List of Muslim Singers, Songwriters, Musicians & Record Producers in Western Music

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Electronic Dance MusicIndie Pop & Indie RockPop & RockDark PopAcoustics & OperaRhythm'n'BluesTheme Composers; InstrumentalsSong Composers; Lyricists & SongwritersOne-Hit WondersRecord Producers & Record Companies (The Rolling StonesLed ZeppelinAC/DC) • Non-Music; Music FilmCinematographers See alsoSources • (FootnotesReferencesAcknowledgements) • External LinksTotal Listed: 17

Ramin Djawadi.
This is a list of Muslim singers, songwriters, musicians and record producers found in Western music, highlighting only the most successful musicians of Muslim origin—and who are at the very least cultural Muslims[n. 1] even if they are not at all religious. In the West there are significant populations[n. 2] of Muslims living, working and contributing to society, but who unfortunately also suffer from social problems, such as the recent emergence of racialised[n. 3] Islamophobia / discrimination—unsurprising given the fact that the West has always had a turbulent history[n. 4] when it comes to racial and ethnic conflict, with the worst[n. 5] of it being represented by the events of the Holocaust (1941—1945).[1] Many Muslims in Europe are either recent 20th century immigrants[2] (or the descendent of such immigrants who have successfully integrated into the West), or Westerners themselves who have converted[n. 6] to Islam. With the absorption of such a diverse range of cultures, and the increased contact between the East and West,[3] this cultural phenomenon has given birth to a rich culture of music (including from those who are half-Muslim[n. 7]); with some individuals proving pivotal to the development of Western music. This list includes the likes of Ahmet Ertegrun (the founder and former head of Atlantic Records, who oversaw the discovery, management and musical production of bands such as Led Zeppelin and AC/DC) to more recent superstars such as Dua Lipa. This article documents these particular artists so that they are remembered throughout history (so that at least this begins to destroy the myth that Muslims "do not integrate", keep to themselves or stay on the margins of society[n. 8][4][5]). Since there are so many musicians, this article specifically excludes rappers and converts—since they deserve a category of their own.

Working Title: List of Muslim Singers, Songwriters, Musicians & Producers in Western Music | Original Publisher: Materia Islamica | Publication Date: April 24th, 2020 | Written by: Canadian786 | Artricle No. 96.

Ramin Djawadi.

This is a list of Muslim singers, songwriters, musicians and record producers found in Western music, highlighting only the most successful musicians of Muslim origin—and who are at the very least cultural Muslims[n. 9] even if they are not at all religious. In the West there are significant populations[n. 10] of Muslims living, working and contributing to society, but who unfortunately also suffer from social problems, such as the recent emergence of racialised[n. 11] Islamophobia / discrimination—unsurprising given the fact that the West has always had a turbulent history[n. 12] when it comes to racial and ethnic conflict, with the worst[n. 13] of it being represented by the events of the Holocaust (1941—1945).[1] Many Muslims in Europe are either recent 20th century immigrants[2] (or the descendent of such immigrants who have successfully integrated into the West), or Westerners themselves who have converted[n. 14] to Islam. With the absorption of such a diverse range of cultures, and the increased contact between the East and West,[3] this cultural phenomenon has given birth to a rich culture of music (including from those who are half-Muslim[n. 15]); with some individuals proving pivotal to the development of Western music. This list includes the likes of Ahmet Ertegrun (the founder and former head of Atlantic Records, who oversaw the discovery, management and musical production of bands such as Led Zeppelin and AC/DC) to more recent superstars such as Dua Lipa. This article documents these particular artists so that they are remembered throughout history (so that at least this begins to destroy the myth that Muslims "do not integrate", keep to themselves or stay on the margins of society[n. 16][4][5]). Since there are so many musicians, this article specifically excludes rappers and converts—since they deserve a category of their own.

Working Title: List of Muslim Singers, Songwriters, Musicians & Producers in Western Music | Original Publisher: Materia Islamica | Publication Date: April 24th, 2020 | Written by: Canadian786 | Artricle No. 96.

Definition

Aga Khan University, Karachi.
Akdn-uk-fma-agaedmund-sumner-0005 28177494727.jpg
Aga Khan University, London.

What is a Muslim?—This question is best answered by what Islamic law says; as it is not determined by the specific level of religiosity of a person; accordingly this has been summarised by Gianluca P. Parolin, the Associate Professor of law[6] at the Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations (Est. 2002, London, UK; ISMC[7]); of the Aga Khan University (Est. 1983, Karachi, Pakistan; AKU[8]), a non-denominational [non-sectarian], "autonomous not-for-profit university".[8]

Quote: "A Muslim is a Muslim by birth or by conversion. Islam presents itself as the natural religion of mankind, and some Koranic verses support such a view (Q. 30:30-32), underpinned by traditions (hadiths) relating to Muhammad's words, 'No child is born but upon the "natural religion (fitrah)". It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a polytheist'. Such a natural inclination to worship the one God is an inherent disposition that leads men to a pure monotheism (hanifiyah) epitomised by Islam".[9]
Quote: "Every child of a Muslim man is a Muslim according to Islamic law; here a well-established rule is borrowed from Jewish law, which, however applies it to the woman...The combination of the Jewish and the Islamic rule may give rise to a positive conflict...; in the case of the offspring of a Muslim man and a Jewish woman, indeed, the child is a Muslim under Islamic law and a Jew under Jewish law. A Muslim woman is obliged to marry a Muslim man and therefore can only give birth to a Muslim child".[9]

The AKU was first established by the 49th Imam of the Nizari Ismailis (a branch of the Shi'i), Aga Khan IV (1936—Present[10]) and was given chartered status as a university in 1983 by the Government of Pakistan.[8] It's influence is immense; having an annual economic impact of over $1 billion dollars in Pakistan alone (and also provides 42,000 jobs throughout country).[11][12] The AKF is a part of the Aga Khan Foundation (Est. 1967,[13] Geneva, Switzerland;[14][15] AKF[16]).

  • The current Aga Khan, Khan IV, is also a Harvard University alumni; having graduated with a Bachelor's Degree in Islamic History in 1959.[15]

Also, there are people who consider "Muslimness" not be limited by the definition above, but prefer to either call themselves Culturally Muslim, Half-Muslim, Agnostic Muslim or even Atheist Muslim.[n. 17][n. 18] There is no basis for this idea in Islam theologically but it greatly depends on how one sees their identity.

  • e.g. in South Asia it is not uncommon for people of interfaith marriages to call themselves half-Muslim since religion plays a larger role in the identity of people over there, rather than race or ethnicity as is common in the West or other parts of the world. Balkan Muslims also classify their ethnicity as Muslim.[17][n. 19][18]
Aga Khan University, Karachi.
Akdn-uk-fma-agaedmund-sumner-0005 28177494727.jpg
Aga Khan University, London.

What is a Muslim?—This question is best answered by what Islamic law says; as it is not determined by the specific level of religiosity of a person; accordingly this has been summarised by Gianluca P. Parolin, the Associate Professor of law[6] at the Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations (Est. 2002, London, UK; ISMC[7]); of the Aga Khan University (Est. 1983, Karachi, Pakistan; AKU[8]), a non-denominational [non-sectarian], "autonomous not-for-profit university".[8]

Quote: "A Muslim is a Muslim by birth or by conversion. Islam presents itself as the natural religion of mankind, and some Koranic verses support such a view (Q. 30:30-32), underpinned by traditions (hadiths) relating to Muhammad's words, 'No child is born but upon the "natural religion (fitrah)". It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a polytheist'. Such a natural inclination to worship the one God is an inherent disposition that leads men to a pure monotheism (hanifiyah) epitomised by Islam".[9]
Quote: "Every child of a Muslim man is a Muslim according to Islamic law; here a well-established rule is borrowed from Jewish law, which, however applies it to the woman...The combination of the Jewish and the Islamic rule may give rise to a positive conflict...; in the case of the offspring of a Muslim man and a Jewish woman, indeed, the child is a Muslim under Islamic law and a Jew under Jewish law. A Muslim woman is obliged to marry a Muslim man and therefore can only give birth to a Muslim child".[9]

The AKU was first established by the 49th Imam of the Nizari Ismailis (a branch of the Shi'i), Aga Khan IV (1936—Present[10]) and was given chartered status as a university in 1983 by the Government of Pakistan.[8] It's influence is immense; having an annual economic impact of over $1 billion dollars in Pakistan alone (and also provides 42,000 jobs throughout country).[11][12] The AKF is a part of the Aga Khan Foundation (Est. 1967,[13] Geneva, Switzerland;[14][15] AKF[16]).

  • The current Aga Khan, Khan IV, is also a Harvard University alumni; having graduated with a Bachelor's Degree in Islamic History in 1959.[15]

Also, there are people who consider "Muslimness" not be limited by the definition above, but prefer to either call themselves Culturally Muslim, Half-Muslim, Agnostic Muslim or even Atheist Muslim.[n. 20][n. 21] There is no basis for this idea in Islam theologically but it greatly depends on how one sees their identity.

  • e.g. in South Asia it is not uncommon for people of interfaith marriages to call themselves half-Muslim since religion plays a larger role in the identity of people over there, rather than race or ethnicity as is common in the West or other parts of the world. Balkan Muslims also classify their ethnicity as Muslim.[17][n. 22][18]

Electronic Dance Music (2)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
See also culturally related article: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
One of the sisters from Krewella. The duo have carried the band forward ever since they were founded in 2007. In 2014 they almost broke up because of Jahan's abusive alcoholic ex-boyfriend, Kris Trindl. He left the group voluntarily but claimed he had been "kicked out".
  • Krewella—Jahan Yousaf (1989—Present[19]) and Yasmine Yousaf (1992—Present[19]) are Pakistani-American EDM DJ's who come from Chicago, Illinois, having first formed a three-member band originally known as Krewella in 2007. Born to a Pakistani Muslim father and a European mother (a Lithuanian convert to Islam),[20] the two were raised Muslim.[21] They still value their Islamic upbringing; although they are not as religious as they once were.[22][n. 23] They signed their first record deal with Columbia Records in 2012[23][n. 24][n. 25] and have also appeared in the award-winning Pakistani music show, Coke Studio, debuting in Season 11.[20][n. 26] They've also played at festivals such as Coachella alongside artists such as Calvin Harris.[24]
    • Their first studio album, "Get Wet" (2013), peaked at 8th position in the US Billboard 200 album charts (it also achieved 1st position in the US dance and electronic albums chart[25]).[26] In 2020, they released their second studio album, "Zer0", which achieved 23rd peak position on the US electronic and dance chart.[25] Additionally they've also released four extended-plays (EP's), "Play Hard" (2012), "Ammunition" (2016) and "New World, Pt. 1" (2017), which respectively peaked at 6th, 2nd and 25th on the same chart (their first EP also charted 2nd on the US Heatseekers chart[27]).[25] Their second EP however, "Play Harder" (2012), went uncharted. Despite this setback, they earned $8 million dollars in 2015 alone.[28]
    • Krewella have had two singles chart the US Billboard Hot 100; "Alive" (2013) which peaked 32nd and "Live for the Night" (2013) which saw it peaking at 100th position, totalling a 26 week chart history.[29] In the US Hot Dance / Electronic chart they've had thirteen singles peak "Come & Get It" (2012; 41st), "Alive" (2013; 5th), "Live for the Night" (2013; 14th), "Enjoy the Ride" (2013; 29th), "We Go Down" (2013; 21st), "Legacy: Nicky Romero VS Krewella" (2013; 22nd), "Human" (2014; 39th), "Beggars ft Diskord" (2016; 33rd), "Team" (2016; 26th), "New World ft. Yellow Claw & Taylor Bennett" (2017; 29th), "Ain't That Why ft Krewella" (2017; 23rd) and "Greenlights" (2020; 21st) totalling 151 weeks.[30]
  • In 2014, the band was almost destroyed by the actions of their third member Kris Trindl (1987—Present), who developed a severe alcohol problem that caused him to become paranoid and abusive towards the sisters (Jahan was also Trindl's ex-girlfriend as they had dated between 2006 and 2011; which effectively meant that by the time the band was gaining traction around 2012—the time they were contractually signed onto Columbia Records—the two were forced to work and live together).[31] With their success, Trindl's state increasingly worsened, and he began failing in his obligations towards the band; he was absent almost entirely because of his drunken state, forcing the sisters to carry on with their live performances by themselves).[31][32]
  • Eventually, Trindl became so paranoid that he believed the two were becoming even more successful without him, resulting in him making the allegations public and launching a $5 million dollar lawsuit against them.[28] The sister's counter-sued (noting that Trindl "had informed Krewella’s manager via text message that he was discussing the terms of a disassociation from Krewella with the band’s attorney", with evidence stating that Trindl wrote "I need u [sic] to help me quit...[f]airly").[32] Eventually they all settled the suit.[28] However, the problem was made worse by another DJ,[33] DeadMau5 (Joel T. Zimmerman; b. 1981[34]), who slut-shamed the sisters in a series of thinly-veiled sexist tweets where he attributed the success of the band to the only male member of the group; giving no credit to them for carrying the band and nor their song-writing abilities, and instead insinuating they were there only to look sexy.[31][35]
    • DeadMau5 flatly denied there were sexism problems within the electronic dance music scene after he was criticised by Jahan after the publication of her op-ed accusing him of such behaviour,[36] before harassing the girls by telling them they should have gone into porn.[37] DeadMau5 has a history of offending minorities, including the LGBT,[38] people other than the sisters,[n. 27] and autism sufferers.[39][40] However, DeadMau5 is a complex character, he isn't a White supremacist; he protested America's legally mandated Muslim ban (Executive Order 13769;[41] 2017) on his Twitter account,[42] initiated by President Donald J. Trump (1946—Present[43]) and even has a Iranian Muslim female signed to his label.[44][45]
Nadia Ali.
  • Nadia Ali—Originally a part of duo called iiO,[46] Nadia Ali (1980—Present[47]) is a Pakistani-American electronic dance music singer, songwriter[48] and musician. She was originally born in Libya.[49] Her duo partner in the band was Markus Moser (1965—Present) who she first met when she was only 17 years old.[48] She was with the band between 2001[50] and 2005[51] (others say 2008[52] or 2009—her vocals were also still used by Moser until 2011[51]). In 2018, she transitioned to experimenting with pop music.[53] Her single greatest foray in mainstream music however was when she landed a top fifty spot in the US Billboard Hot 100 Chart ("Rapture (Tastes So Sweet)" (2002); 46th).[54] She was also nominated for a Grammy award for "Fantasy" in 2011 for the Best Remixing (Non Classical) category.[52]
  • Throughout her professional career she worked with many famous EDM artists and DJ's such as Armin Van Buuren, Avicii, Afrojack, Hardwell, Alesso, Morgan Page, Gareth Emery, Sander Van Doorn, Sultan & Ned Shepard, Thomas Gold, Cedric Gervais, Cazzette, Arty, Sydney Samson, Starkillers, BT, EDX, Alex Kenji, Serge Devant, Dyro, Dannic, Schiller and TyDi.[59] Her favourite places to tour are Peru, Brazil, the Middle East (specifically Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and the UAE).[57] Avicii's remix of "Rapture" with Ali also received significant traction, as did her songs with Armin Van Buuren ("Feels So Good" and "Who is Watching").
    • In 2015, Billboard released an article listing the "Top 50 EDM Love Songs of All Time", with Ali's "Rapture (Avicii Remix)" (2010) ranked 42nd, noting that it is a festival favourite.[60]
One of the sisters from Krewella. The duo have carried the band forward ever since they were founded in 2007. In 2014 they almost broke up because of Jahan's abusive alcoholic ex-boyfriend, Kris Trindl. He left the group voluntarily but claimed he had been "kicked out".
  • Krewella—Jahan Yousaf (1989—Present[19]) and Yasmine Yousaf (1992—Present[19]) are Pakistani-American EDM DJ's who come from Chicago, Illinois, having first formed a three-member band originally known as Krewella in 2007. Born to a Pakistani Muslim father and a European mother (a Lithuanian convert to Islam),[20] the two were raised Muslim.[21] They still value their Islamic upbringing; although they are not as religious as they once were.[22][n. 28] They signed their first record deal with Columbia Records in 2012[23][n. 29][n. 30] and have also appeared in the award-winning Pakistani music show, Coke Studio, debuting in Season 11.[20][n. 31] They've also played at festivals such as Coachella alongside artists such as Calvin Harris.[24]
    • Their first studio album, "Get Wet" (2013), peaked at 8th position in the US Billboard 200 album charts (it also achieved 1st position in the US dance and electronic albums chart[25]).[26] In 2020, they released their second studio album, "Zer0", which achieved 23rd peak position on the US electronic and dance chart.[25] Additionally they've also released four extended-plays (EP's), "Play Hard" (2012), "Ammunition" (2016) and "New World, Pt. 1" (2017), which respectively peaked at 6th, 2nd and 25th on the same chart (their first EP also charted 2nd on the US Heatseekers chart[27]).[25] Their second EP however, "Play Harder" (2012), went uncharted. Despite this setback, they earned $8 million dollars in 2015 alone.[28]
    • Krewella have had two singles chart the US Billboard Hot 100; "Alive" (2013) which peaked 32nd and "Live for the Night" (2013) which saw it peaking at 100th position, totalling a 26 week chart history.[29] In the US Hot Dance / Electronic chart they've had thirteen singles peak "Come & Get It" (2012; 41st), "Alive" (2013; 5th), "Live for the Night" (2013; 14th), "Enjoy the Ride" (2013; 29th), "We Go Down" (2013; 21st), "Legacy: Nicky Romero VS Krewella" (2013; 22nd), "Human" (2014; 39th), "Beggars ft Diskord" (2016; 33rd), "Team" (2016; 26th), "New World ft. Yellow Claw & Taylor Bennett" (2017; 29th), "Ain't That Why ft Krewella" (2017; 23rd) and "Greenlights" (2020; 21st) totalling 151 weeks.[30]
  • In 2014, the band was almost destroyed by the actions of their third member Kris Trindl (1987—Present), who developed a severe alcohol problem that caused him to become paranoid and abusive towards the sisters (Jahan was also Trindl's ex-girlfriend as they had dated between 2006 and 2011; which effectively meant that by the time the band was gaining traction around 2012—the time they were contractually signed onto Columbia Records—the two were forced to work and live together).[31] With their success, Trindl's state increasingly worsened, and he began failing in his obligations towards the band; he was absent almost entirely because of his drunken state, forcing the sisters to carry on with their live performances by themselves).[31][32]
  • Eventually, Trindl became so paranoid that he believed the two were becoming even more successful without him, resulting in him making the allegations public and launching a $5 million dollar lawsuit against them.[28] The sister's counter-sued (noting that Trindl "had informed Krewella’s manager via text message that he was discussing the terms of a disassociation from Krewella with the band’s attorney", with evidence stating that Trindl wrote "I need u [sic] to help me quit...[f]airly").[32] Eventually they all settled the suit.[28] However, the problem was made worse by another DJ,[33] DeadMau5 (Joel T. Zimmerman; b. 1981[34]), who slut-shamed the sisters in a series of thinly-veiled sexist tweets where he attributed the success of the band to the only male member of the group; giving no credit to them for carrying the band and nor their song-writing abilities, and instead insinuating they were there only to look sexy.[31][35]
    • DeadMau5 flatly denied there were sexism problems within the electronic dance music scene after he was criticised by Jahan after the publication of her op-ed accusing him of such behaviour,[36] before harassing the girls by telling them they should have gone into porn.[37] DeadMau5 has a history of offending minorities, including the LGBT,[38] people other than the sisters,[n. 32] and autism sufferers.[39][40] However, DeadMau5 is a complex character, he isn't a White supremacist; he protested America's legally mandated Muslim ban (Executive Order 13769;[41] 2017) on his Twitter account,[42] initiated by President Donald J. Trump (1946—Present[43]) and even has a Iranian Muslim female signed to his label.[44][45]
Nadia Ali.
  • Nadia Ali—Originally a part of duo called iiO,[46] Nadia Ali (1980—Present[47]) is a Pakistani-American electronic dance music singer, songwriter[48] and musician. She was originally born in Libya.[49] Her duo partner in the band was Markus Moser (1965—Present) who she first met when she was only 17 years old.[48] She was with the band between 2001[50] and 2005[51] (others say 2008[52] or 2009—her vocals were also still used by Moser until 2011[51]). In 2018, she transitioned to experimenting with pop music.[53] Her single greatest foray in mainstream music however was when she landed a top fifty spot in the US Billboard Hot 100 Chart ("Rapture (Tastes So Sweet)" (2002); 46th).[54] She was also nominated for a Grammy award for "Fantasy" in 2011 for the Best Remixing (Non Classical) category.[52]
  • Throughout her professional career she worked with many famous EDM artists and DJ's such as Armin Van Buuren, Avicii, Afrojack, Hardwell, Alesso, Morgan Page, Gareth Emery, Sander Van Doorn, Sultan & Ned Shepard, Thomas Gold, Cedric Gervais, Cazzette, Arty, Sydney Samson, Starkillers, BT, EDX, Alex Kenji, Serge Devant, Dyro, Dannic, Schiller and TyDi.[59] Her favourite places to tour are Peru, Brazil, the Middle East (specifically Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and the UAE).[57] Avicii's remix of "Rapture" with Ali also received significant traction, as did her songs with Armin Van Buuren ("Feels So Good" and "Who is Watching").
    • In 2015, Billboard released an article listing the "Top 50 EDM Love Songs of All Time", with Ali's "Rapture (Avicii Remix)" (2010) ranked 42nd, noting that it is a festival favourite.[60]

Indie Pop & Indie Rock (2)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
See also culturally related article: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
Natasha Khan, also known as Bat For Lashes. Coachella, 2016.
  • Bat For Lashes—Natasha Khan (1979—Present[61]), also known as Bat For Lashes,[62] is a British Pakistani singer-song writer.[63] She was born to a Pakistani father,[64] Rehmat Khan (1953—Present; who is famous in squash sports for having coached his cousin Jahaingir Khan; 1963—Present;[65] who himself is world renowned for having the Guinness World Record for most consecutive wins in sport, having won 555 matches in a row between 1981 and 1986[65]) and a White English mother.[63] Her father and mother divorced each other in 1980, leaving a severe emotional impact on Khan who retreated to music to deal with the loss of her father and the stresses in her life (one of which included her White school colleagues being grossly racist to her).[63][n. 33]
    • Officially she has released five successful studio albums "Fur And Gold" (2007), "Two Suns" (2009), "The Haunted Man" (2012), "The Bride" (2016) and "Lost Girls" (2019).[66] Her debut album achieved a peak of 48th position on the official UK albums chart, however two years later her next album hit 5th.[66] Another three years later, "The Haunted Man" achieved 6th position, "The Bride" at 9th and "Lost Girls" at 13th.[66] Two of her albums were certified Gold ("Fur and Gold", "Two Suns") and one Silver ("The Haunted Man") according to the British Phonographic Industry (BPI).[n. 34] Album certifications show that Khan has sold at least 260,000 albums in the UK (gold certifications are 100,000+ sales, Silver 60,000+).[67]
  • Khan was raised Muslim but isn't religious, however she does express spirituality.[68] Khan has been nominated for numerous awards for her work, perhaps the most prestigious being the Mercury Prize (2006, 2009, 2016[69]). The reasons for it's prestigious nature is because the Mercury Prize was established in 1992 by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) and the British Association of Record Dealers (BARD); now the Entertainment Retailers Association (ERA).[70] She has also won two Ivor Novello awards (2010,[71] 2019[72])[73] and been nominated twice at the Brit Awards (2008).[74]
    • She hasn't forgotten about her heritage and does incorporate inspiration from her Pakistani side into her music.[75]
The Zutons. Chowdhury is on the immediate right.
  • The Zutons—Consisting of Boyan Uddin Chowdhury, David McCabe, Russell Pritchard, Sean Payne and Abi Harding, The Zutons are a band tgat first formed in 2002 in Liverpool, England,[76] and are best known for their song "Valerie",[77] which is credited for having given them their breakthrough (Amy Winehouse; 1983—2011,[78] even later produced a cover of it[79][77]). They were initially signed with Deltasonic Records.[76] Their debut single, "Devil's Deal", was released in September 2002.[76] Chowdhury served as their lead guitarist.[76] In July 2007 he left the band "amicably" citing "musical differences".[80] The Zutons didn't recover after his departure; in 2009 their musical career fell apart when they were dropped from Sony Records.[77]
    • Whilst signed to record labels, The Zutons released three studio albums. Their debut album "Who Killed The Zutons" (2004) saw staggering success, achieving a peak position of 6th place, remaining on the charts for over a year (54 weeks).[81] Their second release was "Tired Of Hanging Around" (2006) which almost reached number one, ranked instead 2nd place, and remained on the charts for 33 weeks.[81] Their last album was "You Can Do Anything" (2008) which was their least successful album, ranking 6th position and only remaining on the charts for a modest seven weeks.[81] The band disbanded after this album (only reuniting for one show in 2016[82]), but the band did eventually reunite in 2018[83] minus their bassist Pritchard.
      • Pritchard went on to join another band, Noel Gallagher’s High Flying Birds,[82] headed by Oasis singer, Noel Gallagher (1967—Present[84]).[85]
    • They also released many singles.[81] Their most successful was "Valerie" (2006; 9th) which lasted for 21 weeks in the UK singles chart.[81] Their other singles also had success and in rank of most successful were "Why Won't You Give Me Your Love" (2006; 9th), "Don't Ever Think (Too Much)" (2004; 15th), "Pressure Point" (2004; 19th), "You Will You Won't" (2004; 22nd), "Oh Stacey (Look What You've Done)" (2006; 24th), "Always Right Behind You" (2008; 26th), "Confusion" (2004; 37th), "Remember Me" (2004; 39th) and "It's The Little Things We Do" (2006; 47th).[81] Collectively, their chart history spaned 55 weeks.[81] All of these barring "Always Right Behind You" were from their first two albums.[81]
  • The legacy of the band has been somewhat mixed. The Zuton's as a band were moderately commercially successful,[n. 35]but as one critic noted, "[t]he Zutons never quite made it...[t]hey came close with Valerie of course, but even that song is now associated with Amy Winehouse after Mark Ronson got his teeth into it and used Amy’s sass to transform it into a soul-funk classic, masking the indie sleeper hit it once was. Ask any young(ish)) person who sang Valerie and they’ll say Winehouse without hesitation".[86] This despite the band having written the song originally.[86] However, one redeeming aspect has been that the Zuton's were financially successfully; making enough money for the band to buy their own individual houses.[86]
    • It appears that the band "never made it" because of their split. Trouble began as soon as Chowdhury left; in an interview in 2008 with The Independent, one band member said that tensions between him and the band became so "awkward" that Chowdhury "doesn't really answer his phone these days".[87] The band however have reunited; with news first breaking in 2018 that they were getting back together (although without one member, Pritchard).[83] They are still together as of 2020 and are planning on playing at several music festivals.[88] The band commented on their reunion in the British press, saying that they needed distance apart in order to appreciate each other; that "absence makes the heart grow fonder".[89]
Natasha Khan, also known as Bat For Lashes. Coachella, 2016.
  • Bat For Lashes—Natasha Khan (1979—Present[61]), also known as Bat For Lashes,[62] is a British Pakistani singer-song writer.[63] She was born to a Pakistani father,[64] Rehmat Khan (1953—Present; who is famous in squash sports for having coached his cousin Jahaingir Khan; 1963—Present;[65] who himself is world renowned for having the Guinness World Record for most consecutive wins in sport, having won 555 matches in a row between 1981 and 1986[65]) and a White English mother.[63] Her father and mother divorced each other in 1980, leaving a severe emotional impact on Khan who retreated to music to deal with the loss of her father and the stresses in her life (one of which included her White school colleagues being grossly racist to her).[63][n. 36]
    • Officially she has released five successful studio albums "Fur And Gold" (2007), "Two Suns" (2009), "The Haunted Man" (2012), "The Bride" (2016) and "Lost Girls" (2019).[66] Her debut album achieved a peak of 48th position on the official UK albums chart, however two years later her next album hit 5th.[66] Another three years later, "The Haunted Man" achieved 6th position, "The Bride" at 9th and "Lost Girls" at 13th.[66] Two of her albums were certified Gold ("Fur and Gold", "Two Suns") and one Silver ("The Haunted Man") according to the British Phonographic Industry (BPI).[n. 37] Album certifications show that Khan has sold at least 260,000 albums in the UK (gold certifications are 100,000+ sales, Silver 60,000+).[67]
  • Khan was raised Muslim but isn't religious, however she does express spirituality.[68] Khan has been nominated for numerous awards for her work, perhaps the most prestigious being the Mercury Prize (2006, 2009, 2016[69]). The reasons for it's prestigious nature is because the Mercury Prize was established in 1992 by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) and the British Association of Record Dealers (BARD); now the Entertainment Retailers Association (ERA).[70] She has also won two Ivor Novello awards (2010,[71] 2019[72])[73] and been nominated twice at the Brit Awards (2008).[74]
    • She hasn't forgotten about her heritage and does incorporate inspiration from her Pakistani side into her music.[75]
The Zutons. Chowdhury is on the immediate right.
  • The Zutons—Consisting of Boyan Uddin Chowdhury, David McCabe, Russell Pritchard, Sean Payne and Abi Harding, The Zutons are a band tgat first formed in 2002 in Liverpool, England,[76] and are best known for their song "Valerie",[77] which is credited for having given them their breakthrough (Amy Winehouse; 1983—2011,[78] even later produced a cover of it[79][77]). They were initially signed with Deltasonic Records.[76] Their debut single, "Devil's Deal", was released in September 2002.[76] Chowdhury served as their lead guitarist.[76] In July 2007 he left the band "amicably" citing "musical differences".[80] The Zutons didn't recover after his departure; in 2009 their musical career fell apart when they were dropped from Sony Records.[77]
    • Whilst signed to record labels, The Zutons released three studio albums. Their debut album "Who Killed The Zutons" (2004) saw staggering success, achieving a peak position of 6th place, remaining on the charts for over a year (54 weeks).[81] Their second release was "Tired Of Hanging Around" (2006) which almost reached number one, ranked instead 2nd place, and remained on the charts for 33 weeks.[81] Their last album was "You Can Do Anything" (2008) which was their least successful album, ranking 6th position and only remaining on the charts for a modest seven weeks.[81] The band disbanded after this album (only reuniting for one show in 2016[82]), but the band did eventually reunite in 2018[83] minus their bassist Pritchard.
      • Pritchard went on to join another band, Noel Gallagher’s High Flying Birds,[82] headed by Oasis singer, Noel Gallagher (1967—Present[84]).[85]
    • They also released many singles.[81] Their most successful was "Valerie" (2006; 9th) which lasted for 21 weeks in the UK singles chart.[81] Their other singles also had success and in rank of most successful were "Why Won't You Give Me Your Love" (2006; 9th), "Don't Ever Think (Too Much)" (2004; 15th), "Pressure Point" (2004; 19th), "You Will You Won't" (2004; 22nd), "Oh Stacey (Look What You've Done)" (2006; 24th), "Always Right Behind You" (2008; 26th), "Confusion" (2004; 37th), "Remember Me" (2004; 39th) and "It's The Little Things We Do" (2006; 47th).[81] Collectively, their chart history spaned 55 weeks.[81] All of these barring "Always Right Behind You" were from their first two albums.[81]
  • The legacy of the band has been somewhat mixed. The Zuton's as a band were moderately commercially successful,[n. 38]but as one critic noted, "[t]he Zutons never quite made it...[t]hey came close with Valerie of course, but even that song is now associated with Amy Winehouse after Mark Ronson got his teeth into it and used Amy’s sass to transform it into a soul-funk classic, masking the indie sleeper hit it once was. Ask any young(ish)) person who sang Valerie and they’ll say Winehouse without hesitation".[86] This despite the band having written the song originally.[86] However, one redeeming aspect has been that the Zuton's were financially successfully; making enough money for the band to buy their own individual houses.[86]
    • It appears that the band "never made it" because of their split. Trouble began as soon as Chowdhury left; in an interview in 2008 with The Independent, one band member said that tensions between him and the band became so "awkward" that Chowdhury "doesn't really answer his phone these days".[87] The band however have reunited; with news first breaking in 2018 that they were getting back together (although without one member, Pritchard).[83] They are still together as of 2020 and are planning on playing at several music festivals.[88] The band commented on their reunion in the British press, saying that they needed distance apart in order to appreciate each other; that "absence makes the heart grow fonder".[89]

Mainstream Pop & Rock (3)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Members of the band, Rudimental. Amir Amor (right), Piers Agget, Kesi Dryden and DJ Locksmith.
  • Rudimental—Amir Amor (Amir Izadkhah;[90][91] 1985—Present[92]) together with Piers Agget,[92] Kesi Dryden[92] and DJ Locksmith,[93] are part of a group by the name of Rudimental, who have been active with Amor since 2011. The band however is much older, with Amor being the last to join them when the others approached him to produce and write music for them.[94][n. 39][95] Amor was originally a refugee from Iran. At the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War (1980—1988), his family fled and began looking for safety abroad.[96] His family were granted asylum in the UK but his life was difficult, with the added problem of barely being able to speak English.[96][n. 40] Eventually he would find success in music, which would dramatically change his life.
  • Amor's family didn't even have a proper home until the mid-1990s, as he recalls "we were always floating around halfway houses, going to lots of schools and staying with random people, sometimes in single rooms with entire families".[105] Interestingly, as a result of his tough life growing up, he has begun to involve himself in helping refugees, having for instance created the "song ‘Yayang’ for a London charity that helps asylum-seekers rebuild their lives through yoga classes to help them feel less isolated and recover from trauma".[106] His entry into the music profession was entirely accidental, and a result of his circumstances. As a child he first experimented with sound when he discovered he could overdub his voice on a cassette player.[96]
    • His first record was a gift; "The Score" (1996) by the "Fugees" (interestingly, his mother didn't realise how much swearing it contained otherwise she wouldn't have purchased it).[107] The record was requested by Amor himself.[107] He has also said that listening to the album "Mothership Connection" (1975) by Parliament made him first want to join a band.[107]
  • At the age of 16 he began attending Tribal Tree Studios everyday after school (a youth club found in the borough of Camden). Amor stated that it was during this time "[a] guy there who felt sorry for me let me use their equipment, and I got into making beats".[105] In 2007 he began to produce mixtapes with Plan B (his first ever being "Paint it Blacker").[105] He then began producing for Sam Smith.[105] It was only this did the members of Rudimental get in touch with him.[105] This was in 2012 and by this time he was producing music for Black Butter Records; they had heard of him through his studio Major Toms (also known as Major Toms Records) in East London.[108] He has also worked Ed Sheeran, writing his song "Bloodstream".[109]
Rita Ora signed her first record deal at 14. She is a Kosovan refugee; Kosovans have long been persecuted and genocided by ethnic Serbians in her ancestral homeland. The Serbians in Yugoslavia were the ones who caused it's violent breakup. Interestingly they also triggered WWI when they killed the Archduke of Austria.
  • Rita Ora—Born to a Muslim father and a Catholic mother, Rita Ora is a Kosovan musician from the UK.[110] Her real name is Rita Sahatçiu.[111] Both her parents arrived to the UK in 1991 as refugees, fleeing from the disintegration of the their homeland, Yugoslavia (where Ora was born), where Muslims were being persecuted by the Orthodox Christian Serbs; her father got into the pub trade—nothing unusual for a Muslim, as plenty of British Pakistani owned newsagents sell alcohol in the UK[112]—and her mother was originally a psychiatrist.[113][114] Her family are both ethnic Albanian. Her family initially found it very hard to live in the UK as they lived in poverty.[110] She got her first big break at 14 when Grammy-award-winning producer Martin Terefe signed her on for two years.[110]
    • The Yugoslav Wars comprised of five wars, two insurgencies and one tense transition; the Slovenian—Serbian War[115] (1991; "Ten-Day War"[115]), Croat—Serbian War (1991—1995; or the "Croatian War of Independence", which the Serbs mourn as a great loss[116]),[117] Bosnian—Serbian War (1992—1995; which ended with the help of a reluctant NATO[118][119][120]), Croat—Bosniak War (1992—1994),[121] Kosovo—Serbian War (1998—1999),[117] the Preševo Muslim Revolt (1999—2001),[122] the Macedonian Muslim Revolt (2001),[123] and the declaration of Kosovan Independence (2008).[124] The latter was particularly vindicating, as it hit the Serbians squarely where it would be most painful; since they mythically regard Kosovo as the "cradle" of their civilisation.[125]
      • During the Yugoslav wars Muslims were particularly worst hit as the Serbians specifically targeted them with the intention of committing genocide (which they did as well as commit genocidal rape).[126][n. 41] In Bosnia and Herzegovina alone, 100,000 people died as a result of Serbian aggression (65,000 Muslim, 25,000 Serb, 8,000 Croat, 2,000 unknown).[127] Bosnia still suffers, despite Muslims making up 45% of the population,[128] they only have control of 33% of political power (along with having a problematic Serb enclave called the "Republika Srpska"[129]). As a result the country is still imbued in tension, with both Croatia and Serbia causing problems for Bosnia either by rapidly re-arming or financing Islamist extremists in order to frame Muslims.[130]
  • Her most successful singles in the UK have been "Hot Right Now" (2012; 1st), "R.I.P." (2012; 1st), "How We Do (Party)" (2012; 1st), "I Will Never Let You Down" (2014; 1st), "Anywhere" (2017; 2nd), "Poison" (2015; 3rd), "Black Widow" (2014; 4th), "Lonely Together" (2017; 4th), "Let You Love Me" (2018; 4th), "Your Song" (2017; 7th), "Doing It" (2015; 8th), "For You" (2018; 8th), "Shine Ya Light" (2012; 10th), "Coming Home" (2015; 15th), "Radioactive" (2013; 18th), "Lay Down Your Weapons" (2013; 18th), "Body On Me" (2015; 22nd), "Girls" (2018; 22nd), "Ritual" (2019; 24th), "Carry On" (2019; 26th), "New York Raining" (2015; 29th), "Young Single & Sexy" (2012; 54th), "How To Be Lonely" (2020; 57th), and "Only Want You" (2018; 60th).[111]
    • Ora has had tremendous success in the UK's music industry; she has spent a staggering 406 weeks (2,842 days) in the chart for all of her singles combined.[111] In 2018 it was revealed she had sold more than 7 million singles in the UK.[131] By 2018 she also had 1.3 billion streams to her name on the Spotify.
  • Ora has only released two studio albums, much of them to critical acclaim. Her first album was "Ora" (2012), which peaked at number one in the UK, and stayed on the official UK albums chart for 30 weeks.[111] The BPI certified it platinum in 2013.[132] The album was also successful in Ireland where it ranked 2nd. Her second album peaked 11th, and stayed for 47 weeks.[111] It was also certified gold. Going by certification alone (and figures reported to date ending 2018[131]), she sold a minimum of at least 466,064 albums combined in the UK. Her first album did not release in the US, but her second did, ranking 79th in the US Billboard Hot 200.[133]
Amelle Berrabah.
  • Amelle Berrabah—Born to Moroccan Muslim parents, Amelle Berrabah (1984—Present) is a singer that is most well known as one of the members of British girl band, Sugababes. Berrabah was with the Sugababes from 2005[134] to 2011 (others say 2013[135]); with the group later disbanding on bad terms.[136] Tensions within the group were most often caused by their management rather than the girls themselves, the former of whom had a history of fuelling "animosity between them".[137] However during her time with the group, they did produce a range of successful singles (the most memorable being "About You Now" and "Red Dress"[137]).
  • Berrabah is still yet to release her debut solo album after having left the Sugababes but has released several singles. Her time has mostly been spent with family during this period (she comes from a family of seven including herself; having four sisters and one brother, all living in Aldershot, England). Her biggest single as a solo artist has been "Never Leave You" (2009; with Tinchy Stryder). It ranked number one in the UK; staying in the charts for 14 weeks (and additionally made her the only former Sugababes member to achieve a number one single outside of the group[135]).[139] She married her husband, Marcio Sousa Rosa (the CEO of HitMan Records[140]), in a traditional Muslim wedding ceremony in 2014.[141] They have one daughter together, but divorced in 2020, separating on good terms.[142]
Members of the band, Rudimental. Amir Amor (right), Piers Agget, Kesi Dryden and DJ Locksmith.
  • Rudimental—Amir Amor (Amir Izadkhah;[90][91] 1985—Present[92]) together with Piers Agget,[92] Kesi Dryden[92] and DJ Locksmith,[93] are part of a group by the name of Rudimental, who have been active with Amor since 2011. The band however is much older, with Amor being the last to join them when the others approached him to produce and write music for them.[94][n. 42][95] Amor was originally a refugee from Iran. At the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War (1980—1988), his family fled and began looking for safety abroad.[96] His family were granted asylum in the UK but his life was difficult, with the added problem of barely being able to speak English.[96][n. 43] Eventually he would find success in music, which would dramatically change his life.
  • Amor's family didn't even have a proper home until the mid-1990s, as he recalls "we were always floating around halfway houses, going to lots of schools and staying with random people, sometimes in single rooms with entire families".[105] Interestingly, as a result of his tough life growing up, he has begun to involve himself in helping refugees, having for instance created the "song ‘Yayang’ for a London charity that helps asylum-seekers rebuild their lives through yoga classes to help them feel less isolated and recover from trauma".[106] His entry into the music profession was entirely accidental, and a result of his circumstances. As a child he first experimented with sound when he discovered he could overdub his voice on a cassette player.[96]
    • His first record was a gift; "The Score" (1996) by the "Fugees" (interestingly, his mother didn't realise how much swearing it contained otherwise she wouldn't have purchased it).[107] The record was requested by Amor himself.[107] He has also said that listening to the album "Mothership Connection" (1975) by Parliament made him first want to join a band.[107]
  • At the age of 16 he began attending Tribal Tree Studios everyday after school (a youth club found in the borough of Camden). Amor stated that it was during this time "[a] guy there who felt sorry for me let me use their equipment, and I got into making beats".[105] In 2007 he began to produce mixtapes with Plan B (his first ever being "Paint it Blacker").[105] He then began producing for Sam Smith.[105] It was only this did the members of Rudimental get in touch with him.[105] This was in 2012 and by this time he was producing music for Black Butter Records; they had heard of him through his studio Major Toms (also known as Major Toms Records) in East London.[108] He has also worked Ed Sheeran, writing his song "Bloodstream".[109]
Rita Ora signed her first record deal at 14. She is a Kosovan refugee; Kosovans have long been persecuted and genocided by ethnic Serbians in her ancestral homeland. The Serbians in Yugoslavia were the ones who caused it's violent breakup. Interestingly they also triggered WWI when they killed the Archduke of Austria.
  • Rita Ora—Born to a Muslim father and a Catholic mother, Rita Ora is a Kosovan musician from the UK.[110] Her real name is Rita Sahatçiu.[111] Both her parents arrived to the UK in 1991 as refugees, fleeing from the disintegration of the their homeland, Yugoslavia (where Ora was born), where Muslims were being persecuted by the Orthodox Christian Serbs; her father got into the pub trade—nothing unusual for a Muslim, as plenty of British Pakistani owned newsagents sell alcohol in the UK[112]—and her mother was originally a psychiatrist.[113][114] Her family are both ethnic Albanian. Her family initially found it very hard to live in the UK as they lived in poverty.[110] She got her first big break at 14 when Grammy-award-winning producer Martin Terefe signed her on for two years.[110]
    • The Yugoslav Wars comprised of five wars, two insurgencies and one tense transition; the Slovenian—Serbian War[115] (1991; "Ten-Day War"[115]), Croat—Serbian War (1991—1995; or the "Croatian War of Independence", which the Serbs mourn as a great loss[116]),[117] Bosnian—Serbian War (1992—1995; which ended with the help of a reluctant NATO[118][119][120]), Croat—Bosniak War (1992—1994),[121] Kosovo—Serbian War (1998—1999),[117] the Preševo Muslim Revolt (1999—2001),[122] the Macedonian Muslim Revolt (2001),[123] and the declaration of Kosovan Independence (2008).[124] The latter was particularly vindicating, as it hit the Serbians squarely where it would be most painful; since they mythically regard Kosovo as the "cradle" of their civilisation.[125]
      • During the Yugoslav wars Muslims were particularly worst hit as the Serbians specifically targeted them with the intention of committing genocide (which they did as well as commit genocidal rape).[126][n. 44] In Bosnia and Herzegovina alone, 100,000 people died as a result of Serbian aggression (65,000 Muslim, 25,000 Serb, 8,000 Croat, 2,000 unknown).[127] Bosnia still suffers, despite Muslims making up 45% of the population,[128] they only have control of 33% of political power (along with having a problematic Serb enclave called the "Republika Srpska"[129]). As a result the country is still imbued in tension, with both Croatia and Serbia causing problems for Bosnia either by rapidly re-arming or financing Islamist extremists in order to frame Muslims.[130]
  • Her most successful singles in the UK have been "Hot Right Now" (2012; 1st), "R.I.P." (2012; 1st), "How We Do (Party)" (2012; 1st), "I Will Never Let You Down" (2014; 1st), "Anywhere" (2017; 2nd), "Poison" (2015; 3rd), "Black Widow" (2014; 4th), "Lonely Together" (2017; 4th), "Let You Love Me" (2018; 4th), "Your Song" (2017; 7th), "Doing It" (2015; 8th), "For You" (2018; 8th), "Shine Ya Light" (2012; 10th), "Coming Home" (2015; 15th), "Radioactive" (2013; 18th), "Lay Down Your Weapons" (2013; 18th), "Body On Me" (2015; 22nd), "Girls" (2018; 22nd), "Ritual" (2019; 24th), "Carry On" (2019; 26th), "New York Raining" (2015; 29th), "Young Single & Sexy" (2012; 54th), "How To Be Lonely" (2020; 57th), and "Only Want You" (2018; 60th).[111]
    • Ora has had tremendous success in the UK's music industry; she has spent a staggering 406 weeks (2,842 days) in the chart for all of her singles combined.[111] In 2018 it was revealed she had sold more than 7 million singles in the UK.[131] By 2018 she also had 1.3 billion streams to her name on the Spotify.
  • Ora has only released two studio albums, much of them to critical acclaim. Her first album was "Ora" (2012), which peaked at number one in the UK, and stayed on the official UK albums chart for 30 weeks.[111] The BPI certified it platinum in 2013.[132] The album was also successful in Ireland where it ranked 2nd. Her second album peaked 11th, and stayed for 47 weeks.[111] It was also certified gold. Going by certification alone (and figures reported to date ending 2018[131]), she sold a minimum of at least 466,064 albums combined in the UK. Her first album did not release in the US, but her second did, ranking 79th in the US Billboard Hot 200.[133]
Amelle Berrabah.
  • Amelle Berrabah—Born to Moroccan Muslim parents, Amelle Berrabah (1984—Present) is a singer that is most well known as one of the members of British girl band, Sugababes. Berrabah was with the Sugababes from 2005[134] to 2011 (others say 2013[135]); with the group later disbanding on bad terms.[136] Tensions within the group were most often caused by their management rather than the girls themselves, the former of whom had a history of fuelling "animosity between them".[137] However during her time with the group, they did produce a range of successful singles (the most memorable being "About You Now" and "Red Dress"[137]).
  • Berrabah is still yet to release her debut solo album after having left the Sugababes but has released several singles. Her time has mostly been spent with family during this period (she comes from a family of seven including herself; having four sisters and one brother, all living in Aldershot, England). Her biggest single as a solo artist has been "Never Leave You" (2009; with Tinchy Stryder). It ranked number one in the UK; staying in the charts for 14 weeks (and additionally made her the only former Sugababes member to achieve a number one single outside of the group[135]).[139] She married her husband, Marcio Sousa Rosa (the CEO of HitMan Records[140]), in a traditional Muslim wedding ceremony in 2014.[141] They have one daughter together, but divorced in 2020, separating on good terms.[142]

Dark Pop (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Artwork of Lipa from "Future Nostalgia" (2020). Her first number one album in the UK.[143] She was the first female to successfully achieve the top spot in that same year.[143] She is also in the top forty artists on Spotify (ranking 27th). She performed in Kosovo in 2017, in a 3 day festival, priced at €55 Euros. Lipa is affectionately known by her fans as "Dula Peep" (a Wendy Williams mispronunciation turned into a meme).
  • Dua Lipa—Born in London, England, Dua Lipa is a Muslim singer and song-writer[144] of Kosovan (¾) and Bosnian heritage (¼).[145] Although she was born in the UK, her parents were refugees, fleeing from the Yugoslav wars (interestingly the disruption it caused lead her parents to attend school at the same time she did when they came to Britain).[145] For part of her childhood she did return to Kosovo (from the age of 11 to 15[146]) before returning. Although she hasn't ever explicitly said she is Muslim there have been many obvious clues, namely that Kosovans are 96% Muslim,[147][148] her mother has a Muslim name,[145][n. 45] she attended a mosque,[149] and has explicitly stated her family celebrates Eid.[150][n. 46]
    • Lipa's first name, "Dua", has also been a source of confusion. In Arabic it means "invocation",[149] but she claims it means "love" in Albanian. However, according to Albanian dictionaries, only "dashuria" means "love" (and on it's own "dua" is simply a connection device).[151][152] It is also interesting that she mentions that she was ashamed of her name whilst growing up in the UK, wishing instead she was called something "normal".[153] One reason for the ambiguity is probably down to the fact that Lipa grew up at a time when her people were being murdered for being Muslim in her homeland (see Rita Ora above). Similarly, in the UK, Islamophobia is rampant, so she likely hides it to avoid discrimination.[154]
  • She has released two studio albums so far; "Dua Lipa" (2017, UK: 3rd; US: 27th) and "Future Nostalgia" (2020, 1st; 4th). Her most successful singles have been "New Rules" (2017, 1st; 6th), "BoTW" (2017, 1st; n/a), "One Kiss" (2018, 1st; 26th), "Don't Start Now" (2019, 2nd; 2nd), "IDGAF" (2018, 3rd; 49th), "Physical" (2020, 3rd; 60th), "Electricity" (2018, 4th; 62nd), "Break My Heart" (2020, 6th; 21st), "Be the One" (2015, UK: 9th; US: n/a), "No Lie" (2016, 10th; n/a), "Scared to Be Lonely" (2017, 14th; 76th), "Hotter than Hell" (2016, 15th; n/a), "Swan Song" (2019, 24th; n/a), "Blow Your Mind (Mwah)" (2016, 30th; 72nd) and "Kiss and Make Up" (2018, 36th; 93rd).[155][156]
    • As of 2020, she also has 5.21 billion streams on the streaming site Spotify.[157] This makes her the 27th best listened artist on the site.[158]
  • Her grandparents have also been important figures in her life; her grandmother for instance was the person who named her.[145] She is also the grand-daughter of the historian, Seit Lipa (d. 1999[145]) who was persecuted by the Serbians when they invaded Kosovo during the 1990s; "[o]nce the Serbians came in, they wanted a lot of the historians to rewrite the history of Kosovo...that Kosovo was always part of Serbia and never part of Yugoslavia...my grandfather...wouldn’t, so he lost his job, because he didn’t want to write a history that he didn’t believe to be true".[145]
Dua Lipa is Kosovan-British. She has scored two number one singles in the UK. She has yet to top the US Billboard Hot 100 (the highest she has achieved is 2nd in 2019).
  • Serbians have historically been extremely racist towards Albanians and Bosnians, namely because both these ethnic groups are Muslim[159] (and it is particularly interesting that Lipa's mother—originally having trained to become a lawyer before fleeing to the UK—is Bosnian, whilst her father—originally having trained to become a dentist before also fleeing to the UK—is Kosovar Albanian[145]). As one Serbian journalist, Žikica Milošević, notes, Serbians "are still behaving in a racist manner" towards Albanians even in 2019 (the year he wrote the article expressing these views); that "[w]e keep calling the Albanians "the Shiptars"...Albanians often call themselves [this] too, but the way we say it, usually with con-tempt, is the problem)".[160][161]
    • However, it must be stressed that Albanians refer to themselves as "shqiptar", whereas Serbs use the offensive term "shiptar" or "siptar".[162][163]
  • One example of the hostility she has faced from Serbians has been their constant harassment of her when she visited Kosovo in 2018.[164] One of these Serbs was directly chastised by Lipa's then boyfriend, Isaac Carew (1986—Present[165]), who responded harshly to their incessant and deliberately provocative "Welcome to Serbia" comments.[164] Serbians believe Kosovo to be a part of Serbia;[166] and they have even used this line of thinking to murder Kosovars previously; notably the very last of the Yugoslav wars was between Serbia and Kosovo; the latter of whom only became independent in 2008.[167]
  • She has also squarely put herself in the middle of controversy without giving in to intimidation. For instance she supported two Swiss-Albanian footballers who were directly targeted by Serbia simply for celebrating their ethnic and national heritage on the pitch (for signing the Albanian double-eagle symbol, which appears on their national flag). She was roundly condemned by the Serbs for supporting the players but she refused to be silenced over it and doubled down; casually "throwing shade" by wearing dresses with the colours of the Albanian flag.[168] The Serbs responded by calling for a boycott of her songs.[169]
    • The main controversy broke in 2018 at the World Cup when Serbia faced Switzerland (the match was seen as a battle between Albanians and Serbs as almost half the Swiss team was made up of ethnic Albanians).[170][169] Xherdan Shaqiri (1991—Present[171]) and Granit Xhakas (1992—Present[172]) went on to score two goals against the Serbs who only managed one (in a stunning reversal, Switzerland scored those two goals after Serbia had scored theirs[173]). In celebration of their scores against the opposition (and in celebration of their ethnic heritage) the players signed the Albanian eagle, angering the Serbians (who were so hurt by it that they even called for them to be prosecuted at the war crimes tribunal in the Hague).[161][174][175]
    • The gesture was in response to Serbian fans who had plastered their shirts with the face of the Serbian war criminal Ratko Mladić (1942—Present), who lead the persecution and genocide of Muslims across the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s (indeed his most infamous genocide was that of Srebrenica in 1995;[176] and interestingly, the Serbs also engaged in a deliberate policy of mass genocidal rape during the entire war—50,000 pre-pubescent girls and women of Lipa's ethnic background were raped / gangraped or forcibly impregnated by Serbian rape units known as Chetniks[177][178]).[179][180] Knowing these details is crucial to understanding why both Lipa and Ora choose to continuously take pride in their ethnicity, and why they too sign the gesture.[181]
  • Lipa has been the recipient of three BRIT awards and two Grammy's. In total she has been nominated a grand total of ten times (once in 2017,[182] five times in 2018,[183][184] four times in 2019[185]) at the BRIT awards and twice for the Grammy's.[186] She was the first female in British history to gain five nominations in a single year.[187]
Artwork of Lipa from "Future Nostalgia" (2020). Her first number one album in the UK.[143] She was the first female to successfully achieve the top spot in that same year.[143] She is also in the top forty artists on Spotify (ranking 27th). She performed in Kosovo in 2017, in a 3 day festival, priced at €55 Euros. Lipa is affectionately known by her fans as "Dula Peep" (a Wendy Williams mispronunciation turned into a meme).
  • Dua Lipa—Born in London, England, Dua Lipa is a Muslim singer and song-writer[144] of Kosovan (¾) and Bosnian heritage (¼).[145] Although she was born in the UK, her parents were refugees, fleeing from the Yugoslav wars (interestingly the disruption it caused lead her parents to attend school at the same time she did when they came to Britain).[145] For part of her childhood she did return to Kosovo (from the age of 11 to 15[146]) before returning. Although she hasn't ever explicitly said she is Muslim there have been many obvious clues, namely that Kosovans are 96% Muslim,[147][148] her mother has a Muslim name,[145][n. 47] she attended a mosque,[149] and has explicitly stated her family celebrates Eid.[150][n. 48]
    • Lipa's first name, "Dua", has also been a source of confusion. In Arabic it means "invocation",[149] but she claims it means "love" in Albanian. However, according to Albanian dictionaries, only "dashuria" means "love" (and on it's own "dua" is simply a connection device).[151][152] It is also interesting that she mentions that she was ashamed of her name whilst growing up in the UK, wishing instead she was called something "normal".[153] One reason for the ambiguity is probably down to the fact that Lipa grew up at a time when her people were being murdered for being Muslim in her homeland (see Rita Ora above). Similarly, in the UK, Islamophobia is rampant, so she likely hides it to avoid discrimination.[154]
  • She has released two studio albums so far; "Dua Lipa" (2017, UK: 3rd; US: 27th) and "Future Nostalgia" (2020, 1st; 4th). Her most successful singles have been "New Rules" (2017, 1st; 6th), "BoTW" (2017, 1st; n/a), "One Kiss" (2018, 1st; 26th), "Don't Start Now" (2019, 2nd; 2nd), "IDGAF" (2018, 3rd; 49th), "Physical" (2020, 3rd; 60th), "Electricity" (2018, 4th; 62nd), "Break My Heart" (2020, 6th; 21st), "Be the One" (2015, UK: 9th; US: n/a), "No Lie" (2016, 10th; n/a), "Scared to Be Lonely" (2017, 14th; 76th), "Hotter than Hell" (2016, 15th; n/a), "Swan Song" (2019, 24th; n/a), "Blow Your Mind (Mwah)" (2016, 30th; 72nd) and "Kiss and Make Up" (2018, 36th; 93rd).[155][156]
    • As of 2020, she also has 5.21 billion streams on the streaming site Spotify.[157] This makes her the 27th best listened artist on the site.[158]
  • Her grandparents have also been important figures in her life; her grandmother for instance was the person who named her.[145] She is also the grand-daughter of the historian, Seit Lipa (d. 1999[145]) who was persecuted by the Serbians when they invaded Kosovo during the 1990s; "[o]nce the Serbians came in, they wanted a lot of the historians to rewrite the history of Kosovo...that Kosovo was always part of Serbia and never part of Yugoslavia...my grandfather...wouldn’t, so he lost his job, because he didn’t want to write a history that he didn’t believe to be true".[145]
Dua Lipa is Kosovan-British. She has scored two number one singles in the UK. She has yet to top the US Billboard Hot 100 (the highest she has achieved is 2nd in 2019).
  • Serbians have historically been extremely racist towards Albanians and Bosnians, namely because both these ethnic groups are Muslim[159] (and it is particularly interesting that Lipa's mother—originally having trained to become a lawyer before fleeing to the UK—is Bosnian, whilst her father—originally having trained to become a dentist before also fleeing to the UK—is Kosovar Albanian[145]). As one Serbian journalist, Žikica Milošević, notes, Serbians "are still behaving in a racist manner" towards Albanians even in 2019 (the year he wrote the article expressing these views); that "[w]e keep calling the Albanians "the Shiptars"...Albanians often call themselves [this] too, but the way we say it, usually with con-tempt, is the problem)".[160][161]
    • However, it must be stressed that Albanians refer to themselves as "shqiptar", whereas Serbs use the offensive term "shiptar" or "siptar".[162][163]
  • One example of the hostility she has faced from Serbians has been their constant harassment of her when she visited Kosovo in 2018.[164] One of these Serbs was directly chastised by Lipa's then boyfriend, Isaac Carew (1986—Present[165]), who responded harshly to their incessant and deliberately provocative "Welcome to Serbia" comments.[164] Serbians believe Kosovo to be a part of Serbia;[166] and they have even used this line of thinking to murder Kosovars previously; notably the very last of the Yugoslav wars was between Serbia and Kosovo; the latter of whom only became independent in 2008.[167]
  • She has also squarely put herself in the middle of controversy without giving in to intimidation. For instance she supported two Swiss-Albanian footballers who were directly targeted by Serbia simply for celebrating their ethnic and national heritage on the pitch (for signing the Albanian double-eagle symbol, which appears on their national flag). She was roundly condemned by the Serbs for supporting the players but she refused to be silenced over it and doubled down; casually "throwing shade" by wearing dresses with the colours of the Albanian flag.[168] The Serbs responded by calling for a boycott of her songs.[169]
    • The main controversy broke in 2018 at the World Cup when Serbia faced Switzerland (the match was seen as a battle between Albanians and Serbs as almost half the Swiss team was made up of ethnic Albanians).[170][169] Xherdan Shaqiri (1991—Present[171]) and Granit Xhakas (1992—Present[172]) went on to score two goals against the Serbs who only managed one (in a stunning reversal, Switzerland scored those two goals after Serbia had scored theirs[173]). In celebration of their scores against the opposition (and in celebration of their ethnic heritage) the players signed the Albanian eagle, angering the Serbians (who were so hurt by it that they even called for them to be prosecuted at the war crimes tribunal in the Hague).[161][174][175]
    • The gesture was in response to Serbian fans who had plastered their shirts with the face of the Serbian war criminal Ratko Mladić (1942—Present), who lead the persecution and genocide of Muslims across the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s (indeed his most infamous genocide was that of Srebrenica in 1995;[176] and interestingly, the Serbs also engaged in a deliberate policy of mass genocidal rape during the entire war—50,000 pre-pubescent girls and women of Lipa's ethnic background were raped / gangraped or forcibly impregnated by Serbian rape units known as Chetniks[177][178]).[179][180] Knowing these details is crucial to understanding why both Lipa and Ora choose to continuously take pride in their ethnicity, and why they too sign the gesture.[181]
  • Lipa has been the recipient of three BRIT awards and two Grammy's. In total she has been nominated a grand total of ten times (once in 2017,[182] five times in 2018,[183][184] four times in 2019[185]) at the BRIT awards and twice for the Grammy's.[186] She was the first female in British history to gain five nominations in a single year.[187]

Acoustics & Opera (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Darius Campbell-Danesh with his parents.[188] He has two brothers. He comes from a family of general practitioners (GP's); both his mother and father as doctors. He comes from Glasgow, Scotland and lives in a town called Bearsden.
  • Darius Campbell-Danesh—Better known as Darius, but born Darius Campbell-Danesh (1980—Present[189]), is a Scottish-Iranian musician and singer, best known as a former pop star, now opera singer and theatre actor.[190][n. 49] His entry into music started early on in his childhood where he sang in choirs, musicals, learned the saxophone, played the piano and even fronted a band known as "Jade" in high school.[191] His father is Iranian and his mother White Scottish.[189] He initially began singing opera in the 1990s, but first achieved widespread fame when he appeared on the show "Popstars" (2000[192]) and then again on "Pop Idol" (2001—2003[193]). He also famously rejected Simon Cowell's offer of a record deal, instead signing with another company.[194]
    • Darius was wildly successful during his short career in recorded music; five of his six singles that charted were in the top ten in the UK Singles Chart, with "Colourblind" reaching number one for two consecutive weeks straight, for a total chart history of 19 weeks.[195] The six singles he released were "Colourblind" (2002; 1st), "Rushes" (2002; 5th), "Live Twice" (2005; 7th), "Kinda Love" (2004; 8th), "Incredible (What I Meant To Say)" (2003; 9th) and "Girl In The Moon" (2003; 21st).[195] During his time, his total chart history spanned 65 weeks on the charts. He also released two albums, "Dive In" (2002; 6th) and "Live Twice" (2004; 36th).[195] His total album chart history lasted 24 weeks; his first lasting a staggering 21 weeks alone.[195]
      • Well after he had stopped his pop career, he later appeared on "Popstar to Operastar" (2010—2011) winning the 2010 series.[196][192]
  • Darius has changed his name twice throughout his life; his original name is Darius Campbell-Danesh,[197] however, during his time on television he had the name "Darius Danesh" forced upon him by the producers unknowingly, with Darius later remarking that this had stripped him of his Scottish identity.[198] He changed it to "Darius Campbell" in 2010, and claimed he did it because he "felt Scottish", and wanted to honour his maternal grandfather.[197] However in 2019 he changed his name back to "Darius Dinesh", this time to honour his father; saying "[h]e was very generous when I changed my name to Campbell for my maternal grandfather after I buried him...I wanted people to know I was proud of my Scottish roots and still am, but it’s time to change back".[199]
    • Some have speculated he changed his name because of racism, that he would sell more music if he had a name that didn't sound so foreign.[189] This is especially true because it singled out Darius as a Muslim in a time where Islamophobia is still rampant. Darius's relatives have also faced similar kinds of discrimination, enough that it drove one of his relatives to prosecute his employer (the UK government) for firing him unfairly.[191]
Darius Campbell-Danesh with his parents.[188] He has two brothers. He comes from a family of general practitioners (GP's); both his mother and father as doctors. He comes from Glasgow, Scotland and lives in a town called Bearsden.
  • Darius Campbell-Danesh—Better known as Darius, but born Darius Campbell-Danesh (1980—Present[189]), is a Scottish-Iranian musician and singer, best known as a former pop star, now opera singer and theatre actor.[190][n. 50] His entry into music started early on in his childhood where he sang in choirs, musicals, learned the saxophone, played the piano and even fronted a band known as "Jade" in high school.[191] His father is Iranian and his mother White Scottish.[189] He initially began singing opera in the 1990s, but first achieved widespread fame when he appeared on the show "Popstars" (2000[192]) and then again on "Pop Idol" (2001—2003[193]). He also famously rejected Simon Cowell's offer of a record deal, instead signing with another company.[194]
    • Darius was wildly successful during his short career in recorded music; five of his six singles that charted were in the top ten in the UK Singles Chart, with "Colourblind" reaching number one for two consecutive weeks straight, for a total chart history of 19 weeks.[195] The six singles he released were "Colourblind" (2002; 1st), "Rushes" (2002; 5th), "Live Twice" (2005; 7th), "Kinda Love" (2004; 8th), "Incredible (What I Meant To Say)" (2003; 9th) and "Girl In The Moon" (2003; 21st).[195] During his time, his total chart history spanned 65 weeks on the charts. He also released two albums, "Dive In" (2002; 6th) and "Live Twice" (2004; 36th).[195] His total album chart history lasted 24 weeks; his first lasting a staggering 21 weeks alone.[195]
      • Well after he had stopped his pop career, he later appeared on "Popstar to Operastar" (2010—2011) winning the 2010 series.[196][192]
  • Darius has changed his name twice throughout his life; his original name is Darius Campbell-Danesh,[197] however, during his time on television he had the name "Darius Danesh" forced upon him by the producers unknowingly, with Darius later remarking that this had stripped him of his Scottish identity.[198] He changed it to "Darius Campbell" in 2010, and claimed he did it because he "felt Scottish", and wanted to honour his maternal grandfather.[197] However in 2019 he changed his name back to "Darius Dinesh", this time to honour his father; saying "[h]e was very generous when I changed my name to Campbell for my maternal grandfather after I buried him...I wanted people to know I was proud of my Scottish roots and still am, but it’s time to change back".[199]
    • Some have speculated he changed his name because of racism, that he would sell more music if he had a name that didn't sound so foreign.[189] This is especially true because it singled out Darius as a Muslim in a time where Islamophobia is still rampant. Darius's relatives have also faced similar kinds of discrimination, enough that it drove one of his relatives to prosecute his employer (the UK government) for firing him unfairly.[191]

Rhythm'n'Blues (2)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
See also culturally related article: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
Naughty Boy.
Naughty Boy ft. Sam Smith, "La La La", opening to the music video. The single ranked number one in several countries.
  • Naughty Boy—Shahid Khan (1985—Present[200]), also known as Naughty Boy,[201] is a British Pakistani singer-songwriter, producer and DJ who's style mainly reflects mainstream pop, R'n'B and garage. Born to Pakistani parents in Watford, England, he entered the music industry in 2009; originally he studied at Guildhall University but later dropped out.[202] Since leaving his education to pursue a career in music he has had tremendous success in singing, song-writing, producing, collaborating and writing music. He has had three Brit Award nominations (2014;[203][204] 2016[205]), and won two MOBO Awards (2013[206][207][208]). His mother and father initially found it very difficult to understand why he wanted to drop out of university.[209]
    • In 2013, he released his debut studio album, Hotel Cabana, to critical and commercial acclaim. It achieved 2nd position in the UK's Official Album Chart,[210] and 6th position in the US Billboard Heatseekers Chart.[211] Additionally it achieved spots in the top 40 albums of several other countries; in Switzerland (8th[212]), Ireland (25th[213]), Australia (30th), Germany (30th[212]), Austria (33rd[212]) and the top 100 albums charts in the Netherlands (46th[212]), Belgium (Wallonia; 70th, Flanders; 74th[212]) and Italy (78th[212]). Additionally, it ranked 193rd best selling album in the UK for 2013.[214] The album was only possible after he produced the majority of Emeli Sande's hugely successful album, "Our Version of Events" in 2012.[215]
      • In 2013 he sold 2 million records himself.[216] Similarly, Sande's album which he had also produced sold more than 2 million copies as well.[217]
    • He has also achieved much success in the UK Singles Charts. In order of his most accomplished and critically acclaimed songs, he achieved most success with "La La La" (2013; 1st[210]), "Dimelo" (2017; 2nd[210]), "Runnin' (Lose It All)" (2015; 4th[210]), "Never Be Your Woman" (2010; 8th[210]), "Lifted" (2013; 8th[210]), "Wonder" (2012; 10th[210]), "Phat Beach (I'll Be Ready)" (2006; 36th[210]), "Daddy ft. Naughty Boy" (2011; 43rd[210]), "Home" (2014; 45th[210]), "Should've Been Me" (2016; 61st[210]) and "Think About It" (2013; 78th[210]). "La La La" was in particular so successful that it became the 148th song to have sold more than one million copies whilst charting at number one in the UK.[217]
      • He signed with Virgin Records in 2012.[215] Interestingly, prior to his success he appeared as a contestant on the British game show, "Deal or No Deal" (2005—2016[218]), in 2005, winning £44,000 which he invested in his music (along with a grant given by the Prince’s Trust).[202] He is known for collaborating with a wide variety of musical artists that have included, Wiz Khalifa,[219] Sam Smith,[220] Beyonce,[221] Rahat Fateh Ali Khan,[222] Zayn Malik,[200], Joe Jonas,[200] Emeli Sandé,[220] Leona Lewis,[200] Ed Sheeran,[200], Cheryl,[200] Jennifer Hudson,[200] Tinie Tempah,[223] Britney Spears,[224] Lily Allen,[224] and Katy Perry.[224] He has also worked with ex-pussycat doll's lead singer Nicole Scherzinger.[200]
    • Naughty Boy has also seen success internationally; "La La La" (2013) charted 19th on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and "Runnin' (Lose It All)" (2015) at 90th peak position for a total chart time of 21 weeks (not counting the ones he didn't release outside his solo album).[225]
Zayn Malik. He almost quit his career twice even before it began. He was convinced by his mother to keep carrying on. He went on to be worth a staggering £50 million whilst he was in the band himself. After leaving the band beat One Directions record by hitting number one in the US Billboard Hot 100; something which band wasn't able to achieve. He was also the most popular One Direction band member.
  • Zayn Malik—Once a part of the boyband One Direction, Zayn Malik (1993—Present) is a British-Pakistani solo artist who's style reflects deep soulful music. He is a British Pakistani, and was born in Bradford to a Pakistani Muslim father[226][227] and a White British mother[228] who converted to Islam; she is notable for having instilled Islam into Zain, as under her guidance he mastered reading the Quran three times in its natively written classical tongue (classical Arabic).[229] His rise to fame was unconventional; his television debut was on a talent show called "The X Factor" (2004[230]—2018) where he first auditioned solo in 2010.[231] He attempted to quit several times, but was disuaded first by his mother, Trisha Malik (1969—Present), and then by Simon Cowell (1959[232]—Present).
    • As part of One Direction, he featured on four studio albums "Up All Night" (2011), "Take Me Home" (2012), "Midnight Memories" (2013), and "Four" (2014).[233] The only album Malik didn't feature as part of One Direction's library was "Made in the A.M." (2015).[233] All the album's Malik featured in were tremendous successes; charting number one barring "Up All Night" (2011) which ranked 2nd on the UK's official album chart.[233] Altogether the albums spent a staggering 325 weeks on the charts (with Malik's time with the group amounting a total of 291 weeks alone).[233] All of the album's were published by Simon Cowell's record label, "Syco Records".[233] Up to 2018 they had sold more than 50 million records,[234] with each of the members worth at least £50 million pounds.[235]
    • The strain of Zayn leaving One Direction began to show in their sales. Out of all the singles released from their fifth studio album—the only album which Zayn did not participate in—saw only three top ten and one top forty songs chart the UK singles chart ("Drag Me Down" (2015; 1st), "Perfect" (2015; 2nd), "History" (2015; 6th) and "Infinity" (2015; 36th)). All other eleven releases did not even make it into the top forty ("Olivia" (2015; 72nd), "End Of The Day" (2015; 73rd), "Love You Goodbye" (2015; 78th), "If I Could Fly" (2015; 79th), "A M" (2015; 83rd), "Temporary Fix" (2015; 86th), "Never Enough" (2015; 89th), "What A Feeling" (2015; 90th), "Home" (2015; 96th), "Hey Angel" (2015; 96th) and "Wolves" (2015; 99th)).
      • Eventually the band was forced to go on hiatus given this embarrassing failure, despite their fifth studio album ranking number one on the albums chart.
    • He has released two solo studio albums, "Mind of Mine" (2016) and "Icarus Falls" (2018). His debut album was immensely successful, ranking number one in not only the UK,[236] but also the US Billboard 200.[237] It also ranked number one is Canada,[238] Australia,[239] Italy,[240] New Zealand,[241] and Sweden.[242] In Ireland it hit 2nd place[243] and France 3rd.[244] His second album was less successful; despite being critically acclaimed.[245] It did break the top 40 in Canada,[238] Denmark and Sweden,[242] but critics cited "[t]he lack of marketing leading up to the album’s release" as a "major factor for its poor performance"; as he "refus[ed] to promote his records" damaging his sales in contrast to his first album which is considered a critical/commercial masterpiece.[246][247][248]
      • His most successful singles in the UK have been "Pillowtalk" (2016; 1st; which featured his long-term girlfriend Gigi Hadid in it's music video), "I Don't Wanna Live Forever" (2016; 5th; featuring Taylor Swift), "Dusk Till Dawn" (2017; 5th; featuring Sia), "Let Me" (2018; 20th), "Still Got Time" (2017; 24th), "Like I Would" (2016; 30th), "Cruel" (2016; 33rd), "It's You" (2016; 48th), "A Whole New World (End Title)" (2019; 68th), "Too Much" (2018; 79th), "She" (2016; 84th), "Befour" (2016; 85th) and "Entertainer" (2018; 95th).[236] "Pillowtalk" was an especial success, ranking number one in multiple countries; including the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, something which One Direction was unable to ever do; earmarking his solo entry.[249]
  • When he left the band, journalists were keen to (incorrectly) point out how he was the least popular[250] member—despite having tens of millions of fans. That he had the least amount of Twitter followers compared to the rest of the group (although technically this is true, this gives a rather false impression (this will be explained); Malik has 28.5 million,[251] Liam Payne 32.8 million,[252] Louis Tomlinson 33.5 million,[253] Harry Styles 34.1 million[254] and Niall Horan 39.4 million[255]). However, what they didn't say was how popular he actually was based on his Instagram follower count (Tomlinson has 14.1 million,[256] Payne 18.6 million,[257] Horan 23 million,[258] Styles 26.7 million[259] and Malik 31.9 million[260]). The Guardian even noted at one point how he had the least amount of followers on Instagram,[261] but failed to explain Malik's account had only recently just been unprivated,[262] thereafter his following rapidly surged to what it is now. Even on Facebook Zayn is wildly more populars; having 19 million fans,[263] Styles 14 million,[264] Tomlinson 9.9 million,[265] Payne 9.9 million[266] and Horan 9.8 million.[267]
Naughty Boy.
Naughty Boy ft. Sam Smith, "La La La", opening to the music video. The single ranked number one in several countries.
  • Naughty Boy—Shahid Khan (1985—Present[200]), also known as Naughty Boy,[201] is a British Pakistani singer-songwriter, producer and DJ who's style mainly reflects mainstream pop, R'n'B and garage. Born to Pakistani parents in Watford, England, he entered the music industry in 2009; originally he studied at Guildhall University but later dropped out.[202] Since leaving his education to pursue a career in music he has had tremendous success in singing, song-writing, producing, collaborating and writing music. He has had three Brit Award nominations (2014;[203][204] 2016[205]), and won two MOBO Awards (2013[206][207][208]). His mother and father initially found it very difficult to understand why he wanted to drop out of university.[209]
    • In 2013, he released his debut studio album, Hotel Cabana, to critical and commercial acclaim. It achieved 2nd position in the UK's Official Album Chart,[210] and 6th position in the US Billboard Heatseekers Chart.[211] Additionally it achieved spots in the top 40 albums of several other countries; in Switzerland (8th[212]), Ireland (25th[213]), Australia (30th), Germany (30th[212]), Austria (33rd[212]) and the top 100 albums charts in the Netherlands (46th[212]), Belgium (Wallonia; 70th, Flanders; 74th[212]) and Italy (78th[212]). Additionally, it ranked 193rd best selling album in the UK for 2013.[214] The album was only possible after he produced the majority of Emeli Sande's hugely successful album, "Our Version of Events" in 2012.[215]
      • In 2013 he sold 2 million records himself.[216] Similarly, Sande's album which he had also produced sold more than 2 million copies as well.[217]
    • He has also achieved much success in the UK Singles Charts. In order of his most accomplished and critically acclaimed songs, he achieved most success with "La La La" (2013; 1st[210]), "Dimelo" (2017; 2nd[210]), "Runnin' (Lose It All)" (2015; 4th[210]), "Never Be Your Woman" (2010; 8th[210]), "Lifted" (2013; 8th[210]), "Wonder" (2012; 10th[210]), "Phat Beach (I'll Be Ready)" (2006; 36th[210]), "Daddy ft. Naughty Boy" (2011; 43rd[210]), "Home" (2014; 45th[210]), "Should've Been Me" (2016; 61st[210]) and "Think About It" (2013; 78th[210]). "La La La" was in particular so successful that it became the 148th song to have sold more than one million copies whilst charting at number one in the UK.[217]
      • He signed with Virgin Records in 2012.[215] Interestingly, prior to his success he appeared as a contestant on the British game show, "Deal or No Deal" (2005—2016[218]), in 2005, winning £44,000 which he invested in his music (along with a grant given by the Prince’s Trust).[202] He is known for collaborating with a wide variety of musical artists that have included, Wiz Khalifa,[219] Sam Smith,[220] Beyonce,[221] Rahat Fateh Ali Khan,[222] Zayn Malik,[200], Joe Jonas,[200] Emeli Sandé,[220] Leona Lewis,[200] Ed Sheeran,[200], Cheryl,[200] Jennifer Hudson,[200] Tinie Tempah,[223] Britney Spears,[224] Lily Allen,[224] and Katy Perry.[224] He has also worked with ex-pussycat doll's lead singer Nicole Scherzinger.[200]
    • Naughty Boy has also seen success internationally; "La La La" (2013) charted 19th on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and "Runnin' (Lose It All)" (2015) at 90th peak position for a total chart time of 21 weeks (not counting the ones he didn't release outside his solo album).[225]
Zayn Malik. He almost quit his career twice even before it began. He was convinced by his mother to keep carrying on. He went on to be worth a staggering £50 million whilst he was in the band himself. After leaving the band beat One Directions record by hitting number one in the US Billboard Hot 100; something which band wasn't able to achieve. He was also the most popular One Direction band member.
  • Zayn Malik—Once a part of the boyband One Direction, Zayn Malik (1993—Present) is a British-Pakistani solo artist who's style reflects deep soulful music. He is a British Pakistani, and was born in Bradford to a Pakistani Muslim father[226][227] and a White British mother[228] who converted to Islam; she is notable for having instilled Islam into Zain, as under her guidance he mastered reading the Quran three times in its natively written classical tongue (classical Arabic).[229] His rise to fame was unconventional; his television debut was on a talent show called "The X Factor" (2004[230]—2018) where he first auditioned solo in 2010.[231] He attempted to quit several times, but was disuaded first by his mother, Trisha Malik (1969—Present), and then by Simon Cowell (1959[232]—Present).
    • As part of One Direction, he featured on four studio albums "Up All Night" (2011), "Take Me Home" (2012), "Midnight Memories" (2013), and "Four" (2014).[233] The only album Malik didn't feature as part of One Direction's library was "Made in the A.M." (2015).[233] All the album's Malik featured in were tremendous successes; charting number one barring "Up All Night" (2011) which ranked 2nd on the UK's official album chart.[233] Altogether the albums spent a staggering 325 weeks on the charts (with Malik's time with the group amounting a total of 291 weeks alone).[233] All of the album's were published by Simon Cowell's record label, "Syco Records".[233] Up to 2018 they had sold more than 50 million records,[234] with each of the members worth at least £50 million pounds.[235]
    • The strain of Zayn leaving One Direction began to show in their sales. Out of all the singles released from their fifth studio album—the only album which Zayn did not participate in—saw only three top ten and one top forty songs chart the UK singles chart ("Drag Me Down" (2015; 1st), "Perfect" (2015; 2nd), "History" (2015; 6th) and "Infinity" (2015; 36th)). All other eleven releases did not even make it into the top forty ("Olivia" (2015; 72nd), "End Of The Day" (2015; 73rd), "Love You Goodbye" (2015; 78th), "If I Could Fly" (2015; 79th), "A M" (2015; 83rd), "Temporary Fix" (2015; 86th), "Never Enough" (2015; 89th), "What A Feeling" (2015; 90th), "Home" (2015; 96th), "Hey Angel" (2015; 96th) and "Wolves" (2015; 99th)).
      • Eventually the band was forced to go on hiatus given this embarrassing failure, despite their fifth studio album ranking number one on the albums chart.
    • He has released two solo studio albums, "Mind of Mine" (2016) and "Icarus Falls" (2018). His debut album was immensely successful, ranking number one in not only the UK,[236] but also the US Billboard 200.[237] It also ranked number one is Canada,[238] Australia,[239] Italy,[240] New Zealand,[241] and Sweden.[242] In Ireland it hit 2nd place[243] and France 3rd.[244] His second album was less successful; despite being critically acclaimed.[245] It did break the top 40 in Canada,[238] Denmark and Sweden,[242] but critics cited "[t]he lack of marketing leading up to the album’s release" as a "major factor for its poor performance"; as he "refus[ed] to promote his records" damaging his sales in contrast to his first album which is considered a critical/commercial masterpiece.[246][247][248]
      • His most successful singles in the UK have been "Pillowtalk" (2016; 1st; which featured his long-term girlfriend Gigi Hadid in it's music video), "I Don't Wanna Live Forever" (2016; 5th; featuring Taylor Swift), "Dusk Till Dawn" (2017; 5th; featuring Sia), "Let Me" (2018; 20th), "Still Got Time" (2017; 24th), "Like I Would" (2016; 30th), "Cruel" (2016; 33rd), "It's You" (2016; 48th), "A Whole New World (End Title)" (2019; 68th), "Too Much" (2018; 79th), "She" (2016; 84th), "Befour" (2016; 85th) and "Entertainer" (2018; 95th).[236] "Pillowtalk" was an especial success, ranking number one in multiple countries; including the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, something which One Direction was unable to ever do; earmarking his solo entry.[249]
  • When he left the band, journalists were keen to (incorrectly) point out how he was the least popular[250] member—despite having tens of millions of fans. That he had the least amount of Twitter followers compared to the rest of the group (although technically this is true, this gives a rather false impression (this will be explained); Malik has 28.5 million,[251] Liam Payne 32.8 million,[252] Louis Tomlinson 33.5 million,[253] Harry Styles 34.1 million[254] and Niall Horan 39.4 million[255]). However, what they didn't say was how popular he actually was based on his Instagram follower count (Tomlinson has 14.1 million,[256] Payne 18.6 million,[257] Horan 23 million,[258] Styles 26.7 million[259] and Malik 31.9 million[260]). The Guardian even noted at one point how he had the least amount of followers on Instagram,[261] but failed to explain Malik's account had only recently just been unprivated,[262] thereafter his following rapidly surged to what it is now. Even on Facebook Zayn is wildly more populars; having 19 million fans,[263] Styles 14 million,[264] Tomlinson 9.9 million,[265] Payne 9.9 million[266] and Horan 9.8 million.[267]

Theme Composers; Instrumentals; Film & Television OST (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
See also culturally related article: Muslim Contributions to Game of Thrones
Djawadi wrote and composed all the music of the HBO television series, "Game of Thrones". Unlike the TV series, it's OST was critically acclaimed.
  • Ramin Djawadi—Born in Germany, Ramin Djawadi (1974—Present),[268][269] is a Muslim Iranian[270] song-writer and composer. He is most well known for his work[271][n. 51] on the critically acclaimed medieval-fantasy television series "Game of Thrones" (2011—2019[272]); based on a series of novels called "A Song of Ice and Fire" (1996—Present[273][274]), written by George R. R. Martin (1948—Present[275]).[276][277][278] Djawadi notably did not audition for the role,[279] but was instead actively sought out by the HBO television series' Jewish producers / writers, D. B. Weiss (1971—Present[280]) and David Benioff (1970—Present[280]).[281] Although the final season was panned by fans and critics[n. 52] for it's disastrous writing,[n. 53] the music was praised throughout.[282]
    • Ramin is the son of Ghafur Djawadi;[283] who's Muslim ancestry is evident from his name, "Ghafur", which is one of the 99 names of Allah, meaning "forgiveness".[284][285][286][287] Given the rampant Islamophobia in the West,[288] Djawadi—understandably—hasn't ever revealed his Muslim ancestry publicly. Ramin's entry into Hollywood was purely by chance; in interviews he has recalled that this venture started when he met his friend—Uli Kurtinat—in the winter of 1999, who told him that he knew someone who knew American composer Hans Zimmer (1957—Present[289][290]), who could mentor him.[291] Djawadi was studying in the US when Zimmer got in contact with him; and soon moved to work at Remote Control Productions in Los Angeles.[279]
    • On the Internet Movie Database (IMDB) he is credited with 66 musical productions; which includes having worked on all 73 episodes of "Game of Thrones" (2011—2019), 28 episodes of "Westworld" (2016—Present) and 89 episodes of "Prison Break" (2005—2017).[292] He's also worked on many successful Hollywood films, including "Iron Man" (2008),[293] "Batman Begins" (2005),[294] "Pirates of the Caribbean" (2003)[294] and "Pacific Rim" (2013).[295]

As one researcher noted, "Ramin Djawadi’s score helped make the show a hit—and brought unlikely fame to the composer...When Thrones leaves the air this year, its cultural legacy will include—and has been enabled by—Djawadi’s richly textured music. The 44-year-old German Iranian composer cemented the series’ iconic status back in 2011 with a theme song whose relentless thrum of strings catchily embodied the roiling intrigue to come. Since then, he’s created a sprawling sonic landscape befitting the show’s apocalyptic refrain: Winter is coming".[282] Especially lauded tracks written, composed and created by Djawadi include the "Game of Thrones Theme" (2011),[296] "The Rains of Castamere" (2012)[n. 54] and "Light of the Seven" (2016).[297] Ramin worked on the show since it's pilot days; Benioff and Weiss first approached Djawadi after the first two episodes had been shot, and a rough cut of the title sequence was made.[298]

Djawadi wrote and composed all the music of the HBO television series, "Game of Thrones". Unlike the TV series, it's OST was critically acclaimed.
  • Ramin Djawadi—Born in Germany, Ramin Djawadi (1974—Present),[268][269] is a Muslim Iranian[270] song-writer and composer. He is most well known for his work[271][n. 55] on the critically acclaimed medieval-fantasy television series "Game of Thrones" (2011—2019[272]); based on a series of novels called "A Song of Ice and Fire" (1996—Present[273][274]), written by George R. R. Martin (1948—Present[275]).[276][277][278] Djawadi notably did not audition for the role,[279] but was instead actively sought out by the HBO television series' Jewish producers / writers, D. B. Weiss (1971—Present[280]) and David Benioff (1970—Present[280]).[281] Although the final season was panned by fans and critics[n. 56] for it's disastrous writing,[n. 57] the music was praised throughout.[282]
    • Ramin is the son of Ghafur Djawadi;[283] who's Muslim ancestry is evident from his name, "Ghafur", which is one of the 99 names of Allah, meaning "forgiveness".[284][285][286][287] Given the rampant Islamophobia in the West,[288] Djawadi—understandably—hasn't ever revealed his Muslim ancestry publicly. Ramin's entry into Hollywood was purely by chance; in interviews he has recalled that this venture started when he met his friend—Uli Kurtinat—in the winter of 1999, who told him that he knew someone who knew American composer Hans Zimmer (1957—Present[289][290]), who could mentor him.[291] Djawadi was studying in the US when Zimmer got in contact with him; and soon moved to work at Remote Control Productions in Los Angeles.[279]
    • On the Internet Movie Database (IMDB) he is credited with 66 musical productions; which includes having worked on all 73 episodes of "Game of Thrones" (2011—2019), 28 episodes of "Westworld" (2016—Present) and 89 episodes of "Prison Break" (2005—2017).[292] He's also worked on many successful Hollywood films, including "Iron Man" (2008),[293] "Batman Begins" (2005),[294] "Pirates of the Caribbean" (2003)[294] and "Pacific Rim" (2013).[295]

As one researcher noted, "Ramin Djawadi’s score helped make the show a hit—and brought unlikely fame to the composer...When Thrones leaves the air this year, its cultural legacy will include—and has been enabled by—Djawadi’s richly textured music. The 44-year-old German Iranian composer cemented the series’ iconic status back in 2011 with a theme song whose relentless thrum of strings catchily embodied the roiling intrigue to come. Since then, he’s created a sprawling sonic landscape befitting the show’s apocalyptic refrain: Winter is coming".[282] Especially lauded tracks written, composed and created by Djawadi include the "Game of Thrones Theme" (2011),[296] "The Rains of Castamere" (2012)[n. 58] and "Light of the Seven" (2016).[297] Ramin worked on the show since it's pilot days; Benioff and Weiss first approached Djawadi after the first two episodes had been shot, and a rough cut of the title sequence was made.[298]

Song Composers; Lyricists & Songwriters (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
See also culturally related article: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
Ammar Malik. In his 10 years of songwriting, he has achieved 108 number one's worldwide. He has written a grand total of 90 songs as of 2020. He hails from Virginia, USA. He is considered "one of the most influential songwriters of the last 10 years" (2020). Many of his tracks have gone platinum or multi-platinum, and has worked with some of the biggest stars in Western music (including Maroon 5, Taylor Swift, Snoop Dogg and Wiz Khalifa).
  • Ammar Malik—Born to Pakistani parents, Ammar Malik (1987—Present) is an award winning and critically acclaimed Pakistani-American[299] songwriter. He was born in Northern Virginia, USA. His mother and father, Ashti Malik and Waqar Malik, are from Sialkot and Rawalpindi respectively in the great state of Punjab.[300] As of January 2020, his writing abilities have earned him 108 number one singles, 310 top ten chart positions, 100 million record sales and over 10 billion streams worldwide.[301] He first started his career in 2010.[300] Approximately 10 years later, it was announced the "Hipgnosis Songs Fund" had acquired Malik's entire library of songs (ninety in total) for an undisclosed sum.[302][303][304][305][306]
    • He is most well known for having written songs for Maroon 5 (writing "Moves Like Jagger",[307][308] "Payphone",[309] "Beautiful Goodbye",[310] "Maps",[310] "Leaving California",[310] "Shoot Love",[310] "Don't Wanna Know",[310] "Wait",[310] "Who I Am",[310] and "Closure"[310]). Interestingly, over a ten year period, "Moves Like Jagger" was the third "most-played [song] on UK TV and radio"; "Payphone" also made it into the top forty.[311]
      • He has also written for Taylor Swift ("Both of Us"[310]), Ke$ha ("Thinking of You",[310] "Last Goodbye"[310]), Ed Sheeran ("New Man"[310]), Zara Larsson ("Sundown",[310] "Symphony"[310]), Selena Gomez ("Feel Me"[310]), Gym Class Heroes ("Stereo Hearts"[310][309] "Ass Back Home"[310]), Clean Bandit ("Rockabye"[310]), James Blunt ("When I Find Love Again"',[310] "Trail of Broken Hearts",[310] "Always Hate Me"[310] "Lost Freqencies"[310]), DJ Snake ("Sober"[310]), Pitbull ("Wild Wild Love"[310]), Ariana Grande ("Why Try",[310] "Adore"), One Direction ("I Want To Write You A Song"[310]), Olly Murs ("Seasons",[310] "Moves"[310]) and Nick Jonas ("Chains"[310] "Teacher"[310]).
  • When he first started writing in 2010, he rapidly gained staggering traction for his talent.[300] In 2011 he was named one of the top 20 songwriters of the year.[312] In 2013, he won Songwriter of the Year at the BMI Pop Awards.[313] In total he has some 392 credits to his name.[314] On success he has said; "I feel like the more I do this—the more I write and become involved in this songwriting world—the hungrier I get for the artist side: the other part of me that has the emphasis on experimenting and exploring new landscapes. Now that this is working, it really opens opportunities for me to do my own thing".[315] His writing process is simple; starting "[s]ometimes...with a chord progression, sometimes a melody, sometimes...a title".[315]
    • Some of his most popular songs have been "Moves Like Jagger", "Payphone", "Maps", "Don't Wanna Know", "Wait". "Rockabye", "Symphony", "Stereo Hearts", "Chains", "Both of Us" and "New Man".[301] Combined these have platinumed 35x altogether in the US alone.[301] Merck Mercuriadis (1963—Present), Canadian-American music industry executive, has called him "one of the most influential songwriters of the last 10 years".[316] Mercks's words carry significant weight, one of his media company's is worth in excess of $850 million dollars (£600 million as listed on the LSE)[317][318] and he is also the founder of "The Family (Music) Limited" and the "Hipgnosis Songs Fund".[318]
Ammar Malik. In his 10 years of songwriting, he has achieved 108 number one's worldwide. He has written a grand total of 90 songs as of 2020. He hails from Virginia, USA. He is considered "one of the most influential songwriters of the last 10 years" (2020). Many of his tracks have gone platinum or multi-platinum, and has worked with some of the biggest stars in Western music (including Maroon 5, Taylor Swift, Snoop Dogg and Wiz Khalifa).
  • Ammar Malik—Born to Pakistani parents, Ammar Malik (1987—Present) is an award winning and critically acclaimed Pakistani-American[299] songwriter. He was born in Northern Virginia, USA. His mother and father, Ashti Malik and Waqar Malik, are from Sialkot and Rawalpindi respectively in the great state of Punjab.[300] As of January 2020, his writing abilities have earned him 108 number one singles, 310 top ten chart positions, 100 million record sales and over 10 billion streams worldwide.[301] He first started his career in 2010.[300] Approximately 10 years later, it was announced the "Hipgnosis Songs Fund" had acquired Malik's entire library of songs (ninety in total) for an undisclosed sum.[302][303][304][305][306]
    • He is most well known for having written songs for Maroon 5 (writing "Moves Like Jagger",[307][308] "Payphone",[309] "Beautiful Goodbye",[310] "Maps",[310] "Leaving California",[310] "Shoot Love",[310] "Don't Wanna Know",[310] "Wait",[310] "Who I Am",[310] and "Closure"[310]). Interestingly, over a ten year period, "Moves Like Jagger" was the third "most-played [song] on UK TV and radio"; "Payphone" also made it into the top forty.[311]
      • He has also written for Taylor Swift ("Both of Us"[310]), Ke$ha ("Thinking of You",[310] "Last Goodbye"[310]), Ed Sheeran ("New Man"[310]), Zara Larsson ("Sundown",[310] "Symphony"[310]), Selena Gomez ("Feel Me"[310]), Gym Class Heroes ("Stereo Hearts"[310][309] "Ass Back Home"[310]), Clean Bandit ("Rockabye"[310]), James Blunt ("When I Find Love Again"',[310] "Trail of Broken Hearts",[310] "Always Hate Me"[310] "Lost Freqencies"[310]), DJ Snake ("Sober"[310]), Pitbull ("Wild Wild Love"[310]), Ariana Grande ("Why Try",[310] "Adore"), One Direction ("I Want To Write You A Song"[310]), Olly Murs ("Seasons",[310] "Moves"[310]) and Nick Jonas ("Chains"[310] "Teacher"[310]).
  • When he first started writing in 2010, he rapidly gained staggering traction for his talent.[300] In 2011 he was named one of the top 20 songwriters of the year.[312] In 2013, he won Songwriter of the Year at the BMI Pop Awards.[313] In total he has some 392 credits to his name.[314] On success he has said; "I feel like the more I do this—the more I write and become involved in this songwriting world—the hungrier I get for the artist side: the other part of me that has the emphasis on experimenting and exploring new landscapes. Now that this is working, it really opens opportunities for me to do my own thing".[315] His writing process is simple; starting "[s]ometimes...with a chord progression, sometimes a melody, sometimes...a title".[315]
    • Some of his most popular songs have been "Moves Like Jagger", "Payphone", "Maps", "Don't Wanna Know", "Wait". "Rockabye", "Symphony", "Stereo Hearts", "Chains", "Both of Us" and "New Man".[301] Combined these have platinumed 35x altogether in the US alone.[301] Merck Mercuriadis (1963—Present), Canadian-American music industry executive, has called him "one of the most influential songwriters of the last 10 years".[316] Mercks's words carry significant weight, one of his media company's is worth in excess of $850 million dollars (£600 million as listed on the LSE)[317][318] and he is also the founder of "The Family (Music) Limited" and the "Hipgnosis Songs Fund".[318]

Record Producers & Record Companies (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Ahmet Ertegun (left) rescued The Rolling Stones at a time when they almost collapsed. They finally found financial success under his leadership. His brother, Nesuhi Ertegun (right) created WEA International, distributing music internationally. He was also the first president of the Grammy's awarding body; the most prestigious music award in the world.
  • Ahmet Ertegun—Founded by a Turkish-American Muslim named Ahmet Ertegun (1923—2006[319]) Atlantic Records is one of the largest record production companies in the history of music. Through his label, Ertegun became famous for discovering and producing the music of many artists who would go on to become some of the most iconic and successful musicians in history under his leadership (two of them, Led Zeppelin and AC/DC, would go on to have staggering record-breaking success). His own success in the industry lead many to call him "the most important figure in the record industry of the 20th century".[320] His interest in music first stemmed from him and his brother sneaking records from their mothers collection and secretly play them at night.[321]
    • One particular incident was pivotal in leading him to pursue his passion in music; in 1932 his brother took him to his first jazz concert, where he later recalled "I had never really seen black people...[a]nd I had never heard anything as glorious as those beautiful musicians wearing white tails, playing these incredibly gleaming horns".[321] In 1934, he got to meet these black musicians, and became so enamoured and infatuated with jazz music that it ignited his love for jazz even more than what it had already been.[321] At the age of 14 his mother gifted him his first record-cutting machine, which inspired him to create his own music company years later; Atlantic Records.[321] As of 2020 that company would bring in in-excess of $680 million dollars annually.[322]
    • Ahmet was actively involved in the production of the music of the artists that were signed onto his label and had a particular knack for knowing what would become viral on radio. As a 1998 investigative piece from Vanity Fair noted; "Ahmet’s artists have always relied on his extraordinary musical knowledge, whether in picking material, mixing a record, or putting together a band". They also gave an example of this; noting one day "[a]t the mastering session for Phil Collins’s first solo album, Ahmet listened to “In the Air Tonight” and told Collins, “You’re going to have to put some extra drums on this if it’s going to be a single.” Reluctantly, Collins agreed. “It was my first big hit,” he says. “Ahmet sussed out what would work on radio and what wouldn’t.”".[323]
  • His full birth name was Ahmet Munir Etegrun,[320] and he was born on the 31st of July in Istanbul, Turkey,[320][324] to a Muslim family.[325][n. 59] His father was a Turkish ambassador[326] to the US, Mehmet Munir Ertegun[324] (1883[327]—1944[320]/1946[324]) and his mother (a musician herself[321]) Hayrunisa Rustem[324] (1???—1???). He grew up with two siblings; one brother, Nesuhi Ertegun (1917—1989[328]) and one sister; Selma Goksel (19??—????).[329] In 1934, they moved and choose Washington DC as their new home.[324] However, when Ertegun's father died in 1944/1946, his mother and sister moved back.[320] Ertegun stayed in the US and attended school in the meanwhile, and became an alumni of St John's College and Georgetown University.[324]
    • Interestingly, Nesuhi would go on to have success of his own; he would become the first president of the "National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences" (now known as "The Recording Academy") which still awards the most prestigious and coveted music industry award;[330] the Grammy.[329] He is also credited with having creating the Warner Communications Inc. subsidiary, WEA International, four years after his brother's company, Atlantic Records, was bought by Warner Communications Inc..[329] WEA International importantly became "the international distributor for all music on the Warner Brothers, Atlantic, Elektra, Geffen and MCA labels".[329] He was also the founder of his own record production company; East-West Records.[329]
  • In his adult years Ahmet married Jan Holm (????—????) in 1947, but later divorced her; in 1961[331] he went on to marry a Romanian[331] woman named Mica Banu Grecianu (????—Present)[320] He died in 2006 after suffering a brain injury;[325] he was buried in Turkey near a Muslim lodge on the Asian side of Istanbul.[332][333][n. 60][325] In the US a memorial service was set up in New York’s Jazz at Lincoln Center and was attended by over 1,000 famous musicians, dignitaries, friends and family members including the leader singer of The Rolling Stones, Mick Jagger (b. 1943) and New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg (b. 1942).[334] He was so pivotal in the history of music that the US Library of Congress officially named him a living legend in 2000.[325] One reason why he was so loved was that under his leadership Atlantic "enjoyed a reputation for not systematically fleecing its artists in notorious Tin Pan Alley fashion".[319]
Atlantic Records logo (1966—2005) below the previous logo they had first used (1947—1966). Atlantic Records was only one of three key companies that survived well past the 1950s. The company was pivotal to the history of rock'n'roll.
  • Ertegun first formed Atlantic Records in 1947 with an investment of $12,500 dollars from two investors; a Turkish dentist named Vahdi Sabit;[335] 1???—1??? and an American Jewish businessman Herb Abramson; 1916—1999[336]).[320] As the company gradually found success, Abramson was bought out by Ertegun in 1959 who paid him $300,000 dollars for his share of the company.[320] In 1967 Warner Bros Seven Arts (now known as Warner Music Group) bought the label for $17.5 million dollars (others say $17 million[324]),[320] with Ertegun staying on as chairman (crucially retaining creative control of the company[337][320][n. 61]).[320] It is interesting to note that were only three key record labels operating in 1950s (the other two being Sun Records and Chess Records), however "[o]f the three key ‘50s labels, only Atlantic continued as a power beyond the early ‘60s".[338] Together these three labels "popularized and defined rock ‘n’ roll in the ‘50s".[338]
    • The label became famous for initially concentrating on producing Black music. It was no mere coincidence that Ertegun did this; this was at a time when talented African-Americans were being dropped from labels because the record material used for making phonographs had become rarer as a result of World War II.[321] The Turkish embassy, when his father was alive, even invited Black musicians to play, even when an American senator lashed out at Ertegun's family, saying; "[a] person of color has been seen entering your house by the front door. In my country this is not a practice to be encouraged".[321] The Turks responded by saying "[i]n my country, friends enter through the front door, but if you wish to come to the embassy, you can enter from the back".[321]
    • Indeed, one of the legacies of the company has been it's popularisation of Black music amongst the teenage White youth of America;[338][n. 62] indeed, it has been said "Atlantic will always be primarily associated with the urban sound of black America" as their artists included the likes of Ray Charles (1930—2004[339]), Otis Redding (1941—1967[340]), Aretha Franklin (1942—2018[341]), Wilson Pickett (1941—2006[342]), Percy Sledge (1940—2015[343]), Solomon Burke (1940—2010[344]) and Donny Hathaway (1945—1979[345]).[346] Ertegun himself recalled how much of a surprise hit their productions were becoming with the differing ethnic groups; "[m]uch to our amazement, the records were bought by both, black and white kids alike, the first true crossover music".[347]
  • Ertegun was also instrumental in discovering,[348] spreading, promoting, popularising and producing[320] the music of many White artists across the US and the rest of the world. Some of their most famous record deals were with Led Zeppelin (produced), AC/DC (produced), ABBA (distributed), Bee Gees (distributed), INXS (distributed) and The Rolling Stones (produced). His most successful band was Led Zeppelin, who as of 2019, has sold over 300 million records throughout their lifetime; interestingly The Rolling Stones sold less (despite making far more albums over their career) but still impressively sold up to 250 million records.[349]
    • The company is still going strong even after Ertegun's death, with Billboard naming his company as "Billboard 200's Top Label of 2019".[350] In 2008, Atlantic became the first ever record label to make most of its revenue from digital sales.[322][351] Notably, Ertegun's personal wealth from his company amounted to $300 million dollars by the time he passed away. Interestingly, "Paul Allen, co-founder of Microsoft, lent his Boeing 757 to bear Ertegun’s body and his family and friends to Istanbul to bury him at the family gravesite in Sultantepe, where his mother, father and older brother (who had died in 1989) were also buried".[321]
Ahmet Ertegun (left) rescued The Rolling Stones at a time when they almost collapsed. They finally found financial success under his leadership. His brother, Nesuhi Ertegun (right) created WEA International, distributing music internationally. He was also the first president of the Grammy's awarding body; the most prestigious music award in the world.
  • Ahmet Ertegun—Founded by a Turkish-American Muslim named Ahmet Ertegun (1923—2006[319]) Atlantic Records is one of the largest record production companies in the history of music. Through his label, Ertegun became famous for discovering and producing the music of many artists who would go on to become some of the most iconic and successful musicians in history under his leadership (two of them, Led Zeppelin and AC/DC, would go on to have staggering record-breaking success). His own success in the industry lead many to call him "the most important figure in the record industry of the 20th century".[320] His interest in music first stemmed from him and his brother sneaking records from their mothers collection and secretly play them at night.[321]
    • One particular incident was pivotal in leading him to pursue his passion in music; in 1932 his brother took him to his first jazz concert, where he later recalled "I had never really seen black people...[a]nd I had never heard anything as glorious as those beautiful musicians wearing white tails, playing these incredibly gleaming horns".[321] In 1934, he got to meet these black musicians, and became so enamoured and infatuated with jazz music that it ignited his love for jazz even more than what it had already been.[321] At the age of 14 his mother gifted him his first record-cutting machine, which inspired him to create his own music company years later; Atlantic Records.[321] As of 2020 that company would bring in in-excess of $680 million dollars annually.[322]
    • Ahmet was actively involved in the production of the music of the artists that were signed onto his label and had a particular knack for knowing what would become viral on radio. As a 1998 investigative piece from Vanity Fair noted; "Ahmet’s artists have always relied on his extraordinary musical knowledge, whether in picking material, mixing a record, or putting together a band". They also gave an example of this; noting one day "[a]t the mastering session for Phil Collins’s first solo album, Ahmet listened to “In the Air Tonight” and told Collins, “You’re going to have to put some extra drums on this if it’s going to be a single.” Reluctantly, Collins agreed. “It was my first big hit,” he says. “Ahmet sussed out what would work on radio and what wouldn’t.”".[323]
  • His full birth name was Ahmet Munir Etegrun,[320] and he was born on the 31st of July in Istanbul, Turkey,[320][324] to a Muslim family.[325][n. 63] His father was a Turkish ambassador[326] to the US, Mehmet Munir Ertegun[324] (1883[327]—1944[320]/1946[324]) and his mother (a musician herself[321]) Hayrunisa Rustem[324] (1???—1???). He grew up with two siblings; one brother, Nesuhi Ertegun (1917—1989[328]) and one sister; Selma Goksel (19??—????).[329] In 1934, they moved and choose Washington DC as their new home.[324] However, when Ertegun's father died in 1944/1946, his mother and sister moved back.[320] Ertegun stayed in the US and attended school in the meanwhile, and became an alumni of St John's College and Georgetown University.[324]
    • Interestingly, Nesuhi would go on to have success of his own; he would become the first president of the "National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences" (now known as "The Recording Academy") which still awards the most prestigious and coveted music industry award;[330] the Grammy.[329] He is also credited with having creating the Warner Communications Inc. subsidiary, WEA International, four years after his brother's company, Atlantic Records, was bought by Warner Communications Inc..[329] WEA International importantly became "the international distributor for all music on the Warner Brothers, Atlantic, Elektra, Geffen and MCA labels".[329] He was also the founder of his own record production company; East-West Records.[329]
  • In his adult years Ahmet married Jan Holm (????—????) in 1947, but later divorced her; in 1961[331] he went on to marry a Romanian[331] woman named Mica Banu Grecianu (????—Present)[320] He died in 2006 after suffering a brain injury;[325] he was buried in Turkey near a Muslim lodge on the Asian side of Istanbul.[332][333][n. 64][325] In the US a memorial service was set up in New York’s Jazz at Lincoln Center and was attended by over 1,000 famous musicians, dignitaries, friends and family members including the leader singer of The Rolling Stones, Mick Jagger (b. 1943) and New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg (b. 1942).[334] He was so pivotal in the history of music that the US Library of Congress officially named him a living legend in 2000.[325] One reason why he was so loved was that under his leadership Atlantic "enjoyed a reputation for not systematically fleecing its artists in notorious Tin Pan Alley fashion".[319]
Atlantic Records logo (1966—2005) below the previous logo they had first used (1947—1966). Atlantic Records was only one of three key companies that survived well past the 1950s. The company was pivotal to the history of rock'n'roll.
  • Ertegun first formed Atlantic Records in 1947 with an investment of $12,500 dollars from two investors; a Turkish dentist named Vahdi Sabit;[335] 1???—1??? and an American Jewish businessman Herb Abramson; 1916—1999[336]).[320] As the company gradually found success, Abramson was bought out by Ertegun in 1959 who paid him $300,000 dollars for his share of the company.[320] In 1967 Warner Bros Seven Arts (now known as Warner Music Group) bought the label for $17.5 million dollars (others say $17 million[324]),[320] with Ertegun staying on as chairman (crucially retaining creative control of the company[337][320][n. 65]).[320] It is interesting to note that were only three key record labels operating in 1950s (the other two being Sun Records and Chess Records), however "[o]f the three key ‘50s labels, only Atlantic continued as a power beyond the early ‘60s".[338] Together these three labels "popularized and defined rock ‘n’ roll in the ‘50s".[338]
    • The label became famous for initially concentrating on producing Black music. It was no mere coincidence that Ertegun did this; this was at a time when talented African-Americans were being dropped from labels because the record material used for making phonographs had become rarer as a result of World War II.[321] The Turkish embassy, when his father was alive, even invited Black musicians to play, even when an American senator lashed out at Ertegun's family, saying; "[a] person of color has been seen entering your house by the front door. In my country this is not a practice to be encouraged".[321] The Turks responded by saying "[i]n my country, friends enter through the front door, but if you wish to come to the embassy, you can enter from the back".[321]
    • Indeed, one of the legacies of the company has been it's popularisation of Black music amongst the teenage White youth of America;[338][n. 66] indeed, it has been said "Atlantic will always be primarily associated with the urban sound of black America" as their artists included the likes of Ray Charles (1930—2004[339]), Otis Redding (1941—1967[340]), Aretha Franklin (1942—2018[341]), Wilson Pickett (1941—2006[342]), Percy Sledge (1940—2015[343]), Solomon Burke (1940—2010[344]) and Donny Hathaway (1945—1979[345]).[346] Ertegun himself recalled how much of a surprise hit their productions were becoming with the differing ethnic groups; "[m]uch to our amazement, the records were bought by both, black and white kids alike, the first true crossover music".[347]
  • Ertegun was also instrumental in discovering,[348] spreading, promoting, popularising and producing[320] the music of many White artists across the US and the rest of the world. Some of their most famous record deals were with Led Zeppelin (produced), AC/DC (produced), ABBA (distributed), Bee Gees (distributed), INXS (distributed) and The Rolling Stones (produced). His most successful band was Led Zeppelin, who as of 2019, has sold over 300 million records throughout their lifetime; interestingly The Rolling Stones sold less (despite making far more albums over their career) but still impressively sold up to 250 million records.[349]
    • The company is still going strong even after Ertegun's death, with Billboard naming his company as "Billboard 200's Top Label of 2019".[350] In 2008, Atlantic became the first ever record label to make most of its revenue from digital sales.[322][351] Notably, Ertegun's personal wealth from his company amounted to $300 million dollars by the time he passed away. Interestingly, "Paul Allen, co-founder of Microsoft, lent his Boeing 757 to bear Ertegun’s body and his family and friends to Istanbul to bury him at the family gravesite in Sultantepe, where his mother, father and older brother (who had died in 1989) were also buried".[321]

Ertegun's Most Iconic Bands—The Rolling Stones (1970—1984)

Throughout the 1960s The Rolling Stones were robbed of their money by their management, most notably by the same person who broke up The Beatles, Jewish businessman Allen Klein. Their success with Atlantic saved their careers from imploding. Under Ertegrun's leadership The Rolling Stones became not only successful but rich. Mick Jagger called Ertegrun a "father figure" / "wicked uncle".
  • The Rolling Stones entry into Atlantic is particularly interesting. Initially signed to Decca/London Records, they were sold to Jewish businessman Allen Klein (1931—2009[352]) in 1967,[353] without even being aware of the sale; they were then systematically financially abused by the new record company (ABKCO Industries). In 1970,[353] after having gone through years of abuse, their contract expired, ending their relationship with him;[353] they then immediately sued him for all the money they'd not been given by these latter two record companies (amounting to $7.5 million dollars[354]). They then chose instead to go with Ertegun's label for distribution, but had creative control over their own music under the Atlantic Records sub-label Rolling Stone Records.[353][n. 67]
    • Unfortunately for The Rolling Stones, "Klein and ABKCO kept the rights to all past Stones recording" before releasing their first new album independent of Klein in 1971.[353] Klein held onto the rights of eleven of their albums (1964—1969); which included "The Rolling Stones" (1964), "12 X 5" (1964), "The Rolling Stones No. 2" (1965), "The Rolling Stones, Now!" (1965), "Out of Our Heads" (1965), "December's Children (And Everybody's)" (1965), "Aftermath" (1966), "Between the Buttons " (1967), "Their Satanic Majesties Request" (1967), "Beggars Banquet" (1968), "Let It Bleed" (1969). To make matters worse, he kept goading the band by releasing compilation albums of their music, and yet still dragging paying them any royalties.[353]
    • Under Ertegrun's management, the band signed a deal to produce six albums; they repeated their previous success, releasing six gold albums between 1971 and 1977.[355] These albums were "Sticky Fingers" (1971), "Exile on Main St." (1972), "Goats Head Soup" (1973), "It's Only Rock 'n Roll" (1974), "Black and Blue" (1976) and the live album "Love You Live (1977). The Rolling Stones were so happy that after their contract had ended, they re-signed with Atlantic (their previous deal was notably worth $7 million dollars; or $1.17 million dollars per album).[355] They further released "Some Girls" (1978), "Emotional Rescue" (1980), "Tattoo You" (1981) and "Undercover" (1983) under Atlantic. All of these were critically and commercially successful.
      • The Rolling Stones last album released by Atlantic Records was a compilation album called "Rewind (1971—1984)" (1984).[356]
    • They left Atlantic in 1983 (having made eleven albums; excluding compilation albums, but including "Still Life" (1982); a live album not mentioned above), signing onto CBS Records for a $50 million dollar four-album deal ($12.5 million dollars per album).[357] CBS also bought the band's entire Atlantic catalogue. However, the band never forgot how Ertegrun had rescued them from complete financial failure. Mick Jagger recounted how much of a "father figure" / "wicked uncle" Ertegrun had been to him when he attended his funeral in 2006 and how much he owed him; saying that he "marveled at Ertegun’s wide knowledge of music, and how that knowledge steered the sensibilities of Atlantic’s artists, including the Rolling Stories".[334]
Throughout the 1960s The Rolling Stones were robbed of their money by their management, most notably by the same person who broke up The Beatles, Jewish businessman Allen Klein. Their success with Atlantic saved their careers from imploding. Under Ertegrun's leadership The Rolling Stones became not only successful but rich. Mick Jagger called Ertegrun a "father figure" / "wicked uncle".
  • The Rolling Stones entry into Atlantic is particularly interesting. Initially signed to Decca/London Records, they were sold to Jewish businessman Allen Klein (1931—2009[352]) in 1967,[353] without even being aware of the sale; they were then systematically financially abused by the new record company (ABKCO Industries). In 1970,[353] after having gone through years of abuse, their contract expired, ending their relationship with him;[353] they then immediately sued him for all the money they'd not been given by these latter two record companies (amounting to $7.5 million dollars[354]). They then chose instead to go with Ertegun's label for distribution, but had creative control over their own music under the Atlantic Records sub-label Rolling Stone Records.[353][n. 68]
    • Unfortunately for The Rolling Stones, "Klein and ABKCO kept the rights to all past Stones recording" before releasing their first new album independent of Klein in 1971.[353] Klein held onto the rights of eleven of their albums (1964—1969); which included "The Rolling Stones" (1964), "12 X 5" (1964), "The Rolling Stones No. 2" (1965), "The Rolling Stones, Now!" (1965), "Out of Our Heads" (1965), "December's Children (And Everybody's)" (1965), "Aftermath" (1966), "Between the Buttons " (1967), "Their Satanic Majesties Request" (1967), "Beggars Banquet" (1968), "Let It Bleed" (1969). To make matters worse, he kept goading the band by releasing compilation albums of their music, and yet still dragging paying them any royalties.[353]
    • Under Ertegrun's management, the band signed a deal to produce six albums; they repeated their previous success, releasing six gold albums between 1971 and 1977.[355] These albums were "Sticky Fingers" (1971), "Exile on Main St." (1972), "Goats Head Soup" (1973), "It's Only Rock 'n Roll" (1974), "Black and Blue" (1976) and the live album "Love You Live (1977). The Rolling Stones were so happy that after their contract had ended, they re-signed with Atlantic (their previous deal was notably worth $7 million dollars; or $1.17 million dollars per album).[355] They further released "Some Girls" (1978), "Emotional Rescue" (1980), "Tattoo You" (1981) and "Undercover" (1983) under Atlantic. All of these were critically and commercially successful.
      • The Rolling Stones last album released by Atlantic Records was a compilation album called "Rewind (1971—1984)" (1984).[356]
    • They left Atlantic in 1983 (having made eleven albums; excluding compilation albums, but including "Still Life" (1982); a live album not mentioned above), signing onto CBS Records for a $50 million dollar four-album deal ($12.5 million dollars per album).[357] CBS also bought the band's entire Atlantic catalogue. However, the band never forgot how Ertegrun had rescued them from complete financial failure. Mick Jagger recounted how much of a "father figure" / "wicked uncle" Ertegrun had been to him when he attended his funeral in 2006 and how much he owed him; saying that he "marveled at Ertegun’s wide knowledge of music, and how that knowledge steered the sensibilities of Atlantic’s artists, including the Rolling Stories".[334]

Ertegun's Most Iconic Bands—Led Zeppelin (1968—Present)

Led Zeppelin. When Ertegrun signed the band, it's lead singer said it had made him so happy that he fell to the ground and started crying. Under Ertegrun's musical leadership, Led Zeppelin saw tremendous success.
  • Led Zeppelin's history with Atlantic started in 1968 when they were first signed for $200,000 dollars (then valued $1.63 million dollars in 2020 dollars[358]). After producing four albums for the label, they set up their own called Swan Song (an Atlantic sub-label[359][337]) who's records were still distributed by Atlantic.[360] One of the members of the band, Robert Plant (1948—Present), emphasised his special relationship with Ertegun, noting how "[h]e played such an integral part in my musical maturing".[360] He also remarked how he "treasures the time he spent making The Honeydrippers: Volume One mini-album of R&B covers with Ertegun, who reverted to the Nugetre pseudonym he'd used in his songwriting days to disguise his identity, just in case he decided on a diplomatic career later on".[360]
    • Ertegrun first heard the band's demo in 1968, immediately realising that they'd be "massive hits", and signed them.[361] Robert Plant also recalled how "I owe Ahmet a lot" that when he had first heard that his band had been signed and had a chance at making music he "just fell on the floor crying".[362][363]
      • Ertegun also actively worked on production, honing their abilities such as directing which parts they should and should not sing.[362] They were the 8th British group to be signed to Atlantic within 24 months (amongst others such as Cream, The Magic Lanterns, Bee Gees).[364] Led Zeppelin's rise to fame was so stunning under Atlantic that it knocked The Beatles out of the charts after having fought them for chart supremacy around the start of the 1970s, and ushered in a new era of music.[358] The Beatles later split up due to Klein's exploitation (not because of Yoko Ono as is erroneously believed[365]).[366][367]
    • Atlantic produced "Led Zeppelin" (1969, UK; 6th,[368] US; 7th[369]), "Led Zeppelin II" (1969, 1st;[368] 1st[369]), "Led Zeppelin III" (1970, 1st;[368] 1st[369]), "Led Zeppelin IV" (1971, 1st; 2nd[369]) and "Houses of the Holy" (1973, 1st;[368] 1st[369]). Under Swan Song (Atlantic's custom label[359][337]) they released "Physical Graffiti" (1975), "Presence" (1976) and "In Through the Out Door" (1979); topping the charts for all three both for the UK and US.[369][368] They also released the live action album "The Song Remains the Same" (1976, 1st;[368] 2nd[369]). Years later Atlantic released "BBC Sessions" (1997, 23rd;[368] 12th[369]), "How the West Was Won" (2003, 5th;[368] 1st[369]), "Mothership" (2007; 4th;[368] 7th[369]) and "Celebration Day" (2012, 4th;[368] 9th[369]).
      • As with The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin were given their own custom label under Atlantic through Atlantic's custom label division, ATCO.[337]
Led Zeppelin. When Ertegrun signed the band, it's lead singer said it had made him so happy that he fell to the ground and started crying. Under Ertegrun's musical leadership, Led Zeppelin saw tremendous success.
  • Led Zeppelin's history with Atlantic started in 1968 when they were first signed for $200,000 dollars (then valued $1.63 million dollars in 2020 dollars[358]). After producing four albums for the label, they set up their own called Swan Song (an Atlantic sub-label[359][337]) who's records were still distributed by Atlantic.[360] One of the members of the band, Robert Plant (1948—Present), emphasised his special relationship with Ertegun, noting how "[h]e played such an integral part in my musical maturing".[360] He also remarked how he "treasures the time he spent making The Honeydrippers: Volume One mini-album of R&B covers with Ertegun, who reverted to the Nugetre pseudonym he'd used in his songwriting days to disguise his identity, just in case he decided on a diplomatic career later on".[360]
    • Ertegrun first heard the band's demo in 1968, immediately realising that they'd be "massive hits", and signed them.[361] Robert Plant also recalled how "I owe Ahmet a lot" that when he had first heard that his band had been signed and had a chance at making music he "just fell on the floor crying".[362][363]
      • Ertegun also actively worked on production, honing their abilities such as directing which parts they should and should not sing.[362] They were the 8th British group to be signed to Atlantic within 24 months (amongst others such as Cream, The Magic Lanterns, Bee Gees).[364] Led Zeppelin's rise to fame was so stunning under Atlantic that it knocked The Beatles out of the charts after having fought them for chart supremacy around the start of the 1970s, and ushered in a new era of music.[358] The Beatles later split up due to Klein's exploitation (not because of Yoko Ono as is erroneously believed[365]).[366][367]
    • Atlantic produced "Led Zeppelin" (1969, UK; 6th,[368] US; 7th[369]), "Led Zeppelin II" (1969, 1st;[368] 1st[369]), "Led Zeppelin III" (1970, 1st;[368] 1st[369]), "Led Zeppelin IV" (1971, 1st; 2nd[369]) and "Houses of the Holy" (1973, 1st;[368] 1st[369]). Under Swan Song (Atlantic's custom label[359][337]) they released "Physical Graffiti" (1975), "Presence" (1976) and "In Through the Out Door" (1979); topping the charts for all three both for the UK and US.[369][368] They also released the live action album "The Song Remains the Same" (1976, 1st;[368] 2nd[369]). Years later Atlantic released "BBC Sessions" (1997, 23rd;[368] 12th[369]), "How the West Was Won" (2003, 5th;[368] 1st[369]), "Mothership" (2007; 4th;[368] 7th[369]) and "Celebration Day" (2012, 4th;[368] 9th[369]).
      • As with The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin were given their own custom label under Atlantic through Atlantic's custom label division, ATCO.[337]

Ertegun's Most Iconic Bands—AC/DC (1976—2008)

AC/DC are a Scottish-Australian band, discovered by Atlantic Records in 1976. They stayed with the record label for decades (1976—2008). After the death of Bon Scott which nearly broke the band, AC/DC achieved staggering international success and acclaim under the leadership of Ertegun's label. Their album, "Back in Black" (1980) is the 2nd[370] best selling album of all time with sales in excess of 50 million, just behind Michael Jackson's "Thriller" (1982) at 66 million.[371]
  • AC/DC are a Scottish-Australian band,[372] who were first signed onto Atlantic Records in 1976, and stayed with them until 2008 (the last seven years were earmarked by the band having gone on hiatus, and after they signed with Sony Music).[373] The band first released their music only in Australia.[372] Under Atlantic however, "[t]hey laid down the blueprint for a new hard rock sound".[372] In 2007, Billboard included one of their albums in their top fifty Atlantic Records albums of all time, with "For Those Who Are About to Rock We Salute You" (1981), alongside their others such as U2, Stone Temple Pilots, and Hootie & The Blowfish.[374] They released a total of 13 studio albums for Atlantic, most of which went multi-platinum across many countries.
    • Interestingly, AC/DC have almost broken up several times in their history. The first was when the band was almost dropped in 1977 because Atlantic's A&R department lost faith in their ability to produce music; that is until Ertegun and his brother Nesuhi directly intervened to keep the band signed on; hence saving their careers.[375] The second was when one of their members, Bon Scott, died in 1980; but were pushed to keep themselves together by both Atlantic and Scott's father. Both of these events proved pivotal as "[t]hree years later, they became one of the biggest bands in the world with the release of 1980's "Back In Black"", which "sold 49 million copies worldwide".[376][377] The band went on to sell 200 million records worldwide.[378]
      • Interestingly, the reason for Atlantic almost removing them was lack of sales; they had paid the band $25,000 dollars to produce "Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap" (1976), which only sold 40,000 copies overall; so economically it did well, but wasn't spectacular.[377] By contrast, their previous album, "High Voltage" (1976; an amalgamation of their independently produced albums, "High Voltage" and "T.N.T") sold 3 million copies worldwide.[379] The former 1976 album wasn't terrible; in 2017 The Guardian still ranked it their 2nd best album of their top ten.[380] The person however who was responsible for the fall in sales was Doug Morris who is noted to have "destroy[ed] a large part of AC/DC’s fan base".[375]
    • Ertegrun recalled that "it took a little time to break them" into the mainstream, noting that "they were cocky little kids...[who] didn’t have any respect for older people", but still had faith in them enough that he kept them on; recalling in 1998 that "I was really struck by the incredible Angus Young. He plays such great blues guitar. But I'm not sure I would have signed them when I first heard them. They were very modern; they were pushing the envelope".[374][381] His gamble to keep them paid off dramatically; they gave him the world's 2nd best-selling album, "Back in Black" (1980).[382]
    • Under Atlantic, AC/DC released the following albums (chart positions stated); "High Voltage" (1976, AUS: n/a; UK: n/a; US: 146th), "Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap" (1976, 5th; n/a; 3rd), "Let There Be Rock" (1977, 19th; 17th; 154th), "Powerage" (1978, 22nd; 23rd; 133rd), "Highway to Hell" (1979, 13th; 8th; 17th), "Back in Black" (1980, 1st; 1st; 4th), "For Those About to Rock We Salute You" (1981, 3rd; 3rd; 1st), "Flick of the Switch" (1983, 3rd; 4th; 15th), "Fly on the Wall" (1985, 4th; 7th; 32nd), "Blow Up Your Video" (1988, 2nd; 2nd; 12th), "The Razors Edge" (1990, 3rd; 4th; 2nd), "Ballbreaker" (1995, 1st; 6th; 4th) and "Stiff Upper Lip" (2000, 3rd; 12th; 7th). Interestingly, they are the 9th best selling music artists in the US.[383][384]
AC/DC are a Scottish-Australian band, discovered by Atlantic Records in 1976. They stayed with the record label for decades (1976—2008). After the death of Bon Scott which nearly broke the band, AC/DC achieved staggering international success and acclaim under the leadership of Ertegun's label. Their album, "Back in Black" (1980) is the 2nd[385] best selling album of all time with sales in excess of 50 million, just behind Michael Jackson's "Thriller" (1982) at 66 million.[371]
  • AC/DC are a Scottish-Australian band,[372] who were first signed onto Atlantic Records in 1976, and stayed with them until 2008 (the last seven years were earmarked by the band having gone on hiatus, and after they signed with Sony Music).[373] The band first released their music only in Australia.[372] Under Atlantic however, "[t]hey laid down the blueprint for a new hard rock sound".[372] In 2007, Billboard included one of their albums in their top fifty Atlantic Records albums of all time, with "For Those Who Are About to Rock We Salute You" (1981), alongside their others such as U2, Stone Temple Pilots, and Hootie & The Blowfish.[374] They released a total of 13 studio albums for Atlantic, most of which went multi-platinum across many countries.
    • Interestingly, AC/DC have almost broken up several times in their history. The first was when the band was almost dropped in 1977 because Atlantic's A&R department lost faith in their ability to produce music; that is until Ertegun and his brother Nesuhi directly intervened to keep the band signed on; hence saving their careers.[375] The second was when one of their members, Bon Scott, died in 1980; but were pushed to keep themselves together by both Atlantic and Scott's father. Both of these events proved pivotal as "[t]hree years later, they became one of the biggest bands in the world with the release of 1980's "Back In Black"", which "sold 49 million copies worldwide".[376][377] The band went on to sell 200 million records worldwide.[378]
      • Interestingly, the reason for Atlantic almost removing them was lack of sales; they had paid the band $25,000 dollars to produce "Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap" (1976), which only sold 40,000 copies overall; so economically it did well, but wasn't spectacular.[377] By contrast, their previous album, "High Voltage" (1976; an amalgamation of their independently produced albums, "High Voltage" and "T.N.T") sold 3 million copies worldwide.[379] The former 1976 album wasn't terrible; in 2017 The Guardian still ranked it their 2nd best album of their top ten.[380] The person however who was responsible for the fall in sales was Doug Morris who is noted to have "destroy[ed] a large part of AC/DC’s fan base".[375]
    • Ertegrun recalled that "it took a little time to break them" into the mainstream, noting that "they were cocky little kids...[who] didn’t have any respect for older people", but still had faith in them enough that he kept them on; recalling in 1998 that "I was really struck by the incredible Angus Young. He plays such great blues guitar. But I'm not sure I would have signed them when I first heard them. They were very modern; they were pushing the envelope".[374][381] His gamble to keep them paid off dramatically; they gave him the world's 2nd best-selling album, "Back in Black" (1980).[386]
    • Under Atlantic, AC/DC released the following albums (chart positions stated); "High Voltage" (1976, AUS: n/a; UK: n/a; US: 146th), "Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap" (1976, 5th; n/a; 3rd), "Let There Be Rock" (1977, 19th; 17th; 154th), "Powerage" (1978, 22nd; 23rd; 133rd), "Highway to Hell" (1979, 13th; 8th; 17th), "Back in Black" (1980, 1st; 1st; 4th), "For Those About to Rock We Salute You" (1981, 3rd; 3rd; 1st), "Flick of the Switch" (1983, 3rd; 4th; 15th), "Fly on the Wall" (1985, 4th; 7th; 32nd), "Blow Up Your Video" (1988, 2nd; 2nd; 12th), "The Razors Edge" (1990, 3rd; 4th; 2nd), "Ballbreaker" (1995, 1st; 6th; 4th) and "Stiff Upper Lip" (2000, 3rd; 12th; 7th). Interestingly, they are the 9th best selling music artists in the US.[383][384]

Non-Music; Music Film (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
"Amy" (2015).[387]
  • Asif Kapadia—A biographical film known as Amy, directed by the British Muslim Asif Kapadia (1973—Present), is best known as the most commercially successful documentary film in British history, as well as one of the most critically acclaimed; having grossed $23,778,585 worldwide.[388] The film is based on the life of Amy Winehouse (1983—2011[389]), a talented but drug-and-alcohol addicted Jewish singer, who died aged twenty-seven.[390][391] The film was made with the "full backing of the Winehouse family", made using the testimonies of 100 "people who knew" her; "friends, family, former partners and members of the music industry who worked with her".[392] It did prove controversial with Winehouse's family, but they dismissed any notions of taking legal action against the film, and greenlight its release.[392]
    • Kapadia's most critically acclaimed films on review aggregator sites Metacritic and Rotten Tomatoes respectively have been "The Warrior" (2001; 65%; 83%), "Far North" (2007; n/a; 83%), "Senna" (2010; 79%; 93%), "Amy" (2015; 85%; 95%), "Oasis: Supersonic" (2016; 71%; 84%) and "Diego Maradona" (2019; 78%; 89%).[393][394] However, his films haven't always been successes; his most divisive film has been "Ali and Nino" (2016; 50%; 40%), whilst his lowest rated films being "The Return" (2006; 38%; 16%; starring Sarah Michelle Geller), and "Ronaldo" (2015; n/a; 14%).[393][394] He has one unrated film, "The Sheep Thief" (1997).[393][394] Interestingly, this last film was "[u]nlike most other short films", in that it was "very ambitious" compared "to almost any other contemporary short film".[395]
    • Kapadia has been praised by the BBC as "the great chronicler of tragic fame".[396] His crowning achievement has been "Amy", for which he won an Oscar for Best Documentary at the Academy Awards.[397] He was previously put forward by BAFTA "to represent the UK in the best foreign language film category at the 2003 Oscars" (unfortunately the Academy Award's assessors "rejected it, arguing the film did not qualify as British since Hindi was not a language indigenous to the UK" which greatly irritated Kapadia, but later said he was no longer "rueful" about it).[398] He also holds three BAFTA awards (two for The Warrior; 2003[399][400] and one for Amy; 2016[401]) and three nominations (The Warrior; 2003,[402] "Senna"; 2012[403] and "Diego Maradona"; 2020[404]). He also holds one Grammy ("Amy"; 2015).[405]
"Amy" (2015).[387]
  • Asif Kapadia—A biographical film known as Amy, directed by the British Muslim Asif Kapadia (1973—Present), is best known as the most commercially successful documentary film in British history, as well as one of the most critically acclaimed; having grossed $23,778,585 worldwide.[388] The film is based on the life of Amy Winehouse (1983—2011[389]), a talented but drug-and-alcohol addicted Jewish singer, who died aged twenty-seven.[390][391] The film was made with the "full backing of the Winehouse family", made using the testimonies of 100 "people who knew" her; "friends, family, former partners and members of the music industry who worked with her".[392] It did prove controversial with Winehouse's family, but they dismissed any notions of taking legal action against the film, and greenlight its release.[392]
    • Kapadia's most critically acclaimed films on review aggregator sites Metacritic and Rotten Tomatoes respectively have been "The Warrior" (2001; 65%; 83%), "Far North" (2007; n/a; 83%), "Senna" (2010; 79%; 93%), "Amy" (2015; 85%; 95%), "Oasis: Supersonic" (2016; 71%; 84%) and "Diego Maradona" (2019; 78%; 89%).[393][394] However, his films haven't always been successes; his most divisive film has been "Ali and Nino" (2016; 50%; 40%), whilst his lowest rated films being "The Return" (2006; 38%; 16%; starring Sarah Michelle Geller), and "Ronaldo" (2015; n/a; 14%).[393][394] He has one unrated film, "The Sheep Thief" (1997).[393][394] Interestingly, this last film was "[u]nlike most other short films", in that it was "very ambitious" compared "to almost any other contemporary short film".[395]
    • Kapadia has been praised by the BBC as "the great chronicler of tragic fame".[396] His crowning achievement has been "Amy", for which he won an Oscar for Best Documentary at the Academy Awards.[397] He was previously put forward by BAFTA "to represent the UK in the best foreign language film category at the 2003 Oscars" (unfortunately the Academy Award's assessors "rejected it, arguing the film did not qualify as British since Hindi was not a language indigenous to the UK" which greatly irritated Kapadia, but later said he was no longer "rueful" about it).[398] He also holds three BAFTA awards (two for The Warrior; 2003[399][400] and one for Amy; 2016[401]) and three nominations (The Warrior; 2003,[402] "Senna"; 2012[403] and "Diego Maradona"; 2020[404]). He also holds one Grammy ("Amy"; 2015).[405]

Non-Music; Music Videography; Music Cinematography (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Nabil, an Iranian-American photographer, cinematographer and aesthetician.
Nabil, an Iranian-American photographer, cinematographer and aesthetician.

One-Hit Wonders (1)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Chico—Yousseph Slimani (1971—Present), also known as Chico,[459] is a British Moroccan Sufi Muslim singer,[460] who is best known as a one-hit wonder in music history. He first appeared on the British talent show, X Factor, where he came in 5th; but despite this went on to make a UK number one single called "It's Chico Time".[461] It stayed on the charts for a total of 12 weeks.[461] He also released two other singles, "Disco" (2006; 24th) and "Curvy Cola Bottle Body" (2007; 45th).[461] He now runs a successful fitness business, "Block Fit".[459]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Chico—Yousseph Slimani (1971—Present), also known as Chico,[459] is a British Moroccan Sufi Muslim singer,[460] who is best known as a one-hit wonder in music history. He first appeared on the British talent show, X Factor, where he came in 5th; but despite this went on to make a UK number one single called "It's Chico Time".[461] It stayed on the charts for a total of 12 weeks.[461] He also released two other singles, "Disco" (2006; 24th) and "Curvy Cola Bottle Body" (2007; 45th).[461] He now runs a successful fitness business, "Block Fit".[459]

List of Number Ones Mentioned Above (UK Only)

  • List of Official UK Single's Chart Number Ones (20) — With Certifications by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI)
Cscr-featured.png "Colourblind" — Darius Campbell-Dinesh (2002; Silver[462]) Cscr-featured.png "Hot Right Now" — Rita Ora (2012; Platinum[463]) Cscr-featured.png "I Will Never Let You Down" — Rita Ora (2014; Platinum[464])
Cscr-featured.png "About You Now" — Amelle Berrabah† (2007; Platinum[465]) Cscr-featured.png "R.I.P." — Rita Ora (2012; Platinum[466]) Cscr-featured.png "Pillowtalk" — Zayn Malik (2016; Platinum 2x[467])
Cscr-featured.png "Never Leave You" — Amelle Berrabah (2009; Silver) Cscr-featured.png "How We Do (Party)" — Rita Ora (2012; Gold[468]) Cscr-featured.png "New Rules" — Dua Lipa (2017; Platinum 3x[469])
Cscr-featured.png "What Makes You Beautiful" — Zayn Malik‡ (2011; Platinum x2[470]) Cscr-featured.png "Waiting All Night" — Rudamental (2013; Platinum 2x[471]) Cscr-featured.png "Bridge Over the Water" — Dua Lipa* (2017; Gold[472])
Cscr-featured.png "Little Things" — Zayn Malik‡ (2012; Platinum[473]) Cscr-featured.png "One Way Or Another (Teenage Kicks)" — Zayn Malik‡ (2013; Gold[474]) Cscr-featured.png "These Days" — Rudamental (2018; Platinum 3x[475])
Cscr-featured.png "Feel The Love" — Rudamental (2012; Platinum 2x[476]) Cscr-featured.png "La La La" — Naughty Boy (2013; Platinum 2x[477]) Cscr-featured.png "One Kiss" — Dua Lipa (2018; Platinum 3x[478])
There are additionally two numbers ones, "It's Chico Time" — Chico (2006) and "Walk This Way" — Amelle Berrabah† (2007), but these did not recieve certification as their numbers were either too low for the base certification, or certification data is not available. † — As part of Sugababes, ‡ — As part of One Direction, * — As part of Artists For Grenfell

See also

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ A cultural Muslim is best summed up as being defined as;
    Quote: "The “cultural Muslim” refers to members of the Muslim community who are non-practising but retain an attachment to elements of Islamic culture. The history of the Muslim world entails the story of numerous civilisations spanning from Spain in the West to Pakistan in the East. And not much has changed today. The vast cultural diversity means distinctness and variety in practice and customs. Communities of faithful across the globe express a multiplicity of interpretations across the globe. More intriguingly, the category of the “cultural Muslim” is not only a testament to the cultural diversity associated with the faith, but further defined by a process of disenchantment with its religious institution. This goes beyond the fact that there are extremist Muslims and peaceful Muslims and mystic Muslims; it points to the ordinary everyday secularised Muslim who might even be engaged in a private and personal (that is to say apolitical) manner with their religion...Not all Muslims are religious. An increasingly recognised body of non-practising Muslims living in the West are identified (or openly self-identify) as cultural. This is different to the many liberal Muslims, who like liberal Christians, would argue that they are simply re-interpreting the unchanging core of their religion, to suit the new environment. The cultural Muslim appears to be the case of an unaccounted majority. They no doubt represent an important part of the dialogue between religion and secularity in the West. The qualifier “cultural”, used by Muslims themselves, seems to indicate awareness that the conscious choice of calling oneself a cultural Muslim dissociates from anti-Muslim sentiment (see Mas 2006: 586)".
    1. Clint Witchalls (September 29th, 2014). Cultural Muslims, like cultural Christians, are a silent majority. The Conversation. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  2. ^ See this for example; in Europe there are tens of millions of Muslims;
    1. Conrad Hackett (November 29th, 2017). 5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe. Pew Research. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  3. ^ See;
    1. Poynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2016). "The resistible rise of Islamophobia". Journal of Sociology. 43 (1): 61–86. doi:10.1177/1440783307073935. ISSN 1440-7833.
    2. Poynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2006). ""Tolerance, Freedom, Justice and Peace"?: Britain, Australia and Anti-Muslim Racism since 11 September 2001". Journal of Intercultural Studies. 27 (4): 365–391. doi:10.1080/07256860600934973. ISSN 0725-6868.
    3. Anna Amelina; Kenneth Horvath; Bruno Meeus (1 December 2015). An Anthology of Migration and Social Transformation: European Perspectives. Springer. p. 284. ISBN 978-3-319-23666-7.
    4. Erik Love. (2013). "[www.jstor.org/stable/41960426 Beyond "post 9/11"]". Contexts. Volume 12. Issue Number 1. pp. 70-72. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  4. ^ In America and Europe for example; "The United States has a long history of...racism and exclusion of African Americans from full participation in American society. In Europe, there is a deeply rooted resistance to immigrants, especially in countries with an ethnic or folk identity".
    1. Ira M. Lapidus (13 October 2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 802. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.
    In Europe for example; "...there is a variety of debate regarding the greatest source of conflict. Oudernam argues that ethnicity seems to be the greatest driving factor of conflict. In chapter five of Rand Corporation’s Sources of Conflict in Europe and the Former Soviet Union, John Van Oudenaren writes, “In many parts of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe, the presence of ethnic or religious minorities in states dominated by other ethnic or religious groups creates a potential for subnational conflict.”27 He goes on to explain that minorities such as the Hungarians in Slovakia and Serbia, the Turks in Greece and the Greeks in Albania all look for protection from their mother country, but given that they reside in these other countries, there is not much their mother country can do. For many, Oudenaren argues, this is where the seeds of conflict arise. However, from this, he says, neighboring countries engage in territorial dispute as can be seen in the “conflict between Greece and Turkey -- over territorial issues in the Aegean, over Cyprus, and over minority issues in Thrace”28. Fox (2001, 464) disagrees, finding that other regions such as the Middle East are more prone to ethnic conflict compared to Europe29".
    1. Jacob C. Potts, Audrey Cleaver-Bartholomew, and Izzi Hughes (2016). Comparing the Roots of Conflict in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Inquiries Journal. Volume 8. Issue Number 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2020.
    See also;
    1. Bruce Baum (1 July 2008). The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. NYU Press. pp. 22–57. ISBN 978-0-8147-3943-3.
    See also; Quote: "A second negative element is the legacy of anti-Semitism. Throughout European history, Jews have been the immediate "others" who fulfilled the group identity, mirrored the needs of the majority and further provided a symbolic reference baseline for all new "others". This mechanism played a substantial role during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the establishmnet of modern European nation-states: anti-Semitism was the common cement for the creation of a national identity in most Western and Eastern European countries (except for Italy, where the Catholic Church has played the role of the "other")".
    1. Sharon Pardo; Hila Zahavi (15 January 2020). The Jewish Contribution to European Integration. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 78. ISBN 978-1-79360-320-3.
  5. ^ Quote: "The Holocaust (i.e. the extermination of Jews during World War II) ranks as the worst genocide in recent history. However, even the Holocuast's highest ranking as the worst genocide does not entail its uniqueness, at least, in any ordinary sense of the term. To give the highest status to the Holocaust on the scale of grave injustices does not provide support for its uniqueness. The Holocaust has a moral priority over other genocides, which emans that the Holocaust has been morally the worst genocide".
    1. Thomas W. Simon (29 April 2016). Genocide, Torture, and Terrorism: Ranking International Crimes and Justifying Humanitarian Intervention. Springer. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-137-41511-0.
  6. ^ By 2011, there are estimated to be about 200,000—320,000 native converts to Islam in Europe alone. However the numbers are difficult to quantify.
    Quote: "In France, estimates suggest approximately 50,000 to 100,000 converts out of a population of three to four million Muslims. For details, see Mapping the Global Muslim Population (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 2009). In 2006, there were 850,000 Muslims in the Netherlands, including 12,000 converts. For details, see “More than 850 Thousand Muslims in the Netherlands,” Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, October 27, 2007. In Germany, the estimated number of converts ranges from 12,000 to 100,000, with the total Muslim population set at around three million. For details, see Johannes Kandel, “Organisierter Islam in Deutschland und gesellschaftliche Integration,” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, September 2004. In Great Britain, there were about 63,000 native converts out of a population of 1.6 million Muslims in the early 2000s. For details, see the 2001 Census completed by the Office for National Statistics. Their numbers, however, must have increased because the Muslim population as a whole reached 2.4 million in 2009. For details, see Richard Kerbaj, “Muslim Population Rising 10 Times Faster Than Rest of Society,” The Times, January 30, 2009. Spain has an estimated 800,000 Muslims, roughly 20,000 of whom are converts. For details, see Geoff Pingree and Lisa Abend, “In Spain, Dismay at Muslim Converts Holding Sway,” Christian Science Monitor, November 7, 2006".
    1. Emmanuel Karagiannis (August 2011). Islamic Activism in Europe: The Role of Converts. Combating Terrorism Center (CTC Sentinel). Volume 4, Issue 8. Archive.is Link. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  7. ^ Contrary to popular belief, there are people who consider themselves half-Muslim or belonging to two different religion, one of which is Islam. The following sources reflect this phenomenon and are excellent reads in understanding how these half-Muslims frame themselves within their mixed identities;
    1. Tanzim Pardiwalla (2019). I'm Half-Parsi, Half-Muslim. This Is How Ramadan Is Celebrated In My World. Mashable India. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    2. Shaista Tayabali (December 26th, 2017). Half Parsi. Half Muslim. Full woman.. Sister Hood. Archive.is Link. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    3. Huma Qureshi (March 29th, 2020). English, Muslim, Pakistani ... how I tell my kids about their identities. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    4. Anushri Kumar (March 12th, 2020). SCPC brings in Trevor Wallace for Spring Comedy Show. Technique. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    5. Sara Belcher (2020). Reza Farahan of 'Shahs of Sunset' Talks His Haircare Line Reza Be Obsessed (Exclusive). Distractify. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    The most famous half-Muslim is Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith. His father was a Hindu convert to Islam; Quote: "Nanak was born in 1469, some fourteen years before Martin Luther. He grew up in the Punjab, which, ruled by a weak Afghan dynasty, was half Hindu and half Muslim. His father, who was a Hindu, worked as the village accountant for the local Rajput chief, who had converted to Islam".
    1. Marcus Braybrooke (2009). Beacons of the Light: 100 Holy People Who Have Shaped the History of Humanity. John Hunt Publishing. p. 332. ISBN 978-1-84694-185-6.
  8. ^ Quote: "In my new book The Myth of the Muslim Tide, I chronicle the widespread misunderstanding of Muslim immigration to the West. As with Jews and Catholics before, I discuss that Muslims are being seen as an impossible-to-integrate, fast-reproducing invasion force who follow a religion that’s more an ideology of conquest than a faith. Using the latest facts and figures, I illustrate the far less alarming truth about these new arrivals".
    1. Doug Saunders (November 10th, 2012). 10 Myths About Muslims in the West. Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2020.
    2. Doug Saunders (21 August 2012). The Myth of the Muslim Tide: Do Immigrants Threaten the West?. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-95125-0.
  9. ^ A cultural Muslim is best summed up as being defined as;
    Quote: "The “cultural Muslim” refers to members of the Muslim community who are non-practising but retain an attachment to elements of Islamic culture. The history of the Muslim world entails the story of numerous civilisations spanning from Spain in the West to Pakistan in the East. And not much has changed today. The vast cultural diversity means distinctness and variety in practice and customs. Communities of faithful across the globe express a multiplicity of interpretations across the globe. More intriguingly, the category of the “cultural Muslim” is not only a testament to the cultural diversity associated with the faith, but further defined by a process of disenchantment with its religious institution. This goes beyond the fact that there are extremist Muslims and peaceful Muslims and mystic Muslims; it points to the ordinary everyday secularised Muslim who might even be engaged in a private and personal (that is to say apolitical) manner with their religion...Not all Muslims are religious. An increasingly recognised body of non-practising Muslims living in the West are identified (or openly self-identify) as cultural. This is different to the many liberal Muslims, who like liberal Christians, would argue that they are simply re-interpreting the unchanging core of their religion, to suit the new environment. The cultural Muslim appears to be the case of an unaccounted majority. They no doubt represent an important part of the dialogue between religion and secularity in the West. The qualifier “cultural”, used by Muslims themselves, seems to indicate awareness that the conscious choice of calling oneself a cultural Muslim dissociates from anti-Muslim sentiment (see Mas 2006: 586)".
    1. Clint Witchalls (September 29th, 2014). Cultural Muslims, like cultural Christians, are a silent majority. The Conversation. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  10. ^ See this for example; in Europe there are tens of millions of Muslims;
    1. Conrad Hackett (November 29th, 2017). 5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe. Pew Research. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  11. ^ See;
    1. Poynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2016). "The resistible rise of Islamophobia". Journal of Sociology. 43 (1): 61–86. doi:10.1177/1440783307073935. ISSN 1440-7833.
    2. Poynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2006). ""Tolerance, Freedom, Justice and Peace"?: Britain, Australia and Anti-Muslim Racism since 11 September 2001". Journal of Intercultural Studies. 27 (4): 365–391. doi:10.1080/07256860600934973. ISSN 0725-6868.
    3. Anna Amelina; Kenneth Horvath; Bruno Meeus (1 December 2015). An Anthology of Migration and Social Transformation: European Perspectives. Springer. p. 284. ISBN 978-3-319-23666-7.
    4. Erik Love. (2013). "[www.jstor.org/stable/41960426 Beyond "post 9/11"]". Contexts. Volume 12. Issue Number 1. pp. 70-72. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  12. ^ In America and Europe for example; "The United States has a long history of...racism and exclusion of African Americans from full participation in American society. In Europe, there is a deeply rooted resistance to immigrants, especially in countries with an ethnic or folk identity".
    1. Ira M. Lapidus (13 October 2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 802. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.
    In Europe for example; "...there is a variety of debate regarding the greatest source of conflict. Oudernam argues that ethnicity seems to be the greatest driving factor of conflict. In chapter five of Rand Corporation’s Sources of Conflict in Europe and the Former Soviet Union, John Van Oudenaren writes, “In many parts of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe, the presence of ethnic or religious minorities in states dominated by other ethnic or religious groups creates a potential for subnational conflict.”27 He goes on to explain that minorities such as the Hungarians in Slovakia and Serbia, the Turks in Greece and the Greeks in Albania all look for protection from their mother country, but given that they reside in these other countries, there is not much their mother country can do. For many, Oudenaren argues, this is where the seeds of conflict arise. However, from this, he says, neighboring countries engage in territorial dispute as can be seen in the “conflict between Greece and Turkey -- over territorial issues in the Aegean, over Cyprus, and over minority issues in Thrace”28. Fox (2001, 464) disagrees, finding that other regions such as the Middle East are more prone to ethnic conflict compared to Europe29".
    1. Jacob C. Potts, Audrey Cleaver-Bartholomew, and Izzi Hughes (2016). Comparing the Roots of Conflict in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Inquiries Journal. Volume 8. Issue Number 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2020.
    See also;
    1. Bruce Baum (1 July 2008). The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. NYU Press. pp. 22–57. ISBN 978-0-8147-3943-3.
    See also; Quote: "A second negative element is the legacy of anti-Semitism. Throughout European history, Jews have been the immediate "others" who fulfilled the group identity, mirrored the needs of the majority and further provided a symbolic reference baseline for all new "others". This mechanism played a substantial role during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the establishmnet of modern European nation-states: anti-Semitism was the common cement for the creation of a national identity in most Western and Eastern European countries (except for Italy, where the Catholic Church has played the role of the "other")".
    1. Sharon Pardo; Hila Zahavi (15 January 2020). The Jewish Contribution to European Integration. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 78. ISBN 978-1-79360-320-3.
  13. ^ Quote: "The Holocaust (i.e. the extermination of Jews during World War II) ranks as the worst genocide in recent history. However, even the Holocuast's highest ranking as the worst genocide does not entail its uniqueness, at least, in any ordinary sense of the term. To give the highest status to the Holocaust on the scale of grave injustices does not provide support for its uniqueness. The Holocaust has a moral priority over other genocides, which emans that the Holocaust has been morally the worst genocide".
    1. Thomas W. Simon (29 April 2016). Genocide, Torture, and Terrorism: Ranking International Crimes and Justifying Humanitarian Intervention. Springer. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-137-41511-0.
  14. ^ By 2011, there are estimated to be about 200,000—320,000 native converts to Islam in Europe alone. However the numbers are difficult to quantify.
    Quote: "In France, estimates suggest approximately 50,000 to 100,000 converts out of a population of three to four million Muslims. For details, see Mapping the Global Muslim Population (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 2009). In 2006, there were 850,000 Muslims in the Netherlands, including 12,000 converts. For details, see “More than 850 Thousand Muslims in the Netherlands,” Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, October 27, 2007. In Germany, the estimated number of converts ranges from 12,000 to 100,000, with the total Muslim population set at around three million. For details, see Johannes Kandel, “Organisierter Islam in Deutschland und gesellschaftliche Integration,” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, September 2004. In Great Britain, there were about 63,000 native converts out of a population of 1.6 million Muslims in the early 2000s. For details, see the 2001 Census completed by the Office for National Statistics. Their numbers, however, must have increased because the Muslim population as a whole reached 2.4 million in 2009. For details, see Richard Kerbaj, “Muslim Population Rising 10 Times Faster Than Rest of Society,” The Times, January 30, 2009. Spain has an estimated 800,000 Muslims, roughly 20,000 of whom are converts. For details, see Geoff Pingree and Lisa Abend, “In Spain, Dismay at Muslim Converts Holding Sway,” Christian Science Monitor, November 7, 2006".
    1. Emmanuel Karagiannis (August 2011). Islamic Activism in Europe: The Role of Converts. Combating Terrorism Center (CTC Sentinel). Volume 4, Issue 8. Archive.is Link. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  15. ^ Contrary to popular belief, there are people who consider themselves half-Muslim or belonging to two different religion, one of which is Islam. The following sources reflect this phenomenon and are excellent reads in understanding how these half-Muslims frame themselves within their mixed identities;
    1. Tanzim Pardiwalla (2019). I'm Half-Parsi, Half-Muslim. This Is How Ramadan Is Celebrated In My World. Mashable India. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    2. Shaista Tayabali (December 26th, 2017). Half Parsi. Half Muslim. Full woman.. Sister Hood. Archive.is Link. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    3. Huma Qureshi (March 29th, 2020). English, Muslim, Pakistani ... how I tell my kids about their identities. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    4. Anushri Kumar (March 12th, 2020). SCPC brings in Trevor Wallace for Spring Comedy Show. Technique. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    5. Sara Belcher (2020). Reza Farahan of 'Shahs of Sunset' Talks His Haircare Line Reza Be Obsessed (Exclusive). Distractify. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    The most famous half-Muslim is Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith. His father was a Hindu convert to Islam; Quote: "Nanak was born in 1469, some fourteen years before Martin Luther. He grew up in the Punjab, which, ruled by a weak Afghan dynasty, was half Hindu and half Muslim. His father, who was a Hindu, worked as the village accountant for the local Rajput chief, who had converted to Islam".
    1. Marcus Braybrooke (2009). Beacons of the Light: 100 Holy People Who Have Shaped the History of Humanity. John Hunt Publishing. p. 332. ISBN 978-1-84694-185-6.
  16. ^ Quote: "In my new book The Myth of the Muslim Tide, I chronicle the widespread misunderstanding of Muslim immigration to the West. As with Jews and Catholics before, I discuss that Muslims are being seen as an impossible-to-integrate, fast-reproducing invasion force who follow a religion that’s more an ideology of conquest than a faith. Using the latest facts and figures, I illustrate the far less alarming truth about these new arrivals".
    1. Doug Saunders (November 10th, 2012). 10 Myths About Muslims in the West. Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2020.
    2. Doug Saunders (21 August 2012). The Myth of the Muslim Tide: Do Immigrants Threaten the West?. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-95125-0.
  17. ^ A few examples are shown here:
    1. Huma Qureshi (March 29th, 2020). English, Muslim, Pakistani ... how I tell my kids about their identities. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    2. Tanzim Pardiwalla (2019). I'm Half-Parsi, Half-Muslim. This Is How Ramadan Is Celebrated In My World. Mashable (India). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
  18. ^ A few examples include:
    1. Hassan Radwan (September 16th, 2015). Why I self-identify as an ‘Agnostic Muslim’. The Nation (Pakistan). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    2. Saad Muhammad Ismail (May 26th, 2018). Being An Agnostic Muslim. The Companion. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    3. Sean Illing (November 7th, 2017). An atheist Muslim on what the left and right get wrong about Islam. VOX. WayBackMachine. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
  19. ^ Quote: "The largest Muslim ethnic group in Croatia are Bosniaks...This traditionally exclusively Muslim group is composed of immigrants from Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro, who arrived largely in the second half of the twentieth century, and their descendants. In addition, according to the 2001 census, 19,677 people identified themselves as 'ethnic Muslims'. This term was used until 1993 as the official term for Bosniaks in Bosnia and elsewhere and, sometimes, for other slavic Muslims in Macedonia and Kosovo".
    1. Jørgen Schøler Nielsen; Samim Akgönül; Ahmet Alibaši? (11 November 2010). Yearbook of Muslims in Europe. BRILL. p. 116. ISBN 90-04-18475-9.
  20. ^ A few examples are shown here:
    1. Huma Qureshi (March 29th, 2020). English, Muslim, Pakistani ... how I tell my kids about their identities. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    2. Tanzim Pardiwalla (2019). I'm Half-Parsi, Half-Muslim. This Is How Ramadan Is Celebrated In My World. Mashable (India). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
  21. ^ A few examples include:
    1. Hassan Radwan (September 16th, 2015). Why I self-identify as an ‘Agnostic Muslim’. The Nation (Pakistan). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    2. Saad Muhammad Ismail (May 26th, 2018). Being An Agnostic Muslim. The Companion. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    3. Sean Illing (November 7th, 2017). An atheist Muslim on what the left and right get wrong about Islam. VOX. WayBackMachine. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
  22. ^ Quote: "The largest Muslim ethnic group in Croatia are Bosniaks...This traditionally exclusively Muslim group is composed of immigrants from Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro, who arrived largely in the second half of the twentieth century, and their descendants. In addition, according to the 2001 census, 19,677 people identified themselves as 'ethnic Muslims'. This term was used until 1993 as the official term for Bosniaks in Bosnia and elsewhere and, sometimes, for other slavic Muslims in Macedonia and Kosovo".
    1. Jørgen Schøler Nielsen; Samim Akgönül; Ahmet Alibaši? (11 November 2010). Yearbook of Muslims in Europe. BRILL. p. 116. ISBN 90-04-18475-9.
  23. ^ Quote: "We went to Islamic school on the weekends...we don't speak urdu very well...there were times in my life when I felt so gravitated to my Pakistani Muslim side and I wanted to become more of that, like there were times in my life when I was super religious, and I was like maybe someday want to, um, cover my head at all times, maybe someday I'm going to, um, you know I just had religious goals and so I identified very much with that culturally Pakistan vibe and then there are other times in my life where I just didn't focus on it at all. So I guess that's an identity crisis, but I didn't really think about it that way. Looking back you might call it that but I wasn't like 'I'm having an existential crisis of who I am'. I think every kid has that no matter who you are, where you grow up, I don't think there's a kid out there who knows exactly 'who I am'. I still don't know who the fuck I am, I'm 25 and I'm still figuring it out. [Your mom converted right?] She did, she converted when they got married...my mom was the one who was more religious and pushed us to be more religious than my dad did. But now neither of them...I mean they're divorced, divorced for like 10 years...[or] 9 years and neither of them are religious anymore anyways. I think it was, they just thought it was a really good way to raise their children. Cos religious instils a lot of more and ethical values in kids which I agree. I don't really love religion, and I don't think it's the greatest thing ever in our world but I do really appreciate what Islam instilled in me as like just in general how to be a decent human being, so yeah".
    1. Lauren Engel (February 28th, 2018). KREWELLA (Yasmine) Interview - Growing Up Muslim, Sci-fi Lover, ULTRA 2013. YouTube (SIDEWALK TALK EDM). Timestamp: 6:23 to 9:50. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  24. ^ Quote: "The group signed a major-label deal with Columbia Records early last year [2012], and their debut full-length album is set to drop in September.".
    1. Dan Hyman (June 17th, 2013). How Krewella Is Making A Name For Women In A Male-Dominated Music Genre. Elle. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 20th, 2020.
  25. ^ The deal was worth $400,000 according to the tabloid newspaper the New York Post.
    1. Julia Marsh (October 11th, 2013). Krewella ‘stiffed team after rocketing to stardom’. New York Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 20th, 2020.
  26. ^ Coke Studio Season 11 is referred to as "Coke Studio 11".
    1. Ahmed Sarym (September 2018). It takes two to EDM. WayBackMachine Link. International The News. Retrieved March 20th, 2020.
  27. ^ Quote: "Deadmau5 vs. Everybody: The fact that deadmau5 got away with his mau5-head mask for at least six years before Disney sued him is honestly shocking, but in 2015 the case settled and the DJ got to keep his signature look. That wasn't his only publicized battle, though. He once got into it on Twitter with Kanye (who asked if he'd DJ his daughter's birthday party while wearing a Minnie mask), called Diplo and Zedd his “favorite pop stars” and asked them to stop fighting, came for Jack Ü until Skrillex called him a bully and said his “leadership skills are atrocious,” accused Krewella of firing the one producer who actually made any beats, accused Avicii of not knowing how to produce, and much, much more. The Canadian producer has since ceded control of his Twitter account. -- K. Bein".
    1. The Top 100 Moments of the EDM Decade. Billboard. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 24th, 2020.
  28. ^ Quote: "We went to Islamic school on the weekends...we don't speak urdu very well...there were times in my life when I felt so gravitated to my Pakistani Muslim side and I wanted to become more of that, like there were times in my life when I was super religious, and I was like maybe someday want to, um, cover my head at all times, maybe someday I'm going to, um, you know I just had religious goals and so I identified very much with that culturally Pakistan vibe and then there are other times in my life where I just didn't focus on it at all. So I guess that's an identity crisis, but I didn't really think about it that way. Looking back you might call it that but I wasn't like 'I'm having an existential crisis of who I am'. I think every kid has that no matter who you are, where you grow up, I don't think there's a kid out there who knows exactly 'who I am'. I still don't know who the fuck I am, I'm 25 and I'm still figuring it out. [Your mom converted right?] She did, she converted when they got married...my mom was the one who was more religious and pushed us to be more religious than my dad did. But now neither of them...I mean they're divorced, divorced for like 10 years...[or] 9 years and neither of them are religious anymore anyways. I think it was, they just thought it was a really good way to raise their children. Cos religious instils a lot of more and ethical values in kids which I agree. I don't really love religion, and I don't think it's the greatest thing ever in our world but I do really appreciate what Islam instilled in me as like just in general how to be a decent human being, so yeah".
    1. Lauren Engel (February 28th, 2018). KREWELLA (Yasmine) Interview - Growing Up Muslim, Sci-fi Lover, ULTRA 2013. YouTube (SIDEWALK TALK EDM). Timestamp: 6:23 to 9:50. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  29. ^ Quote: "The group signed a major-label deal with Columbia Records early last year [2012], and their debut full-length album is set to drop in September.".
    1. Dan Hyman (June 17th, 2013). How Krewella Is Making A Name For Women In A Male-Dominated Music Genre. Elle. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 20th, 2020.
  30. ^ The deal was worth $400,000 according to the tabloid newspaper the New York Post.
    1. Julia Marsh (October 11th, 2013). Krewella ‘stiffed team after rocketing to stardom’. New York Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 20th, 2020.
  31. ^ Coke Studio Season 11 is referred to as "Coke Studio 11".
    1. Ahmed Sarym (September 2018). It takes two to EDM. WayBackMachine Link. International The News. Retrieved March 20th, 2020.
  32. ^ Quote: "Deadmau5 vs. Everybody: The fact that deadmau5 got away with his mau5-head mask for at least six years before Disney sued him is honestly shocking, but in 2015 the case settled and the DJ got to keep his signature look. That wasn't his only publicized battle, though. He once got into it on Twitter with Kanye (who asked if he'd DJ his daughter's birthday party while wearing a Minnie mask), called Diplo and Zedd his “favorite pop stars” and asked them to stop fighting, came for Jack Ü until Skrillex called him a bully and said his “leadership skills are atrocious,” accused Krewella of firing the one producer who actually made any beats, accused Avicii of not knowing how to produce, and much, much more. The Canadian producer has since ceded control of his Twitter account. -- K. Bein".
    1. The Top 100 Moments of the EDM Decade. Billboard. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 24th, 2020.
  33. ^ Quote: "Her father's departure had a great affect on Khan. At first she retreated to the piano, shunning lessons in favour of improvisation. 'I suppose it was the time when things become a little bit more real,' she says. 'I think it strengthened my desire to play and write and become a bit more serious about it: in that situation, you need to find a channel to express things, to get them out.' Coping with the sudden loss was made all the more difficult by the racism that she encountered in her teens. 'I remember once my mum made me go to this after-school club. I was really geeky. I blow-dried my fringe to the side and put gel in it, trying so hard desperately to be cool. The kids there totally ripped me to shreds. They called me a "f***ing Paki". I didn't tell my mum that much because I was embarrassed but I remember being mortified. I just wanted to disappear.'".
    1. Bat for Lashes: off the wall. February 26th, 2009. The Telegraph. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  34. ^ Individual searches are not easily citable from the BPI website (there is no unique URL for each artist). To find entries from their database, select the search bar, enter the name "Bat For Lashes" and press enter. The query then gives the album certifications for Bat For Lashes.
    1. "British album certifications – Bat for Lashes". British Phonographic Industry (BPI). Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  35. ^ Their first two albums sold more than 1.2 million copies altogether.
    1. Come on over to the dark side with The Zutons. May 16th, 2008. The Independent. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 13th, 2020.
  36. ^ Quote: "Her father's departure had a great affect on Khan. At first she retreated to the piano, shunning lessons in favour of improvisation. 'I suppose it was the time when things become a little bit more real,' she says. 'I think it strengthened my desire to play and write and become a bit more serious about it: in that situation, you need to find a channel to express things, to get them out.' Coping with the sudden loss was made all the more difficult by the racism that she encountered in her teens. 'I remember once my mum made me go to this after-school club. I was really geeky. I blow-dried my fringe to the side and put gel in it, trying so hard desperately to be cool. The kids there totally ripped me to shreds. They called me a "f***ing Paki". I didn't tell my mum that much because I was embarrassed but I remember being mortified. I just wanted to disappear.'".
    1. Bat for Lashes: off the wall. February 26th, 2009. The Telegraph. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  37. ^ Individual searches are not easily citable from the BPI website (there is no unique URL for each artist). To find entries from their database, select the search bar, enter the name "Bat For Lashes" and press enter. The query then gives the album certifications for Bat For Lashes.
    1. "British album certifications – Bat for Lashes". British Phonographic Industry (BPI). Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  38. ^ Their first two albums sold more than 1.2 million copies altogether.
    1. Come on over to the dark side with The Zutons. May 16th, 2008. The Independent. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 13th, 2020.
  39. ^ Quote: "Piers Agget: Three of us grew up together. Me and Leon went to elementary together and grew up with the same love of music. We met Amir about a year and a half ago in a studio working on some tracks. We really got along well with him. We did a few more tracks together and that’s how “Spoons” and “Feel The Love” came about. The rest is history, really. We go back a long time. Me and Kesi went to college together."
    1. Gabrielle Nicole Pharms (November 28th, 2012). Life + Times Rudimental Speaks on Videos, Soul-Searching and Debut LP. Life and Times. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  40. ^ Quote: "Born Amir Izadkhah in 1985, Amir began life amidst war-time Tehran, Iran. The son of an air force Colonel and a high school science teacher, he spent his early years amongst the trials of conflict – unable to enrol into school and escaping to shelters amidst regular bomb raids...This reality quickly turned with the advance of his family to the UK in 1992 – and although a struggle of homelessness, miseducation and adaptation met them – Amir has since founded London as his solid home and base...At first – Amir, his mother and sister arrived to London separated from his father and brothers. Moving from spare room, to lodge, and at unfortunate times, to the street...Unable to communicate in English, Amir and his sister were rejected by school after school, finding refuge only in those many hours away. However, once placed, the lack of school experience that Amir had, spelt a difficult time fitting in, and staying in. He was often dismissed, preferring to wander and discover the deep corners of London for hours on his own.".
    1. Amir Amor. This is Amir Amor. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  41. ^ Quote: "'Ethnic cleansing' has worked like this: Serbian forces take control of a Muslim district. They then go from house to house demanding that every family signs an oath of loyalty and hands in its weapons. If they disobey the order, the men are rounded up and put in detention camps, where they are forced to sign away their property and pledge never to return home. Then they are deported to Croatia or simply flee abroad. Women and children generally leave separately, under harassment. If they sign the oath, they are still terrorised - their houses are bombed and burned, they are deprived of their jobs and so on. Often the Serbs make the Muslims sign a document stating that they want to live in Germany, Austria or wherever. The Serbs then contact United Nations people on the ground and say: we have these Muslims here who wish to go abroad, be prepared for them to come over. In this way, whole regions are cleared of Muslims. The Serbs insist the same is being done to their people by Croats and Muslims, but there is no evidence of such a systematic or formal policy".
    1. Brian Cathcart, Christopher Bellamy, Tony Barber (16th August 1992). Bosnia: - Why are they killing each other? - How did the crisis start? - How will it all end?: A plain person's guide to the new tragedy of the Balkans. The Independent. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved March 25th, 2020.
  42. ^ Quote: "Piers Agget: Three of us grew up together. Me and Leon went to elementary together and grew up with the same love of music. We met Amir about a year and a half ago in a studio working on some tracks. We really got along well with him. We did a few more tracks together and that’s how “Spoons” and “Feel The Love” came about. The rest is history, really. We go back a long time. Me and Kesi went to college together."
    1. Gabrielle Nicole Pharms (November 28th, 2012). Life + Times Rudimental Speaks on Videos, Soul-Searching and Debut LP. Life and Times. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  43. ^ Quote: "Born Amir Izadkhah in 1985, Amir began life amidst war-time Tehran, Iran. The son of an air force Colonel and a high school science teacher, he spent his early years amongst the trials of conflict – unable to enrol into school and escaping to shelters amidst regular bomb raids...This reality quickly turned with the advance of his family to the UK in 1992 – and although a struggle of homelessness, miseducation and adaptation met them – Amir has since founded London as his solid home and base...At first – Amir, his mother and sister arrived to London separated from his father and brothers. Moving from spare room, to lodge, and at unfortunate times, to the street...Unable to communicate in English, Amir and his sister were rejected by school after school, finding refuge only in those many hours away. However, once placed, the lack of school experience that Amir had, spelt a difficult time fitting in, and staying in. He was often dismissed, preferring to wander and discover the deep corners of London for hours on his own.".
    1. Amir Amor. This is Amir Amor. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 22nd, 2020.
  44. ^ Quote: "'Ethnic cleansing' has worked like this: Serbian forces take control of a Muslim district. They then go from house to house demanding that every family signs an oath of loyalty and hands in its weapons. If they disobey the order, the men are rounded up and put in detention camps, where they are forced to sign away their property and pledge never to return home. Then they are deported to Croatia or simply flee abroad. Women and children generally leave separately, under harassment. If they sign the oath, they are still terrorised - their houses are bombed and burned, they are deprived of their jobs and so on. Often the Serbs make the Muslims sign a document stating that they want to live in Germany, Austria or wherever. The Serbs then contact United Nations people on the ground and say: we have these Muslims here who wish to go abroad, be prepared for them to come over. In this way, whole regions are cleared of Muslims. The Serbs insist the same is being done to their people by Croats and Muslims, but there is no evidence of such a systematic or formal policy".
    1. Brian Cathcart, Christopher Bellamy, Tony Barber (16th August 1992). Bosnia: - Why are they killing each other? - How did the crisis start? - How will it all end?: A plain person's guide to the new tragedy of the Balkans. The Independent. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved March 25th, 2020.
  45. ^ Quote: "Her mother, Anesa, was born to a Kosovan father and a Bosnian mother. In the 90s, war came first to Bosnia, where Anesa’s mother lived, and then to Kosovo, where by now Anesa was living with her fiance, Dukagjin Lipa. Dukagjin was the son of a well-known historian, Seit Lipa, who at that time was the head of the Kosovo Institute of History. When conflict began to brew in Kosovo, Seit’s career abruptly ended".
    1. Tom Lamont (April 15th, 2018). Dua Lipa: ‘Pop has to be fun. You can’t get upset about every little thing’. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 10th, 2020.
  46. ^ Her exact words have been; "Eid Mubarak from our family to yours".
    1. Rahma Altaf (June 15th, 2018). Celebrities and international personalities extend Eid greetings to Muslims. Journal Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 12th, 2020.
  47. ^ Quote: "Her mother, Anesa, was born to a Kosovan father and a Bosnian mother. In the 90s, war came first to Bosnia, where Anesa’s mother lived, and then to Kosovo, where by now Anesa was living with her fiance, Dukagjin Lipa. Dukagjin was the son of a well-known historian, Seit Lipa, who at that time was the head of the Kosovo Institute of History. When conflict began to brew in Kosovo, Seit’s career abruptly ended".
    1. Tom Lamont (April 15th, 2018). Dua Lipa: ‘Pop has to be fun. You can’t get upset about every little thing’. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 10th, 2020.
  48. ^ Her exact words have been; "Eid Mubarak from our family to yours".
    1. Rahma Altaf (June 15th, 2018). Celebrities and international personalities extend Eid greetings to Muslims. Journal Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 12th, 2020.
  49. ^ "Darius Danesh, who later changed his name to Darius Campbell, had a shorter-lived recording career, but also switched to musical theatre and won leading roles in Chicago, Gone with the Wind and Guys and Dolls. After finishing third in Pop Idol, Campbell declined an offer to record for Simon Cowell and, instead, signed a five-album deal with another music producer (Steve Lillywhite). His first single topped the charts and his first album was also a best-seller. He wrote all the songs on the album. He supported Shakira on her world tour in 2002 and then embarked on his own successful tour of the UK. In 2005, he switched to musical theatre and was given the role of Billy Flynn in the West End production of Chicago. In 2007, he was given the lead role in Guys and Dolls. Then in 2008 he appeared in Gone with the Wind. His next high profile appearance was as a contestant in the new series, Popstar to Operastar in which eight singers from other genres were trained to sing opera. Campbell won. He has continued to work in musical theatre with regular West End appearances".
    1. Barrie Gunter (24 July 2014). I Want to Change My Life: Can Reality TV Competition Shows Trigger Lasting Career Success?. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-1-4438-6474-9.
  50. ^ "Darius Danesh, who later changed his name to Darius Campbell, had a shorter-lived recording career, but also switched to musical theatre and won leading roles in Chicago, Gone with the Wind and Guys and Dolls. After finishing third in Pop Idol, Campbell declined an offer to record for Simon Cowell and, instead, signed a five-album deal with another music producer (Steve Lillywhite). His first single topped the charts and his first album was also a best-seller. He wrote all the songs on the album. He supported Shakira on her world tour in 2002 and then embarked on his own successful tour of the UK. In 2005, he switched to musical theatre and was given the role of Billy Flynn in the West End production of Chicago. In 2007, he was given the lead role in Guys and Dolls. Then in 2008 he appeared in Gone with the Wind. His next high profile appearance was as a contestant in the new series, Popstar to Operastar in which eight singers from other genres were trained to sing opera. Campbell won. He has continued to work in musical theatre with regular West End appearances".
    1. Barrie Gunter (24 July 2014). I Want to Change My Life: Can Reality TV Competition Shows Trigger Lasting Career Success?. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-1-4438-6474-9.
  51. ^ Quote: "Ramin Djawadi is a 41-year-old composer making his mark on the world through one of the most popular television series of all time — "Game of Thrones." Since the show's inception, Djawadi has been the man behind every musical note heard by fans around the world".
    1. Kim Renfro (July 7th, 2016). Meet the musical genius behind the 'Game of Thrones' soundtrack who watches each season before anyone else. Tech Insider. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
  52. ^
    1. Tierney Bricker (September 23rd, 2019). How Game of Thrones Managed to Win Big at the 2019 Emmys Despite Its Controversial Final Season. E! News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    2. Adam Miller (January 22nd, 2020). Game of Thrones alternative ending confirmed by George RR Martin: Will Jon Snow kill Daenerys and who takes the Iron Throne?. Metro. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    3. Sam Moore (July 25th, 2019). Sorry, everyone: HBO aren’t going to remake the final season of ‘Game of Thrones’. NME. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    4. Abigail Malbon (September 24th, 2019). Kit Harington defended the final season of Game Of Thrones. Cosmopolitan. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
  53. ^
    1. Benjamin Huang; Dylan Zou (May 23rd, 2019). Game of Thrones slain by bad writing. The Paly Voice. WayBackMachine Links. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    2. Daniel Silvermint (May 16th, 2019). Why the Writing in Game of Thrones' Season 8 Feels Off. Wired. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    3. Nick Cohen (May 19th, 2019). In the end, Game of Thrones needed better writers. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
  54. ^
    Quote: "Enter Ramin Djawadi — the composer for "Game of Thrones" and person responsible for building on Martin's original "Rains of Castamere" masterpiece."
    The song first appeared in Season 2 of Game of Thrones when one of the characters, Tyrion Lannister, whistles it. Before filming even began for that particular season, Djawadi had already created the song as he was given advanced notice of its importance by the writers who wanted to give him time to formulate it's theme. Thus, in 2012, and on Season 2 it was first broadcast.
    1. Kim Renfro (August 22nd, 2016). The origin story behind the most iconic song on 'Game of Thrones'. Insider. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    2. Lesley Goldberg (January 13th, 2012). 'Game of Thrones' Season 2 Premiere Date Set. Hollywood Reporter. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
  55. ^ Quote: "Ramin Djawadi is a 41-year-old composer making his mark on the world through one of the most popular television series of all time — "Game of Thrones." Since the show's inception, Djawadi has been the man behind every musical note heard by fans around the world".
    1. Kim Renfro (July 7th, 2016). Meet the musical genius behind the 'Game of Thrones' soundtrack who watches each season before anyone else. Tech Insider. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
  56. ^
    1. Tierney Bricker (September 23rd, 2019). How Game of Thrones Managed to Win Big at the 2019 Emmys Despite Its Controversial Final Season. E! News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    2. Adam Miller (January 22nd, 2020). Game of Thrones alternative ending confirmed by George RR Martin: Will Jon Snow kill Daenerys and who takes the Iron Throne?. Metro. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    3. Sam Moore (July 25th, 2019). Sorry, everyone: HBO aren’t going to remake the final season of ‘Game of Thrones’. NME. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    4. Abigail Malbon (September 24th, 2019). Kit Harington defended the final season of Game Of Thrones. Cosmopolitan. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
  57. ^
    1. Benjamin Huang; Dylan Zou (May 23rd, 2019). Game of Thrones slain by bad writing. The Paly Voice. WayBackMachine Links. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    2. Daniel Silvermint (May 16th, 2019). Why the Writing in Game of Thrones' Season 8 Feels Off. Wired. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    3. Nick Cohen (May 19th, 2019). In the end, Game of Thrones needed better writers. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
  58. ^
    Quote: "Enter Ramin Djawadi — the composer for "Game of Thrones" and person responsible for building on Martin's original "Rains of Castamere" masterpiece."
    The song first appeared in Season 2 of Game of Thrones when one of the characters, Tyrion Lannister, whistles it. Before filming even began for that particular season, Djawadi had already created the song as he was given advanced notice of its importance by the writers who wanted to give him time to formulate it's theme. Thus, in 2012, and on Season 2 it was first broadcast.
    1. Kim Renfro (August 22nd, 2016). The origin story behind the most iconic song on 'Game of Thrones'. Insider. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
    2. Lesley Goldberg (January 13th, 2012). 'Game of Thrones' Season 2 Premiere Date Set. Hollywood Reporter. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 18th, 2020.
  59. ^ In an interesting note, Mick Jagger later recalled how Ertegun would even have discussions regarding Islam with those around him; in one interview Jagger stated "[O]nly Ahmet could talk about geopolitics and medieval Islamic history, and then pick the next Vanilla Fudge single".
    1. Gerald Zarr (November/December 2013). Rock & Roll Ambassador. Saudi Aramco World Magazine. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 9th, 2020.
  60. ^ "Mr. Ertegun’s music partnerships, he sometimes pointed out, were often culturally triangular. He was Turkish and a Muslim by birth. Many of his fellow executives, like the producer Jerry Wexler, were Jewish. The artists they produced, particularly when the label began, were black. Together, they helped move rhythm and blues to the center of American popular music".
    1. Tim Weiner (December 15th, 2006). Ahmet Ertegun, Music Executive, Dies at 83. New York Times. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 8th, 2020.
  61. ^ Quote: "He retained creative control and remained at the helm of Atlantic through the changing ownerships involving Kinney and Warner Bros Seven Arts, the creation of Warner Communications, and the subsequent merger with Time Inc to form the conglomerate Time Warner, Inc.".
    1. Ahmet Ertegun. December 16th, 2006. The Independent. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 8th, 2020.
  62. ^ Quote: "Launched in an office only 20 blocks from the Garden, Atlantic--along with Sun Records and Chess Records--popularized and defined rock ‘n’ roll in the ‘50s. While Atlantic also specialized in jazz, its most important early contribution was a customized brand of urban pop and blues that became a cornerstone of rhythm and blues. Airplay was limited at first to radio stations specializing in black music. Some of it was denounced as a bad influence on young people, but records by such great Atlantic artists as Ray Charles, the Drifters, Ruth Brown and LaVern Baker eventually caught the ear of white teen-age America and a revolution in pop was born. The bright, hook-conscious Atlantic sound not only served as a partial blueprint for Motown, but also influenced countless white rock musicians in England and America".
    1. Robert Hilburn (May 16th, 1988). POP MUSIC REVIEW : Zeppelin, Bee Gees Lead Atlantic Records Salute. LA Times. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 8th, 2020.
  63. ^ In an interesting note, Mick Jagger later recalled how Ertegun would even have discussions regarding Islam with those around him; in one interview Jagger stated "[O]nly Ahmet could talk about geopolitics and medieval Islamic history, and then pick the next Vanilla Fudge single".
    1. Gerald Zarr (November/December 2013). Rock & Roll Ambassador. Saudi Aramco World Magazine. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 9th, 2020.
  64. ^ "Mr. Ertegun’s music partnerships, he sometimes pointed out, were often culturally triangular. He was Turkish and a Muslim by birth. Many of his fellow executives, like the producer Jerry Wexler, were Jewish. The artists they produced, particularly when the label began, were black. Together, they helped move rhythm and blues to the center of American popular music".
    1. Tim Weiner (December 15th, 2006). Ahmet Ertegun, Music Executive, Dies at 83. New York Times. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 8th, 2020.
  65. ^ Quote: "He retained creative control and remained at the helm of Atlantic through the changing ownerships involving Kinney and Warner Bros Seven Arts, the creation of Warner Communications, and the subsequent merger with Time Inc to form the conglomerate Time Warner, Inc.".
    1. Ahmet Ertegun. December 16th, 2006. The Independent. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 8th, 2020.
  66. ^ Quote: "Launched in an office only 20 blocks from the Garden, Atlantic--along with Sun Records and Chess Records--popularized and defined rock ‘n’ roll in the ‘50s. While Atlantic also specialized in jazz, its most important early contribution was a customized brand of urban pop and blues that became a cornerstone of rhythm and blues. Airplay was limited at first to radio stations specializing in black music. Some of it was denounced as a bad influence on young people, but records by such great Atlantic artists as Ray Charles, the Drifters, Ruth Brown and LaVern Baker eventually caught the ear of white teen-age America and a revolution in pop was born. The bright, hook-conscious Atlantic sound not only served as a partial blueprint for Motown, but also influenced countless white rock musicians in England and America".
    1. Robert Hilburn (May 16th, 1988). POP MUSIC REVIEW : Zeppelin, Bee Gees Lead Atlantic Records Salute. LA Times. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 8th, 2020.
  67. ^ Quote: "In September 1967, Klein took over as sole manager after buying out Oldham. Klein oversaw the most tumultuous period in the group's history with the fall-out from Jagger and Keith Richards' drug-bust earlier that year and Brian Jones' death in July 1969. A year later, with their Decca contract at an end, the group decided to make a clean break and oust Klein, who had grown increasingly incommunicative, and to start their own label with distribution from Ahmet Ertegun's Atlantic Records".
    1. Pierre Perrone (July 6th, 2009). Allen Klein: Notorious business manager for the Beatles and the Rolling Stones. The Independent. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 5th, 2020.
  68. ^ Quote: "In September 1967, Klein took over as sole manager after buying out Oldham. Klein oversaw the most tumultuous period in the group's history with the fall-out from Jagger and Keith Richards' drug-bust earlier that year and Brian Jones' death in July 1969. A year later, with their Decca contract at an end, the group decided to make a clean break and oust Klein, who had grown increasingly incommunicative, and to start their own label with distribution from Ahmet Ertegun's Atlantic Records".
    1. Pierre Perrone (July 6th, 2009). Allen Klein: Notorious business manager for the Beatles and the Rolling Stones. The Independent. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 5th, 2020.

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Acknowledgements

I dedicate this article to a good friend of mine. Thanks for being there for me Joshua. You're friendship has meant a lot to me. We've gone through a lot difficulties together over the last few years, but we've come through it all. Keep working hard, and if not, even harder. See you on the other side inshallah :) —April 24th, 2020.

External Links

Cscr-featured.png Science in The Islamic World: The Islamic Golden Age (c. 750—c. 1258) & Beyond Cscr-featured.png
Lists of Medieval Islamic Inventions & Discoveries: Pharmacy & Medicine (2019) · Mechanics & Engineering (2019) · Mathematics & Computation (2020)
Specific Islamic Golden Age Topics: Snell's Law · Arabic Numerals
Non-Golden Age Articles Inventions & Discoveries: Inventions of Ancient & Modern Pakistan (and Islamic India) (2019)
Modern Contributions & Scientific Achievements: Muslim Soldiers During World War II (Allied Side) (2018) · Pakistan's Atomic Bombs: Project 706/726 (2018) · Muslim Musicians in Western Music (2020)
Total References Used in All Articles Mentioned Within This Template: 2,379