Science Spending in the Islamic World

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Seven of the top forty countries in R&D expenditure are Muslim, with total spending predicted at $41 billion (2014).[n. 1]Turkey and Iran are good performers.[n. 2]

Science and R&D Spending:— Out of the top forty R&D nations, seven are from the Islamic world (representing some 608 million Islamic citizens[n. 3]), with Turkey topping the list at number twenty in terms of dollar by dollar investment, spending approximately $10-11 billion dollars (exactly the same amount as the apartheid state of Israel) from 2012 to 2014 per year.[1] As a fraction of the Turkish GDP (PPP) this translates to around 0.9%, compared to the apartheid state of Israel's 4.2%.[1] Turkey, in order to compete will need to spend around four times as much on science, and needs raising their figure to $40-44 billion dollars in 2014 as opposed to the $11 billion dollars it currently has.[1] However there are already some indications showing that this combined figure may already be dented through sanctions against Iran for it simply wanting to develop nuclear weapons for self defense.[2] In total R&D spending in 2012 was $35 billion but by 2014 it is expected to rise to $41 billion.[n. 4][1] According to the report minus the global top forty largest R&D spenders global spending is only 0.4%.[1] The average spending of the Muslim world in the top forty alone is between 0.817%-0.914%;[n. 5][1] better than the rest of the world (excluding the top forty) but half as good as the top forty average of 2.0%.[1] Global spending is 1.8% in total.[1] Other sources claim global spending is around 2.43% and the total R&D expenditure of the OIC is 0.81% of GDP.[3] Science spending is low, not because of lack of ability, but simply because of a lack of interest.[4]

Lack of Spending:— Spending on R&D in the Islamic world is unusually low given the abundance of resources and human potential, and can be explained by infrastructure rather than problems based on religion.[n. 6][5] Although spending has increased from 0.2% (in 2006[6]) to 0.8% (in 2013) in recent years[7] this is still below the recommended 1.0% level for each individual nation (with different Islamic countries spending varying amounts).[8] The apartheid state of Israel in contrast spends more than 4% of their GDP (PPP) on R&D. The Turkish government have planned to make sure R&D spending reaches at least 3.0% by 2023, the centennial birthday of the Turkish secular republic.[9] Already Turkey is seeing the benefits of their transition to a knowledge based economy.[9] Some 49.9% of their publications are being cited in global research figures (far outstripping even India and China), indicting quality scientific research being carried out by far less corrupt scientists (see China's R&D problem[10]), along with increased quantity.[9] It is particularly good at chemistry, engineering and medicine.[9] Furthermore, despite American and European persecution and economic oppression of the Iranian peoples R&D spending dramatically increased from 736 scientific papers in 1996 to 13,238 by 2008.[11] Between 1998-2004 Muslim scientific growth saw dramatic increases with Turkey (82,407 papers published in total), Egypt (27,723) and Iran (19,114) leading the way.[12] This is however far less than expected, globally in 2012 alone, 1.8-1.9 million articles were published.[n. 7][13]

The Muslim world has both the finances, resources and human capital, but lacks infrastructure.
Seven of the top forty countries in R&D expenditure are Muslim, with total spending predicted at $41 billion (2014).[n. 8]Turkey and Iran are good performers.[n. 9]

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Science and R&D Spending:— Out of the top forty R&D nations, seven are from the Islamic world (representing some 608 million Islamic citizens[n. 10]), with Turkey topping the list at number twenty in terms of dollar by dollar investment, spending approximately $10-11 billion dollars (exactly the same amount as the apartheid state of Israel) from 2012 to 2014 per year.[1] As a fraction of the Turkish GDP (PPP) this translates to around 0.9%, compared to the apartheid state of Israel's 4.2%.[1] Turkey, in order to compete will need to spend around four times as much on science, and needs raising their figure to $40-44 billion dollars in 2014 as opposed to the $11 billion dollars it currently has.[1] However there are already some indications showing that this combined figure may already be dented through sanctions against Iran for it simply wanting to develop nuclear weapons for self defense.[2] In total R&D spending in 2012 was $35 billion but by 2014 it is expected to rise to $41 billion.[n. 11][1] According to the report minus the global top forty largest R&D spenders global spending is only 0.4%.[1] The average spending of the Muslim world in the top forty alone is between 0.817%-0.914%;[n. 12][1] better than the rest of the world (excluding the top forty) but half as good as the top forty average of 2.0%.[1] Global spending is 1.8% in total.[1] Other sources claim global spending is around 2.43% and the total R&D expenditure of the OIC is 0.81% of GDP.[3] Science spending is low, not because of lack of ability, but simply because of a lack of interest.[4]

The Muslim world has both the finances, resources and human capital, but lacks infrastructure.

Lack of Spending:— Spending on R&D in the Islamic world is unusually low given the abundance of resources and human potential, and can be explained by infrastructure rather than problems based on religion.[n. 13][5] Although spending has increased from 0.2% (in 2006[6]) to 0.8% (in 2013) in recent years[7] this is still below the recommended 1.0% level for each individual nation (with different Islamic countries spending varying amounts).[8] The apartheid state of Israel in contrast spends more than 4% of their GDP (PPP) on R&D. The Turkish government have planned to make sure R&D spending reaches at least 3.0% by 2023, the centennial birthday of the Turkish secular republic.[9] Already Turkey is seeing the benefits of their transition to a knowledge based economy.[9] Some 49.9% of their publications are being cited in global research figures (far outstripping even India and China), indicting quality scientific research being carried out by far less corrupt scientists (see China's R&D problem[10]), along with increased quantity.[9] It is particularly good at chemistry, engineering and medicine.[9] Furthermore, despite American and European persecution and economic oppression of the Iranian peoples R&D spending dramatically increased from 736 scientific papers in 1996 to 13,238 by 2008.[11] Between 1998-2004 Muslim scientific growth saw dramatic increases with Turkey (82,407 papers published in total), Egypt (27,723) and Iran (19,114) leading the way.[12] This is however far less than expected, globally in 2012 alone, 1.8-1.9 million articles were published.[n. 14][13]

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ The United States spends around $465 billion dollars and thus has one of the most powerful economies in the world.
    1. 2014 GLOBAL R&D FUNDING FORECAST. pg. 7. December 2013. Batelle, RDMag. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  2. ^ According to the SCImago Journal and Country Rank, out of the top 25 countries by number of scientific publications, two are Muslim countries. Turkey comes at position 20, with 434,806 publications with 407,064 citable documents up to 2016 and Iran at 22 with 333,474 publications of which 323,299 citable documents.
    1. Scimago Journal and Country Rank. Scimago Lab, Copyright 2007-2016. Data Source: Scopus®. Retrieved July 30th, 2016.
  3. ^ Indonesia (246,842,200), Saudi Arabia (28,287,900), Pakistan (179,160,100), Malaysia (2,050,500), Qatar (2,050,500), Iran (76,424,400), Turkey (74,997,100) = 608 million
    1. Population of Above countries (2010). World Bank (via Google Graphs). Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  4. ^ Indonesia ($2-$3 billion), Saudi Arabia ($2-$3 billion), Pakistan ($4-$4 billion), Malaysia ($4-$5 billion), Qatar ($5-$6 billion), Iran ($8-$9 billion), Turkey ($10-$11 billion) = $35-$41 billion.
    1. '2014 GLOBAL R&D FUNDING FORECAST. pg. 7. December 2013. Batelle, RDMag. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  5. ^ Country 2012 2014 Indonesia 0.1% 0.2% Saudi Arabia 0.3% 0.3% Pakistan 0.7% 0.7% Malaysia 0.8% 0.8% Qatar 2.8% 2.7% Iran 0.8% 0.8% (or 0.12%) Turkey 0.9% 0.9% 6.4% 6.4% or 5.720% Total Avg. 0.914% 0.914% (0.817%) of GDP (PPP)
    1. 2014 GLOBAL R&D FUNDING FORECAST. pg. 7. December 2013. Batelle, RDMag. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  6. ^ Quote: The caricature of Islam’s endemic backwardness is easily dispelled. Between the eighth and the 13th centuries, while Europe stumbled through the dark ages, science thrived in Muslim lands. The Abbasid caliphs showered money on learning. The 11th century “Canon of Medicine” by Avicenna (pictured, with modern equipment he would have relished) was a standard medical text in Europe for hundreds of years. In the ninth century Muhammad al-Khwarizmi laid down the principles of algebra, a word derived from the name of his book, “Kitab al-Jabr”. Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham transformed the study of light and optics. Abu Raihan al-Biruni, a Persian, calculated the earth’s circumference to within 1%. And Muslim scholars did much to preserve the intellectual heritage of ancient Greece; centuries later it helped spark Europe’s scientific revolution.
    1. Islam and science. The road to renewal. After centuries of stagnation science is making a comeback in the Islamic world. The Economist (Print Edition January 26th 2013). Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  7. ^ Some 21% as a result of the United States alone.
    1. Mark Ware, Michael Mabe (November 2012). The stm report: An overview of scientific and scholarly journal publishing. Pg. 5. STM: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  8. ^ The United States spends around $465 billion dollars and thus has one of the most powerful economies in the world.
    1. 2014 GLOBAL R&D FUNDING FORECAST. pg. 7. December 2013. Batelle, RDMag. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  9. ^ According to the SCImago Journal and Country Rank, out of the top 25 countries by number of scientific publications, two are Muslim countries. Turkey comes at position 20, with 434,806 publications with 407,064 citable documents up to 2016 and Iran at 22 with 333,474 publications of which 323,299 citable documents.
    1. Scimago Journal and Country Rank. Scimago Lab, Copyright 2007-2016. Data Source: Scopus®. Retrieved July 30th, 2016.
  10. ^ Indonesia (246,842,200), Saudi Arabia (28,287,900), Pakistan (179,160,100), Malaysia (2,050,500), Qatar (2,050,500), Iran (76,424,400), Turkey (74,997,100) = 608 million
    1. Population of Above countries (2010). World Bank (via Google Graphs). Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  11. ^ Indonesia ($2-$3 billion), Saudi Arabia ($2-$3 billion), Pakistan ($4-$4 billion), Malaysia ($4-$5 billion), Qatar ($5-$6 billion), Iran ($8-$9 billion), Turkey ($10-$11 billion) = $35-$41 billion.
    1. '2014 GLOBAL R&D FUNDING FORECAST. pg. 7. December 2013. Batelle, RDMag. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  12. ^ Country 2012 2014 Indonesia 0.1% 0.2% Saudi Arabia 0.3% 0.3% Pakistan 0.7% 0.7% Malaysia 0.8% 0.8% Qatar 2.8% 2.7% Iran 0.8% 0.8% (or 0.12%) Turkey 0.9% 0.9% 6.4% 6.4% or 5.720% Total Avg. 0.914% 0.914% (0.817%) of GDP (PPP)
    1. 2014 GLOBAL R&D FUNDING FORECAST. pg. 7. December 2013. Batelle, RDMag. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  13. ^ Quote: The caricature of Islam’s endemic backwardness is easily dispelled. Between the eighth and the 13th centuries, while Europe stumbled through the dark ages, science thrived in Muslim lands. The Abbasid caliphs showered money on learning. The 11th century “Canon of Medicine” by Avicenna (pictured, with modern equipment he would have relished) was a standard medical text in Europe for hundreds of years. In the ninth century Muhammad al-Khwarizmi laid down the principles of algebra, a word derived from the name of his book, “Kitab al-Jabr”. Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham transformed the study of light and optics. Abu Raihan al-Biruni, a Persian, calculated the earth’s circumference to within 1%. And Muslim scholars did much to preserve the intellectual heritage of ancient Greece; centuries later it helped spark Europe’s scientific revolution.
    1. Islam and science. The road to renewal. After centuries of stagnation science is making a comeback in the Islamic world. The Economist (Print Edition January 26th 2013). Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  14. ^ Some 21% as a result of the United States alone.
    1. Mark Ware, Michael Mabe (November 2012). The stm report: An overview of scientific and scholarly journal publishing. Pg. 5. STM: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers. Retrieved 25 June 2014.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p 2014 GLOBAL R&D FUNDING FORECAST. pg. 7. December 2013. Batelle, RDMag. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  2. ^ a b Salbuchi, Adrian (November 08, 2011). 'Iran needs nukes for self-defense'. Russia Today. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  3. ^ a b Islam and science. The road to renewal. After centuries of stagnation science is making a comeback in the Islamic world. The Economist (Print Edition January 26th 2013). Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  4. ^ a b Butler, Declan (2006). "Islam and Science: The data gap". Nature 444 (7115): 26–27. doi:10.1038/444026a. ISSN 0028-0836.
  5. ^ a b Allam Ahmed, Amer Al-Roubaie (2012). "Building a knowledge-based economy in the Muslim world: The critical role of innovation and technological learning". World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, Vol. 9 Iss: 2, pp.76-98. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  6. ^ a b Mahsood, Ehsan (23rd March 2006). Change in the air: science in the Muslim world. SciDev. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  7. ^ a b Shaheen, Arshad (October 9, 2013). Reaching for the stars: 'Muslim countries must step up scientific research'. The Tribune. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  8. ^ a b Haq, Naimul (16 May 2013). Islamic nations are 'failing on R&D links and funding'. Nature (International Weekly Journal of Science). Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Tayfun Basal, Gamze Keskin (15 April 2013). Turkey's scientific research output is booming – but what about the quality?. Elsevier. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  10. ^ a b Guilford, Gwynn (February 21, 2014). China is spending a fortune on science—and is getting robbed blind by corrupt scientists. Quartz. Retreived 25 June 2014.
  11. ^ a b Brown, Mark (29th March 2011). China, Turkey and Iran emerge as scientific giants. Wired. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  12. ^ a b Other, Athar (3rd November 2006). Muslim science must join the 21st century. SciDev. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  13. ^ a b Mark Ware, Michael Mabe (November 2012). The stm report: An overview of scientific and scholarly journal publishing. Pg. 5. STM: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers. Retrieved 25 June 2014.

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