Muslims Killed 80 million Hindus

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Muslims having "killed 80 million Hindus" is an unproven mythical statement that has its origins with Kishori Saran Lal[n. 1] ("K.S. Lal"): who is a former-Indian historian turned pseudo-historian and Hindu fanatic,[n. 2] who is notable for having written several books on the Islamic invasion of India during the middle ages. Indian journels have noted that he is an "historian known for his adherence to the Sangh Parivar brand of history";[1] who themselves are a family of fanatical, extremist and terroristic[n. 3] organisations[n. 4] of radical Hindu origin.[2][3][4][n. 5] As an academic he had claimed to have estimates on the population of India, claiming the Hindu population fell "seventy-five million" after Muslims had conquered it until 1500 CE.[n. 6] Lal's work, however, was found to be highly questionable (he is also known to have worked with other anti-Muslim writers (and pseudo-historians), such as Andrew Bostom).[n. 7] Lal's claims have thus largely been struck down by many Oxbridge historians, such as Simon Digby[n. 8] and Irfan Habib[n. 9][5], and even Hindu historians (such as J. S. Grewal[6]) who note his methods as widely flawed, "wilful"[7] or "frivolous".[6] Digby for instance noted that the "unknown variables" of his work "are so great and the quality of the data yielded" by the sources "so poor that almost any detailed general estimates of population based upon them must appear wilful".[7] Lal's methods have also been said to have produced "comically" wrong results on computers.[7][n. 10] Another reviewer for his other work, "The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India", A. A. Powell, notes "[Lal's book] represents not history but propoganda".[8][n. 11]
Lal's methods are "comical".
Lal's methods are "comical".
Muslims having "killed 80 million Hindus" is an unproven mythical statement that has its origins with Kishori Saran Lal[n. 12] ("K.S. Lal"): who is a former-Indian historian turned pseudo-historian and Hindu fanatic,[n. 13] who is notable for having written several books on the Islamic invasion of India during the middle ages. Indian journels have noted that he is an "historian known for his adherence to the Sangh Parivar brand of history";[1] who themselves are a family of fanatical, extremist and terroristic[n. 14] organisations[n. 15] of radical Hindu origin.[2][3][4][n. 16] As an academic he had claimed to have estimates on the population of India, claiming the Hindu population fell "seventy-five million" after Muslims had conquered it until 1500 CE.[n. 17] Lal's work, however, was found to be highly questionable (he is also known to have worked with other anti-Muslim writers (and pseudo-historians), such as Andrew Bostom).[n. 18] Lal's claims have thus largely been struck down by many Oxbridge historians, such as Simon Digby[n. 19] and Irfan Habib[n. 20][5], and even Hindu historians (such as J. S. Grewal[6]) who note his methods as widely flawed, "wilful"[7] or "frivolous".[6] Digby for instance noted that the "unknown variables" of his work "are so great and the quality of the data yielded" by the sources "so poor that almost any detailed general estimates of population based upon them must appear wilful".[7] Lal's methods have also been said to have produced "comically" wrong results on computers.[7][n. 21] Another reviewer for his other work, "The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India", A. A. Powell, notes "[Lal's book] represents not history but propoganda".[8][n. 22]

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Muslims Killed 100 million Hindus" is a common Islamophobic trope used amongst Hindu fascist radicals, used to justify attacks against Muslims, and in order to segregate them from society. The work of K. S. Lal is often cited amongst these circles as the reference for the number.
  2. ^ K.S. Lal is known to have supported and worked for VHP (Vishva Hindu Parishad) Hindu fanatics, who (with religious claims) believe a mythical Hindu temple was present at the sight of an almost five hundred year old mosque (that was eventually destroyed by them in 1992). Lal explicitly produced a VHP (pg. 134. para. 4) pamphlet called "Ramajanma Bhumi: Ayodya" (pg. 134. para. 3) which claimed to have found "new archaeological discoveries" at the site of the historical building (pg. 134. para. 3) in 1989. The VHP tore into the historical site, and claimed to have found evidence, despite scientific conditions not being observed or practiced during it, nor the presence of any academic professionals. Historians Robert Layton, Peter G. Stone, and Julian Thomas note the flaws in the VHP claims; saying "[b]ut how can we rely on antiquities supposed to have been discovered from a hotly disputed site where the minimum scientific conditions for excavations were not observed and where neither the critics of the temple theory nor the archaeologists of the central government were asked to be present at the time of the actual digging", and later conclude "even if we condone the unpardonable act of violating the canons of field archaeology and take cognizence of the stone antiquities illustrated in the VHP pamphlet we come nowhere near the imaginary temple."
    1. Evidence of such VHP fanatacism include; Furore after VHP leader Togadia warns Muslims against buying properties in 'Hindu areas'. April 21, 2014. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
    2. Nilesh, CT (23 April 2009). Hindu fanatics attack Protestant Church. Catholic Online. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
    3. Peter van der Veer (1994). Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India. University of California Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-520-08256-4.
    4. R Layton; P Stone; J Thomas (2 September 2003). Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property. Routledge. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-134-60498-2.
    Sukumar Muralidharan, writing in 1998 for India's "Frontline" journal (originally published in "The Hindu"), in an article exposing the Indian governments historical revisionism, titled "[t]he reconstitution of the Indian Council of Historical Research [ICHR] giving positions of authority to three VHP luminaries betrays a deep political design on the part of the BJP-led Government", notes VHP luminaries that "campaign[ed] for the demolition" of the 465 year old mosque, the "Babri Masjid", had been appointed to senior positions reserved for academics. Lal identified himself as a "right wing" historian (and not an objective one) in the article and welcomed their (the VHP's) inclusion, claiming the left are too numerous in governmental historical bodies; "The ICHR has always been dominated by historians of a Left-wing persuasion, he argues". Muralidharan further notes "K.S. Lal may have written a worthwhile work of history in the distant past, but his more recent works - which have focused almost exclusively on the supposed historical injuries suffered by Hindus - have been tendentious, communal and deeply objectionable".
    1. Muralidharan, Sukumar (July 04 - July 17, 1998). The Hindutva takeover of ICHR. The reconstitution of the Indian Council of Historical Research giving positions of authority to three VHP luminaries betrays a deep political design on the part of the BJP-led Government.. Frontline. Volume 15, No. 14. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  3. ^
    1. Indian Home Secretary confirms Sangh Parivar terror link. 23 January 2013. KMS News. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
    2. When the terror-accused are from the Sangh Parivar.... 30 August 2010. Two Circles News. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
    3. Hensman, Rohini (23 April, 2012). The Spectre Of Fascism. Countercurrents. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
    4. Jaffrelot, Christopher (1 September 2010). Hindutva’s Politics of Denial. Caravan, a Journal of Politics and Culture. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
    5. Richard Jackson; Eamon Murphy; Scott Poynting (10 September 2009). Contemporary State Terrorism: Theory and Practice. Routledge. p. 114-117. ISBN 978-1-135-24515-3.
    6. Sangh Brigade’s Terror Network Exposed Once More!. 14 January 2011. All India Students' Association. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  4. ^ They have established 300,000 terror training camps, or "Shakhas", in India
    1. William H. Thornton (1 January 2005). New World Empire: Civil Islam, Terrorism, and the Making of Neoglobalism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7425-2941-0.
  5. ^ In 1938 the Sangh Parivar for example branded non-Hindus inferior and assigned them second class status in their own country, declaring that "the non-Hindu...must either adopt the Hindu culture and language, must learn to respect and revere Hindu religion...[o]r [they] may stay in the country wholly subordinated to the Hindu nation, claiming nothing, deserving no privelages, far less any preferential treatment, not even citizen's rights", and who's leaders have also supported Hitler's racial laws.
    1. Paul Marshall (12 March 2013). Persecuted: The Global Assault on Christians. Thomas Nelson Inc. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4002-0442-7.
    Between September 1989 and November 1989, the Sangh Parivar unleashed unprecedented anti-Muslim terrorist violence across northern India where mobs of Hindus with "official sanction", destroyed a 464 year old Muslim holy place, which "evoked widespread Hindu triumphalism in Hindu communities throughout India" and that many died in the ensuing violence."
    1. Cynthia Cockburn (15 March 2007). From Where We Stand: War, Women's Activism and Feminist Analysis. Zed Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84277-821-0.
  6. ^ He however though does not make clear how a decline occured, such as conversion over to Islam by Hindus or if the decline involved Hindus only through killing
  7. ^ Bostom himself has worked with anti-Muslim propagandist Robert Spencer
  8. ^ Digby was a former Oxford University doctoral research examiner
    1. Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (Thursday, January 21 , 2010). A LOVE FOR INDIA AND ALL THINGS INDIAN. The Telegraph (Calcutta, India). Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  9. ^ Habib is professor emeritus of history at the Aligarh Muslim University in India
    1. Ishrat Alam; Syed Ejaz Hussain (2011). The Varied Facets of History: Essays in Honour of Aniruddha Ray. Primus Books. p. 293. ISBN 978-93-80607-16-0.
  10. ^ "Professor Lal (whose figure for A.D. 1600 in 140 million against Morelands round 100) makes many bold new calculations. Setting the electronic computer on a backward projection of census figures since 1881 produced a comically wrong result."
    1. Digby, Simon (1975). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London. Vol. 38, No. 1. (1975), pp. 176177.
  11. ^

  12. ^ "Muslims Killed 100 million Hindus" is a common Islamophobic trope used amongst Hindu fascist radicals, used to justify attacks against Muslims, and in order to segregate them from society. The work of K. S. Lal is often cited amongst these circles as the reference for the number.
  13. ^ K.S. Lal is known to have supported and worked for VHP (Vishva Hindu Parishad) Hindu fanatics, who (with religious claims) believe a mythical Hindu temple was present at the sight of an almost five hundred year old mosque (that was eventually destroyed by them in 1992). Lal explicitly produced a VHP (pg. 134. para. 4) pamphlet called "Ramajanma Bhumi: Ayodya" (pg. 134. para. 3) which claimed to have found "new archaeological discoveries" at the site of the historical building (pg. 134. para. 3) in 1989. The VHP tore into the historical site, and claimed to have found evidence, despite scientific conditions not being observed or practiced during it, nor the presence of any academic professionals. Historians Robert Layton, Peter G. Stone, and Julian Thomas note the flaws in the VHP claims; saying "[b]ut how can we rely on antiquities supposed to have been discovered from a hotly disputed site where the minimum scientific conditions for excavations were not observed and where neither the critics of the temple theory nor the archaeologists of the central government were asked to be present at the time of the actual digging", and later conclude "even if we condone the unpardonable act of violating the canons of field archaeology and take cognizence of the stone antiquities illustrated in the VHP pamphlet we come nowhere near the imaginary temple."
    1. Evidence of such VHP fanatacism include; Furore after VHP leader Togadia warns Muslims against buying properties in 'Hindu areas'. April 21, 2014. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
    2. Nilesh, CT (23 April 2009). Hindu fanatics attack Protestant Church. Catholic Online. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
    3. Peter van der Veer (1994). Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India. University of California Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-520-08256-4.
    4. R Layton; P Stone; J Thomas (2 September 2003). Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property. Routledge. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-134-60498-2.
    Sukumar Muralidharan, writing in 1998 for India's "Frontline" journal (originally published in "The Hindu"), in an article exposing the Indian governments historical revisionism, titled "[t]he reconstitution of the Indian Council of Historical Research [ICHR] giving positions of authority to three VHP luminaries betrays a deep political design on the part of the BJP-led Government", notes VHP luminaries that "campaign[ed] for the demolition" of the 465 year old mosque, the "Babri Masjid", had been appointed to senior positions reserved for academics. Lal identified himself as a "right wing" historian (and not an objective one) in the article and welcomed their (the VHP's) inclusion, claiming the left are too numerous in governmental historical bodies; "The ICHR has always been dominated by historians of a Left-wing persuasion, he argues". Muralidharan further notes "K.S. Lal may have written a worthwhile work of history in the distant past, but his more recent works - which have focused almost exclusively on the supposed historical injuries suffered by Hindus - have been tendentious, communal and deeply objectionable".
    1. Muralidharan, Sukumar (July 04 - July 17, 1998). The Hindutva takeover of ICHR. The reconstitution of the Indian Council of Historical Research giving positions of authority to three VHP luminaries betrays a deep political design on the part of the BJP-led Government.. Frontline. Volume 15, No. 14. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  14. ^
    1. Indian Home Secretary confirms Sangh Parivar terror link. 23 January 2013. KMS News. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
    2. When the terror-accused are from the Sangh Parivar.... 30 August 2010. Two Circles News. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
    3. Hensman, Rohini (23 April, 2012). The Spectre Of Fascism. Countercurrents. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
    4. Jaffrelot, Christopher (1 September 2010). Hindutva’s Politics of Denial. Caravan, a Journal of Politics and Culture. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
    5. Richard Jackson; Eamon Murphy; Scott Poynting (10 September 2009). Contemporary State Terrorism: Theory and Practice. Routledge. p. 114-117. ISBN 978-1-135-24515-3.
    6. Sangh Brigade’s Terror Network Exposed Once More!. 14 January 2011. All India Students' Association. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  15. ^ They have established 300,000 terror training camps, or "Shakhas", in India
    1. William H. Thornton (1 January 2005). New World Empire: Civil Islam, Terrorism, and the Making of Neoglobalism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7425-2941-0.
  16. ^ In 1938 the Sangh Parivar for example branded non-Hindus inferior and assigned them second class status in their own country, declaring that "the non-Hindu...must either adopt the Hindu culture and language, must learn to respect and revere Hindu religion...[o]r [they] may stay in the country wholly subordinated to the Hindu nation, claiming nothing, deserving no privelages, far less any preferential treatment, not even citizen's rights", and who's leaders have also supported Hitler's racial laws.
    1. Paul Marshall (12 March 2013). Persecuted: The Global Assault on Christians. Thomas Nelson Inc. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4002-0442-7.
    Between September 1989 and November 1989, the Sangh Parivar unleashed unprecedented anti-Muslim terrorist violence across northern India where mobs of Hindus with "official sanction", destroyed a 464 year old Muslim holy place, which "evoked widespread Hindu triumphalism in Hindu communities throughout India" and that many died in the ensuing violence."
    1. Cynthia Cockburn (15 March 2007). From Where We Stand: War, Women's Activism and Feminist Analysis. Zed Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84277-821-0.
  17. ^ He however though does not make clear how a decline occured, such as conversion over to Islam by Hindus or if the decline involved Hindus only through killing
  18. ^ Bostom himself has worked with anti-Muslim propagandist Robert Spencer
  19. ^ Digby was a former Oxford University doctoral research examiner
    1. Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (Thursday, January 21 , 2010). A LOVE FOR INDIA AND ALL THINGS INDIAN. The Telegraph (Calcutta, India). Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  20. ^ Habib is professor emeritus of history at the Aligarh Muslim University in India
    1. Ishrat Alam; Syed Ejaz Hussain (2011). The Varied Facets of History: Essays in Honour of Aniruddha Ray. Primus Books. p. 293. ISBN 978-93-80607-16-0.
  21. ^ "Professor Lal (whose figure for A.D. 1600 in 140 million against Morelands round 100) makes many bold new calculations. Setting the electronic computer on a backward projection of census figures since 1881 produced a comically wrong result."
    1. Digby, Simon (1975). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London. Vol. 38, No. 1. (1975), pp. 176177.
  22. ^

References

  1. ^ a b Rajalakshmi, T.K. (August 3, 2001). Appointment and disappointment. Frontline. Volume 18. Issue 15, Jul. 21. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  2. ^ a b Paul Marshall (12 March 2013). Persecuted: The Global Assault on Christians. Thomas Nelson Inc. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4002-0442-7.
  3. ^ a b Cynthia Cockburn (15 March 2007). From Where We Stand: War, Women's Activism and Feminist Analysis. Zed Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84277-821-0.
  4. ^ a b Ornit Shani (12 July 2007). Communalism, Caste and Hindu Nationalism: The Violence in Gujarat. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-521-68369-2.
  5. ^ a b Irfan Habibis Professor Emeritus of History at the Aligarh Muslim University. Oxford University Press (India). Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d J. S. Grewal (11 March 2005). The state and society in medieval India. Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-19-566720-2.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Digby, Simon (1975). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London. Vol. 38, No. 1. (1975), pp. 176177.
  8. ^ a b Powell, A. A. K. S. Lal: The legacy of Muslim rule in India, vi, 406 pp. New Delhi, Aditya Prakashan, 1992.. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Vol. 58, Issue 02(2009). pp. 397 ISSN 0041-977X. DOI: 10.1017/S0041977X0001123X

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