric Dermatology: 1–5. doi:10.1002/9781444345384.ch1.
  46. ^ Quote: "They also described that both these diseases form a single clinical entity and it is also associated with increased appetite in which satiety is not reached even after ingestion of great quantities of food. They considered lassitude of the extraocular muscles as the cause of this protrusion of eyes".
    1. Niazi, AsfandyarKhan; Irfan, Awais; Kalra, Sanjay; Islam, Aliya (2011). Thyroidology over the ages. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 15 (6): 121. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.83347. ISSN 2230-8210.
  47. ^ Quote: "Al-Zahrawi was also the first surgeon in history to use cotton, which is an Arabic word, as surgical dressings for the control of haemorrhage."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  48. ^ Quote: "Al-Zahrawi was also the first surgeon in history to use cotton, which is an Arabic word, as surgical dressings for the control of haemorrhage."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  49. ^
    1. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part One The Emergence Of The Geber Problem Berthelot’s Assumptions. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    2. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2002) CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Two Jabir (Geber)’s Standing in the Latin West And the Translator of the Liber fornacum. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    3. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2003) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Three Berthelot’s Motives in Choosing the Wrong Arabic Alchemical Treatises And The Extant Arabic Works of Jabir on Theoretical and Practical Alchemy and Chemistry. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    4. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2004) THE ARABIC ORIGIN OF THE SUMMA AND GEBER LATIN WORKS: A REFUTATION OF BERTHELOT, RUSKA AND NEWMAN ON THE BASIS OF ARABIC SOURCES. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
  50. ^ Quote: "The Persian al-Razi (865-925) discovered the use of alcohol as an antiseptic and wrote the first treatise on pediatrics, as well as more than 180 books and articles. Persian scientists emphasised the importance of methodology, and Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) wrote his Book of Optics, for which he is regarded as the father of optics. The surgical needle was invented and described by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi in his Al-Tasrif in the year 1000. The Iraqi surgeon Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili invented the first injection syringe in the 9th century using a hollow glass tube and suction to extract and remove cataracts from patients' eyes."
    1. John I. Gallin; Frederick P Ognibene; Laura Lee Johnson (17 November 2017). Principles and Practice of Clinical Research. Elsevier Science. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-12-849904-7.
  51. ^ Quote: "Avicenna devised the concept of anesthetics. The Arabs developed a "sporific sponge" (impregnanted with aromatics and narcotics and held under the patients's nose), which preceded modern anesthesia."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  52. ^ Quote: "The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."
    1. Sigrid Hunke (1990). Allahs Sonne über dem Abendland: unser arabisches Erbe. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag. pp. 279–280. ISBN 978-3-596-23543-8.
  53. ^ Candidates for the authorship consist of two authors. Namely, the mathematician Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti (950—1007), and Abu l-Qasiim Maslama bin Qasim al-Qurtubi (d. 964). However, it is notable that the Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun (1332—1406) credited it's authorship to Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti.
    1. Chris Bennett (20 April 2018). Liber 420: Cannabis, Magickal Herbs and the Occult. Trine Day. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-1-63424-227-1.
    2. Pingree, David (1980). Some of the Sources of the Ghayat al-hakim. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 43: 1. doi:10.2307/751185. ISSN 0075-4390.
  54. ^ Curiously modern western scholars have have either mistakenly or deliberately given antiquity credit for having first used catgut, when systematic reviews on the history of suture prior to the 20th century make no mention of this (only ligature). For example in 1909 a systematic historical review was carried out which detailed the history of the suture, which specifically made no mention of anyone having used catgut prior to Rhazes and Zahrawi who used it to sow internal organs; indeed only ligatures and "tying arteries" were ever mentioned.
    1. Marcy, Henry O. (1909). THE SUTURE: ITS PLACE IN SURGERY. Journal of the American Medical Association. LII (3): 201. doi:10.1001/jama.1909.25420290027001e. ISSN 0002-9955.
    However the strongest evidence comes from the Scottish historian, personal doctor of the Queen, and Professor of Medicine and Midwifery at the University of Edinburgh, James Young Simpson, who, writing in 1858 also directly makes no mention of Galen ever having used catgut, and instead elaborates that he only used lint and wool. Furthermore he gives credit to Rhazes and Albucasis for having first used catgut in medicine.
    1. The Medical Times and Gazette. J. & A. Churchill. 1858. p. 571.
      1. The full title of the article found within this book is by J. Y. Simpson (June 5th, 1858). It is titled "Metallic Sutures and Metallic Ligatures in Surgical Wounds and Operations. Part I.-Metallic and Other Threads in Surgery; Their History". A digitized copy of the book in which the article is found, is in the collection of the University of Michigan, USA. The historian of medicine's full name is James Young Simpson, Professor of Medicine and Midwifery at the University of Edinburgh, and Physician to the Queen in Scotland. A partial transcript is shown below.
    Quote: "Among modern surgerons silk is the materia most generally employed for forming the threads which they use, both to stitch together the lips of wounds, and as ligatures for the deligation of the mouths of the blood-vessels cut across by the course of the knife. Some surgeons, however, prefer for these two purposes threads made of flax or hemp. Various other materials from the animal and vegetable kingdoms have been at various times suggested and tried as surgical threads and ligatures, such as silkworm-gut; cat-gut; wool; inkle, hairs, strips of leather, of parchment, and of buck-skin; strings of tendon and of nerves; lines of isinglass; caoutchoue; cotton, etc". Quote: "In olden surgery threads of flax, hemp, and latterly of silk, seem to have been most commonly employed for sutures (a). Some forms, however, of surgical threads that are supposed to have been first proposed in modern times were not unknown in acient times. For instance, there has been some discussion as to who first proposed surgical threads made of animal materials. Catgut was publicly suggested as a proper substance for sutures and ligatures in 1813 by the learned Dr. Thomas Young (b); and it has been doubted and questioned whether the proposal to use animal ligatures was or was not made earlier in America by Dr. Physick of Philadelphia (c). But in all probability catgut, the form of animal thread or ligature that has been most frequently tried in modern practice, was employed in surgical sutures eight or nine hundred years ago. The celebrated Arabic writer Rhazes, who practised at Baghdad about A. D. 900, speaks (d) of stitching up wounds of the abdomen, with a thread made of the string of the lute or harp ("corda liutti vel cithare") (e). And another Arabian author, Albucasis, who lived a century or two later, alludes in the same class of wounds to stitching a wounded bowel with a fine thread made of the twisted intestine of an animal "filo subtili, quod abstersum est ex intestino animalis annexo" (f).".
    Quote: "(a) Few or none of the anicent medical authors speak explicitly as to the material of which their surgical threads were composed. In one passage Galen incidentally alludes to suture threads being made of lint or wool...Paulus Aegineta mentions threads of woold for stitching wounds of the abdomen...Fabricius Hildanus recommends the vessels in amputation to be tied, when deligation is used, with hempen thread...and he further speaks of sewing the edges of the wound together with silk...Severius advises his followers to use for wounds a slender suture thread of cotton...".
    Quote: "(b) See Dr. Young's Introduction to Medical Literature, 1813. "I have often (says Dr. Young) wished to try ligatures of catgut which might be absorbed."-p. 448. In the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal for 1818. vol. xv. p. 155, Dr. Young states that he proposed catgut ligatures to several surgical friends "ten years before," or in 1808.".
    Quote: "(c) Reese and Jamieson's American Edition of Cooper's "Surgical Dictionary," article, "Ligature." "To our distinguished countrymen, Professor Physick, of the University of Pennsylvania, is undoutedly due the honour of having first introduced in 1814, what is known as the animal ligature into Surgical practice. His ligatures are made of Chamois leather"".
    Quote: "(d) Continens Rasis, lib. xxviii.; p. 344 of Venice edition of 1509".
    Quote: "(e) At least the strings of the ancient Egyptian, and hence probably of the Arabic harp, were made of catgut. "The strings of Egyptian harps were," says Sir P. Gardner Wilkinson, "of catgut, as of the lyres still used in Nubia." (Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians, vol. i. pp. 111 and 118, etc) "Wire strings (he elsewhere observes) were not used by the Egyptians in any of their (musical) instruments, catgut being alone employed."-Ib. p. 125. The strings or cords of the old Greek harp were, in the time of Homer, formed, as we learn from one of his similes in the Odyssey, of the twisted intestine of the sheep...The word "cord," as applied to the strings of the harp, etc., is itself, in fact, sufficiently indicative of the material of the strings, as originally the term...simply signifies intestine."
    Quote: "(f) Methodus Modendi, lib. II. e. 85."
    Thus, the claim that Galen knew used or knew of catgut in suturing is doubtful and therefore appears to be a modern forgery of his achievements. The single largest piece of evidence however that the claim people using catgut before Rhazes or Zahrawi is fraudulent is that Galen's book, the [De] Methodus Modendi (which is often quoted as the book containing Galen's reference to catgut), was examined by J. Y. Simpson himself and used as a reference (under citation (f)), which during his time, it is clear from his analysis, did not contain any mention of catgut by Galen. Other notable medical figures he mentioned, he also similarly did not find evidence that they used catgut either.
  55. ^
    1. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part One The Emergence Of The Geber Problem Berthelot’s Assumptions. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    2. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2002) CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Two Jabir (Geber)’s Standing in the Latin West And the Translator of the Liber fornacum. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    3. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2003) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Three Berthelot’s Motives in Choosing the Wrong Arabic Alchemical Treatises And The Extant Arabic Works of Jabir on Theoretical and Practical Alchemy and Chemistry. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    4. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2004) THE ARABIC ORIGIN OF THE SUMMA AND GEBER LATIN WORKS: A REFUTATION OF BERTHELOT, RUSKA AND NEWMAN ON THE BASIS OF ARABIC SOURCES. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
  56. ^
    1. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part One The Emergence Of The Geber Problem Berthelot’s Assumptions. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    2. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2002) CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Two Jabir (Geber)’s Standing in the Latin West And the Translator of the Liber fornacum. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    3. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2003) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Three Berthelot’s Motives in Choosing the Wrong Arabic Alchemical Treatises And The Extant Arabic Works of Jabir on Theoretical and Practical Alchemy and Chemistry. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    4. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2004) THE ARABIC ORIGIN OF THE SUMMA AND GEBER LATIN WORKS: A REFUTATION OF BERTHELOT, RUSKA AND NEWMAN ON THE BASIS OF ARABIC SOURCES. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
  57. ^
    1. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part One The Emergence Of The Geber Problem Berthelot’s Assumptions. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    2. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2002) CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Two Jabir (Geber)’s Standing in the Latin West And the Translator of the Liber fornacum. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    3. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2003) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Three Berthelot’s Motives in Choosing the Wrong Arabic Alchemical Treatises And The Extant Arabic Works of Jabir on Theoretical and Practical Alchemy and Chemistry. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    4. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2004) THE ARABIC ORIGIN OF THE SUMMA AND GEBER LATIN WORKS: A REFUTATION OF BERTHELOT, RUSKA AND NEWMAN ON THE BASIS OF ARABIC SOURCES. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
  58. ^ Quote: "The Persian al-Razi (865-925) discovered the use of alcohol as an antiseptic and wrote the first treatise on pediatrics, as well as more than 180 books and articles. Persian scientists emphasised the importance of methodology, and Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) wrote his Book of Optics, for which he is regarded as the father of optics. The surgical needle was invented and described by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi in his Al-Tasrif in the year 1000. The Iraqi surgeon Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili invented the first injection syringe in the 9th century using a hollow glass tube and suction to extract and remove cataracts from patients' eyes."
    1. John I. Gallin; Frederick P Ognibene; Laura Lee Johnson (17 November 2017). Principles and Practice of Clinical Research. Elsevier Science. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-12-849904-7.
  59. ^ Quote: "Avicenna devised the concept of anesthetics. The Arabs developed a "sporific sponge" (impregnanted with aromatics and narcotics and held under the patients's nose), which preceded modern anesthesia."
    1. Joseph E. Pizzorno (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 435. ISBN 1-4377-2333-0.
  60. ^ Quote: "The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."
    1. Sigrid Hunke (1990). Allahs Sonne über dem Abendland: unser arabisches Erbe. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag. pp. 279–280. ISBN 978-3-596-23543-8.
  61. ^ Candidates for the authorship consist of two authors. Namely, the mathematician Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti (950—1007), and Abu l-Qasiim Maslama bin Qasim al-Qurtubi (d. 964). However, it is notable that the Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun (1332—1406) credited it's authorship to Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti.
    1. Chris Bennett (20 April 2018). Liber 420: Cannabis, Magickal Herbs and the Occult. Trine Day. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-1-63424-227-1.
    2. Pingree, David (1980). Some of the Sources of the Ghayat al-hakim. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 43: 1. doi:10.2307/751185. ISSN 0075-4390.
  62. ^ Curiously modern western scholars have have either mistakenly or deliberately given antiquity credit for having first used catgut, when systematic reviews on the history of suture prior to the 20th century make no mention of this (only ligature). For example in 1909 a systematic historical review was carried out which detailed the history of the suture, which specifically made no mention of anyone having used catgut prior to Rhazes and Zahrawi who used it to sow internal organs; indeed only ligatures and "tying arteries" were ever mentioned.
    1. Marcy, Henry O. (1909). THE SUTURE: ITS PLACE IN SURGERY. Journal of the American Medical Association. LII (3): 201. doi:10.1001/jama.1909.25420290027001e. ISSN 0002-9955.
    However the strongest evidence comes from the Scottish historian, personal doctor of the Queen, and Professor of Medicine and Midwifery at the University of Edinburgh, James Young Simpson, who, writing in 1858 also directly makes no mention of Galen ever having used catgut, and instead elaborates that he only used lint and wool. Furthermore he gives credit to Rhazes and Albucasis for having first used catgut in medicine.
    1. The Medical Times and Gazette. J. & A. Churchill. 1858. p. 571.
      1. The full title of the article found within this book is by J. Y. Simpson (June 5th, 1858). It is titled "Metallic Sutures and Metallic Ligatures in Surgical Wounds and Operations. Part I.-Metallic and Other Threads in Surgery; Their History". A digitized copy of the book in which the article is found, is in the collection of the University of Michigan, USA. The historian of medicine's full name is James Young Simpson, Professor of Medicine and Midwifery at the University of Edinburgh, and Physician to the Queen in Scotland. A partial transcript is shown below.
    Quote: "Among modern surgerons silk is the materia most generally employed for forming the threads which they use, both to stitch together the lips of wounds, and as ligatures for the deligation of the mouths of the blood-vessels cut across by the course of the knife. Some surgeons, however, prefer for these two purposes threads made of flax or hemp. Various other materials from the animal and vegetable kingdoms have been at various times suggested and tried as surgical threads and ligatures, such as silkworm-gut; cat-gut; wool; inkle, hairs, strips of leather, of parchment, and of buck-skin; strings of tendon and of nerves; lines of isinglass; caoutchoue; cotton, etc". Quote: "In olden surgery threads of flax, hemp, and latterly of silk, seem to have been most commonly employed for sutures (a). Some forms, however, of surgical threads that are supposed to have been first proposed in modern times were not unknown in acient times. For instance, there has been some discussion as to who first proposed surgical threads made of animal materials. Catgut was publicly suggested as a proper substance for sutures and ligatures in 1813 by the learned Dr. Thomas Young (b); and it has been doubted and questioned whether the proposal to use animal ligatures was or was not made earlier in America by Dr. Physick of Philadelphia (c). But in all probability catgut, the form of animal thread or ligature that has been most frequently tried in modern practice, was employed in surgical sutures eight or nine hundred years ago. The celebrated Arabic writer Rhazes, who practised at Baghdad about A. D. 900, speaks (d) of stitching up wounds of the abdomen, with a thread made of the string of the lute or harp ("corda liutti vel cithare") (e). And another Arabian author, Albucasis, who lived a century or two later, alludes in the same class of wounds to stitching a wounded bowel with a fine thread made of the twisted intestine of an animal "filo subtili, quod abstersum est ex intestino animalis annexo" (f).".
    Quote: "(a) Few or none of the anicent medical authors speak explicitly as to the material of which their surgical threads were composed. In one passage Galen incidentally alludes to suture threads being made of lint or wool...Paulus Aegineta mentions threads of woold for stitching wounds of the abdomen...Fabricius Hildanus recommends the vessels in amputation to be tied, when deligation is used, with hempen thread...and he further speaks of sewing the edges of the wound together with silk...Severius advises his followers to use for wounds a slender suture thread of cotton...".
    Quote: "(b) See Dr. Young's Introduction to Medical Literature, 1813. "I have often (says Dr. Young) wished to try ligatures of catgut which might be absorbed."-p. 448. In the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal for 1818. vol. xv. p. 155, Dr. Young states that he proposed catgut ligatures to several surgical friends "ten years before," or in 1808.".
    Quote: "(c) Reese and Jamieson's American Edition of Cooper's "Surgical Dictionary," article, "Ligature." "To our distinguished countrymen, Professor Physick, of the University of Pennsylvania, is undoutedly due the honour of having first introduced in 1814, what is known as the animal ligature into Surgical practice. His ligatures are made of Chamois leather"".
    Quote: "(d) Continens Rasis, lib. xxviii.; p. 344 of Venice edition of 1509".
    Quote: "(e) At least the strings of the ancient Egyptian, and hence probably of the Arabic harp, were made of catgut. "The strings of Egyptian harps were," says Sir P. Gardner Wilkinson, "of catgut, as of the lyres still used in Nubia." (Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians, vol. i. pp. 111 and 118, etc) "Wire strings (he elsewhere observes) were not used by the Egyptians in any of their (musical) instruments, catgut being alone employed."-Ib. p. 125. The strings or cords of the old Greek harp were, in the time of Homer, formed, as we learn from one of his similes in the Odyssey, of the twisted intestine of the sheep...The word "cord," as applied to the strings of the harp, etc., is itself, in fact, sufficiently indicative of the material of the strings, as originally the term...simply signifies intestine."
    Quote: "(f) Methodus Modendi, lib. II. e. 85."
    Thus, the claim that Galen knew used or knew of catgut in suturing is doubtful and therefore appears to be a modern forgery of his achievements. The single largest piece of evidence however that the claim people using catgut before Rhazes or Zahrawi is fraudulent is that Galen's book, the [De] Methodus Modendi (which is often quoted as the book containing Galen's reference to catgut), was examined by J. Y. Simpson himself and used as a reference (under citation (f)), which during his time, it is clear from his analysis, did not contain any mention of catgut by Galen. Other notable medical figures he mentioned, he also similarly did not find evidence that they used catgut either.
  63. ^
    1. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part One The Emergence Of The Geber Problem Berthelot’s Assumptions. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    2. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2002) CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Two Jabir (Geber)’s Standing in the Latin West And the Translator of the Liber fornacum. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    3. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2003) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Three Berthelot’s Motives in Choosing the Wrong Arabic Alchemical Treatises And The Extant Arabic Works of Jabir on Theoretical and Practical Alchemy and Chemistry. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    4. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2004) THE ARABIC ORIGIN OF THE SUMMA AND GEBER LATIN WORKS: A REFUTATION OF BERTHELOT, RUSKA AND NEWMAN ON THE BASIS OF ARABIC SOURCES. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
  64. ^
    1. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part One The Emergence Of The Geber Problem Berthelot’s Assumptions. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    2. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2002) CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Two Jabir (Geber)’s Standing in the Latin West And the Translator of the Liber fornacum. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    3. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2003) A CRITICAL REASSESSMENT OF THE GEBER PROBLEM Part Three Berthelot’s Motives in Choosing the Wrong Arabic Alchemical Treatises And The Extant Arabic Works of Jabir on Theoretical and Practical Alchemy and Chemistry. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
    4. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2004) THE ARABIC ORIGIN OF THE SUMMA AND GEBER LATIN WORKS: A REFUTATION OF BERTHELOT, RUSKA AND NEWMAN ON THE BASIS OF ARABIC SOURCES. History, Science, Technology. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 24th, 2018.
  65. ^ :Quote: "Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (1000), proved false the view that the "fetus swims out of womb" (per Hippocrates, Galen, Ptolemy", showing instead that it is aided by uterine contractions."
    1. Robert Kretsinger (29 April 2015). History and Philosophy of Biology. World Scientific Publishing Company. p. 24. ISBN 978-981-4635-06-6.
  66. ^ :Quote: "Al-Zahrawi was the first to describe the so-called "Walcher Position" in obstetrics; the first to depict dental arches, tongue depressors and lead catheters and the first to describe clearly the hereditary circumstances surrounding haemophilia. He also described ligaturing of blood vessels long before Ambroise Pare."
    1. Sharif Kaf Al-Ghazal (2003). Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis) - A Light in the Dark Middles in Europe. Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  67. ^ Quote: "El Zahrawi was the first to describe 'Walcher's position' for difficult labour (2,7) and 'Cred&'s method' for extraction of the retained placenta (2). He also described perforating the fetal head and emptying it in order to permit delivery. He devised and used forceps applied to the fetal head to pull on it (8); thus he preceded the famous Chamberlen family in the use of forceps in obstetrics.".
    1. Ismail A. Nabri (1983). El Zahrawi (936-1013 AD), the father of operative surgery. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Vol. 65. pg. 132-133. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  68. ^ Quote: "Heller stated that Al-Zahrawi described the ligature of arteries long before Ambrose Pare (Khairallah 1942). Al-Zahrawi also used cautery to control bleeding. He used wax and alcohol to stop bleeding from the skull during cranial surgery. Sprengel said that AlZahrawi was the first to teach the lithotomy position for vaginal operations (Khairallah 1942)."
    1. Mohamad Qari (2010). Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis). Journal of Appplied Hematology. Department of Hematology, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  69. ^ :Quote: "Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (1000), proved false the view that the "fetus swims out of womb" (per Hippocrates, Galen, Ptolemy", showing instead that it is aided by uterine contractions."
    1. Robert Kretsinger (29 April 2015). History and Philosophy of Biology. World Scientific Publishing Company. p. 24. ISBN 978-981-4635-06-6.
  70. ^ :Quote: "Al-Zahrawi was the first to describe the so-called "Walcher Position" in obstetrics; the first to depict dental arches, tongue depressors and lead catheters and the first to describe clearly the hereditary circumstances surrounding haemophilia. He also described ligaturing of blood vessels long before Ambroise Pare."
    1. Sharif Kaf Al-Ghazal (2003). Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis) - A Light in the Dark Middles in Europe. Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  71. ^ Quote: "El Zahrawi was the first to describe 'Walcher's position' for difficult labour (2,7) and 'Cred&'s method' for extraction of the retained placenta (2). He also described perforating the fetal head and emptying it in order to permit delivery. He devised and used forceps applied to the fetal head to pull on it (8); thus he preceded the famous Chamberlen family in the use of forceps in obstetrics.".
    1. Ismail A. Nabri (1983). El Zahrawi (936-1013 AD), the father of operative surgery. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Vol. 65. pg. 132-133. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  72. ^ Quote: "Heller stated that Al-Zahrawi described the ligature of arteries long before Ambrose Pare (Khairallah 1942). Al-Zahrawi also used cautery to control bleeding. He used wax and alcohol to stop bleeding from the skull during cranial surgery. Sprengel said that AlZahrawi was the first to teach the lithotomy position for vaginal operations (Khairallah 1942)."
    1. Mohamad Qari (2010). Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis). Journal of Appplied Hematology. Department of Hematology, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  73. ^ Quote: "A concealed knife used to open abcesses in a manner designed not to alarm the patient appears to be an invention of al-Zahrawi".
    1. Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy and life sciences. CRC Press. p. 946. ISBN 978-0-415-12412-6.
  74. ^ Quote: "Al-Zahrawi also invented a knife for lancing abscesses, which was designed so as not to alarm the patient. The instrument, which he called the "deceiver", was made by concealing the blade between two curved plates attached to a handle so that it could be extended for use only as needed."
    1. William Henry York (2012). Health and Wellness in Antiquity Through the Middle Ages. ABC-CLIO. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-313-37865-2.
  75. ^ Quote: "He...developed the trocar for paracentesis, the tonsil guillotine, a full set of gynecological instruments, and the concealed knife or deceiver for incising abscesses...he invented surgical scissors, as mentioned above, as well as the syringe and the formula for a kind of compound plaster."
    1. Montagnani, C. A. (1986). Pediatric Surgery in Islamic Medicine from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. 20: 39–51. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-70825-1_5. ISSN 0079-6654.
  76. ^ Quote: "Abulcasis also made some original descriptions of manufacture and use of probes, surgical knives and scalpels of diverse shapes and designs; he invented several types of surgical scissors and forceps".
    1. Luisa Maria Arvide Cambra (May 2016). Abulcasis Al-Zahrawi, The Surgeon Of Al-Andalus. European Scientific Journal. ISSN: 857–7881 (Print). ISSN 1857-7431.
  77. ^ Quote: "Circumcision was not described by either Celsus or Paul of Aegina. The latter described only the excision of blackened prepuce in gangrenous infections. Therefore, as related by Spink and Lewis, al-Zahrawi was the first to describe the dissection technique of circumcision performed with scissors (Fig. 4), an instrument he was the first to make use of in surgery [31]."
    1. Hecker, W. Ch. (1986). "The History of Pediatric Surgery in Germany". Vol. 20. pg. 259-260. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-70825-1_1. ISSN 0079-6654.
  78. ^ The illustrations of different kinds of scissors reported in the arabic manuscripts leave no doubt that they are modern scissors and not shears as mentioned in the latest work of Ce1sus, Antyllius, and Paul of Aegina. It is quite possible that scissors were first invented by the Arabs if not by Albucasis himself. They were large or small, pointed, or with the blades at right angles with the shaft or with a blunted tip as described here. It is also interesting to note the recommendation about the balanced length of shaft and blades which will transmit the right sensation to the fingers when thick and rather board tissues, as for instance the four layers of the prepuce have to be cut.
    1. Hecker, W. Ch. (1986). "The History of Pediatric Surgery in Germany". 20: 1–8. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-70825-1_1. ISSN 0079-6654.
  79. ^ Quote: "El Zahrawi wrote about 'pulsating' and 'non-pulsating' vessels, which means that he was conscious of the difference between arteries and veins (7). He was the first surgeon to use the aneurysm needle and it is said that he was the first to use catgut (2)".
    1. Ismail A. Nabri (1983). El Zahrawi (936-1013 AD), the father of operative surgery. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Vol. 65. pg. 132-133. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  80. ^ Quote: "The surgical needle was invented and described by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi in his Al-Tasrif in the year 1000. The Iraqi surgeon Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili invented the first injection syringe in the 9th century using a hollow glass tube and suction to extract and remove cataracts from patients' eyes."
    1. John I. Gallin; Frederick P Ognibene; Laura Lee Johnson (17 November 2017). Principles and Practice of Clinical Research. Elsevier Science. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-12-849904-7.
  81. ^ Quote: "AI-Zahrawi also designed a special forceps he called Kalalib (Fig. 3), which he used for crushing a large vesical stone through a perineal cystotomy. It was in fact a primitive lithotrite: " ... But if the stone be very large, it is foolish to make a great incision down upon it, for the result is that the patient either dies or has a chronic urinary fistula because the place will not heal at all. Try rather to manipulate it so that it protrudes, or else attempt to break it up with the forceps so that you can extract it piecemeal" (cited by [31, pp. 414-415]). ""
    1. Hecker, W. Ch. (1986). "The History of Pediatric Surgery in Germany". Vol. 20. pg. 259-260. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-70825-1_1. ISSN 0079-6654.
  82. ^ Quote: "Alzahrawi is the first to describe a technique and an instrument to crush a large stone inside the bladder, thus, enabling its piecemeal removal. That innovation by Alzahrawi was an important landmark in the development and evolution of bladder stone surgery as it helped to decrease the mortality and morbidity of the operation. He vividly warned that it may result to death or permanent incontinence if a very large incision was resorted for extracting a very large intact stone. He condemned that procedure and considered it utter ignorance. Both Spink and Lewis4 and Kirkup22 considered Alzahrawi’s innovation of crushing a stone inside the bladder, to enable its piecemeal extraction, as the foundation of the lithotripsy principle. ".
    1. Rabie E. Abdel-Halim; Ali S. Altwaijiri; Salah R. Elfaqih; Ahmad H. Mitwalli (2003). Extraction of urinary bladder stone as described by Abul-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Alzahrawi (Albucasis) (325-404 H, 930-1013 AD). King Saud University, College of Medicine. King Khalid University Hospital. Vol. 24. Issue. No. 12. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2018.
  83. ^ Quote: "“…it is necessary to detach the whole of the perimeter of the gum from the tooth with a sufficiently strong scalpel; then, either with the fingers or with pair of light forceps, the molar should be rocked gently until it becomes loose. Then, the surgeon, holding the patient’s head firmly between his knees, should apply a stronger pair of forceps and withdraw the tooth vertically so as not to break it.".
    1. Antonio López-Valverde, Nansi López-Valverde-Hernández, Manuel Bravo, Rafael Gómez de Diego, Eva Rosel, Cristina Gómez Polo, Gustavo Camañas, Javier Montero (2015). Dental Practice in Al-Andalus (Spain) in the 10th And 11 Centuries Ce: Abulcasis Al-Zarahwi. Vol. 2. Issue. No. 3. p. 64-70. [WayBackMachine Link]. Retrieved December 1st, 2018.
  84. ^ Quote: "Albucasis is also named as the creator of tooth extractors, obstetric devices (including forceps), a hook to remove nasal polyps, syringes to peform enemas and various surgical knives and saws."
    1. Fred Ramen (15 January 2006). Albucasis (Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi): Renowned Muslim Surgeon of the Tenth Century. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-4042-0510-9.
  85. ^ There is no evidence that the Greeks used tools as they left no drawings of their alleged creations, despite the presence of their writings.
    Quote: "Writing for his fellow doctors, Albucassis was aware of the importance of conveying images of the instruments for the teaching of surgery. Greek-Roman and Byzantine authors left no drawings. No ancient catalogue has come to us."
    1. Maria Do Sameiro Barroso (Unknown). Albucasis: A Landmark for Arabic and European Surgery. Muslim Heritage. Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2018.
    Thus, throughout European/Western scholarship it has largely been assumed they knew of these tools; "As the Scottish doctor and surgeon, John Stuart Milne (1806-1873), noted, they had always some kind of air de famille (Milne, 1907, p. 18).".
    1. Maria Do Sameiro Barroso (Unknown). Albucasis: A Landmark for Arabic and European Surgery. Muslim Heritage. Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2018.
    However, assumption is not indicative that they had had them, as they do not appear in the historical record.
  86. ^ Quote: "In this section Abulcasi offers a perfect argument that tartar is the main cause of gum inflammation and recommends that it should be removed by a scraping and smoothening of the roots. He describes 14 instruments (mijrads) designed by himself for such purposes [5] (Fig. 3).".
    1. Antonio López-Valverde, Nansi López-Valverde-Hernández, Manuel Bravo, Rafael Gómez de Diego, Eva Rosel, Cristina Gómez Polo, Gustavo Camañas, Javier Montero (2015). Dental Practice in Al-Andalus (Spain) in the 10th And 11 Centuries Ce: Abulcasis Al-Zarahwi. Vol. 2. Issue. No. 3. p. 64-70. [WayBackMachine Link]. Retrieved December 1st, 2018.
  87. ^ Quote: "For tooth extraction, the entire step by step, from the position of the patients to the instrument selection, the amount of force needed are described. Al-Zahrawi also mentioned the surgical extraction of a badly carious teeth by separating the decayed tooth from the gums with the aid of a scalpel to avoid tooth fracture [8-10, 14, 21]".
    1. Fareedi Mukram Ali; Ghassan Al-Iryani; Muzaffar Faridi; Mohammed Faqeeh; Huda Mdabesh (2017). REVISITING ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGICAL VIEWS AS PRACTICED BY AL-ZAHRAWI: A REVIEW. International Arab Journal of Dentistry. Vol 8. Issue. No. 3. Faculty of Dental Medicine University of Saint Joseph. [WayBackMachine Link]. Retrieved December 1st, 2018.
  88. ^ Quote: "He was the first to write on orthodontia."
    1. Mohamad Qari (2010). Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis). Journal of Appplied Hematology. Department of Hematology, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  89. ^ :Quote: "Al-Zahrawi was the first to describe the so-called "Walcher Position" in obstetrics; the first to depict dental arches, tongue depressors and lead catheters and the first to describe clearly the hereditary circumstances surrounding haemophilia. He also described ligaturing of blood vessels long before Ambroise Pare."
    1. Sharif Kaf Al-Ghazal (2003). Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis) - A Light in the Dark Middles in Europe. Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  90. ^ Quote: "In addition to his many surgical techniques, Albucasis developed a variety of surgical instruments...even the humble tongue depressor."
    1. Fred Ramen (15 January 2006). Albucasis (Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi): Renowned Muslim Surgeon of the Tenth Century. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-4042-0510-9.
  91. ^ Quote: "A concealed knife used to open abcesses in a manner designed not to alarm the patient appears to be an invention of al-Zahrawi".
    1. Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy and life sciences. CRC Press. p. 946. ISBN 978-0-415-12412-6.
  92. ^ Quote: "Al-Zahrawi also invented a knife for lancing abscesses, which was designed so as not to alarm the patient. The instrument, which he called the "deceiver", was made by concealing the blade between two curved plates attached to a handle so that it could be extended for use only as needed."
    1. William Henry York (2012). Health and Wellness in Antiquity Through the Middle Ages. ABC-CLIO. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-313-37865-2.
  93. ^ Quote: "He...developed the trocar for paracentesis, the tonsil guillotine, a full set of gynecological instruments, and the concealed knife or deceiver for incising abscesses...he invented surgical scissors, as mentioned above, as well as the syringe and the formula for a kind of compound plaster."
    1. Montagnani, C. A. (1986). Pediatric Surgery in Islamic Medicine from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. 20: 39–51. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-70825-1_5. ISSN 0079-6654.
  94. ^ Quote: "Abulcasis also made some original descriptions of manufacture and use of probes, surgical knives and scalpels of diverse shapes and designs; he invented several types of surgical scissors and forceps".
    1. Luisa Maria Arvide Cambra (May 2016). Abulcasis Al-Zahrawi, The Surgeon Of Al-Andalus. European Scientific Journal. ISSN: 857–7881 (Print). ISSN 1857-7431.
  95. ^ Quote: "Circumcision was not described by either Celsus or Paul of Aegina. The latter described only the excision of blackened prepuce in gangrenous infections. Therefore, as related by Spink and Lewis, al-Zahrawi was the first to describe the dissection technique of circumcision performed with scissors (Fig. 4), an instrument he was the first to make use of in surgery [31]."
    1. Hecker, W. Ch. (1986). "The History of Pediatric Surgery in Germany". Vol. 20. pg. 259-260. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-70825-1_1. ISSN 0079-6654.
  96. ^ The illustrations of different kinds of scissors reported in the arabic manuscripts leave no doubt that they are modern scissors and not shears as mentioned in the latest work of Ce1sus, Antyllius, and Paul of Aegina. It is quite possible that scissors were first invented by the Arabs if not by Albucasis himself. They were large or small, pointed, or with the blades at right angles with the shaft or with a blunted tip as described here. It is also interesting to note the recommendation about the balanced length of shaft and blades which will transmit the right sensation to the fingers when thick and rather board tissues, as for instance the four layers of the prepuce have to be cut.
    1. Hecker, W. Ch. (1986). "The History of Pediatric Surgery in Germany". 20: 1–8. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-70825-1_1. ISSN 0079-6654.
  97. ^ Quote: "El Zahrawi wrote about 'pulsating' and 'non-pulsating' vessels, which means that he was conscious of the difference between arteries and veins (7). He was the first surgeon to use the aneurysm needle and it is said that he was the first to use catgut (2)".
    1. Ismail A. Nabri (1983). El Zahrawi (936-1013 AD), the father of operative surgery. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Vol. 65. pg. 132-133. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  98. ^ Quote: "The surgical needle was invented and described by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi in his Al-Tasrif in the year 1000. The Iraqi surgeon Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili invented the first injection syringe in the 9th century using a hollow glass tube and suction to extract and remove cataracts from patients' eyes."
    1. John I. Gallin; Frederick P Ognibene; Laura Lee Johnson (17 November 2017). Principles and Practice of Clinical Research. Elsevier Science. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-12-849904-7.
  99. ^ Quote: "AI-Zahrawi also designed a special forceps he called Kalalib (Fig. 3), which he used for crushing a large vesical stone through a perineal cystotomy. It was in fact a primitive lithotrite: " ... But if the stone be very large, it is foolish to make a great incision down upon it, for the result is that the patient either dies or has a chronic urinary fistula because the place will not heal at all. Try rather to manipulate it so that it protrudes, or else attempt to break it up with the forceps so that you can extract it piecemeal" (cited by [31, pp. 414-415]). ""
    1. Hecker, W. Ch. (1986). "The History of Pediatric Surgery in Germany". Vol. 20. pg. 259-260. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-70825-1_1. ISSN 0079-6654.
  100. ^ Quote: "Alzahrawi is the first to describe a technique and an instrument to crush a large stone inside the bladder, thus, enabling its piecemeal removal. That innovation by Alzahrawi was an important landmark in the development and evolution of bladder stone surgery as it helped to decrease the mortality and morbidity of the operation. He vividly warned that it may result to death or permanent incontinence if a very large incision was resorted for extracting a very large intact stone. He condemned that procedure and considered it utter ignorance. Both Spink and Lewis4 and Kirkup22 considered Alzahrawi’s innovation of crushing a stone inside the bladder, to enable its piecemeal extraction, as the foundation of the lithotripsy principle. ".
    1. Rabie E. Abdel-Halim; Ali S. Altwaijiri; Salah R. Elfaqih; Ahmad H. Mitwalli (2003). Extraction of urinary bladder stone as described by Abul-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Alzahrawi (Albucasis) (325-404 H, 930-1013 AD). King Saud University, College of Medicine. King Khalid University Hospital. Vol. 24. Issue. No. 12. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2018.
  101. ^ Quote: "“…it is necessary to detach the whole of the perimeter of the gum from the tooth with a sufficiently strong scalpel; then, either with the fingers or with pair of light forceps, the molar should be rocked gently until it becomes loose. Then, the surgeon, holding the patient’s head firmly between his knees, should apply a stronger pair of forceps and withdraw the tooth vertically so as not to break it.".
    1. Antonio López-Valverde, Nansi López-Valverde-Hernández, Manuel Bravo, Rafael Gómez de Diego, Eva Rosel, Cristina Gómez Polo, Gustavo Camañas, Javier Montero (2015). Dental Practice in Al-Andalus (Spain) in the 10th And 11 Centuries Ce: Abulcasis Al-Zarahwi. Vol. 2. Issue. No. 3. p. 64-70. [WayBackMachine Link]. Retrieved December 1st, 2018.
  102. ^ Quote: "Albucasis is also named as the creator of tooth extractors, obstetric devices (including forceps), a hook to remove nasal polyps, syringes to peform enemas and various surgical knives and saws."
    1. Fred Ramen (15 January 2006). Albucasis (Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi): Renowned Muslim Surgeon of the Tenth Century. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-4042-0510-9.
  103. ^ There is no evidence that the Greeks used tools as they left no drawings of their alleged creations, despite the presence of their writings.
    Quote: "Writing for his fellow doctors, Albucassis was aware of the importance of conveying images of the instruments for the teaching of surgery. Greek-Roman and Byzantine authors left no drawings. No ancient catalogue has come to us."
    1. Maria Do Sameiro Barroso (Unknown). Albucasis: A Landmark for Arabic and European Surgery. Muslim Heritage. Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2018.
    Thus, throughout European/Western scholarship it has largely been assumed they knew of these tools; "As the Scottish doctor and surgeon, John Stuart Milne (1806-1873), noted, they had always some kind of air de famille (Milne, 1907, p. 18).".
    1. Maria Do Sameiro Barroso (Unknown). Albucasis: A Landmark for Arabic and European Surgery. Muslim Heritage. Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 2nd, 2018.
    However, assumption is not indicative that they had had them, as they do not appear in the historical record.
  104. ^ Quote: "In this section Abulcasi offers a perfect argument that tartar is the main cause of gum inflammation and recommends that it should be removed by a scraping and smoothening of the roots. He describes 14 instruments (mijrads) designed by himself for such purposes [5] (Fig. 3).".
    1. Antonio López-Valverde, Nansi López-Valverde-Hernández, Manuel Bravo, Rafael Gómez de Diego, Eva Rosel, Cristina Gómez Polo, Gustavo Camañas, Javier Montero (2015). Dental Practice in Al-Andalus (Spain) in the 10th And 11 Centuries Ce: Abulcasis Al-Zarahwi. Vol. 2. Issue. No. 3. p. 64-70. [WayBackMachine Link]. Retrieved December 1st, 2018.
  105. ^ Quote: "For tooth extraction, the entire step by step, from the position of the patients to the instrument selection, the amount of force needed are described. Al-Zahrawi also mentioned the surgical extraction of a badly carious teeth by separating the decayed tooth from the gums with the aid of a scalpel to avoid tooth fracture [8-10, 14, 21]".
    1. Fareedi Mukram Ali; Ghassan Al-Iryani; Muzaffar Faridi; Mohammed Faqeeh; Huda Mdabesh (2017). REVISITING ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGICAL VIEWS AS PRACTICED BY AL-ZAHRAWI: A REVIEW. International Arab Journal of Dentistry. Vol 8. Issue. No. 3. Faculty of Dental Medicine University of Saint Joseph. [WayBackMachine Link]. Retrieved December 1st, 2018.
  106. ^ Quote: "He was the first to write on orthodontia."
    1. Mohamad Qari (2010). Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis). Journal of Appplied Hematology. Department of Hematology, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  107. ^ :Quote: "Al-Zahrawi was the first to describe the so-called "Walcher Position" in obstetrics; the first to depict dental arches, tongue depressors and lead catheters and the first to describe clearly the hereditary circumstances surrounding haemophilia. He also described ligaturing of blood vessels long before Ambroise Pare."
    1. Sharif Kaf Al-Ghazal (2003). Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis) - A Light in the Dark Middles in Europe. Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 10th, 2018.
  108. ^ Quote: "In addition to his many surgical techniques, Albucasis developed a variety of surgical instruments...even the humble tongue depressor."
    1. Fred Ramen (15 January 2006). Albucasis (Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi): Renowned Muslim Surgeon of the Tenth Century. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-4042-0510-9.

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Acknowledgements

This is dedicated to that special little dentist who came into my life. Thank you for helping me break the curse, Nazish. Without you, this article wouldn't have been possible. Until we meet again, in this life or the next, here's to your bright future, a prosperous marriage and eternal happiness. Try not to take life so seriously. I still miss you and always will. Rock on, and stay happy beautiful, X.January 25th, 2019.

External Links

The Islamic Golden Age (c. 750—c. 1258)
List of Inventions, Discoveries and Innovations: Mechanics · Medicine ·