Muslim Soldiers During World War II

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147967156634005.png

Between 5,034,987—5,434,987 Muslim soldiers participated on the allied side of the war during World War II, with 1,545,005—1,679,005 soldiers killed in action.

Muslim No. of Muslim Soldiers Killed Medals Top Medal Death Rate
Arab 5,400[1]
Azeri 700,000[2] 400,000—534,000[2] 57.14%—76.29%
Chinese 53,757[3]
French (Free) 315,000[n. 1]
France (Pre-Nazi) Up to 180,000[1]
Ind/Pak/Bang 600,000[4]—1,000,000[n. 2]
Kazakh 1,000,000[5] 350,000[6] 35.00%
Kyrgyz 363,000[n. 3] 160,000[n. 4] 100,000[7] 12[7] 44.08%
Tajik 270,000[8] 92,000[8] 50,000[7] 14[7] 34.07%
Turkmen 300,000[9] 100,000[9] 19,000[7] 18[7] 33.33%
Uzbek 1,433,230[10] 263,005[n. 5] 120,000[7] 69[7] 18.35%
Total (Lower) 5,034,987 1,545,005 289,000 113 30.69%
Total (Higher) 5,434,987 1,679,005 289,000 113 30.89%
Hitler unintentionally set in motion the destruction of several Western empires, including his own.

Between 5,034,987—5,434,987 Muslim soldiers participated on the allied side of the war during World War II, with 1,545,005—1,679,005 soldiers killed in action.

Muslim No. of Muslim Soldiers Killed Medals Top Medal Death Rate
Arab 5,400[1]
Azeri 700,000[2] 400,000—534,000[2] 57.14%—76.29%
Chinese 53,757[3]
French (Free) 315,000[n. 6]
France (Pre-Nazi) Up to 180,000[1]
Ind/Pak/Bang 600,000[4]—1,000,000[n. 7]
Kazakh 1,000,000[5] 350,000[6] 35.00%
Kyrgyz 363,000[n. 8] 160,000[n. 9] 100,000[7] 12[7] 44.08%
Tajik 270,000[8] 92,000[8] 50,000[7] 14[7] 34.07%
Turkmen 300,000[9] 100,000[9] 19,000[7] 18[7] 33.33%
Uzbek 1,433,230[10] 263,005[n. 10] 120,000[7] 69[7] 18.35%
Total (Lower) 5,034,987 1,545,005 289,000 113 30.69%
Total (Higher) 5,434,987 1,679,005 289,000 113 30.89%

The Eastern Front and the Soviet Union (1941—1945)

See Also: Persecution of Muslims by Atheists (c. 1900—c. 2000) and History of Turkey During World War II (1933—1952)
Muslim soldier of Central Asian background aiming a gun at the Germans.
Prior to the outbreak of World War II, the Soviets were actively persecuting Muslim minorities across the Russian Empire.[11] This was during a time when at least 500,000 Muslims had served in the Russian Army during World War I.[12] By 1927, the Soviet Army was made up of 600,000 Uzbeks, Turkmen and Tajiks, 500,000 Turks and 100,000 Kyrgyz.[13] By World War II, the Soviet Army had mobilised a total of 500 divisions (which again consisted of many Muslim soldiers).[14] And despite enduring incredible and brutal persecution, these Muslims fought across all major fronts for the USSR during the war, contributing to many famous battles and campaigns, such as the Battle of Leningrad (1941), the Battle of Moscow (1941), Crimea and Donbass (1942) and the Battle of Stalingrad (1941—1943). However, crucially these units were not allowed to be lead by Muslims themselves, but only Russian Atheist Slavs.[7] However, these Russian soldiers were grossly incompetent, with only 7% having had received higher education in military tactics and war, with an additional 12% have no education at all.[15] The Central Asian units however resisted as best they could and even in some cases rebelled, thus making them very difficult to control, because many of them didn't want to be in the Soviet Army, as well as the fact that there were too many divisions for the authorities to govern.[16] For all of their ill treatment, it is thus unsurprising then that 500,000 Muslims also defected over to the German Army in order to fight their oppressor, the USSR.[17] However, by the end of the war, 120,000 Uzbeks had been decorated for their national service (with 69 awarded the "Hero of the Soviet Union" medal), along with 50,000 Tajiks (14), 100,000 Kirgiziya (12) and 19,000 Turkmens (18).[7]
Broken down by nationality, Tajik, Uzbek, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Turkmen all contributed heavily to the war effort, both in terms of manpower and the lives they sacrificed, in order to prevent the Nazis from consuming the Soviet Union and exterminating their ethnic groups. Hundreds of thousands joined the military, not because of Russa, but because of the Nazi threat. At least 270,000 Tajik men joined the army, with 92,000 giving their lives away.[8] For Uzbeks, there were at least 1,433,230 men who joined (which was 40% of the republic's able-bodied population).[10] At least 263,005 of these Uzbek soldiers were killed in action, 132,670 went missing, 395,795 did not return home and 60,452 were disabled.[n. 11] Additionally, 300,000 Turkmen soldiers fought in the war, with 100,000 of them murdered by the Nazi war machine (in 1941, there were already 124,949 Tajik men serving in the army).[9] For Kazakhstan, 1,000,000 served,[5] and 350,000 were killed.[6] For Kyrgyzstan, 363,000 fought for the USSR, and 160,000 died along the way (their women in particular played a huge role in the war too, gathering enough money to finance the production of 200 warplanes).[n. 12] Additionally, 700,000 Azerbaijani's fought in the war, with some 400,000—534,000 killed in action.[2] Azerbaijani civilians also played an important role; extracting 75 million tons of oil and 22 million tons of gasoline in order to fuel the Soviet war machine.[2][18] After the war, these veterens were clearly proud of serving their homelands first, not for the sake of Russia or the USSR, but for the sake of their own people, so that they would not suffer from the ravages of Nazism. As one Uzbek veteran said "Even though we [Uzbeks] were on Russian or Ukrainian soil, we fought for Uzbekistan, for the Uzbek people".[19]
An Uzbek Veteran, 2016.
Abdulkhakim Ismailov helped raise the flag over the Reichstag in 1945.
Rakhimzhan Qoshqarbaev.
Abdulkhakim Ismailov (1916—2010) was one of the three iconic[20][21][22][23][24] Soviet flag bearers who raised the flag over Berlin on May 2nd, 1945. The German—Soviet war lasted June 22nd, 1941[25] to May 9th, 1945,[26] and was one of the bloodiest wars in history. A grand total of 48,965,561 people were killed during the course of the war.[n. 13] The Germans penetrated deep into Russian territory by Blitzkrieg,[27] that had proved so effective against France and Poland.[27] The official photograph that was taken of the flag raising was taken by Yevgeny Khaldei (1917—1997[28]).[29] However this wasn't the first time the flag was raised by a Muslim. Indeed the first person to raise the flag was a Kazakh soldier named Rakhimzhan Koshkarbaev of the 674th regiment (1924—1988[30][31]), but given that it was too dark to photograph, his credit was ignored (he had raised it at 22:30).[29] Instead, the Soviet authorities decided to give the credit to a Georgia-born Meliton Kantaria and Russian-born Mikhail Yegorov,[29] who in actual fact had never raised the flag over the Reichstag in the first place. Another story said Mikhail Menin raised it.[29] However the Russian Institute of Military History in 2007 clarified the issue and finally gave the true credit to the Muslim Kazakh.[29] Roman Karmen, took photographs of the incident as proof saying, "[y]ou see, we received an order from Moscow: the Victory Banner over the Reichstag should be hoisted by representatives of Georgia and Russia, but it was difficult to stop. I was told to cut the frames [of Koshkarbaev], but they are preserved, in the archives".[29]
Kazakhs were always horribly treated by the Russians.[n. 14] Just prior to the outbreak of World War II they had suffered from an immensely devastating famine (1930—1933) which lead to the deaths of between 1.35 million—2.05 million people, out of a total population of 4.1 million (thus, it representing 33%—50% of the entire national population of Kazakhstan),[32] It was directly caused by Soviet actions that ultimately lead to the near annihilation of the Kazakh people.[33] Historians have reasoned that this famine was deliberate because Stalin wanted to destroy any resistance to Soviet domination.[34] It later became a model for Stalin's own famine in Ukraine (although as a percentage, the Kazakhs lost more of their population than their Ukrainian counterparts[33]).[34] As an illustration of the murderous policy caused by the Russians, the Kazakhs would not reach their pre-famine population (1926) again until 1969.[32] Stalin's pursuit of short term hoarding of grain was the main cause of the famine.[33] By 1932, the Soviets finally began mobilising aid, well after several years had passed, sending 2,000,000 lbs of grain (some 907 tonnes), which was less than half a pound of food per person (~220 grams).[34] The conflict widely affected many ethnic Kazakhs in the country, but hardly affected any of the White population; thereby illustrating that the famine was highly ethnicized. Many Kazakhs obviously fled, taking migratory routes that were completely unheard of just to escape hunger; made worse by having also had been robbed of their livestock of herd.[32] The Soviets were repeatedly warned that such a disaster could follow their actions, but they ignored any and all protests.[32] People became so hungry that they and their children were reduced to mere thickets just trying to flee.[32]
Kazakh woman with her child, probably migrating away to other Soviet territory.
Muslim soldier of Central Asian background aiming a gun at the Germans.
Prior to the outbreak of World War II, the Soviets were actively persecuting Muslim minorities across the Russian Empire.[11] This was during a time when at least 500,000 Muslims had served in the Russian Army during World War I.[12] By 1927, the Soviet Army was made up of 600,000 Uzbeks, Turkmen and Tajiks, 500,000 Turks and 100,000 Kyrgyz.[13] By World War II, the Soviet Army had mobilised a total of 500 divisions (which again consisted of many Muslim soldiers).[14] And despite enduring incredible and brutal persecution, these Muslims fought across all major fronts for the USSR during the war, contributing to many famous battles and campaigns, such as the Battle of Leningrad (1941), the Battle of Moscow (1941), Crimea and Donbass (1942) and the Battle of Stalingrad (1941—1943). However, crucially these units were not allowed to be lead by Muslims themselves, but only Russian Atheist Slavs.[7] However, these Russian soldiers were grossly incompetent, with only 7% having had received higher education in military tactics and war, with an additional 12% have no education at all.[15] The Central Asian units however resisted as best they could and even in some cases rebelled, thus making them very difficult to control, because many of them didn't want to be in the Soviet Army, as well as the fact that there were too many divisions for the authorities to govern.[16] For all of their ill treatment, it is thus unsurprising then that 500,000 Muslims also defected over to the German Army in order to fight their oppressor, the USSR.[17] However, by the end of the war, 120,000 Uzbeks had been decorated for their national service (with 69 awarded the "Hero of the Soviet Union" medal), along with 50,000 Tajiks (14), 100,000 Kirgiziya (12) and 19,000 Turkmens (18).[7]
An Uzbek Veteran, 2016.
Broken down by nationality, Tajik, Uzbek, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Turkmen all contributed heavily to the war effort, both in terms of manpower and the lives they sacrificed, in order to prevent the Nazis from consuming the Soviet Union and exterminating their ethnic groups. Hundreds of thousands joined the military, not because of Russa, but because of the Nazi threat. At least 270,000 Tajik men joined the army, with 92,000 giving their lives away.[8] For Uzbeks, there were at least 1,433,230 men who joined (which was 40% of the republic's able-bodied population).[10] At least 263,005 of these Uzbek soldiers were killed in action, 132,670 went missing, 395,795 did not return home and 60,452 were disabled.[n. 15] Additionally, 300,000 Turkmen soldiers fought in the war, with 100,000 of them murdered by the Nazi war machine (in 1941, there were already 124,949 Tajik men serving in the army).[9] For Kazakhstan, 1,000,000 served,[5] and 350,000 were killed.[6] For Kyrgyzstan, 363,000 fought for the USSR, and 160,000 died along the way (their women in particular played a huge role in the war too, gathering enough money to finance the production of 200 warplanes).[n. 16] Additionally, 700,000 Azerbaijani's fought in the war, with some 400,000—534,000 killed in action.[2] Azerbaijani civilians also played an important role; extracting 75 million tons of oil and 22 million tons of gasoline in order to fuel the Soviet war machine.[2][18] After the war, these veterens were clearly proud of serving their homelands first, not for the sake of Russia or the USSR, but for the sake of their own people, so that they would not suffer from the ravages of Nazism. As one Uzbek veteran said "Even though we [Uzbeks] were on Russian or Ukrainian soil, we fought for Uzbekistan, for the Uzbek people".[19]
Abdulkhakim Ismailov helped raise the flag over the Reichstag in 1945.
Rakhimzhan Qoshqarbaev.
Abdulkhakim Ismailov (1916—2010) was one of the three iconic[20][21][22][23][24] Soviet flag bearers who raised the flag over Berlin on May 2nd, 1945. The German—Soviet war lasted June 22nd, 1941[25] to May 9th, 1945,[26] and was one of the bloodiest wars in history. A grand total of 48,965,561 people were killed during the course of the war.[n. 17] The Germans penetrated deep into Russian territory by Blitzkrieg,[27] that had proved so effective against France and Poland.[27] The official photograph that was taken of the flag raising was taken by Yevgeny Khaldei (1917—1997[28]).[29] However this wasn't the first time the flag was raised by a Muslim. Indeed the first person to raise the flag was a Kazakh soldier named Rakhimzhan Koshkarbaev of the 674th regiment (1924—1988[30][31]), but given that it was too dark to photograph, his credit was ignored (he had raised it at 22:30).[29] Instead, the Soviet authorities decided to give the credit to a Georgia-born Meliton Kantaria and Russian-born Mikhail Yegorov,[29] who in actual fact had never raised the flag over the Reichstag in the first place. Another story said Mikhail Menin raised it.[29] However the Russian Institute of Military History in 2007 clarified the issue and finally gave the true credit to the Muslim Kazakh.[29] Roman Karmen, took photographs of the incident as proof saying, "[y]ou see, we received an order from Moscow: the Victory Banner over the Reichstag should be hoisted by representatives of Georgia and Russia, but it was difficult to stop. I was told to cut the frames [of Koshkarbaev], but they are preserved, in the archives".[29]
Kazakh woman with her child, probably migrating away to other Soviet territory.
Kazakhs were always horribly treated by the Russians.[n. 18] Just prior to the outbreak of World War II they had suffered from an immensely devastating famine (1930—1933) which lead to the deaths of between 1.35 million—2.05 million people, out of a total population of 4.1 million (thus, it representing 33%—50% of the entire national population of Kazakhstan),[32] It was directly caused by Soviet actions that ultimately lead to the near annihilation of the Kazakh people.[33] Historians have reasoned that this famine was deliberate because Stalin wanted to destroy any resistance to Soviet domination.[34] It later became a model for Stalin's own famine in Ukraine (although as a percentage, the Kazakhs lost more of their population than their Ukrainian counterparts[33]).[34] As an illustration of the murderous policy caused by the Russians, the Kazakhs would not reach their pre-famine population (1926) again until 1969.[32] Stalin's pursuit of short term hoarding of grain was the main cause of the famine.[33] By 1932, the Soviets finally began mobilising aid, well after several years had passed, sending 2,000,000 lbs of grain (some 907 tonnes), which was less than half a pound of food per person (~220 grams).[34] The conflict widely affected many ethnic Kazakhs in the country, but hardly affected any of the White population; thereby illustrating that the famine was highly ethnicized. Many Kazakhs obviously fled, taking migratory routes that were completely unheard of just to escape hunger; made worse by having also had been robbed of their livestock of herd.[32] The Soviets were repeatedly warned that such a disaster could follow their actions, but they ignored any and all protests.[32] People became so hungry that they and their children were reduced to mere thickets just trying to flee.[32]
  • Soviet Union propaganda posters designed for Muslim soldiers and Muslim workers.
  • Soviet Union propaganda posters designed for Muslim soldiers and Muslim workers.

The Western Front and the United Kingdom (1939—1945)

See Also: The Origin of the Kirpan: A Tool of Oppression in Muslim History?
When World War II broke out, despite making up 25% of the Indian sucontinents population, Muslims went on to make up some 40% of the British Indian Army.[35] British PM[n. 19] Winston Churchill valued their contribution so much that he told US President Roosevelt "We must not on any account break with the Moslems, who represent...the main army elements on which we must rely for the immediate fighting".[35] Initial recruitment figures released on January 1st, 1940 saw them make up at least 37.5% of the military (which remained consistent throughout the war, with the percentage never falling below 31% up to July 1st, 1947).[36] At the wars peak, 447,580 Muslims were on active duty (January 1st, 1945), and at their lowest they numbered 92,841 (January 1st, 1940).[36] A total of 2.5 million South Asian troops were deployed against the Nazis (making up 78 infantry battalions, 20 Gurkha battalions, 18 Cavalry units, 34,500 British and 15,740 Indian officers).[36] At least 24,338 were killed in battle, 64,354 were wounded, 11,754 were missing and 79,489 were captured as prisoners of war.[36] The entire army won 31 VC's[n. 20] (with the first one ever being awarded to Khuddad Khan in 1914[37]) and 4,028 gallantry awards.[36] Muslims mainly served in the "1st Punjab Infantry Battalion" (50%), "2nd Punjab Infantry Battalion" (34%), the "Madras Infantry Battalion" (25%), the "Indian Grenadiers Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "Rajput Rifles Infantry Battalion" (34%), the "Rajput Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "8th Punjab Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "Jat Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "Baluch Infantry Battalion" (75%), the "Sikh Infantry Battalion" (25%), the "Frontier Force Regiment Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "Frontier Force Rifles Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "14th Punjab Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "15th Punjab Infantry Battalion" (50%) and the "16th Punjab Infantry Battalion" (34%).[36]
Khuddad Khan.[37]
British Muslim soldiers during WWI.
When the First World War (1914—1918) broke out in 1914, 885,000 Muslims (of which 280,000 were Arab) were gradually recruited into the British, French and Russian armies over a four year period, with some 89,000 killed in action (34,000 of them were Arab, and the rest from the Indian subcontinent).[38][38] Approximately 400,000 served in the British Indian Army (comprising of 27%—31%[n. 21] of all Indian troops).[38] Other minorities included 100,000 Sikhs (6.7%—7.7%),[39] and 800,000 Hindus (53.3%—61.5%).[39] Many more Muslims troops fought again when World War II (1939—1945) broke out in 1939.[38] Rather unfortunately, years after the wars had ended, the sacrifice of these Muslim soldiers was largely forgotten.[40] On the 50th anniversary of WWI in 1964 for example, there was hardly a mention of them in the wider British press.[40] However, even more surprising is that these soldiers were also purposefully forgotten on the Indian subcontinent,[40] However, there was a viable reason for this. The Indian subcontinent, as a collective, was embarrassed for having helped the British Empire (which had taken away the freedom of all Indian subcontinent peoples for approximately 200 years),[40] and given the plethora of broken promises, instigation of deliberate famines, mass violence, widespread massacres and uncaring attitudes towards the lives of the peoples of the sub-continent (especially concerning the deliberate mismanagement of the Indian partition that resulted in the deaths of millions in 1947), both Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs had good reason not to celebrate their contributions towards helping the Empire. The British did however build a small monument in India, called the "Delhi Gate" (1931), but gradually over time it lost it's meaning.[n. 22]
Muslim women also played an important role, one such was Noor I. Khan (b. January 1st, 1914). Her father was an Indian Muslim (a musician and Sufi teacher by profession), and her mother an American.[41] She was a descendent of the famed ruler of Mysore,[42] Tipu Sultan,[41] who disdained Europeans. He famously outwitted and crushed the British army at the "Battle of Pollilur" (1780). Khan herself was educated in France[n. 23] after moving there from England, she took to writing stories for children. When the Nazis invaded however, the Khan's fled back to England.[41] In November 1940 she joined the "Women's Auxilliary Air Force" (WAAF).[41] In 1942 she joined the "Special Operations Executive" (SOE) to work as a radio operator.[41] By June 1943 she was selected for a clandestine mission to France under the code name "Madeleine".[41] She was to get in touch with the "Prosper Resistance Network".[41][n. 24] Unfortunately, shortly after she had arrived, many of the members of the network were betrayed, arrested and executed (the average life expectancy for British agents in Nazi occupied France was six weeks[43]).[41] Instead of abandoning her mission, she chose to bravely stay on (saving countless resistance lives in the process),[n. 25] but was unexpectedly betrayed by a Frenchwoman jealous of her beauty.[41][n. 26] The Gestapo tortured and sexually abused her,[44] but she refused to give anything away.[41] She did however make the grave mistake of "k[eeping] copies of all her secret signals".[41] This was used to entrap more agents.[41] Although she escaped successfully, she was later caught again and in November 1943, was sent to Pforzheim Prison.[41] At Dachau concentration camp,[45] she was shot to death on September 13th, 1944 (having outlived many other British agents).[41]
The bust of Noor Inayat Khan, Gordon Square, London.[46][47]
The partition of India (note Kashmir and Hyderabad which were later to experience Indian aggression).
Hitler and his war machines rise to power, was, in the end, a total blessing for Muslim countries everywhere, who had been so suppressed for centuries under White imperialism; having been robbed of their natural wealth and resources for the White race's own selfish gains.[n. 27] These White empires forced their own cultures on Muslims, introducing horrendous concepts such as racism[48][49][50][51][n. 28] and religious hatred where none existed before. Prime examples of this lasting legacy was when backward concepts such as "scientific racism" were introduced to the non-Muslim Rwandans by the Belgians; which split Hutus and Tutsi's apart based on racial characteristics (which were entirely arbitrary; and had no basis of truth[52]). The ethnic hatred they had fostered was borne out when a horrendous genocide of the Tutsi population occurred in 1994, where up to 1,000,000[53] people were killed over a period of weeks.[54] Similarly, religious hatred too had been introduced to South Asia, which culminated in the Partition of the British Raj in 1947 into Pakistan and India, and which cost Muslims (1.26 million[55]), Sikhs and Hindus (0.84 million[55]) many lives. The violence erupted as a result of the special treatment that certain minorities had been used to, which the British were keen to exploit at the peak of their rule (most notably the Sikhs[56]who triggered most of the violence—as they had been treated especially well by the British,[56] and were known colloquially as their "lapdogs/martial race[57]"). After both world wars were over, the Sikhs were betrayed by the British,[n. 29] which explained why they had become so violent in 1947 in their own quest for independence. However, despite all of these problems with the Sikh population, the Muslims of South Asia were at least now finally free when Pakistan was created.
World War I severely weakened Britain, and by World War II's end, it was wholly incapable of ruling its own empire.[58] It was once the most powerful economic force in the world, but eventually lost out to the US, Japan, Germany, Italy and France, stagnating until Margaret Thatcher's government came to power in the 1980s.[58] Hitler had so weakened Britain, that independence movements broke out all over the world which had formerly suffered under their rule. Independence was largely peaceful in the sense that Britain did not contest losing it's former territories (knowing full well that it could not risk bankruptcy), although they did hastily destroy any and all documents that could not be taken back to the UK. The first state to get independence was the Orange Free State (1854), followed by Australia (1901), New Zealand (1907), Egypt (1945), Pakistan (1947), India (1947), Malaysia (1959), Singapore (1959), Cyprus (1960), Congo (1960), Somalia (1960), Sierra Leone (1961), Tanzania (1961), Uganda (1962), Zanzibar (1963), Kenya (1963), Malawi (1964), Zambia (1964), Gambia (1965), Botswana (1966) and Rhodesia/Zimbabwe (1980).[59] The only places left where Britain kept any sort of military and economic interest was in the Middle-east, and more specifically Iraq, which suffered terribly under its policies and that of it's allies, the United States, France and the Netherlands.[60] France too was weakened severely by both wars, and had to let go of many of it's conquered possessions (though not without major massacres and wars with the most notable example being the "Algerian War of Independence" (1954—1962[61]) where 300,000 people died,[62] and which later lead to the "Algerian Civil War" which lasted from 1992 to 2005,[61] and which cost 100,000—200,000 lives[63][64]).
The British Empire lands territories were vast (but, were also really very empty).
Khuddad Khan.[37]
When World War II broke out, despite making up 25% of the Indian sucontinents population, Muslims went on to make up some 40% of the British Indian Army.[35] British PM[n. 30] Winston Churchill valued their contribution so much that he told US President Roosevelt "We must not on any account break with the Moslems, who represent...the main army elements on which we must rely for the immediate fighting".[35] Initial recruitment figures released on January 1st, 1940 saw them make up at least 37.5% of the military (which remained consistent throughout the war, with the percentage never falling below 31% up to July 1st, 1947).[36] At the wars peak, 447,580 Muslims were on active duty (January 1st, 1945), and at their lowest they numbered 92,841 (January 1st, 1940).[36] A total of 2.5 million South Asian troops were deployed against the Nazis (making up 78 infantry battalions, 20 Gurkha battalions, 18 Cavalry units, 34,500 British and 15,740 Indian officers).[36] At least 24,338 were killed in battle, 64,354 were wounded, 11,754 were missing and 79,489 were captured as prisoners of war.[36] The entire army won 31 VC's[n. 31] (with the first one ever being awarded to Khuddad Khan in 1914[37]) and 4,028 gallantry awards.[36] Muslims mainly served in the "1st Punjab Infantry Battalion" (50%), "2nd Punjab Infantry Battalion" (34%), the "Madras Infantry Battalion" (25%), the "Indian Grenadiers Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "Rajput Rifles Infantry Battalion" (34%), the "Rajput Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "8th Punjab Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "Jat Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "Baluch Infantry Battalion" (75%), the "Sikh Infantry Battalion" (25%), the "Frontier Force Regiment Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "Frontier Force Rifles Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "14th Punjab Infantry Battalion" (50%), the "15th Punjab Infantry Battalion" (50%) and the "16th Punjab Infantry Battalion" (34%).[36]
British Muslim soldiers during WWI.
When the First World War (1914—1918) broke out in 1914, 885,000 Muslims (of which 280,000 were Arab) were gradually recruited into the British, French and Russian armies over a four year period, with some 89,000 killed in action (34,000 of them were Arab, and the rest from the Indian subcontinent).[38][38] Approximately 400,000 served in the British Indian Army (comprising of 27%—31%[n. 32] of all Indian troops).[38] Other minorities included 100,000 Sikhs (6.7%—7.7%),[39] and 800,000 Hindus (53.3%—61.5%).[39] Many more Muslims troops fought again when World War II (1939—1945) broke out in 1939.[38] Rather unfortunately, years after the wars had ended, the sacrifice of these Muslim soldiers was largely forgotten.[40] On the 50th anniversary of WWI in 1964 for example, there was hardly a mention of them in the wider British press.[40] However, even more surprising is that these soldiers were also purposefully forgotten on the Indian subcontinent,[40] However, there was a viable reason for this. The Indian subcontinent, as a collective, was embarrassed for having helped the British Empire (which had taken away the freedom of all Indian subcontinent peoples for approximately 200 years),[40] and given the plethora of broken promises, instigation of deliberate famines, mass violence, widespread massacres and uncaring attitudes towards the lives of the peoples of the sub-continent (especially concerning the deliberate mismanagement of the Indian partition that resulted in the deaths of millions in 1947), both Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs had good reason not to celebrate their contributions towards helping the Empire. The British did however build a small monument in India, called the "Delhi Gate" (1931), but gradually over time it lost it's meaning.[n. 33]
The bust of Noor Inayat Khan, Gordon Square, London.[46][47]
Muslim women also played an important role, one such was Noor I. Khan (b. January 1st, 1914). Her father was an Indian Muslim (a musician and Sufi teacher by profession), and her mother an American.[41] She was a descendent of the famed ruler of Mysore,[42] Tipu Sultan,[41] who disdained Europeans. He famously outwitted and crushed the British army at the "Battle of Pollilur" (1780). Khan herself was educated in France[n. 34] after moving there from England, she took to writing stories for children. When the Nazis invaded however, the Khan's fled back to England.[41] In November 1940 she joined the "Women's Auxilliary Air Force" (WAAF).[41] In 1942 she joined the "Special Operations Executive" (SOE) to work as a radio operator.[41] By June 1943 she was selected for a clandestine mission to France under the code name "Madeleine".[41] She was to get in touch with the "Prosper Resistance Network".[41][n. 35] Unfortunately, shortly after she had arrived, many of the members of the network were betrayed, arrested and executed (the average life expectancy for British agents in Nazi occupied France was six weeks[43]).[41] Instead of abandoning her mission, she chose to bravely stay on (saving countless resistance lives in the process),[n. 36] but was unexpectedly betrayed by a Frenchwoman jealous of her beauty.[41][n. 37] The Gestapo tortured and sexually abused her,[44] but she refused to give anything away.[41] She did however make the grave mistake of "k[eeping] copies of all her secret signals".[41] This was used to entrap more agents.[41] Although she escaped successfully, she was later caught again and in November 1943, was sent to Pforzheim Prison.[41] At Dachau concentration camp,[45] she was shot to death on September 13th, 1944 (having outlived many other British agents).[41]
The partition of India (note Kashmir and Hyderabad which were later to experience Indian aggression).
Hitler and his war machines rise to power, was, in the end, a total blessing for Muslim countries everywhere, who had been so suppressed for centuries under White imperialism; having been robbed of their natural wealth and resources for the White race's own selfish gains.[n. 38] These White empires forced their own cultures on Muslims, introducing horrendous concepts such as racism[48][49][50][51][n. 39] and religious hatred where none existed before. Prime examples of this lasting legacy was when backward concepts such as "scientific racism" were introduced to the non-Muslim Rwandans by the Belgians; which split Hutus and Tutsi's apart based on racial characteristics (which were entirely arbitrary; and had no basis of truth[52]). The ethnic hatred they had fostered was borne out when a horrendous genocide of the Tutsi population occurred in 1994, where up to 1,000,000[53] people were killed over a period of weeks.[54] Similarly, religious hatred too had been introduced to South Asia, which culminated in the Partition of the British Raj in 1947 into Pakistan and India, and which cost Muslims (1.26 million[55]), Sikhs and Hindus (0.84 million[55]) many lives. The violence erupted as a result of the special treatment that certain minorities had been used to, which the British were keen to exploit at the peak of their rule (most notably the Sikhs[56]who triggered most of the violence—as they had been treated especially well by the British,[56] and were known colloquially as their "lapdogs/martial race[57]"). After both world wars were over, the Sikhs were betrayed by the British,[n. 40] which explained why they had become so violent in 1947 in their own quest for independence. However, despite all of these problems with the Sikh population, the Muslims of South Asia were at least now finally free when Pakistan was created.
The British Empire lands territories were vast (but, were also really very empty).
World War I severely weakened Britain, and by World War II's end, it was wholly incapable of ruling its own empire.[58] It was once the most powerful economic force in the world, but eventually lost out to the US, Japan, Germany, Italy and France, stagnating until Margaret Thatcher's government came to power in the 1980s.[58] Hitler had so weakened Britain, that independence movements broke out all over the world which had formerly suffered under their rule. Independence was largely peaceful in the sense that Britain did not contest losing it's former territories (knowing full well that it could not risk bankruptcy), although they did hastily destroy any and all documents that could not be taken back to the UK. The first state to get independence was the Orange Free State (1854), followed by Australia (1901), New Zealand (1907), Egypt (1945), Pakistan (1947), India (1947), Malaysia (1959), Singapore (1959), Cyprus (1960), Congo (1960), Somalia (1960), Sierra Leone (1961), Tanzania (1961), Uganda (1962), Zanzibar (1963), Kenya (1963), Malawi (1964), Zambia (1964), Gambia (1965), Botswana (1966) and Rhodesia/Zimbabwe (1980).[59] The only places left where Britain kept any sort of military and economic interest was in the Middle-east, and more specifically Iraq, which suffered terribly under its policies and that of it's allies, the United States, France and the Netherlands.[60] France too was weakened severely by both wars, and had to let go of many of it's conquered possessions (though not without major massacres and wars with the most notable example being the "Algerian War of Independence" (1954—1962[61]) where 300,000 people died,[62] and which later lead to the "Algerian Civil War" which lasted from 1992 to 2005,[61] and which cost 100,000—200,000 lives[63][64]).

The Far Eastern Front and the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937—1945)

See Also: History of the Muslim Peoples & Islamic Culture in Japan (1700—Present), A Short History of Indonesia During World War II (1940—1945) and The Unknown Muslim Victims of Japanese Unit 731 in WWII (1932—1945)
Prior to the outbreak of World War II, the Japanese were hard at work trying to gain the support of the Muslim minority in China, having tried various ways and means in their pursuit to do so. Over time, Japanese propaganda became increasingly effective (especially when the Japanese attained a firm foothold in China several years later, when they decided to invade). Chinese Nationalists were so threatened by this, that they actively began to compete for Muslim support too.[n. 41] The inter-war Muslim population was estimated at around 20 million, and thus represented a real force to be reckoned with.[65] Although small in the grand scheme of China's inter-war population, the Japanese saw them as an effective bulwark against non-Muslim Chinese. The Japanese were so dedicated to the goal of Muslim support, that they even opened up a mosque in their native Tokyo in order to court the attention of the Muslim world.[n. 42] The Muslims of mainland China were however in the meantime placed in very difficult circumstances. Because China was in a state of chaos, the Muslim population was forced to side with those regional powers that best served their interests (in this case, the biggest were the Nationalists). As one of their spies reported, Muslims in China chiefly ally themselves to whoever gave them their religious freedom.[n. 43][n. 44] However, unbeknownst to these Muslims, the Japanese were in actual fact murdering many of them along with the non-Muslim Chinese during the course of the Sino-Japanese confrontation (and hence their real goal was to divide China, thus making it easier to conquer). Most Muslims however decided to ferociously fight against the invaders (indeed Bai Chongxi, one of China's most famous generals was Muslim) and even organised their own legendary military contingents to do so. One such contingent was the Ma Clique.
Bai Chongxi (1893—1966).
The Ma Clique (c. 1910—1949)
The Ma Clique (c. 1910[66]—1949) were a Chinese Muslim army that traced it's roots back to the Qing Dynasty (1644—1912), and were lead by a group of Muslim generals related through blood.[3] During the Chinese Civil War (1921—1949[67]) and World War II, they were staunchly anti-Communist,[68] and, as a result, were eventually wiped out by the Red Army after the war[68] (with it's remnants later fleeing to Taiwan—also known as "free China"—the United States, Saudi Arabia and Egypt[69]). They were situated in the territories of Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai, before they finally collapsed with the rise of Communist China (1949—Present).[3] The total strength of this powerful force consisted of 53,757 men (divided into the 42nd Army, 81st Army, 82nd Army, 5th Cavalry Army and the 8th Cavalry Division).[3] There also existed a 168th Division, but the number of men in this unit is unknown.[3] Of the known divisions, they were equipped with 24,423 rifles, 14,073 horses, 1,646 light machine guns, 243 machine guns, 85 mortars and 8 mounted guns.[3] Ma Hong-kui (1892—1970[70]) was in charge of the 17th Army in Ningxia (consisting of the 81st Army, 168th Division, 1st Cavalry Brigade and the 10th Cavalry Brigade, as well as two garrison brigades).[3] By 1944, the 11th army was also integrated into this formation.[3] These units directly fought the Japanese at the Battle of West Suiyuan (1940) and managed to single-handidly achieve a victory against the Japanese Army.[3] Ma Bu-fang (1903—1975[70]) was based in Qinghai, and lead the 40th Army (which was made up of the 82nd Army and the 5th Cavalry Army).[3] Ma Bu-qing was based in Gansu, and lead the 5th Cavalry Army, Temporary 1st Cavalry Division and Temporary 2nd Cavalry Division.[3]
Despite the presence of these Muslim units, Muslim civilians themselves were devastatingly affected by the Japanese occupation of China, beginning July 7th, 1937. A horrific genocidal campaign was launched a mere matter of months into the invasion, where the city of Nanjing (which today survives as part of the Jiangsu province in modern-day China) underwent the "Nanking Massacre" (which lasted between November 1937 and February 1938),[71] Although not all of the victims were Muslim, a significant amount indeed were.[72] Pre-war census data indicated a demographic standing of at least 40,000.[72] After the harrowing events that followed this had dramatically been reduced to near nothing.[72] There can either be two explanations to this; Chinese Muslims either fled in the mass evacuations that were orchestrated by the people of Nanjing, or were outright murdered.[72] Amazingly enough, there is evidence that Muslim burial squads (consisting of approximately 10 men each) existed within the city during the midst of the atrocity.[72] However, these parties found it very difficult to identify their brethren (and as a result were reduced to burying only those who were visibly Islamic).[72] They would place clothing and soil on top of the bodies as markers, and later hastily burying them when it was safe to do so.[72] Many of these murdered Muslims were found near mosques dotted across the city.[72] Some had either been raped to death by the Japanese, others stabbed, slashed, beheaded, or shot.[72] To add insult to injury, the burial squads had to get the permission of the "Society for the Maintainance of Order" (colloquially, "traitor" Chinese) in order to transport bodies to cemeteries located near the "Refugee Zone".[72]
Japanese troops looting the corpses of Chinese at Nanjing (1937).
The massacre of Xia Shuqin's family.
Aside from the obvious markers, there was no conceivable way of finding out what had had happened to the others; they could have been taken away in groups and murdered,[72] or abducted. The account of a little 8-year old girl who survived the murder of her own family at the hands of the Japanese later became important in retelling the story of the devastation at Nanjing.[73][74] In 2005, the "China Daily" wrote a biographical piece of her ordeal which had occurred 67 years prior to the interview.[74] At the age of 75, she recounted what had happened to her family and neighbours when the Japanese came.[74] Revisionist Japanese historians Higashinakano Osamu and Magsumura Goshio questioned the veracity of her claims as early as the mid-1990s.[74] The accusations prompted her to launch legal action against the publishers which carried their claims; suing them ¥800,000 yuan ($96,600 dollars) in the year 2000. She angrily told the press that she had "survived from the pile of dead bodies" so "how could I be a fake witness?".[74] The BBC reported "[i]n tears, she told...how Japanese soldiers slaughtered seven out of nine members of her immediate family, and how she [had] heard the cries of her sister as she was raped [along] with her mother".[73][n. 45] Between 50,000—340,000 had died in the slaughter.[75] The Chinese themselves had previously buried these stories in order not to offend Japan in the 1970s for fear of economic disruption; as a result China had dropped any and all wartime reparation claims in return for saving the Japanese the embarrassment of accepting such accusations.[74] It was not until the 1990s that China finally managed to pluck up some courage against the Japanese right-wing viewpoint, and confront them on the issue.[74]

Xia Shuqin was clearly not lying; her harrowing tale of survival was corroborated in great detail through the diary of an American Christian reverend, John Magee, who witnessed first hand the murder of several generations of an entire family of Muslims in Nanjing, which resulted in only two survivors.

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking - which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree - the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese. One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.
On December 13th, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan [Muslim] named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her one-year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina, the baby being killed with a bayonet.
Some soldiers then went to the next room where were Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and he two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the older being raped by 2-3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed into her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and her mother.
The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7-8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 years respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. After being wounded the 8 year old girl crawled to the next room where lay the body of her mother. Here she stayed for 14 days with her 4 year old sister who had escaped unharmed. The two children lived on puffed rice and the rice crusts that form in the pan when the rice is cooked.
It was from the older of these children that the photographer was able to get part of the story, and verify and correct certain details told him by a neighbour and a relative. The child said the soldiers came every day taking things from the house, but the two children were not discovered as they hid under some old sheets
...[A]fter 14 days the old woman...returned to the neighbourhood and found the two children. It was she who led the photographer to an open space where the bodies had been taken afterwards. Through questioning her and Mrs. Hsia's brother and the little girl, a clear knowledge of the terrible traged was gained. The picture shows the bodies of the 16 and 14 year old girls, each lying in a group of people slain at the same time. Mrs. Hsia and her baby are shown last.
—Rev. John Magee, American Episcopal Church Mission, and resident in China for 25 years.[76][77]
Bai Chongxi (1893—1966).
Prior to the outbreak of World War II, the Japanese were hard at work trying to gain the support of the Muslim minority in China, having tried various ways and means in their pursuit to do so. Over time, Japanese propaganda became increasingly effective (especially when the Japanese attained a firm foothold in China several years later, when they decided to invade). Chinese Nationalists were so threatened by this, that they actively began to compete for Muslim support too.[n. 46] The inter-war Muslim population was estimated at around 20 million, and thus represented a real force to be reckoned with.[65] Although small in the grand scheme of China's inter-war population, the Japanese saw them as an effective bulwark against non-Muslim Chinese. The Japanese were so dedicated to the goal of Muslim support, that they even opened up a mosque in their native Tokyo in order to court the attention of the Muslim world.[n. 47] The Muslims of mainland China were however in the meantime placed in very difficult circumstances. Because China was in a state of chaos, the Muslim population was forced to side with those regional powers that best served their interests (in this case, the biggest were the Nationalists). As one of their spies reported, Muslims in China chiefly ally themselves to whoever gave them their religious freedom.[n. 48][n. 49] However, unbeknownst to these Muslims, the Japanese were in actual fact murdering many of them along with the non-Muslim Chinese during the course of the Sino-Japanese confrontation (and hence their real goal was to divide China, thus making it easier to conquer). Most Muslims however decided to ferociously fight against the invaders (indeed Bai Chongxi, one of China's most famous generals was Muslim) and even organised their own legendary military contingents to do so. One such contingent was the Ma Clique.
The Ma Clique (c. 1910—1949)
The Ma Clique (c. 1910[66]—1949) were a Chinese Muslim army that traced it's roots back to the Qing Dynasty (1644—1912), and were lead by a group of Muslim generals related through blood.[3] During the Chinese Civil War (1921—1949[67]) and World War II, they were staunchly anti-Communist,[68] and, as a result, were eventually wiped out by the Red Army after the war[68] (with it's remnants later fleeing to Taiwan—also known as "free China"—the United States, Saudi Arabia and Egypt[69]). They were situated in the territories of Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai, before they finally collapsed with the rise of Communist China (1949—Present).[3] The total strength of this powerful force consisted of 53,757 men (divided into the 42nd Army, 81st Army, 82nd Army, 5th Cavalry Army and the 8th Cavalry Division).[3] There also existed a 168th Division, but the number of men in this unit is unknown.[3] Of the known divisions, they were equipped with 24,423 rifles, 14,073 horses, 1,646 light machine guns, 243 machine guns, 85 mortars and 8 mounted guns.[3] Ma Hong-kui (1892—1970[70]) was in charge of the 17th Army in Ningxia (consisting of the 81st Army, 168th Division, 1st Cavalry Brigade and the 10th Cavalry Brigade, as well as two garrison brigades).[3] By 1944, the 11th army was also integrated into this formation.[3] These units directly fought the Japanese at the Battle of West Suiyuan (1940) and managed to single-handidly achieve a victory against the Japanese Army.[3] Ma Bu-fang (1903—1975[70]) was based in Qinghai, and lead the 40th Army (which was made up of the 82nd Army and the 5th Cavalry Army).[3] Ma Bu-qing was based in Gansu, and lead the 5th Cavalry Army, Temporary 1st Cavalry Division and Temporary 2nd Cavalry Division.[3]
Japanese troops looting the corpses of Chinese at Nanjing (1937).
Despite the presence of these Muslim units, Muslim civilians themselves were devastatingly affected by the Japanese occupation of China, beginning July 7th, 1937. A horrific genocidal campaign was launched a mere matter of months into the invasion, where the city of Nanjing (which today survives as part of the Jiangsu province in modern-day China) underwent the "Nanking Massacre" (which lasted between November 1937 and February 1938),[71] Although not all of the victims were Muslim, a significant amount indeed were.[72] Pre-war census data indicated a demographic standing of at least 40,000.[72] After the harrowing events that followed this had dramatically been reduced to near nothing.[72] There can either be two explanations to this; Chinese Muslims either fled in the mass evacuations that were orchestrated by the people of Nanjing, or were outright murdered.[72] Amazingly enough, there is evidence that Muslim burial squads (consisting of approximately 10 men each) existed within the city during the midst of the atrocity.[72] However, these parties found it very difficult to identify their brethren (and as a result were reduced to burying only those who were visibly Islamic).[72] They would place clothing and soil on top of the bodies as markers, and later hastily burying them when it was safe to do so.[72] Many of these murdered Muslims were found near mosques dotted across the city.[72] Some had either been raped to death by the Japanese, others stabbed, slashed, beheaded, or shot.[72] To add insult to injury, the burial squads had to get the permission of the "Society for the Maintainance of Order" (colloquially, "traitor" Chinese) in order to transport bodies to cemeteries located near the "Refugee Zone".[72]
The massacre of Xia Shuqin's family.
Aside from the obvious markers, there was no conceivable way of finding out what had had happened to the others; they could have been taken away in groups and murdered,[72] or abducted. The account of a little 8-year old girl who survived the murder of her own family at the hands of the Japanese later became important in retelling the story of the devastation at Nanjing.[73][74] In 2005, the "China Daily" wrote a biographical piece of her ordeal which had occurred 67 years prior to the interview.[74] At the age of 75, she recounted what had happened to her family and neighbours when the Japanese came.[74] Revisionist Japanese historians Higashinakano Osamu and Magsumura Goshio questioned the veracity of her claims as early as the mid-1990s.[74] The accusations prompted her to launch legal action against the publishers which carried their claims; suing them ¥800,000 yuan ($96,600 dollars) in the year 2000. She angrily told the press that she had "survived from the pile of dead bodies" so "how could I be a fake witness?".[74] The BBC reported "[i]n tears, she told...how Japanese soldiers slaughtered seven out of nine members of her immediate family, and how she [had] heard the cries of her sister as she was raped [along] with her mother".[73][n. 50] Between 50,000—340,000 had died in the slaughter.[75] The Chinese themselves had previously buried these stories in order not to offend Japan in the 1970s for fear of economic disruption; as a result China had dropped any and all wartime reparation claims in return for saving the Japanese the embarrassment of accepting such accusations.[74] It was not until the 1990s that China finally managed to pluck up some courage against the Japanese right-wing viewpoint, and confront them on the issue.[74]

Xia Shuqin was clearly not lying; her harrowing tale of survival was corroborated in great detail through the diary of an American Christian reverend, John Magee, who witnessed first hand the murder of several generations of an entire family of Muslims in Nanjing, which resulted in only two survivors.

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking - which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree - the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese. One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.
On December 13th, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan [Muslim] named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her one-year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina, the baby being killed with a bayonet.
Some soldiers then went to the next room where were Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and he two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the older being raped by 2-3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed into her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and her mother.
The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7-8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 years respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. After being wounded the 8 year old girl crawled to the next room where lay the body of her mother. Here she stayed for 14 days with her 4 year old sister who had escaped unharmed. The two children lived on puffed rice and the rice crusts that form in the pan when the rice is cooked.
It was from the older of these children that the photographer was able to get part of the story, and verify and correct certain details told him by a neighbour and a relative. The child said the soldiers came every day taking things from the house, but the two children were not discovered as they hid under some old sheets
...[A]fter 14 days the old woman...returned to the neighbourhood and found the two children. It was she who led the photographer to an open space where the bodies had been taken afterwards. Through questioning her and Mrs. Hsia's brother and the little girl, a clear knowledge of the terrible traged was gained. The picture shows the bodies of the 16 and 14 year old girls, each lying in a group of people slain at the same time. Mrs. Hsia and her baby are shown last.
—Rev. John Magee, American Episcopal Church Mission, and resident in China for 25 years.[76][77]

The Western Front, France, The Italian Campaign & The Liberation of Paris (1939—1945)

When the French humiliatingly lost their entire country in a mere matter of weeks during the "German Invasion of France" (lasting between May 10th and June 25th) their military desperately began recruiting Muslim soldiers as soon as the exiled French government landed in North Africa in November 1942.[78] So many were recruited that, in fact, they made up at least 55.7% (315,000)[n. 51]—65%[79] of the French Army. Charles de Gaulle, perhaps realising that White European Frenchmen were totally useless at defending their own territory (as he had even had Muslim troops hastily deployed to the German frontline when the invasion started[78]—presumably as French males seemingly refused to fight for their own country), initiated a fervent campaign to recruit these Muslim troops in order to free his own country from the Nazis. The motivation for these troops joining up with the French ranged from desperate need of money (as France had already bankrupted them through decades of imperial efforts and resource stealing), whilst others fought for the right of gaining French citizenship to forceful conscription.[78] These troops, called the "Tirailleurs", were however, different to the "Légion Étrangère" (or "Foreign Legion") who merely acted as mercenaries.[78] The Senegalese Tirailleurs were distinguished especially, and would go on to play a significant role in the course of the war.[78] The recruitment of these Muslim troops wasn't anything new however.[78] Algerian Arabs and Berbers had previously been in the French army before (and were used to keep the French grip on Africa), for decades in fact, having fought in the "Crimean War" (1853—1856), "Franco-Italian Wars", "Franco-Mexican Wars" and in the "Franco-Prussian War" (1870—1871).[78]
North African Muslim troops in Amiens, Paris (WWI). They have a long history with the French army.
Moroccan Goumiers in World War II. The majority (52%) of the Free French Army was made up of Muslims.
During one of the most famous episodes of the war, the D-Day Landings at Dunkirk (on June 6th, 1944), at least 5,400 Muslim soldiers of Arabic heritage were killed trying to push Germany away from invading the UK.[1] By 1944, at least 233,000 Muslims of North African heritage were actively serving in the Free French Army (by now they had made up at least 52% of all casualties in the French military).[1] This legacy for fighting for France has—unfortunately— continued to the present day, where Muslims make up between 10% and 20% of French armed forces personnel, despite making up 10% of the French population and despite being treated so badly by France.[80] This humiliating treatment has been a cultural and historical tradition by the French; in one harrowing example in December 1944 for instance, between 35—70 Sengelese Muslims were murdered by Whites at demobilisation camp in Thiaroye, Senegal (with the French later apologising—but only after decades had passed).[81] The treatment of Muslim soldiers by the Germans was even worse. When 60,000 Algerians, 18,000 Moroccans, 12,000 Tunisians and 90,000 other Muslims were captured during the invasion of France, they were either murdered on the spot for not being White, or imprisoned.[1] Muslim prisoners would then be tormented by having "raw meat" thrown "into the prison cages" in order to make them fight for it, as well as later being "massacred by the Nazis on racial grounds". Despite this, Muslims carried on fighting, and at least 60% of the French army was Muslim when Paris was liberated[79] (when celebrations occurred in Paris however, they were replaced by White Frenchmen by Gaulle,[79] so as to erase their contributions, and reinstate false French pride amongst White Frenchmen).
Muslim soldiers weren't always well-behaved when serving with the French. Some took to committing atrocities (which wasn't anything new for a lot of the Western armies serving during WWII). One such atrocity was the "Marocchinate" incident (meaning "Morocconed" in Italian). After the "Battle of Monte Casino" Moroccan Goumiers, it's alleged by the Italians, are said to have committed acts of mass rape and murder in the villages of Frosinone, Italy (it should be noted France and Morocco have never recognised the accusations[82]). It should be noted that the Italians accounts cannot be corroborated, as no attempt has ever been made to record the Goum point of view, and that the few that have been tracked down remain silent.[82] According to the "Italian Ministry of Defence" in 1997, there were 2,000—3,000 female victims and 800 male victims. American soldiers who served alongside Moroccan troops supposedly witnessed these atrocities, but did nothing to stop them. One such soldier later wrote "They were not popular with the Italians. This was the result of the off-duty conduct of some of them in the mountain villages and isolated valley farms they passed through along the way. In truth, certain elements among the Moroccans had engaged in a wild spree of rape and pillage across the Italian countryside when they were not busy killing Germans".[82] Despite this, the Goumier's were actually quite brave. According to the American "Yank Magazine", "The Germans definitely don't like the Goums. As for the Italians, they're scared to death of them. In the Mateur and Bizerte sectors, where the Goums were attached to the Ninth Division, three Italian companies surrendered en masse as soon as they heard that the guys in front of them were Goums".[83]
Moroccan Goumier's in Sicily during the Italian Campaign (1943).
North African Muslim troops in Amiens, Paris (WWI). They have a long history with the French army.
When the French humiliatingly lost their entire country in a mere matter of weeks during the "German Invasion of France" (lasting between May 10th and June 25th) their military desperately began recruiting Muslim soldiers as soon as the exiled French government landed in North Africa in November 1942.[78] So many were recruited that, in fact, they made up at least 55.7% (315,000)[n. 52]—65%[79] of the French Army. Charles de Gaulle, perhaps realising that White European Frenchmen were totally useless at defending their own territory (as he had even had Muslim troops hastily deployed to the German frontline when the invasion started[78]—presumably as French males seemingly refused to fight for their own country), initiated a fervent campaign to recruit these Muslim troops in order to free his own country from the Nazis. The motivation for these troops joining up with the French ranged from desperate need of money (as France had already bankrupted them through decades of imperial efforts and resource stealing), whilst others fought for the right of gaining French citizenship to forceful conscription.[78] These troops, called the "Tirailleurs", were however, different to the "Légion Étrangère" (or "Foreign Legion") who merely acted as mercenaries.[78] The Senegalese Tirailleurs were distinguished especially, and would go on to play a significant role in the course of the war.[78] The recruitment of these Muslim troops wasn't anything new however.[78] Algerian Arabs and Berbers had previously been in the French army before (and were used to keep the French grip on Africa), for decades in fact, having fought in the "Crimean War" (1853—1856), "Franco-Italian Wars", "Franco-Mexican Wars" and in the "Franco-Prussian War" (1870—1871).[78]
Moroccan Goumiers in World War II. The majority (52%) of the Free French Army was made up of Muslims.
During one of the most famous episodes of the war, the D-Day Landings at Dunkirk (on June 6th, 1944), at least 5,400 Muslim soldiers of Arabic heritage were killed trying to push Germany away from invading the UK.[1] By 1944, at least 233,000 Muslims of North African heritage were actively serving in the Free French Army (by now they had made up at least 52% of all casualties in the French military).[1] This legacy for fighting for France has—unfortunately— continued to the present day, where Muslims make up between 10% and 20% of French armed forces personnel, despite making up 10% of the French population and despite being treated so badly by France.[80] This humiliating treatment has been a cultural and historical tradition by the French; in one harrowing example in December 1944 for instance, between 35—70 Sengelese Muslims were murdered by Whites at demobilisation camp in Thiaroye, Senegal (with the French later apologising—but only after decades had passed).[81] The treatment of Muslim soldiers by the Germans was even worse. When 60,000 Algerians, 18,000 Moroccans, 12,000 Tunisians and 90,000 other Muslims were captured during the invasion of France, they were either murdered on the spot for not being White, or imprisoned.[1] Muslim prisoners would then be tormented by having "raw meat" thrown "into the prison cages" in order to make them fight for it, as well as later being "massacred by the Nazis on racial grounds". Despite this, Muslims carried on fighting, and at least 60% of the French army was Muslim when Paris was liberated[79] (when celebrations occurred in Paris however, they were replaced by White Frenchmen by Gaulle,[79] so as to erase their contributions, and reinstate false French pride amongst White Frenchmen).
Moroccan Goumier's in Sicily during the Italian Campaign (1943).
Muslim soldiers weren't always well-behaved when serving with the French. Some took to committing atrocities (which wasn't anything new for a lot of the Western armies serving during WWII). One such atrocity was the "Marocchinate" incident (meaning "Morocconed" in Italian). After the "Battle of Monte Casino" Moroccan Goumiers, it's alleged by the Italians, are said to have committed acts of mass rape and murder in the villages of Frosinone, Italy (it should be noted France and Morocco have never recognised the accusations[82]). It should be noted that the Italians accounts cannot be corroborated, as no attempt has ever been made to record the Goum point of view, and that the few that have been tracked down remain silent.[82] According to the "Italian Ministry of Defence" in 1997, there were 2,000—3,000 female victims and 800 male victims. American soldiers who served alongside Moroccan troops supposedly witnessed these atrocities, but did nothing to stop them. One such soldier later wrote "They were not popular with the Italians. This was the result of the off-duty conduct of some of them in the mountain villages and isolated valley farms they passed through along the way. In truth, certain elements among the Moroccans had engaged in a wild spree of rape and pillage across the Italian countryside when they were not busy killing Germans".[82] Despite this, the Goumier's were actually quite brave. According to the American "Yank Magazine", "The Germans definitely don't like the Goums. As for the Italians, they're scared to death of them. In the Mateur and Bizerte sectors, where the Goums were attached to the Ninth Division, three Italian companies surrendered en masse as soon as they heard that the guys in front of them were Goums".[83]

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ A grand total of 315,000 North African's were recruited to fight for the French. Additionally White Frenchmen only comprised of an additional 250,000 men. Mathematically things comes out to be 315,000/(250,000 + 315,000) = 55.7%.
    1. Brook White (2008). Another Forgotten Army: The French Expeditionary Corps In Italy, 1943-1944. p. 73-74. University of Central Florida. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
    Quote: "After the Allies invaded North Africa in November 1942, the Armée d’Afrique quickly swelled from 137,000 men, which the Germans had eventually allowed for North African defense, to over 315,000 men...[Footnote:] The army quickly added 60,000 men who had been hiding in the mountains – a large number of them were Goums. Another 68,000 men were added, out of 109,000 men called upon, after the French army instituted its mobilization program for North Africa. French West Africa, La Coloniale, added an additional 50,000 men. Furthermore, an additional 20,000 men would be added once the units serving with the British Eighth Army were incorporated"
    Quote: "It was a battle the French could not win since the number of white Frenchman (eventually numbering 250,000 men from all over the empire), men who were trusted to be leaders, cadres, technicians, and specialists, was finite."
  2. ^ 40% of the British Indian Army were Muslim. The total number of British Indian Army personnel were 2.5 million, where 40% would make up some 1,000,000.
    1. Azeem Ibrahim (April 24th, 2014). How Muslims Won the Second World War. Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Strategic Studies Institute US Army War College and International Security Lecturer at the University of Chicago. Retrieved May 23rd, 2018.
  3. ^ Paola Gianturco; Musimbi Kanyoro (10 October 2017). Wonder Girls. PowerHouse Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-57687-881-1.
    1. Quote: "This is an important national holiday. At the time of World War II, Kyrgyzstan had a population of 1.5 million; of those, 363,000 fought, and 160,000 were killed—one from almost every family."
  4. ^ Paola Gianturco; Musimbi Kanyoro (10 October 2017). Wonder Girls. PowerHouse Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-57687-881-1.
    1. Quote: "This is an important national holiday. At the time of World War II, Kyrgyzstan had a population of 1.5 million; of those, 363,000 fought, and 160,000 were killed—one from almost every family."
  5. ^ :Quote: "The Soviet-German War of 1941-5 (known as the Great Patriotic War) was a special chapter in the life of the Uzbek people and the USSR as a whole. Altogether 1,433,230 people from Uzbekistan took part in the war - over 40 per cent of the republic's able-bodied population; 263,005 Uzbek soldiers were killed, 132,670 went missing in action, 395,795 did not return home and 60,452 were disabled."
    1. Chahryar Adle (2005-01-01). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the contemporary period: from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. UNESCO. p. 232. ISBN 978-92-3-103985-0.
  6. ^ A grand total of 315,000 North African's were recruited to fight for the French. Additionally White Frenchmen only comprised of an additional 250,000 men. Mathematically things comes out to be 315,000/(250,000 + 315,000) = 55.7%.
    1. Brook White (2008). Another Forgotten Army: The French Expeditionary Corps In Italy, 1943-1944. p. 73-74. University of Central Florida. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
    Quote: "After the Allies invaded North Africa in November 1942, the Armée d’Afrique quickly swelled from 137,000 men, which the Germans had eventually allowed for North African defense, to over 315,000 men...[Footnote:] The army quickly added 60,000 men who had been hiding in the mountains – a large number of them were Goums. Another 68,000 men were added, out of 109,000 men called upon, after the French army instituted its mobilization program for North Africa. French West Africa, La Coloniale, added an additional 50,000 men. Furthermore, an additional 20,000 men would be added once the units serving with the British Eighth Army were incorporated"
    Quote: "It was a battle the French could not win since the number of white Frenchman (eventually numbering 250,000 men from all over the empire), men who were trusted to be leaders, cadres, technicians, and specialists, was finite."
  7. ^ 40% of the British Indian Army were Muslim. The total number of British Indian Army personnel were 2.5 million, where 40% would make up some 1,000,000.
    1. Azeem Ibrahim (April 24th, 2014). How Muslims Won the Second World War. Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Strategic Studies Institute US Army War College and International Security Lecturer at the University of Chicago. Retrieved May 23rd, 2018.
  8. ^ Paola Gianturco; Musimbi Kanyoro (10 October 2017). Wonder Girls. PowerHouse Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-57687-881-1.
    1. Quote: "This is an important national holiday. At the time of World War II, Kyrgyzstan had a population of 1.5 million; of those, 363,000 fought, and 160,000 were killed—one from almost every family."
  9. ^ Paola Gianturco; Musimbi Kanyoro (10 October 2017). Wonder Girls. PowerHouse Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-57687-881-1.
    1. Quote: "This is an important national holiday. At the time of World War II, Kyrgyzstan had a population of 1.5 million; of those, 363,000 fought, and 160,000 were killed—one from almost every family."
  10. ^ :Quote: "The Soviet-German War of 1941-5 (known as the Great Patriotic War) was a special chapter in the life of the Uzbek people and the USSR as a whole. Altogether 1,433,230 people from Uzbekistan took part in the war - over 40 per cent of the republic's able-bodied population; 263,005 Uzbek soldiers were killed, 132,670 went missing in action, 395,795 did not return home and 60,452 were disabled."
    1. Chahryar Adle (2005-01-01). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the contemporary period: from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. UNESCO. p. 232. ISBN 978-92-3-103985-0.
  11. ^ :Quote: "The Soviet-German War of 1941-5 (known as the Great Patriotic War) was a special chapter in the life of the Uzbek people and the USSR as a whole. Altogether 1,433,230 people from Uzbekistan took part in the war - over 40 per cent of the republic's able-bodied population; 263,005 Uzbek soldiers were killed, 132,670 went missing in action, 395,795 did not return home and 60,452 were disabled."
    1. Chahryar Adle (2005-01-01). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the contemporary period: from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. UNESCO. p. 232. ISBN 978-92-3-103985-0.
  12. ^ Paola Gianturco; Musimbi Kanyoro (10 October 2017). Wonder Girls. PowerHouse Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-57687-881-1.
    1. Quote: "This is an important national holiday. At the time of World War II, Kyrgyzstan had a population of 1.5 million; of those, 363,000 fought, and 160,000 were killed—one from almost every family."
  13. ^
    Quote: "Total German armed forces losses during the war were 13,488,000 with 10,758,000 in Eastern Europe...Against official Soviet Armed forces losses of 28,199,127 killed and 10,008,434 missing or captured".
    1. Steven D Mercatante (31 January 2012). Why Germany Nearly Won: A New History of the Second World War in Europe. ABC-CLIO. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-313-39592-5.
  14. ^ This is despite that fact that 500 Kazakhs were decorated for their bravery, having won 500 "Hero of the Soviet Union" medals.
    1. Web Desk (April 22nd, 2014). 500 Kazakhs became Heroes of the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  15. ^ :Quote: "The Soviet-German War of 1941-5 (known as the Great Patriotic War) was a special chapter in the life of the Uzbek people and the USSR as a whole. Altogether 1,433,230 people from Uzbekistan took part in the war - over 40 per cent of the republic's able-bodied population; 263,005 Uzbek soldiers were killed, 132,670 went missing in action, 395,795 did not return home and 60,452 were disabled."
    1. Chahryar Adle (2005-01-01). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the contemporary period: from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. UNESCO. p. 232. ISBN 978-92-3-103985-0.
  16. ^ Paola Gianturco; Musimbi Kanyoro (10 October 2017). Wonder Girls. PowerHouse Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-57687-881-1.
    1. Quote: "This is an important national holiday. At the time of World War II, Kyrgyzstan had a population of 1.5 million; of those, 363,000 fought, and 160,000 were killed—one from almost every family."
  17. ^
    Quote: "Total German armed forces losses during the war were 13,488,000 with 10,758,000 in Eastern Europe...Against official Soviet Armed forces losses of 28,199,127 killed and 10,008,434 missing or captured".
    1. Steven D Mercatante (31 January 2012). Why Germany Nearly Won: A New History of the Second World War in Europe. ABC-CLIO. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-313-39592-5.
  18. ^ This is despite that fact that 500 Kazakhs were decorated for their bravery, having won 500 "Hero of the Soviet Union" medals.
    1. Web Desk (April 22nd, 2014). 500 Kazakhs became Heroes of the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  19. ^ PM = Prime Minister
  20. ^ VC = Victoria Cross's
  21. ^ It is believed that between 1.3 million and 1.5 million troops of all backgrounds and faiths were recruited in India. At least 400,000 Muslims fought for the British Empire, and so dividing the total amount of Muslim soldiers by the total amount of Indian troops yields 27% to 31% of all conscripts to the British Indian army.
    1. Shashi Tharoor (2nd July 2015). Why the Indian soldiers of WW1 were forgotten. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 26th, 2017.
    2. Mary Atkinson (13th March 2016). Britain's forgotten army of Muslims fighting in WWI. Middle-east Eye. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 26th, 2017.
  22. ^ It lost much of it's original meaning for having being built, with Indians today not even understanding why it is there.
    1. Shashi Tharoor (2nd July 2015). Why the Indian soldiers of WW1 were forgotten. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 26th, 2017.
  23. ^ Quote: "She studied music at the Paris Conservatory and Child Psychology at Sorbonne. At 25, she wrote the book ‘Twenty Jataka Tales’ which is drawn from the famous legends of the former life of the Buddha in 1939. Most remember her as a kind, dreamy and sensitive girl.".
    1. Sahima Gupta (January 15th, 2018). Noor Inayat Khan: ‘Spy Princess’ Of World War II | #IndianWomenInHistory. Feminism India. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  24. ^ Quote: "Eventually, we came across and were deeply inspired by the story of Noor Inayat Khan, a remarkable Muslim woman who joined the British network of spies sending coded messages between England and the French Resistance."
    1. Alexander Kronemer (August 9th, 2014). The Noor Inayat Khan Story”, A Muslim Heroine Who Fought The Nazis In WWII. The Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  25. ^ Quote: "Resisting numerous opportunities to escape to safety, Noor’s selfless decision to aid the resistance and save countless lives ultimately cost her own".
    1. Alexander Kronemer (August 9th, 2014). The Noor Inayat Khan Story”, A Muslim Heroine Who Fought The Nazis In WWII. The Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  26. ^ :Quote: "According to legend, Noor's beauty proved her downfall. She was betrayed by the sister of an agent, captured by the Gestapo and, after two attempts at escape, was sent to a prison in Pforzheim. There she was tortured, suffered terrible starvation and was probably also sexually abused, before finally being transferred to the Dachau concentration camp."
    1. Eric Schumacher (September 19th, 2016). The call of the one to the many. Qantara. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  27. ^ Some Muslim countries however, were still being robbed by Whites. For instance;
    Quote: "Iraq's oil was split five ways: 23.75% percent each went to Britain, France, Holland and the United States. The remaining 5% percent went to an oil baron named Caloste Gulbenkian, known as "Mr. Five-Percenter", who helped negotiate the agreement. Iraq got nothing. It stayed that way until 1958 when there was a revolution".
    1. Henry Kroll; Thomas Jefferson (2008-02-20). Sand Pirates. Xlibris Corporation. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4653-2632-4.
  28. ^ Quote: "Europeans were always concerned that the miscegenation that occurred in the New World, where there were few European women and an abundance of other women, would lead to a loss of European control over New World peoples. Rather than lose control to miscegenated people, Europeans invented rigidly hierarchical racist categories calibrated according to the quantity of so-called White blood in a human being."
    1. Berel Lang (2000). Race and Racism in Theory and Practice. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-8476-9693-2.
  29. ^
    Quote: "In the 1920s and 1930s, Sikhs played a leading role in the movement for Indian independence, which came to fruition in 1948. At the time the Sikhs felt deeply betrayed, because, exhausted, and on the verge of bankruptcy as a result of World War II, the British hurriedly left India without providing the Sikhs with their own independent homeland. The results were tragic. Because of the violence that led to the partition of India between the secular state of India and the Muslim state of Pakistan, traditional Sikh lands were divided between the two warring parties. Most areas of the Punjab went to India [NOTE THIS IS A MISTAKE, IT SHOULD SAY PAKISTAN], although a smaller territory, which included a number of sacred Sikh sites, was included in Pakistan [NOTE THIS IS A MISTAKE, IT SHOULD SAY INDIA]. The partition of the Indian subcontinent and what Sikhs se as the unjust division of the Punjab have been a continual thron in the flesh of the Indian body politic and Sikh society ever since."
    1. Irving Hexham (22 March 2011). Understanding World Religions: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Zondervan. p. 441. ISBN 978-0-310-31448-6.
  30. ^ PM = Prime Minister
  31. ^ VC = Victoria Cross's
  32. ^ It is believed that between 1.3 million and 1.5 million troops of all backgrounds and faiths were recruited in India. At least 400,000 Muslims fought for the British Empire, and so dividing the total amount of Muslim soldiers by the total amount of Indian troops yields 27% to 31% of all conscripts to the British Indian army.
    1. Shashi Tharoor (2nd July 2015). Why the Indian soldiers of WW1 were forgotten. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 26th, 2017.
    2. Mary Atkinson (13th March 2016). Britain's forgotten army of Muslims fighting in WWI. Middle-east Eye. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 26th, 2017.
  33. ^ It lost much of it's original meaning for having being built, with Indians today not even understanding why it is there.
    1. Shashi Tharoor (2nd July 2015). Why the Indian soldiers of WW1 were forgotten. BBC News. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 26th, 2017.
  34. ^ Quote: "She studied music at the Paris Conservatory and Child Psychology at Sorbonne. At 25, she wrote the book ‘Twenty Jataka Tales’ which is drawn from the famous legends of the former life of the Buddha in 1939. Most remember her as a kind, dreamy and sensitive girl.".
    1. Sahima Gupta (January 15th, 2018). Noor Inayat Khan: ‘Spy Princess’ Of World War II | #IndianWomenInHistory. Feminism India. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  35. ^ Quote: "Eventually, we came across and were deeply inspired by the story of Noor Inayat Khan, a remarkable Muslim woman who joined the British network of spies sending coded messages between England and the French Resistance."
    1. Alexander Kronemer (August 9th, 2014). The Noor Inayat Khan Story”, A Muslim Heroine Who Fought The Nazis In WWII. The Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  36. ^ Quote: "Resisting numerous opportunities to escape to safety, Noor’s selfless decision to aid the resistance and save countless lives ultimately cost her own".
    1. Alexander Kronemer (August 9th, 2014). The Noor Inayat Khan Story”, A Muslim Heroine Who Fought The Nazis In WWII. The Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  37. ^ :Quote: "According to legend, Noor's beauty proved her downfall. She was betrayed by the sister of an agent, captured by the Gestapo and, after two attempts at escape, was sent to a prison in Pforzheim. There she was tortured, suffered terrible starvation and was probably also sexually abused, before finally being transferred to the Dachau concentration camp."
    1. Eric Schumacher (September 19th, 2016). The call of the one to the many. Qantara. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
  38. ^ Some Muslim countries however, were still being robbed by Whites. For instance;
    Quote: "Iraq's oil was split five ways: 23.75% percent each went to Britain, France, Holland and the United States. The remaining 5% percent went to an oil baron named Caloste Gulbenkian, known as "Mr. Five-Percenter", who helped negotiate the agreement. Iraq got nothing. It stayed that way until 1958 when there was a revolution".
    1. Henry Kroll; Thomas Jefferson (2008-02-20). Sand Pirates. Xlibris Corporation. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4653-2632-4.
  39. ^ Quote: "Europeans were always concerned that the miscegenation that occurred in the New World, where there were few European women and an abundance of other women, would lead to a loss of European control over New World peoples. Rather than lose control to miscegenated people, Europeans invented rigidly hierarchical racist categories calibrated according to the quantity of so-called White blood in a human being."
    1. Berel Lang (2000). Race and Racism in Theory and Practice. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-8476-9693-2.
  40. ^
    Quote: "In the 1920s and 1930s, Sikhs played a leading role in the movement for Indian independence, which came to fruition in 1948. At the time the Sikhs felt deeply betrayed, because, exhausted, and on the verge of bankruptcy as a result of World War II, the British hurriedly left India without providing the Sikhs with their own independent homeland. The results were tragic. Because of the violence that led to the partition of India between the secular state of India and the Muslim state of Pakistan, traditional Sikh lands were divided between the two warring parties. Most areas of the Punjab went to India [NOTE THIS IS A MISTAKE, IT SHOULD SAY PAKISTAN], although a smaller territory, which included a number of sacred Sikh sites, was included in Pakistan [NOTE THIS IS A MISTAKE, IT SHOULD SAY INDIA]. The partition of the Indian subcontinent and what Sikhs se as the unjust division of the Punjab have been a continual thron in the flesh of the Indian body politic and Sikh society ever since."
    1. Irving Hexham (22 March 2011). Understanding World Religions: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Zondervan. p. 441. ISBN 978-0-310-31448-6.
  41. ^ Quote: "Like the other Allied powers, the Chinese Nationalists worked hard to counter pro Japanese, anti-GMD messages disseminated throughout the Islamic world by pro-Japanese Muslims. As a reaction to their mounting concern over successful Japanese-sponsored missions abroad, the Nationalists sent a number of goodwill missions to India and Egypt throughout the war. The Nationalists also strengthened their diplomatic ties to the Middle East during the Second World War. Before Pearl Harbor, they only had official diplomatic relations with Turkey. By March 1942, they had broadened these connections to include a consular office in Iraq and an exchange of ministers with Egypt and Iran. They also sent a number of students who were studying at Al-Azhar in Egypt to intercept the Japanese-sponsored hajj led by Tang Yichen. In March 1942, the GMD-supported Chinese Islamic National Salvation Federation sent the Sino-Muslim Wu Qianxun (also known as Osman K. H. Woo) on a goodwill mission to India."
    1. Hammond, Kelly A. (2017). "Managing Muslims: imperial Japan, Islamic policy, and Axis connections during the Second World War". Journal of Global History. 12 (02): 251–273. doi:10.1017/S1740022817000079. ISSN 1740-0228.
  42. ^ Quote: "On Thursday May 12, 1938, the Tokyo Mosque opened with great fanfare. The opening of the mosque coincided with the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad, a symbolic overture that was surely not lost on the prominent attendees from all over the Islamic world. At the time of construction, there were around six hundred Muslims resident in Japan, who were mostly exiled Indians and Crimean Tatars, along with a handful of Japanese converts." Attendees included refugees of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, five Muslims from occupied China (Tang Yichen—the presiding head of the Japanese-sponsored Chinese Muslim General Assembly (CMGA), and the person who lead the Japanese-sponsored hajj delegation—Liu Jinbiao, Li Zongqing, Zhao Yunsheng, and Wang Lianyu) with "other important Muslim dignitaries present at the inaugural Friday prayers was Prince Hussein of Yemen, the third son of Imam Yahya, as well as the Afghan, Turkish, and Egyptian consuls, and representatives from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Dutch East Indies, India, and the Philippines".
    1. Hammond, Kelly A. (2017). "Managing Muslims: imperial Japan, Islamic policy, and Axis connections during the Second World War". Journal of Global History. 12 (02): 251–273. doi:10.1017/S1740022817000079. ISSN 1740-0228.
  43. ^ Quote: "Sino-Muslim collaborators such as the aforementioned Tang Yichen suggested to Japanese policy-makers that one of the surest ways to secure the loyalties of Muslims in north China was to build mosques and madrasahs in local communities. The preservation of sacred Islamic places, the rebuilding of mosques destroyed by the war, and the construction of mosques in the imperial metropoles – such as Berlin or Tokyo – were considered successful tactics for gaining the favour of Muslims, and the Japanese saw it as serving two main purposes: it gave them a sense of authority within Muslim communities, and it offered opportunities to vilify their enemies, especially the Soviets, who destroyed mosques throughout eastern Europe and Central Asia. In essence, both the Germans and the Japanese helped foster the re-entrenchment of Islamic communities through the rebuilding of mosques destroyed in the war."
    1. Hammond, Kelly A. (2017). "Managing Muslims: imperial Japan, Islamic policy, and Axis connections during the Second World War". Journal of Global History. 12 (02): 251–273. doi:10.1017/S1740022817000079. ISSN 1740-0228.
  44. ^
    Quote: "The connections between the Axis powers concerning Muslims did not go unreported in pro-Nationalist publications throughout Free China. For instance, the journalist Ren Wenbo reported on a conversation where he questioned an older Muslim man living under occupation about his pro-Japanese proclivities. To Ren, who was working undercover in the Japanese occupied territories, the old man became a proxy through which he filtered his conclusions about Japanese successes convincing Muslims living in China’s borderlands that communism was their real enemy. Ren’s main conclusion was that Japanese propaganda was actually quite successful in China’s northern borderlands and he urged Chiang’s government to respond with their own amped-up message to Muslims living in China’s border regions. As Ren saw it, the ‘three fascist powers’ geared well-received propaganda towards Muslims with a strong anti-communist message.

    Quote: "To drive this point home, he relied on a quote from the old Muslim man: ‘Look! Japan, Italy, and Germany – all three together waving a flag! They have a strong relationship: they resist communism, and they help hinder the progress of communism. We see this as important.’ Speaking candidly about the Nationalists, the old man went on to tell Ren that they were not perceived in a favourable light by many Muslims: ‘You [the GMD] wrecked and destroyed our Muslim population! You killed our Imams [Chinese: Ahong], ruined our standard of living, and you have forced us to perform a juggling act.’"

    Quote: "Presumably, this ‘juggling act’ was the delicate balance that Muslims who lived in north-west China ‘performed’ between the Soviet, GMD, CCP, British, local, and Japanese interests in the region. In essence, the old man was blaming the GMD for their ineptitude and failures, and saying that, because of their inability to govern, many Muslims in the region chose the Axis over the Allies for practical and pragmatic reasons".
    1. Hammond, Kelly A. (2017). "Managing Muslims: imperial Japan, Islamic policy, and Axis connections during the Second World War". Journal of Global History. 12 (02): 251–273. doi:10.1017/S1740022817000079. ISSN 1740-0228.
  45. ^ She eventually won the ruling against the Japanese authors, who represented Asia University, Japan. She had originally sued for ¥15 million yen, but received ¥4 million yen ($44,500 dollars) instead from the Tokyo District Court and The Supreme Court of Japan.
    1. Author on Nanjing loses libel appeal. February 7th, 2009. The Japan Times. Retrieved August 4th, 2016.
    2. Chinese hail Nanjing Massacre witness' libel suit victory. February 9th, 2009. People's Daily Online. Retrieved August 4th, 2016.
  46. ^ Quote: "Like the other Allied powers, the Chinese Nationalists worked hard to counter pro Japanese, anti-GMD messages disseminated throughout the Islamic world by pro-Japanese Muslims. As a reaction to their mounting concern over successful Japanese-sponsored missions abroad, the Nationalists sent a number of goodwill missions to India and Egypt throughout the war. The Nationalists also strengthened their diplomatic ties to the Middle East during the Second World War. Before Pearl Harbor, they only had official diplomatic relations with Turkey. By March 1942, they had broadened these connections to include a consular office in Iraq and an exchange of ministers with Egypt and Iran. They also sent a number of students who were studying at Al-Azhar in Egypt to intercept the Japanese-sponsored hajj led by Tang Yichen. In March 1942, the GMD-supported Chinese Islamic National Salvation Federation sent the Sino-Muslim Wu Qianxun (also known as Osman K. H. Woo) on a goodwill mission to India."
    1. Hammond, Kelly A. (2017). "Managing Muslims: imperial Japan, Islamic policy, and Axis connections during the Second World War". Journal of Global History. 12 (02): 251–273. doi:10.1017/S1740022817000079. ISSN 1740-0228.
  47. ^ Quote: "On Thursday May 12, 1938, the Tokyo Mosque opened with great fanfare. The opening of the mosque coincided with the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad, a symbolic overture that was surely not lost on the prominent attendees from all over the Islamic world. At the time of construction, there were around six hundred Muslims resident in Japan, who were mostly exiled Indians and Crimean Tatars, along with a handful of Japanese converts." Attendees included refugees of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, five Muslims from occupied China (Tang Yichen—the presiding head of the Japanese-sponsored Chinese Muslim General Assembly (CMGA), and the person who lead the Japanese-sponsored hajj delegation—Liu Jinbiao, Li Zongqing, Zhao Yunsheng, and Wang Lianyu) with "other important Muslim dignitaries present at the inaugural Friday prayers was Prince Hussein of Yemen, the third son of Imam Yahya, as well as the Afghan, Turkish, and Egyptian consuls, and representatives from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Dutch East Indies, India, and the Philippines".
    1. Hammond, Kelly A. (2017). "Managing Muslims: imperial Japan, Islamic policy, and Axis connections during the Second World War". Journal of Global History. 12 (02): 251–273. doi:10.1017/S1740022817000079. ISSN 1740-0228.
  48. ^ Quote: "Sino-Muslim collaborators such as the aforementioned Tang Yichen suggested to Japanese policy-makers that one of the surest ways to secure the loyalties of Muslims in north China was to build mosques and madrasahs in local communities. The preservation of sacred Islamic places, the rebuilding of mosques destroyed by the war, and the construction of mosques in the imperial metropoles – such as Berlin or Tokyo – were considered successful tactics for gaining the favour of Muslims, and the Japanese saw it as serving two main purposes: it gave them a sense of authority within Muslim communities, and it offered opportunities to vilify their enemies, especially the Soviets, who destroyed mosques throughout eastern Europe and Central Asia. In essence, both the Germans and the Japanese helped foster the re-entrenchment of Islamic communities through the rebuilding of mosques destroyed in the war."
    1. Hammond, Kelly A. (2017). "Managing Muslims: imperial Japan, Islamic policy, and Axis connections during the Second World War". Journal of Global History. 12 (02): 251–273. doi:10.1017/S1740022817000079. ISSN 1740-0228.
  49. ^
    Quote: "The connections between the Axis powers concerning Muslims did not go unreported in pro-Nationalist publications throughout Free China. For instance, the journalist Ren Wenbo reported on a conversation where he questioned an older Muslim man living under occupation about his pro-Japanese proclivities. To Ren, who was working undercover in the Japanese occupied territories, the old man became a proxy through which he filtered his conclusions about Japanese successes convincing Muslims living in China’s borderlands that communism was their real enemy. Ren’s main conclusion was that Japanese propaganda was actually quite successful in China’s northern borderlands and he urged Chiang’s government to respond with their own amped-up message to Muslims living in China’s border regions. As Ren saw it, the ‘three fascist powers’ geared well-received propaganda towards Muslims with a strong anti-communist message.

    Quote: "To drive this point home, he relied on a quote from the old Muslim man: ‘Look! Japan, Italy, and Germany – all three together waving a flag! They have a strong relationship: they resist communism, and they help hinder the progress of communism. We see this as important.’ Speaking candidly about the Nationalists, the old man went on to tell Ren that they were not perceived in a favourable light by many Muslims: ‘You [the GMD] wrecked and destroyed our Muslim population! You killed our Imams [Chinese: Ahong], ruined our standard of living, and you have forced us to perform a juggling act.’"

    Quote: "Presumably, this ‘juggling act’ was the delicate balance that Muslims who lived in north-west China ‘performed’ between the Soviet, GMD, CCP, British, local, and Japanese interests in the region. In essence, the old man was blaming the GMD for their ineptitude and failures, and saying that, because of their inability to govern, many Muslims in the region chose the Axis over the Allies for practical and pragmatic reasons".
    1. Hammond, Kelly A. (2017). "Managing Muslims: imperial Japan, Islamic policy, and Axis connections during the Second World War". Journal of Global History. 12 (02): 251–273. doi:10.1017/S1740022817000079. ISSN 1740-0228.
  50. ^ She eventually won the ruling against the Japanese authors, who represented Asia University, Japan. She had originally sued for ¥15 million yen, but received ¥4 million yen ($44,500 dollars) instead from the Tokyo District Court and The Supreme Court of Japan.
    1. Author on Nanjing loses libel appeal. February 7th, 2009. The Japan Times. Retrieved August 4th, 2016.
    2. Chinese hail Nanjing Massacre witness' libel suit victory. February 9th, 2009. People's Daily Online. Retrieved August 4th, 2016.
  51. ^ A grand total of 315,000 North African's were recruited to fight for the French. Additionally White Frenchmen only comprised of an additional 250,000 men. Mathematically things comes out to be 315,000/(250,000 + 315,000) = 55.7%.
    1. Brook White (2008). Another Forgotten Army: The French Expeditionary Corps In Italy, 1943-1944. p. 73-74. University of Central Florida. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
    Quote: "After the Allies invaded North Africa in November 1942, the Armée d’Afrique quickly swelled from 137,000 men, which the Germans had eventually allowed for North African defense, to over 315,000 men...[Footnote:] The army quickly added 60,000 men who had been hiding in the mountains – a large number of them were Goums. Another 68,000 men were added, out of 109,000 men called upon, after the French army instituted its mobilization program for North Africa. French West Africa, La Coloniale, added an additional 50,000 men. Furthermore, an additional 20,000 men would be added once the units serving with the British Eighth Army were incorporated"
    Quote: "It was a battle the French could not win since the number of white Frenchman (eventually numbering 250,000 men from all over the empire), men who were trusted to be leaders, cadres, technicians, and specialists, was finite."
  52. ^ A grand total of 315,000 North African's were recruited to fight for the French. Additionally White Frenchmen only comprised of an additional 250,000 men. Mathematically things comes out to be 315,000/(250,000 + 315,000) = 55.7%.
    1. Brook White (2008). Another Forgotten Army: The French Expeditionary Corps In Italy, 1943-1944. p. 73-74. University of Central Florida. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved August 6th, 2018.
    Quote: "After the Allies invaded North Africa in November 1942, the Armée d’Afrique quickly swelled from 137,000 men, which the Germans had eventually allowed for North African defense, to over 315,000 men...[Footnote:] The army quickly added 60,000 men who had been hiding in the mountains – a large number of them were Goums. Another 68,000 men were added, out of 109,000 men called upon, after the French army instituted its mobilization program for North Africa. French West Africa, La Coloniale, added an additional 50,000 men. Furthermore, an additional 20,000 men would be added once the units serving with the British Eighth Army were incorporated"
    Quote: "It was a battle the French could not win since the number of white Frenchman (eventually numbering 250,000 men from all over the empire), men who were trusted to be leaders, cadres, technicians, and specialists, was finite."

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