Murder of Muslims During the Partition (September 1947)

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September 1947:— On September 1st, 1947 the Sydney Morning Herald reported on the brutal persecution of Muslims by Sikhs in India.[1] The article notes several large incidents of the murder of non-Sikhs.[1] One such reporter of the British United Press witnessed first hand the cold-blooded murder of an unarmed Muslim on a train travelling 150 miles away from north of Delhi.[1] He recalled that when the brakes were applied "scores of Sikhs carrying lances tipped with razor sharp blades swarmed on the train" running from "door to door of the compartments, seeking Moslems". The journalist "watched a dozen Sikhs prise open the door of a compartment while a young Moslem inside tried desperately to hold the door shut. The spears beat him, slashing his stomach and thighs as the Sikhs fought fiercely for the "privilege" of gutting him". Another "group of blood-maddened Sikhs" battered "at the door of a compartment...but a couple of belated warning shots from the train's police guard caused the Sikhs to jump off the train and hide behind bushes" (it should be noted that the Muslim passengers hadn't eaten for four days since leaving India).[1] The Sikhs would also attack women more ruthlessly and more barbarically.[1] Rev. Charles Moffett[n. 1] recounted to the same journalist of how he "saw a girl running in wild circles" noticing "one of her breasts had been cut off".[1] He'd also told of another woman who "was the sole survivor of a village which Sikhs had attacked" where a "blow meant to behead her had cut her baby in her arms in half" instead.[1] Between 29,000—50,000 Muslim women were forced to convert to Sikhism (or Hinduism),[n. 2] who were also raped by their captors.[2] Only 20,728 Muslim women were recovered.[3][n. 3]

Sikhs regularly severed women's breasts.
Muslim victims thrown into a river by Sikhs/Hindus.

Approximately 200,000 Sikhs and Hindus entered Delhi in early September,[n. 4] and Jawaharlal Nehru even tried to ban the Sikhs from carrying the kirpan for fear of them instigating violence.[4] His effort were in vain, as the first killings began in Delhi on September 6th, 1947.[4] Nehru was unable to go through with the ban as the Sikh Home Minister, Vallabhbhai Patel violently confronted him.[4] Nehru's capitulated, and it thus saw numerous Muslims murdered and robbed by Sikhs.[4] Local hospitals reported that Muslims were victims by a 3:1 ratio.[4] The Indian police also let the Sikhs organise themselves into violent death squads that began hunting Muslims.[4] Nehru was so outraged at the police that even he apprehended one policeman's baton and began beating the Sikhs and Hindus.[4] However the rest of the Indian government was following completely contradictory policies that either allowed the violence to grow worse or did nothing.[4] Pakistan gradually became aware that an undeclared war had been declared on Indian Muslims.[4] The Pakistani ambassador, who had housed an innumerbale amount of refugees in his home in Dehli had sent frantic information exclaiming that "[t]he entire Muslim population of India is facing total extermination".[4] By then, the Indian army started murdering Muslims as well.[4] They were however, not completely defenseless; most of Delhis ammunition stores and blacksmiths were Muslim and defended themselves somewhat successfully.[4] The Muslims fought so hard that the casualty ratio from gunshot wounds was 45 Sikhs for every 20 Muslims (9:4 ratio).[4][n. 5]

Sikhs regularly severed women's breasts.

September 1947:— On September 1st, 1947 the Sydney Morning Herald reported on the brutal persecution of Muslims by Sikhs in India.[1] The article notes several large incidents of the murder of non-Sikhs.[1] One such reporter of the British United Press witnessed first hand the cold-blooded murder of an unarmed Muslim on a train travelling 150 miles away from north of Delhi.[1] He recalled that when the brakes were applied "scores of Sikhs carrying lances tipped with razor sharp blades swarmed on the train" running from "door to door of the compartments, seeking Moslems". The journalist "watched a dozen Sikhs prise open the door of a compartment while a young Moslem inside tried desperately to hold the door shut. The spears beat him, slashing his stomach and thighs as the Sikhs fought fiercely for the "privilege" of gutting him". Another "group of blood-maddened Sikhs" battered "at the door of a compartment...but a couple of belated warning shots from the train's police guard caused the Sikhs to jump off the train and hide behind bushes" (it should be noted that the Muslim passengers hadn't eaten for four days since leaving India).[1] The Sikhs would also attack women more ruthlessly and more barbarically.[1] Rev. Charles Moffett[n. 6] recounted to the same journalist of how he "saw a girl running in wild circles" noticing "one of her breasts had been cut off".[1] He'd also told of another woman who "was the sole survivor of a village which Sikhs had attacked" where a "blow meant to behead her had cut her baby in her arms in half" instead.[1] Between 29,000—50,000 Muslim women were forced to convert to Sikhism (or Hinduism),[n. 7] who were also raped by their captors.[2] Only 20,728 Muslim women were recovered.[3][n. 8]

Muslim victims thrown into a river by Sikhs/Hindus.

Approximately 200,000 Sikhs and Hindus entered Delhi in early September,[n. 9] and Jawaharlal Nehru even tried to ban the Sikhs from carrying the kirpan for fear of them instigating violence.[4] His effort were in vain, as the first killings began in Delhi on September 6th, 1947.[4] Nehru was unable to go through with the ban as the Sikh Home Minister, Vallabhbhai Patel violently confronted him.[4] Nehru's capitulated, and it thus saw numerous Muslims murdered and robbed by Sikhs.[4] Local hospitals reported that Muslims were victims by a 3:1 ratio.[4] The Indian police also let the Sikhs organise themselves into violent death squads that began hunting Muslims.[4] Nehru was so outraged at the police that even he apprehended one policeman's baton and began beating the Sikhs and Hindus.[4] However the rest of the Indian government was following completely contradictory policies that either allowed the violence to grow worse or did nothing.[4] Pakistan gradually became aware that an undeclared war had been declared on Indian Muslims.[4] The Pakistani ambassador, who had housed an innumerbale amount of refugees in his home in Dehli had sent frantic information exclaiming that "[t]he entire Muslim population of India is facing total extermination".[4] By then, the Indian army started murdering Muslims as well.[4] They were however, not completely defenseless; most of Delhis ammunition stores and blacksmiths were Muslim and defended themselves somewhat successfully.[4] The Muslims fought so hard that the casualty ratio from gunshot wounds was 45 Sikhs for every 20 Muslims (9:4 ratio).[4][n. 10]

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ He was a Christian missionary.
    1. Massacres in Punjab. New Savagery in Train Attacks. September 1st, 1947. Sydney Morning Herald via AAP and Staff Correspondent. Trove (digitised). Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  2. ^ In addition a large number of Muslim women, 50,000, were also abducted by Sikhs and Hindu men (Pg. 139). However by December 1948 at least 12,000 Muslim women had been recovered and brought back safely to their families in Pakistan through governmental intervention (specifically with the signing of the Inter-Dominion Agreement). Between April 1951 to January 1952 an additional 1,703 Muslim women were rescued. (Pg. 146).
    1. Taisha Abraham (2002). Women and the Politics of Violence. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 978-81-241-0847-5.
    According to Peter Gatrell between 1947 and 1956 22,000 Muslim women had been rescued, and any who had been taken by Muslims had converted over to the faith of Islam, abandoning Hinduism and "by all accounts making a reasonable life" for themselves. Some even settled happily in Pakistan, and few went back to India. This is likely explained by the fact that Hinduism regards women as inferior religiously and women to this day are treated horrendously in Hindu-dominated India.
    1. Peter Gatrell (12 September 2013). The Making of the Modern Refugee. Oxford University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-19-967416-7.
    According to Sukehsi Karma, 16,545 Muslim women and children were rescued from India, between December 6, 1947 and March 31, 1952.
    1. Sukeshi Kamra (January 2002). Bearing Witness: Partition, Independence, End of the Raj. University of Calgary Press. p. 316. ISBN 978-1-55238-041-3.
    "M.A. Khan", Anti-Muslim author, who claims he is a "former Muslim", in his book "Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism, and Slavery" fraudulently litotes (that is the opposite of hyperbolizing Muslim suffering; which itself is a gross exaggeration of words) claims that there were "some" incidences of "kidnapping of Muslim women", but refuses to give figures or indeed verifiable referenced figures, and then again blatantly litotes claiming "authorities, who tried their best to protect Muslims, recovered most of the kidnapped Muslim women and returned them to most of their famillies". This latter statement is in direct contradiction to data that show only 24% of Muslim women were ever returned to their Muslim families, as evidenced above with Oxford University publication and study by Peter Gatrell.
    1. M. A. Khan (1 January 2009). Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism, and Slavery. iUniverse. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-4401-1846-3.
  3. ^ *According to other sources, it is claimed that up to 125,000 Hindu and Sikh women were taken to Pakistan. Quote: "In 1950, Menon and Bhasin write, the “official estimate” for numbers of abducted women stood at 50,000 Muslims in India and 33,000 Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan. But rehabilitation workers place these figures higher. Mridula Sarabhai, they write, a director of rehabilitation projects for abducted women, believed that as many as 125,000 Hindu and Sikh women were abducted in Pakistan."
    1. Meera Patel (June 26th, 2013). Rape accounts still surface from India’s partition 65 years on. Women Under Siege Project. Retrieved March 31st, 2016.
  4. ^ Vallabhbhai Patel even threatened the Sikhs that they would be thrown into concentration camps if they instigated any violence in the city.
    1. Nisid Hajari (June 9th, 2015). Separated at Birth. How a few days in 1947 turned India and Pakistan into sworn enemies. Slate. Retrieved March 29th, 2016.
  5. ^ Pakistan realised within a month of it's independence that the Indians "were determined to strangle Pakistan at birth", and that had no choice but to wait out the fighting, helping the refugees as best they could. The violence was so intense against Muslims that "[v]ultures feasted so extravagantly that they could no longer fly".
    1. Nisid Hajari (June 9th, 2015). Separated at Birth. How a few days in 1947 turned India and Pakistan into sworn enemies. Slate. Retrieved March 29th, 2016.
  6. ^ He was a Christian missionary.
    1. Massacres in Punjab. New Savagery in Train Attacks. September 1st, 1947. Sydney Morning Herald via AAP and Staff Correspondent. Trove (digitised). Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  7. ^ In addition a large number of Muslim women, 50,000, were also abducted by Sikhs and Hindu men (Pg. 139). However by December 1948 at least 12,000 Muslim women had been recovered and brought back safely to their families in Pakistan through governmental intervention (specifically with the signing of the Inter-Dominion Agreement). Between April 1951 to January 1952 an additional 1,703 Muslim women were rescued. (Pg. 146).
    1. Taisha Abraham (2002). Women and the Politics of Violence. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 978-81-241-0847-5.
    According to Peter Gatrell between 1947 and 1956 22,000 Muslim women had been rescued, and any who had been taken by Muslims had converted over to the faith of Islam, abandoning Hinduism and "by all accounts making a reasonable life" for themselves. Some even settled happily in Pakistan, and few went back to India. This is likely explained by the fact that Hinduism regards women as inferior religiously and women to this day are treated horrendously in Hindu-dominated India.
    1. Peter Gatrell (12 September 2013). The Making of the Modern Refugee. Oxford University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-19-967416-7.
    According to Sukehsi Karma, 16,545 Muslim women and children were rescued from India, between December 6, 1947 and March 31, 1952.
    1. Sukeshi Kamra (January 2002). Bearing Witness: Partition, Independence, End of the Raj. University of Calgary Press. p. 316. ISBN 978-1-55238-041-3.
    "M.A. Khan", Anti-Muslim author, who claims he is a "former Muslim", in his book "Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism, and Slavery" fraudulently litotes (that is the opposite of hyperbolizing Muslim suffering; which itself is a gross exaggeration of words) claims that there were "some" incidences of "kidnapping of Muslim women", but refuses to give figures or indeed verifiable referenced figures, and then again blatantly litotes claiming "authorities, who tried their best to protect Muslims, recovered most of the kidnapped Muslim women and returned them to most of their famillies". This latter statement is in direct contradiction to data that show only 24% of Muslim women were ever returned to their Muslim families, as evidenced above with Oxford University publication and study by Peter Gatrell.
    1. M. A. Khan (1 January 2009). Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism, and Slavery. iUniverse. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-4401-1846-3.
  8. ^ *According to other sources, it is claimed that up to 125,000 Hindu and Sikh women were taken to Pakistan. Quote: "In 1950, Menon and Bhasin write, the “official estimate” for numbers of abducted women stood at 50,000 Muslims in India and 33,000 Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan. But rehabilitation workers place these figures higher. Mridula Sarabhai, they write, a director of rehabilitation projects for abducted women, believed that as many as 125,000 Hindu and Sikh women were abducted in Pakistan."
    1. Meera Patel (June 26th, 2013). Rape accounts still surface from India’s partition 65 years on. Women Under Siege Project. Retrieved March 31st, 2016.
  9. ^ Vallabhbhai Patel even threatened the Sikhs that they would be thrown into concentration camps if they instigated any violence in the city.
    1. Nisid Hajari (June 9th, 2015). Separated at Birth. How a few days in 1947 turned India and Pakistan into sworn enemies. Slate. Retrieved March 29th, 2016.
  10. ^ Pakistan realised within a month of it's independence that the Indians "were determined to strangle Pakistan at birth", and that had no choice but to wait out the fighting, helping the refugees as best they could. The violence was so intense against Muslims that "[v]ultures feasted so extravagantly that they could no longer fly".
    1. Nisid Hajari (June 9th, 2015). Separated at Birth. How a few days in 1947 turned India and Pakistan into sworn enemies. Slate. Retrieved March 29th, 2016.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Massacres in Punjab. New Savagery in Train Attacks. September 1st, 1947. Sydney Morning Herald via AAP and Staff Correspondent. Trove (digitised). Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  2. ^ a b Taisha Abraham (2002). Women and the Politics of Violence. Har-Anand Publications. p. 131. ISBN 978-81-241-0847-5.
  3. ^ a b Ritu Menon; Kamla Bhasin (1998). Borders & Boundaries: Women in India's Partition. Rutgers University Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8135-2552-5.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Nisid Hajari (June 9th, 2015). Separated at Birth. How a few days in 1947 turned India and Pakistan into sworn enemies. Slate. Retrieved March 29th, 2016.

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