Scottish Pakistanis and Education

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History

Glasgow central mosque.

Demographics:— The 2011 census revealed that there were around 49,000 Scottish Pakistanis (0.9%| 2001; 32,000; 0.6%), 34,000 Scottish Chinese (0.6%| 2001; 16,000; 0.3%), and 33,000 Scottish Indians (0.6%|2001; 15,000; 0.3%) residing in the country.[1] Around 20,000 Scottish Pakistanis (▲≃7,000 from 2001), 15,000 Scottish Chinese (▲≃12,000 from 2001) and 23,000 Scottish Indians (▲≃13,000 from 2001) were born outside the UK.[2] Together, all Scottish Asians represent about 3% (141,000) of the entire Scottish population (5,295,000). Compared to the 2001 cemsus there were only 72,000 Scottish Asians residing in the country (▲≃of roughly 69,000 by 2011).[3] Around 459,000 English (9%) live in Scotland, who were born outside of the country.[2] There are also 4,000 Bangladeshis (0.1%) in Scotland, an increase of about 2,000 since 2001. Overall Scottish Pakistanis and Scottish Indians saw their numbers increase a substantial amount (▲≃18,000 from 2001) and the Chinese saw an increase of about 17,000.[1] In addition to this Muslims make up around 1.4% (77,000) of the Scottish population (Pakistanis make up 49,000 (or 64%) of this group), 54% (≃2.86 million) are Christian, 37% (≃1.96 million) have no religion, and together Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists make up around 0.7% (≃38,500). The number of Jews also living in Scotland is around 6,000 (≃0.1%), which has remained roughly the same since 2001.[4]

High School

Ranking & Results:— Recently, the Scottish government has recorded and published data on ethnic minority attainment from SCQF-5 up to SCQF-7 (GSCE up to A-Level),[n. 1] which has revealed that 22.5% of Scottish Pakistanis hold qualifications at GSCE-level and below compared to 21.8% of Indians and 6.7% of Chinese.[n. 2] The study also found Scottish Pakistanis tend to do exceptionally well in their Highers,[5] the basic entry-level qualification that determines university access compared to Chinese and Indian Scots. A higher proportion, 46.9% of Scottish Pakistanis, hold qualifications at Higher/AS-level and below compared to 43.7% of Indians and 45.9% of Chinese, and also achieve more in the highest bracket, or tier, of this category.[n. 3] However, around 15.5% of Scottish Pakistanis hold qualifications at A-level and below compared to 20.4% of Indians and 40.7% of Chinese.[n. 4] The higher ranking of Scottish Pakistanis at the Higher/AS-Level stage may be explained by the fact that Scottish institutions have historically only asked for Highers in order to gain access to universities, and not Advanced Highers. However it must be noted that in recent years this requirement has changed and some of the most competitive courses now require a combination of both Highers and Advanced Highers. This may also account for the fact that Scottish Pakistanis are ranked towards the middle in total tariff point data,[6] compared to Chinese and Indians, who choose to do the optional Advanced Highers..[7]

Muslim pupils are known to attend private schools (Craigholme).[8]
House on the outskirts of Pollokshields.[9]

Tariff Point Rank:— Scottish Pakistanis are currently ranked 3rd out of the eight major ethnic groups in Scotland in terms of educational achievement. As a base, national tariff scores (on average) for White students were 356 points in 2009, 372 points in 2010 and 384 points in 2011. The average tariff scores for Scottish Pakistanis was around 402 points in 2009, 400 points in 2010, 430 points in 2011 and 470 points in 2012. Contrasted with Scottish Indians, they achieved 482 points in 2009, 483 points in 2010, 444 points in 2010 and 523 points in 2011. Overall, in 2012 it was found the Chinese however ranked 1st (with 643 points), Indians 2nd (with 523 points), Pakistanis 3rd (with 470 points), Other Asians 4th (460 points), Mixed 5th (446 points), Black 6th (431 points), non-Scottish Whites 7th (427 points) and White Scottish 8th (with 407 points). The 2012 ranking can also be compared to the historical rank Scottish Pakistanis have achieved yearly in the past; for the 2010/2011 cycle, Scottish Pakistanis came 5th (whereas Indians came 4th). Similarly, between 2009/2010 Pakistanis, again, came 5th (whereas Indians were placed 2nd). The 2008/2009 cycle saw Pakistanis achieve a similar result. Despite the historical ranking of Pakistanis in the last three cycles, they have consistently ranked well above White Scottish and White non-Scottish, who tend to be the worst performing students in Scotland (although non-resident Whites tend to do better than Scottish Whites).[6]

University

Trends:— The percentage of new "entrants into higher education" (which includes foreign students) for Pakistanis was around 1.25% (1,655 students entered university in the 2011/2012 cycle out of 132,365[10] new entrants) which can be compared to Chinese students (3,985 students; 3.01%) and Indians (2,035 students; 1.54%). Between 2002/2003 and 2011/2012 Pakistani entrants into these education sectors saw a significant increase, which was around +97.8% (2,015→3,985) for Chinese, around +54.0% (1,075→1,655) for Pakistanis, in contrast to around +34.3% (1,515→2,035) for Indians.[11] Overall, in the 2011/2012 cycle, only about 65,045[11] were actually new domiciled students, whilst 67,320 were newer foreign students. However, it must be noted that in total, the student population of Scotland is around 281,630,[12] which includes continuing students. Nevertheless, despite the small number of foreign Pakistani students, they tend to contribute heavily towards the economy of Scotland, in one particular survey from the Santander Bank Group (2010) for example, it was found that 10,025 foreign students alone contributed approximately £15 million pounds to the local economy "spend[ing] an average of £93 a week on shopping, bars, restaurants and travel".[13] The most prestigious universities in Scotland foreign students tend to apply to are St. Andrews, Glasgow, Dundee, Aberdeen and Edinburgh. However, only 56% of South Asian students in the UK attend prestigious universities.[14]

Edinburgh Castle.
Glasgow University.

Student Entrants:— Excluding foreign students, domiciled Scottish Pakistanis make up around 1.43% of the student "entrants into higher education" (930/65,045 students entered university in the 2011/2012 cycle; compared to only 520 (0.89%) entrants in 2002/2003), which can be compared to Scottish Chinese (430/65,045 students; 0.66%; 320 (0.55%) entrants in 2002/2003) and Scottish Indian students (465/65,045 students; 0.72%; 220 (0.38%) entrants in 2002/2003).[10][15] Expanding from the data sets on population and entrance into higher education, this suggests that around 1.90% (930/49,000) of all domiciled Scottish Pakistanis entered higher education, compared to 1.27% (430/34,000) of Scottish Chinese, and 1.41% (465/33,000) of Scottish Indian. Furthermore despite making up over 96.0% of the population, Scottish Whites only represent about 90.0% (58,525/65,045) of all domiciled students in higher education, and only around 1.15% (58,525/5,084,000) of Whites ever enter higher education, per year. Furthermore, Scottish Pakistanis represent about 1.6% (390/24,375) of all successful "first time degree applicants" compared to 0.76% (185/24,375) of Chinese and 0.57% (140/24,375) for Indians. Again despite making up 96% of the Scottish population only 91.6% (22,330/24,375) of Whites represent successful "first time degree applicants".[n. 5]

Subject Areas:— In 2011 British Pakistanis tended to go for are medicine & dentistry (4.9%|2,030), computer science (4.0%|2,645), subjects allied to medicine (2.4%|5,360), engineering & technology (2.4%|2,200), biological sciences (2.3%|3,585), mathematical sciences (2.3%|720), architecture, building & planning (1.9%|685), and physical sciences (1.4%|975). The least popular science related subjects were found to be veterinary science (0.1%|0) and agriculture (0.1%|20). Within the social sciences the subjects most popular with British Pakistanis includes law (6.4%|3,820), business & administrative studies (3.9%|7,150), social studies (2.3%|3,475), education (2.1%|2,150), languages (1.1%|1,120), combined social sciences (1.1%|995), and mass communications & documentation (1.0%|390), whereas historical & philosophical studies (0.8%|600), and creative arts & design (0.6%|895) were amongst the least popular social science subjects. In total there were 18,225 British Pakistani students taking science related subjects at university and 38,815 students taking social science subjects.[16] Based on the 2011 Census, despite making up only around 2.0% (or 1,124,511) of the population, British Pakistanis are almost 3.2 times over represented for law degrees, 2.5 times for medicine and dentistry courses, two times for computer science degrees and almost two times for business & administrative studies degrees. Interestingly law and education degrees are the only degrees in which Pakistanis rank second to Whites, with the rest dominated by Indians.[n. 6]

2nd most popular subject, computing.
UK Population Map (2008).[n. 7]

Degree Results:— A total of 4,695 English Pakistanis were awarded degrees for the academic cycle 2004—2005 (2002; 3,813).[n. 8] Approximately 5.4% were awarded a first-class honours degree, 36.7% an upper second-class honours, 47.2% a lower second class honours and 10.7% a third class honours degree.[17] Of the three largest English Asian groups (excluding Chinese) Pakistanis rank third for obtaining a "good" degree award[n. 9] but rank second in their ability to get first class honours degree (5.4% v. Indian 8.0%). Including the category of "Asian Other", this drops to fourth place and third respectively.[17] Despite the fact that the figures for all ethnic minorities is substantially lower than what White students achieve, Asian ethnic minorities have managed to increase their chances of obtaining first-class degrees significantly when compared to the 2001/2002 cycle. Both English Pakistanis and English Indians managed to show a 20% increase in this category (▲4.5%[18]→5.4%[17] and ▲6.6%[18]→8.0%[17] respectively), and Bangladeshis 40% (▲3.7%[18]→5.1%[17]). The awardation of a 2:1 also rose substantially with English Indians (▲14.8%|38.5%[18]→44.2%[17]), English Pakistanis (▲6.38%|34.5%[18]→36.7%[17]) and English Bangladeshis (▲7.30%|35.6%[18]→38.2%[17]) all showing a marked improvement. Similarly the award of the lowest degree classification (Third Class) has also reduced drastically for virtually all Asian minorities (▼Indian:16.2%[18]→8.2%[17]|▼Pakistani:19.0%[18]→10.7%[17]|▼Bangladshi:18.5%[18]→9.9%[17]).

Differences From High School:— Despite higher participation rates, several studies have found that students from minority ethnic communities perform less well than Whites.[19] Econometric analysis including "a more complete set of explanatory variables" explain the differences in attainment, amongst other factors such as prior attainment.[20] The main factors that would impact on degree classifications are prior attainment, prior institution, parental attributes (income, education), gender, age, disability, English as an additional language, subject of study, type of HE institution, term-time working, mode of study, term-time accommodation, type of level 3 qualification and the index of multiple deprivation.[21] It has been found that if all, or indeed most, of these variables are controlled for, then ethnic minority attainment would substantially increase, except for Whites, which would decrease somewhat, though a smaller gap between ethnic variation in achievement would still be present.[22] The report lastly concluded that one of the most significant factors in obtaining a good degree would be obtaining a higher tariff score, prior to going to university and doing well in academic, rather than vocational, qualifications.[23] However, one of the reasons why ethnic minorities may achieve lesser degrees than Whites may be owed to the fact that White students tend to do less challenging degrees, which involve the social sciences and other liberal arts degrees which are easier to achieve.

Degree probablity potential (corrected).

Racism & Violence

The first registered Islamic tartan.

Integration:— In 2010 it was reported that 65% of Scottish people "had a favourable opinion towards Muslims", 14% were indifferent and 21% held a negative view. Despite this, the report had also found that "Scots have a less favourable opinion of Muslims than other religious groups". The BBC goes on to stipulate that "six out of ten Scots believed Muslims" were well "integrated into everyday Scottish life", with the process of integration largely being one way; "with Muslims making the effort to adapt to Scottish life" (such as creating their own tartan uniform). There was also a "strong view among all groups that younger generations of Muslims and non-Muslims were more integrated than previous generations". However despite this, only 46% "think that Muslims living in Scotland were loyal to the country while 33% thought they were not". Amongst the findings were some important contentious issues regarding the fact that Muslims "speak in their own language [Punjabi, Urdu] and wear traditional dress [veil]" which were cited as proof Muslims "were not integrating".[24][25][n. 10] The polls also found Muslims have faced some serious racist attacks, with their religious buildings often targeted by Islamophobes.[n. 11] In one incident, a White man had smuggled in a bomb into Glasgow Central Mosque, but it didn't go off. In another incident, neo-fascist far right group, "Britain First" (often called the "bin bag crew" for their black pound shop jackets and fedora's), entered a mosque with their shoes on, trying to forcefully convert people over to Christianity.

Racist Attacks:— The Pakistani press has reported on the experiences of racism against Pakistanis in Scotland, the main areas who's residences are found in Pollokshields, Pollokshaws and Dumbreck. They reported that 40% percent of Scotland’s population live in the Glasgow metropolitan area, but that there are significant "no-go" zones for it's non-White residents. These areas include Parkhead, Bridgeton, Dennistoun, Haghill, Springburn, Possil, Gorbals, Govanhill, Cathcart, Kings Park, Pollok, Crookston, Garnethill, Finnieston, Partick, Marryhill, Knightswood, Summerston, and Old Drumchapel. They reported that these areas "are notorious for racism, besides drug addiction and criminal activities". Pakistanis have been spat at on the street, with "filth and garbage" even thrown at them as well, "even on Great Western Road, which is the arterial road of Glasgow...children (both boys and girls) are spotted doing these malicious racist acts".[26] His claims are not without evidence. In 1994 a 15 year old Nazi, walked into a restaurant and shot a Bangladeshi man to death; the murderer would have his father (who was a policeman) cover up these case where he was then sent to join the military (he fought and likely murdered innocent people in Iraq until he was caught in 2008).[27] In 2007 in the Haghill area, a 50-man mob of White men rushed out of a bar and stabbed two Asian men over a "sandwich dispute".[28][29] In 2009, an Asian man was murdered in Gorbals, having his "neck [slashed] as he walked to a restaurant with his friends".[30]

The Gorbals area of Glasgow.
Farah Noor Adams.[n. 12]

Racism & Murder:— In 2005, 34-year-old single-mother and volunteer of the "Glasgow Anti-Racist Alliance", Farah Noor Adams, was violently raped to death,[31] by a White man in Maryhill,[32] Thomas Waddell, in broad daylight, attacked her on October 7th, 2005.[33][34] Farah's body was discovered "on a path near the River Kelvin".[33][35] Waddell had dragged her underneath a bridge by "the throat", and had "her face [smashed] with a brick several times" and then raped her for 30 minutes.[31][34] As she "lay bleeding, he forced her down to the water's edge and ordered her to wash" away the forensic and DNA evidence. After hitting her with a brick again, he "strangled her" and then beat her to death.[34][36] No witnesses came forward and (allegedly) no one heard her screaming in the busy area.[34] The local press reported that "Waddell was caught by police after DNA samples from his victim's clothing were found to match his".[34] He even boasted about attacking her.[31] Farah had phoned the police several times before she was murdered, but the police refused to answer her calls.[34] Even the most "hardened" of police officers were later said to have been "shocked by the extent of [her] injuries".[34] When questioned by police he tried to claim "he was forced to rape Farah by three Asian men he had been smoking cannabis with".[37] Even his own defence lawyer said "that there was nothing in his mental state to diminish his responsibility for the crimes".[34] He was given life imprisonment after being found guilty of the crime, and must serve a minimum sentence of 16 years[38] before he is allowed to apply for parole (release) on licence.[39]

Foreign Students:— On October 4th, 2009, The Guardian reported that the "UK Border Agency" (UKBA) came under intense criticism for barring 14,000—16,000 Pakistani students from entry entering the country, who were due to attend university, owed primarily to a monumental "cock-up" since the agency had moved permanently to Abu Dhabi (1,400 miles away from the original location), having previously been based in Pakistan. This was then followed by widespread public anger, with the press branding the UK's visa system as "the stuff of dark legend". Alan Johnson, home secretary, was immediately summoned to Islamabad "to try to defuse a row" over the "visa snarl-up that could cost thousands of students their places at top British universities". Out of embarrassment they disputed this, with the British High Commission claiming Johnson would "discuss" the issue with Pakistan. It should be noted that the agency had charged each of the applicants "£145 in non-refundable fees" (alongside 9,000 appeals).[n. 13] The Guardian noted that Pakistani nationals were give "illogical reasons" as to their rejections.[n. 14] A millionaire Pakistani for example was denied a visa to the UK after the agency claimed he had "insufficient funds", whilst another student, Qudsia, 24, was denied access for "fail[ing] to provide proof of a primary degree", when in fact she'd sent a sealed "envelope containing a certificate from a prestigious Pakistani school" that the UKBA had received and then returned to her, unopened.[40] The UKBA are known for their racism. [n. 15]

British High Commission (Pakistan, 1999).

Data Tables

Qualification Distribution (2001)

Qualification Distribution (2001)

Qualification Distribution (2001)
Ethnicity Level Aged 16-74 Results (%) Results (No.) Aged All Ages Results Adj. (%) Results (No.)
Scottish Pakistani Level 4+ Qualifications[n. 16] 26,789 20.031% 5,366 32,000 16.769% 5,366
Scottish Indian Level 4+ Qualifications[n. 17] 11,335 40.282% 4,566 15,000 30.44% 4,566
Scottish Chinese Level 4+ Qualifications[n. 18] 12,548 27.152% 3,407 16,000 21.294% 3,407
Scottish Pakistani Level 3+ Qualifications[n. 19] 26,789 7.735% 2,072 32,000 6.475% 2,072
Scottish Indians Level 3+ Qualifications[n. 20] 11,335 5.946% 674 15,000 4.483% 674
Scottish Chinese Level 3+ Qualifications[n. 21] 12,548 5.905% 741 16,000 4.631% 741
Scottish Pakistani Level 2+ Qualifications[n. 22] 26,789 14.966% 3,768 32,000 11.775% 3,768
Scottish Indians Level 2+ Qualifications[n. 23] 11,335 14.804% 1,678 15,000 11.187% 1,678
Scottish Chinese Level 2+ Qualifications[n. 24] 12,548 15.987% 2,006 16,000 12.538% 2,006
Scottish Pakistani Level 1+ Qualifications[n. 25] 26,789 18.586% 4,979 32,000 15.559% 4,979
Scottish Indians Level 1+ Qualifications[n. 26] 11,335 14.839% 1,682 15,000 11.213% 1,682
Scottish Chinese Level 1+ Qualifications[n. 27] 12,548 13.030% 1,635 16,000 10.219% 1,635
Scottish Pakistani No Qualifications[n. 28] 26,789 39.583% 10,604 32,000 33.138% 10,604
Scottish Indians No Qualifications[n. 29] 11,335 24.129% 2,735 15,000 18.233% 2,735
Scottish Chinese No Qualifications[n. 30] 12,548 37.926% 4,759 16,000 29.744%' 4,759
Scottish White Level 4+ Qualifications[n. 31] 3,731,079 19.475% 726,609 4,960,000 14.650% 726,609

University Attainment (2005)

University Attainment (2005) (ENGLAND ONLY)
Ethnicity[17] 1st Class 2:1 2:2 Third "Good" Rank
Asian Other 8.1% 44.2% 39.9% 7.9% 52.3% First
Indian 8.0% 42.1% 41.7% 8.2% 50.1% Second
Pakistani 5.4% 36.7% 47.2% 10.7% 42.1% Third
Bangladeshi 5.1% 38.2% 46.8% 9.9% 43.3% Fourth
Ethnicity[17] 1st Class 2:1 2:2 Third "Good" Rank
Asian Other 8.1% 44.2% 39.9% 7.9% 52.3% First
Indian 8.0% 42.1% 41.7% 8.2% 50.1% Second
Bangladeshi 5.1% 38.2% 46.8% 9.9% 43.3% Third
Pakistani 5.4% 36.7% 47.2% 10.7% 42.1% Fourth

Probability of Achieving Certain Class of Degree

Probability of Achieving Certain Class of Degree (ENGLAND ONLY)

Probability of Achieving Certain Class of Degree

Ethnicity[22] 1st Class 2:1 2:2 Third "Good" Rank
Asian Other 8.0% 51.0% 35.0% 6.0% 59.0% First
Indian 8.0% 45.0% 40.0% 8.0% 53.0% Second
Pakistani 6.0% 43.0% 42.0% 9.0% 49.0% Third
Bangladeshi 5.0% 48.0% 40.0% 7.0% 53.0% Second

Probability of Achieving Certain Class of Degree (Controlled for Socio-economic Condition)

Ethnicity[22] 1st Class 2:1 2:2 Third "Good" Rank
Asian Other 7.0% 55.0% 34.0% 4.0% 62.0% Second
Indian 7.0% 54.0% 35.0% 4.0% 61.0% Third
Pakistani 7.0% 55.0% 35.0% 4.0% 62.0% Second
Bangladeshi 7.0% 56.0% 33.0% 3.0% 63.0% First

Qualification Distribution (2001)

Qualification Distribution (2001)
Subject[16] White Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Other Asian
Medicine & dentistry 28,290 (68.5%) 4,390 (10.6%) 2,030 (4.9%) 385 (0.9%) 940 (2.3%) 1,685 (4.1%)
Subjects allied to medicine 172,780 (77.1%) 8,860 (4.0%) 5,360 (2.4%) 1,305 (0.6%) 1,205 (0.5%) 5,665 (2.5%)
Biological sciences 126,180 (82.3%) 4,130 (2.7%) 3,585 (2.3%) 1,265 (0.8%) 825 (0.5%) 2,135 (1.4%)
Veterinary science 3,720 (96.6%) 20 (0.6%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 10 (0.3%) 10 (0.3%)
Agriculture & related subjects 15,890 (96.4%) 60 (0.4%) 20 (0.1%) 10 (0.0%) 40 (0.2%) 30 (0.2%)
Physical sciences 60,780 (89.0%) 1,420 (2.1%) 975 (1.4%) 305 (0.4%) 540 (0.8%) 625 (0.9%)
Mathematical sciences 24,760 (78.3%) 1,845 (5.8%) 720 (2.3%) 380 (1.2%) 770 (2.4%) 800 (2.5%)
Computer science 47,280 (72.2%) 3,175 (4.9%) 2,645 (4.0%) 1,115 (1.7%) 865 (1.3%) 1,955 (3.0%)
Engineering & technology 72,555 (79.5%) 3,155 (3.5%) 2,200 (2.4%) 660 (0.7%) 1,105 (1.2%) 2,340 (2.6%)
Architecture, building & planning 30,045 (82.6%) 1,110 (3.1%) 685 (1.9%) 205 (0.6%) 395 (1.1%) 505 (1.4%)
Social studies 117,870 (78.3%) 4,860 (3.2%) 3,475 (2.3%) 1,715 (1.1%) 910 (0.6%) 1,520 (1.0%)
Law 40,545 (68.4%) 3,030 (5.1%) 3,820 (6.4%) 1,155 (2.0%) 435 (0.7%) 1,105 (1.9%)
Business & administrative studies 134,015 (72.5%) 9,475 (5.1%) 7,150 (3.9%) 2,765 (1.5%) 2,535 (1.4%) 3,905 (2.1%)
Mass communications & documentation 31,595 (82.8%) 740 (1.9%) 390 (1.0%) 210 (0.6%) 205 (0.5%) 315 (0.8%)
Languages 89,105 (88.9%) 1,490 (1.5%) 1,120 (1.1%) 485 (0.5%) 525 (0.5%) 690 (0.7%)
Historical & philosophical studies 69,310 (91.8%) 870 (1.2%) 600 (0.8%) 240 (0.3%) 220 (0.3%) 340 (0.4%)
Creative arts & design 122,925 (86.8%) 1,875 (1.3%) 895 (0.6%) 525 (0.4%) 1,135 (0.8%) 1,275 (0.9%)
Education 89,105 (87.8%) 1,870 (1.8%) 2,150 (2.1%) 1,105 (1.1%) 180 (0.2%) 565 (0.6%)
Combined Social Sciences 79,260 (90.0%) 1,250 (1.4%) 995 (1.1%) 320 (0.4%) 405 (0.5%) 675 (0.8%)
Total all subject areas 1,356,005 (81.1%) 53,630 (3.2%) 38,815 (2.3%) 14,155 (0.8%) 13,240 (0.8%) 26,140 (1.6%)
Total science subject areas 582,280 (79.6%) 28,170 (3.8%) 18,225 (2.5%) 5,630 (0.8%) 6,695 (0.9%) 15,750 (2.2%)

History

Glasgow central mosque.

Demographics:— The 2011 census revealed that there were around 49,000 Scottish Pakistanis (0.9%| 2001; 32,000; 0.6%), 34,000 Scottish Chinese (0.6%| 2001; 16,000; 0.3%), and 33,000 Scottish Indians (0.6%|2001; 15,000; 0.3%) residing in the country.[1] Around 20,000 Scottish Pakistanis (▲≃7,000 from 2001), 15,000 Scottish Chinese (▲≃12,000 from 2001) and 23,000 Scottish Indians (▲≃13,000 from 2001) were born outside the UK.[2] Together, all Scottish Asians represent about 3% (141,000) of the entire Scottish population (5,295,000). Compared to the 2001 cemsus there were only 72,000 Scottish Asians residing in the country (▲≃of roughly 69,000 by 2011).[3] Around 459,000 English (9%) live in Scotland, who were born outside of the country.[2] There are also 4,000 Bangladeshis (0.1%) in Scotland, an increase of about 2,000 since 2001. Overall Scottish Pakistanis and Scottish Indians saw their numbers increase a substantial amount (▲≃18,000 from 2001) and the Chinese saw an increase of about 17,000.[1] In addition to this Muslims make up around 1.4% (77,000) of the Scottish population (Pakistanis make up 49,000 (or 64%) of this group), 54% (≃2.86 million) are Christian, 37% (≃1.96 million) have no religion, and together Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists make up around 0.7% (≃38,500). The number of Jews also living in Scotland is around 6,000 (≃0.1%), which has remained roughly the same since 2001.[4]

High School

Muslim pupils are known to attend private schools (Craigholme).[41]

Ranking & Results:— Recently, the Scottish government has recorded and published data on ethnic minority attainment from SCQF-5 up to SCQF-7 (GSCE up to A-Level),[n. 32] which has revealed that 22.5% of Scottish Pakistanis hold qualifications at GSCE-level and below compared to 21.8% of Indians and 6.7% of Chinese.[n. 33] The study also found Scottish Pakistanis tend to do exceptionally well in their Highers,[5] the basic entry-level qualification that determines university access compared to Chinese and Indian Scots. A higher proportion, 46.9% of Scottish Pakistanis, hold qualifications at Higher/AS-level and below compared to 43.7% of Indians and 45.9% of Chinese, and also achieve more in the highest bracket, or tier, of this category.[n. 34] However, around 15.5% of Scottish Pakistanis hold qualifications at A-level and below compared to 20.4% of Indians and 40.7% of Chinese.[n. 35] The higher ranking of Scottish Pakistanis at the Higher/AS-Level stage may be explained by the fact that Scottish institutions have historically only asked for Highers in order to gain access to universities, and not Advanced Highers. However it must be noted that in recent years this requirement has changed and some of the most competitive courses now require a combination of both Highers and Advanced Highers. This may also account for the fact that Scottish Pakistanis are ranked towards the middle in total tariff point data,[6] compared to Chinese and Indians, who choose to do the optional Advanced Highers..[42]

House on the outskirts of Pollokshields.[43]

Tariff Point Rank:— Scottish Pakistanis are currently ranked 3rd out of the eight major ethnic groups in Scotland in terms of educational achievement. As a base, national tariff scores (on average) for White students were 356 points in 2009, 372 points in 2010 and 384 points in 2011. The average tariff scores for Scottish Pakistanis was around 402 points in 2009, 400 points in 2010, 430 points in 2011 and 470 points in 2012. Contrasted with Scottish Indians, they achieved 482 points in 2009, 483 points in 2010, 444 points in 2010 and 523 points in 2011. Overall, in 2012 it was found the Chinese however ranked 1st (with 643 points), Indians 2nd (with 523 points), Pakistanis 3rd (with 470 points), Other Asians 4th (460 points), Mixed 5th (446 points), Black 6th (431 points), non-Scottish Whites 7th (427 points) and White Scottish 8th (with 407 points). The 2012 ranking can also be compared to the historical rank Scottish Pakistanis have achieved yearly in the past; for the 2010/2011 cycle, Scottish Pakistanis came 5th (whereas Indians came 4th). Similarly, between 2009/2010 Pakistanis, again, came 5th (whereas Indians were placed 2nd). The 2008/2009 cycle saw Pakistanis achieve a similar result. Despite the historical ranking of Pakistanis in the last three cycles, they have consistently ranked well above White Scottish and White non-Scottish, who tend to be the worst performing students in Scotland (although non-resident Whites tend to do better than Scottish Whites).[6]

University

Edinburgh Castle.

Trends:— The percentage of new "entrants into higher education" (which includes foreign students) for Pakistanis was around 1.25% (1,655 students entered university in the 2011/2012 cycle out of 132,365[10] new entrants) which can be compared to Chinese students (3,985 students; 3.01%) and Indians (2,035 students; 1.54%). Between 2002/2003 and 2011/2012 Pakistani entrants into these education sectors saw a significant increase, which was around +97.8% (2,015→3,985) for Chinese, around +54.0% (1,075→1,655) for Pakistanis, in contrast to around +34.3% (1,515→2,035) for Indians.[11] Overall, in the 2011/2012 cycle, only about 65,045[11] were actually new domiciled students, whilst 67,320 were newer foreign students. However, it must be noted that in total, the student population of Scotland is around 281,630,[12] which includes continuing students. Nevertheless, despite the small number of foreign Pakistani students, they tend to contribute heavily towards the economy of Scotland, in one particular survey from the Santander Bank Group (2010) for example, it was found that 10,025 foreign students alone contributed approximately £15 million pounds to the local economy "spend[ing] an average of £93 a week on shopping, bars, restaurants and travel".[44] The most prestigious universities in Scotland foreign students tend to apply to are St. Andrews, Glasgow, Dundee, Aberdeen and Edinburgh. However, only 56% of South Asian students in the UK attend prestigious universities.[45]

Glasgow University.

Student Entrants:— Excluding foreign students, domiciled Scottish Pakistanis make up around 1.43% of the student "entrants into higher education" (930/65,045 students entered university in the 2011/2012 cycle; compared to only 520 (0.89%) entrants in 2002/2003), which can be compared to Scottish Chinese (430/65,045 students; 0.66%; 320 (0.55%) entrants in 2002/2003) and Scottish Indian students (465/65,045 students; 0.72%; 220 (0.38%) entrants in 2002/2003).[10][15] Expanding from the data sets on population and entrance into higher education, this suggests that around 1.90% (930/49,000) of all domiciled Scottish Pakistanis entered higher education, compared to 1.27% (430/34,000) of Scottish Chinese, and 1.41% (465/33,000) of Scottish Indian. Furthermore despite making up over 96.0% of the population, Scottish Whites only represent about 90.0% (58,525/65,045) of all domiciled students in higher education, and only around 1.15% (58,525/5,084,000) of Whites ever enter higher education, per year. Furthermore, Scottish Pakistanis represent about 1.6% (390/24,375) of all successful "first time degree applicants" compared to 0.76% (185/24,375) of Chinese and 0.57% (140/24,375) for Indians. Again despite making up 96% of the Scottish population only 91.6% (22,330/24,375) of Whites represent successful "first time degree applicants".[n. 36]

2nd most popular subject, computing.

Subject Areas:— In 2011 British Pakistanis tended to go for are medicine & dentistry (4.9%|2,030), computer science (4.0%|2,645), subjects allied to medicine (2.4%|5,360), engineering & technology (2.4%|2,200), biological sciences (2.3%|3,585), mathematical sciences (2.3%|720), architecture, building & planning (1.9%|685), and physical sciences (1.4%|975). The least popular science related subjects were found to be veterinary science (0.1%|0) and agriculture (0.1%|20). Within the social sciences the subjects most popular with British Pakistanis includes law (6.4%|3,820), business & administrative studies (3.9%|7,150), social studies (2.3%|3,475), education (2.1%|2,150), languages (1.1%|1,120), combined social sciences (1.1%|995), and mass communications & documentation (1.0%|390), whereas historical & philosophical studies (0.8%|600), and creative arts & design (0.6%|895) were amongst the least popular social science subjects. In total there were 18,225 British Pakistani students taking science related subjects at university and 38,815 students taking social science subjects.[16] Based on the 2011 Census, despite making up only around 2.0% (or 1,124,511) of the population, British Pakistanis are almost 3.2 times over represented for law degrees, 2.5 times for medicine and dentistry courses, two times for computer science degrees and almost two times for business & administrative studies degrees. Interestingly law and education degrees are the only degrees in which Pakistanis rank second to Whites, with the rest dominated by Indians.[n. 37]

UK Population Map (2008).[n. 38]

Degree Results:— A total of 4,695 English Pakistanis were awarded degrees for the academic cycle 2004—2005 (2002; 3,813).[n. 39] Approximately 5.4% were awarded a first-class honours degree, 36.7% an upper second-class honours, 47.2% a lower second class honours and 10.7% a third class honours degree.[17] Of the three largest English Asian groups (excluding Chinese) Pakistanis rank third for obtaining a "good" degree award[n. 40] but rank second in their ability to get first class honours degree (5.4% v. Indian 8.0%). Including the category of "Asian Other", this drops to fourth place and third respectively.[17] Despite the fact that the figures for all ethnic minorities is substantially lower than what White students achieve, Asian ethnic minorities have managed to increase their chances of obtaining first-class degrees significantly when compared to the 2001/2002 cycle. Both English Pakistanis and English Indians managed to show a 20% increase in this category (▲4.5%[18]→5.4%[17] and ▲6.6%[18]→8.0%[17] respectively), and Bangladeshis 40% (▲3.7%[18]→5.1%[17]). The awardation of a 2:1 also rose substantially with English Indians (▲14.8%|38.5%[18]→44.2%[17]), English Pakistanis (▲6.38%|34.5%[18]→36.7%[17]) and English Bangladeshis (▲7.30%|35.6%[18]→38.2%[17]) all showing a marked improvement. Similarly the award of the lowest degree classification (Third Class) has also reduced drastically for virtually all Asian minorities (▼Indian:16.2%[18]→8.2%[17]|▼Pakistani:19.0%[18]→10.7%[17]|▼Bangladshi:18.5%[18]→9.9%[17]).

Degree probablity potential (corrected).

Differences From High School:— Despite higher participation rates, several studies have found that students from minority ethnic communities perform less well than Whites.[19] Econometric analysis including "a more complete set of explanatory variables" explain the differences in attainment, amongst other factors such as prior attainment.[20] The main factors that would impact on degree classifications are prior attainment, prior institution, parental attributes (income, education), gender, age, disability, English as an additional language, subject of study, type of HE institution, term-time working, mode of study, term-time accommodation, type of level 3 qualification and the index of multiple deprivation.[21] It has been found that if all, or indeed most, of these variables are controlled for, then ethnic minority attainment would substantially increase, except for Whites, which would decrease somewhat, though a smaller gap between ethnic variation in achievement would still be present.[22] The report lastly concluded that one of the most significant factors in obtaining a good degree would be obtaining a higher tariff score, prior to going to university and doing well in academic, rather than vocational, qualifications.[23] However, one of the reasons why ethnic minorities may achieve lesser degrees than Whites may be owed to the fact that White students tend to do less challenging degrees, which involve the social sciences and other liberal arts degrees which are easier to achieve.

Racism & Violence

The first registered Islamic tartan.

Integration:— In 2010 it was reported that 65% of Scottish people "had a favourable opinion towards Muslims", 14% were indifferent and 21% held a negative view. Despite this, the report had also found that "Scots have a less favourable opinion of Muslims than other religious groups". The BBC goes on to stipulate that "six out of ten Scots believed Muslims" were well "integrated into everyday Scottish life", with the process of integration largely being one way; "with Muslims making the effort to adapt to Scottish life" (such as creating their own tartan uniform). There was also a "strong view among all groups that younger generations of Muslims and non-Muslims were more integrated than previous generations". However despite this, only 46% "think that Muslims living in Scotland were loyal to the country while 33% thought they were not". Amongst the findings were some important contentious issues regarding the fact that Muslims "speak in their own language [Punjabi, Urdu] and wear traditional dress [veil]" which were cited as proof Muslims "were not integrating".[24][25][n. 41] The polls also found Muslims have faced some serious racist attacks, with their religious buildings often targeted by Islamophobes.[n. 42] In one incident, a White man had smuggled in a bomb into Glasgow Central Mosque, but it didn't go off. In another incident, neo-fascist far right group, "Britain First" (often called the "bin bag crew" for their black pound shop jackets and fedora's), entered a mosque with their shoes on, trying to forcefully convert people over to Christianity.

The Gorbals area of Glasgow.

Racist Attacks:— The Pakistani press has reported on the experiences of racism against Pakistanis in Scotland, the main areas who's residences are found in Pollokshields, Pollokshaws and Dumbreck. They reported that 40% percent of Scotland’s population live in the Glasgow metropolitan area, but that there are significant "no-go" zones for it's non-White residents. These areas include Parkhead, Bridgeton, Dennistoun, Haghill, Springburn, Possil, Gorbals, Govanhill, Cathcart, Kings Park, Pollok, Crookston, Garnethill, Finnieston, Partick, Marryhill, Knightswood, Summerston, and Old Drumchapel. They reported that these areas "are notorious for racism, besides drug addiction and criminal activities". Pakistanis have been spat at on the street, with "filth and garbage" even thrown at them as well, "even on Great Western Road, which is the arterial road of Glasgow...children (both boys and girls) are spotted doing these malicious racist acts".[26] His claims are not without evidence. In 1994 a 15 year old Nazi, walked into a restaurant and shot a Bangladeshi man to death; the murderer would have his father (who was a policeman) cover up these case where he was then sent to join the military (he fought and likely murdered innocent people in Iraq until he was caught in 2008).[27] In 2007 in the Haghill area, a 50-man mob of White men rushed out of a bar and stabbed two Asian men over a "sandwich dispute".[28][29] In 2009, an Asian man was murdered in Gorbals, having his "neck [slashed] as he walked to a restaurant with his friends".[30]

Farah Noor Adams.[n. 43]

Racism & Murder:— In 2005, 34-year-old single-mother and volunteer of the "Glasgow Anti-Racist Alliance", Farah Noor Adams, was violently raped to death,[31] by a White man in Maryhill,[32] Thomas Waddell, in broad daylight, attacked her on October 7th, 2005.[33][34] Farah's body was discovered "on a path near the River Kelvin".[33][35] Waddell had dragged her underneath a bridge by "the throat", and had "her face [smashed] with a brick several times" and then raped her for 30 minutes.[31][34] As she "lay bleeding, he forced her down to the water's edge and ordered her to wash" away the forensic and DNA evidence. After hitting her with a brick again, he "strangled her" and then beat her to death.[34][36] No witnesses came forward and (allegedly) no one heard her screaming in the busy area.[34] The local press reported that "Waddell was caught by police after DNA samples from his victim's clothing were found to match his".[34] He even boasted about attacking her.[31] Farah had phoned the police several times before she was murdered, but the police refused to answer her calls.[34] Even the most "hardened" of police officers were later said to have been "shocked by the extent of [her] injuries".[34] When questioned by police he tried to claim "he was forced to rape Farah by three Asian men he had been smoking cannabis with".[37] Even his own defence lawyer said "that there was nothing in his mental state to diminish his responsibility for the crimes".[34] He was given life imprisonment after being found guilty of the crime, and must serve a minimum sentence of 16 years[38] before he is allowed to apply for parole (release) on licence.[39]

British High Commission (Pakistan, 1999).

Foreign Students:— On October 4th, 2009, The Guardian reported that the "UK Border Agency" (UKBA) came under intense criticism for barring 14,000—16,000 Pakistani students from entry entering the country, who were due to attend university, owed primarily to a monumental "cock-up" since the agency had moved permanently to Abu Dhabi (1,400 miles away from the original location), having previously been based in Pakistan. This was then followed by widespread public anger, with the press branding the UK's visa system as "the stuff of dark legend". Alan Johnson, home secretary, was immediately summoned to Islamabad "to try to defuse a row" over the "visa snarl-up that could cost thousands of students their places at top British universities". Out of embarrassment they disputed this, with the British High Commission claiming Johnson would "discuss" the issue with Pakistan. It should be noted that the agency had charged each of the applicants "£145 in non-refundable fees" (alongside 9,000 appeals).[n. 44] The Guardian noted that Pakistani nationals were give "illogical reasons" as to their rejections.[n. 45] A millionaire Pakistani for example was denied a visa to the UK after the agency claimed he had "insufficient funds", whilst another student, Qudsia, 24, was denied access for "fail[ing] to provide proof of a primary degree", when in fact she'd sent a sealed "envelope containing a certificate from a prestigious Pakistani school" that the UKBA had received and then returned to her, unopened.[40] The UKBA are known for their racism. [n. 46]

Data Tables

Qualification Distribution (2001)

Qualification Distribution (2001)

Qualification Distribution (2001)
Ethnicity Level Aged 16-74 Results (%) Results (No.) Aged All Ages Results Adj. (%) Results (No.)
Scottish Pakistani Level 4+ Qualifications[n. 47] 26,789 20.031% 5,366 32,000 16.769% 5,366
Scottish Indian Level 4+ Qualifications[n. 48] 11,335 40.282% 4,566 15,000 30.44% 4,566
Scottish Chinese Level 4+ Qualifications[n. 49] 12,548 27.152% 3,407 16,000 21.294% 3,407
Scottish Pakistani Level 3+ Qualifications[n. 50] 26,789 7.735% 2,072 32,000 6.475% 2,072
Scottish Indians Level 3+ Qualifications[n. 51] 11,335 5.946% 674 15,000 4.483% 674
Scottish Chinese Level 3+ Qualifications[n. 52] 12,548 5.905% 741 16,000 4.631% 741
Scottish Pakistani Level 2+ Qualifications[n. 53] 26,789 14.966% 3,768 32,000 11.775% 3,768
Scottish Indians Level 2+ Qualifications[n. 54] 11,335 14.804% 1,678 15,000 11.187% 1,678
Scottish Chinese Level 2+ Qualifications[n. 55] 12,548 15.987% 2,006 16,000 12.538% 2,006
Scottish Pakistani Level 1+ Qualifications[n. 56] 26,789 18.586% 4,979 32,000 15.559% 4,979
Scottish Indians Level 1+ Qualifications[n. 57] 11,335 14.839% 1,682 15,000 11.213% 1,682
Scottish Chinese Level 1+ Qualifications[n. 58] 12,548 13.030% 1,635 16,000 10.219% 1,635
Scottish Pakistani No Qualifications[n. 59] 26,789 39.583% 10,604 32,000 33.138% 10,604
Scottish Indians No Qualifications[n. 60] 11,335 24.129% 2,735 15,000 18.233% 2,735
Scottish Chinese No Qualifications[n. 61] 12,548 37.926% 4,759 16,000 29.744%' 4,759
Scottish White Level 4+ Qualifications[n. 62] 3,731,079 19.475% 726,609 4,960,000 14.650% 726,609

University Attainment (2005)

University Attainment (2005) (ENGLAND ONLY)
Ethnicity[17] 1st Class 2:1 2:2 Third "Good" Rank
Asian Other 8.1% 44.2% 39.9% 7.9% 52.3% First
Indian 8.0% 42.1% 41.7% 8.2% 50.1% Second
Pakistani 5.4% 36.7% 47.2% 10.7% 42.1% Third
Bangladeshi 5.1% 38.2% 46.8% 9.9% 43.3% Fourth
Ethnicity[17] 1st Class 2:1 2:2 Third "Good" Rank
Asian Other 8.1% 44.2% 39.9% 7.9% 52.3% First
Indian 8.0% 42.1% 41.7% 8.2% 50.1% Second
Bangladeshi 5.1% 38.2% 46.8% 9.9% 43.3% Third
Pakistani 5.4% 36.7% 47.2% 10.7% 42.1% Fourth

Probability of Achieving Certain Class of Degree

Probability of Achieving Certain Class of Degree (ENGLAND ONLY)

Probability of Achieving Certain Class of Degree

Ethnicity[22] 1st Class 2:1 2:2 Third "Good" Rank
Asian Other 8.0% 51.0% 35.0% 6.0% 59.0% First
Indian 8.0% 45.0% 40.0% 8.0% 53.0% Second
Pakistani 6.0% 43.0% 42.0% 9.0% 49.0% Third
Bangladeshi 5.0% 48.0% 40.0% 7.0% 53.0% Second

Probability of Achieving Certain Class of Degree (Controlled for Socio-economic Condition)

Ethnicity[22] 1st Class 2:1 2:2 Third "Good" Rank
Asian Other 7.0% 55.0% 34.0% 4.0% 62.0% Second
Indian 7.0% 54.0% 35.0% 4.0% 61.0% Third
Pakistani 7.0% 55.0% 35.0% 4.0% 62.0% Second
Bangladeshi 7.0% 56.0% 33.0% 3.0% 63.0% First

Qualification Distribution (2001)

Qualification Distribution (2001)
Subject[16] White Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Other Asian
Medicine & dentistry 28,290 (68.5%) 4,390 (10.6%) 2,030 (4.9%) 385 (0.9%) 940 (2.3%) 1,685 (4.1%)
Subjects allied to medicine 172,780 (77.1%) 8,860 (4.0%) 5,360 (2.4%) 1,305 (0.6%) 1,205 (0.5%) 5,665 (2.5%)
Biological sciences 126,180 (82.3%) 4,130 (2.7%) 3,585 (2.3%) 1,265 (0.8%) 825 (0.5%) 2,135 (1.4%)
Veterinary science 3,720 (96.6%) 20 (0.6%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 10 (0.3%) 10 (0.3%)
Agriculture & related subjects 15,890 (96.4%) 60 (0.4%) 20 (0.1%) 10 (0.0%) 40 (0.2%) 30 (0.2%)
Physical sciences 60,780 (89.0%) 1,420 (2.1%) 975 (1.4%) 305 (0.4%) 540 (0.8%) 625 (0.9%)
Mathematical sciences 24,760 (78.3%) 1,845 (5.8%) 720 (2.3%) 380 (1.2%) 770 (2.4%) 800 (2.5%)
Computer science 47,280 (72.2%) 3,175 (4.9%) 2,645 (4.0%) 1,115 (1.7%) 865 (1.3%) 1,955 (3.0%)
Engineering & technology 72,555 (79.5%) 3,155 (3.5%) 2,200 (2.4%) 660 (0.7%) 1,105 (1.2%) 2,340 (2.6%)
Architecture, building & planning 30,045 (82.6%) 1,110 (3.1%) 685 (1.9%) 205 (0.6%) 395 (1.1%) 505 (1.4%)
Social studies 117,870 (78.3%) 4,860 (3.2%) 3,475 (2.3%) 1,715 (1.1%) 910 (0.6%) 1,520 (1.0%)
Law 40,545 (68.4%) 3,030 (5.1%) 3,820 (6.4%) 1,155 (2.0%) 435 (0.7%) 1,105 (1.9%)
Business & administrative studies 134,015 (72.5%) 9,475 (5.1%) 7,150 (3.9%) 2,765 (1.5%) 2,535 (1.4%) 3,905 (2.1%)
Mass communications & documentation 31,595 (82.8%) 740 (1.9%) 390 (1.0%) 210 (0.6%) 205 (0.5%) 315 (0.8%)
Languages 89,105 (88.9%) 1,490 (1.5%) 1,120 (1.1%) 485 (0.5%) 525 (0.5%) 690 (0.7%)
Historical & philosophical studies 69,310 (91.8%) 870 (1.2%) 600 (0.8%) 240 (0.3%) 220 (0.3%) 340 (0.4%)
Creative arts & design 122,925 (86.8%) 1,875 (1.3%) 895 (0.6%) 525 (0.4%) 1,135 (0.8%) 1,275 (0.9%)
Education 89,105 (87.8%) 1,870 (1.8%) 2,150 (2.1%) 1,105 (1.1%) 180 (0.2%) 565 (0.6%)
Combined Social Sciences 79,260 (90.0%) 1,250 (1.4%) 995 (1.1%) 320 (0.4%) 405 (0.5%) 675 (0.8%)
Total all subject areas 1,356,005 (81.1%) 53,630 (3.2%) 38,815 (2.3%) 14,155 (0.8%) 13,240 (0.8%) 26,140 (1.6%)
Total science subject areas 582,280 (79.6%) 28,170 (3.8%) 18,225 (2.5%) 5,630 (0.8%) 6,695 (0.9%) 15,750 (2.2%)

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) is a ranking system of educational progression in Scotland. The lowest level is SCQF-1 (access courses), and the highest SCQF-12 (doctorates).
  2. ^
    See first (cited below): Summary statistics for attainment, leaver destinations and healthy living, No. 2: 2012 Edition. The Scottish Government. Monday, June 25, 2012. ISBN: 9781780459066. The Report (main page introduction), (In PDF, Tables 1 to 10 only). Main findings appear in supplementary table (Table 1.11). Retrieved 12 October 2013.
    SCQF-5 (Standard Grade/GCSE-Level)
    • Around 16.2% of Indians, 11.9% of Pakistani and 4.1% of Chinese have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-5 (levels 1 and 2).
    • Around 5.6% of Indians, 4.9% of Pakistanis and 2.6% of Chinese have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-5 (levels 3 and 4).
    • Around 5.7% of Pakistanis and an unknown number of Indians and Chinese have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-5 (levels 4 and 5).
  3. ^ SCQF-6 (Highers/AS-Level)
    • Around 18.4% of Pakistani, 16.9% of Indians and 13.9% of Chinese have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-6 (levels 1 and 2).
    • Around 16.0% of Chinese, 15.5% of Indians and 12.2% of Pakistanis have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-6 (levels 3 and 4).
    • Around 16.3% of Pakistanis, 16.0% of Chinese and 11.3% of Indians and have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-6 (levels 4 and 5).
  4. ^ SCQF-7 (Advanced Higher/A-Level)
    • Around 30.4% of Chinese, 13.4% of Indians, and 13.3% of Pakistani have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-7 (levels 1 and 2).
    • Around 10.3% of Chinese, 7.0% of Indians, and 2.2% of Pakistanis have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-7 (levels 3 and above).
  5. ^ See Table 37a for domiciled students for year cylce 2011/2012, assuming no significant changes in population after 2011 census was taken (at the time of the census the academic cycle was 2010/2011): Taylor, John. Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2011-12 (22 March 2013). Scottish Funding Council. (Table 37a. Scottish domiciled qualifiers from higher education courses at Scottish HEIs and colleges by detailed level of qualification obtained and ethnicity: 2011-12) [Sources: Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and Scottish Funding Council (SFC).]. p. 75. Retrieved 22 October 2013. See page 12 of census release summary for population data: Wilson, Amy.2011 Census: Key Results on Population, Ethnicity, Identity, Language, Religion, Health, Housing and Accommodation in Scotland - Release 2A. Statistical Bulletin. (26 September 2013). (Table 2: Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011) [National Records of Scotland]. p. 12. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  6. ^ The rest usually dominated by Indians, who constitute around 2.5% (1,412,958) of the demographic. The courses in which Indians are overrepresented are in computer science, engineering & technology, architecture, building & planning, social studies, law, business & administrative studies, medicine & dentistry, subjects allied to medicine, and biological sciences (a total of 10 subjects). In contrast British Pakistanis are over represented in education, mathematical sciences, computer science, engineering & technology, social studies, law, business & administrative studies, medicine & dentistry, subjects allied to medicine, and the biological sciences (a total of 10 subjects).
  7. ^ Ethnic minority attainment data is widely available for the entirety of the United Kingdom, but is somewhat difficult to obtain for the UK's individual countries, which includes Scotland. One reason for this may be in the fact that the numbers of students in England dwarfs those in comparison to the smaller countries that make up the union, because of it's substantially larger population.
  8. ^ There are around 270,180 (domiciled) students in the UK were awarded first degrees in the academic cycle 2004-2005 and of this total, around 241,300 students were awarded classified honours degrees, of which only 28,665 (or 11.9%) were awarded the coveted first-class grade. Of the remaining students, 120,110 (or 49.8%) obtained upper second-class honours, 80,105 (or 33.2%) obtained lower second class honours and 12,420 (or 5.1%) obtained third-class honours degrees.
    1. Richardson., John T.E. (February 2008) The attainment of ethnic minority students in UK higher education. Studies in Higher Education. Vol. 33, No. 1, February 2008, 33–48. p. 37. The Open University, UK Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  9. ^ (classified as a 2:1 or above)
    1. Richardson., John T.E. (February 2008) The attainment of ethnic minority students in UK higher education. Studies in Higher Education. Vol. 33, No. 1, February 2008, 33–48. p. 37. The Open University, UK Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  10. ^ A forum discussing the issue. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  11. ^
    1. Binning, George (11 November 2008).BNP targets university students. Glasgow Guardian. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    2. Dicker, Ron (18 September 2013). Mosque Bacon Attack Lands Wayne Stilwel 10 Months In Jail. Huffinghton Post. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    3. Islamophobia Today (23 DECEMBER 2012). Man who threatened to blow up Glasgow Central Mosque is jailed. Islamophobia Today. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    4. Pitt, Bob (20 December 2012). Man who threatened to blow up Glasgow Central Mosque is jailed. Islamophobia Watch. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    5. STV (20 December 2012). Man threatened to blow up Glasgow mosque with bomb in backpack. STV News. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    6. Daily Record. (20 December 2012). Man jailed for two years after threatening to blow up Glasgow mosque with bomb in backpack. Daily Record. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    7. McAnally, Ashlie (Friday 21 December 2012). Ex-soldier jailed after threat to bomb mosque. Herald Scotland. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    8. BBC News (20 December 2012) Man jailed for Glasgow Central Mosque bomb threat. BBC News. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  12. ^ According to a memorial, "[s]cores of women braved freezing temperatures to "reclaim" a walkway in memory of murder victim Farah Noor Adams. The Kelvin Walkway in Glasgow was the sight of the brutal rape and murder of the 34-year-old".
    1. Morag Eyrie (April 20th, 2006). March for Farah Noor Adams. Flickr. Retrieved January 13th, 2017.
    2. Oread Daily (March 13th, 2006). WOMEN MARCH AGAINST VIOLENCE. Oread Daily Blog. Retrieved January 13th, 2017.
  13. ^ The agency may have possibly made as much as £2,320,000 (Rs.297.4 million) from the 16,000 students, and a further £1,305,000 (Rs.167.3 million) from the appeals alone. There were even reports that up to 200,000 passports had been held by the UKBA, and if true the amount of money taken from Pakistanis could have totalled up to around £29,000,000 (Rs.3.72 billion).
    1. Walsh, Declan (Islamabad) (Sunday 4 October 2009). Visa snarl-up leaves thousands of Pakistani students barred from UK. The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
    Quote: "One student, due to start a mathematics course at Cambridge last Thursday, said it was impossible to get useful information by email or phone from British officials in Abu Dhabi, which is 1,400 miles from Islamabad...I understand Britain has security concerns but I've paid £145 in non-refundable fees. I think I have a right to know what the hell is going on," he said...Well-to-do Pakistanis have been complaining about the revamped visa system for months, saying it has become grindingly slow, faceless and error-prone..."
  14. ^
    1. Walsh, Declan (Islamabad) (Sunday 4 October 2009). Visa snarl-up leaves thousands of Pakistani students barred from UK. The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
    Quote: In July the Lahore pipe band was refused clearance to attend a festival in Glasgow, while in August the national blind cricket team was turned down. The UKBA said it was not clear the visually impaired players would return home."
  15. ^ The photo was taken in Islamabad, Pakistan, October 1999. BBC News. There are numerous examples of UKBA racism. In 2013 they forced Chinese businesses to close in protest of discrimination.
    1. Pai, Hsiao-Hung (24 October 2013). How Chinatown is striking back at immigration 'fishing' raids. The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  16. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 4+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. (874+2124+1195+679+218+149+127)/26789 x 100= 20.031% [Pakistani] = (874+2124+1195+679+218+149+127)/32,000 =16.769%
  17. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 4+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. (656+1836+845+590+233+204+202)/11335 x 100= 40.282% [Indian] = (656+1836+845+590+233+204+202)/15,000 = 30.44%
  18. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 4+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. (670+1439+809+355+47+48+39)/12548 x 100=27.152% [china] = 670+1439+809+355+47+48+39/16,000 = 21.294%
  19. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 3+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Pakistani]: 872+662+331+161+19+13+14 = 2072/26789 = 7.735% [2072/32,000=6.475%]
  20. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 3+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Indians]: 232+194+142+68+13+15+10 = 674/11335 = 5.946% [674/15,000=4.483%]
  21. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 3+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Chinese]: 307+236+126+62+4+3+3 = 741/12548 = 5.905% [741/16,000=4.631%]
  22. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 2+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Pakistani]: 2317+695+454+214+33+28+27 = 3768/26789 = 14.966% [3768/32,000=11.775%]
  23. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 2+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Indians]: 1086+229+206+107+15+19+16 = 1678/11335 = 14.804% [1678/15,000=11.187%]
  24. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 2+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Chinese]: 1480+258+161+78+7+8+14 = 2006/12548 = 15.987% [2006/16,000=12.538%]
  25. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 1+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Pakistani]: 1981+1395+943+406+68+105+81 = 4979/26789 = 18.586% [4979/32,000=15.559%]
  26. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 1+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Indians]: 584+452+353+178+42+43+30 = 1682/11335 = 14.839% [1682/15,000=11.213%]
  27. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 1+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Chinese]: 642+423+338+169+27+16+20 = 1635/12548 = 13.030% [1635/16,000=10.219%]
  28. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents No Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Pakistani]: 26789 - (5,366 + 2,072 + 3,768 + 4,979) = 10604/26789 x 100 = 39.583% [10604/32,000 x 100=33.138%]
  29. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents No Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Indians]: 11335 - (674 + 1678 + 1682 + 4566) = 2735/11335 x 100 = 24.129% [2735/15,000 x 100=18.233%]
  30. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents No Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Chinese]: 12548 - (3407 + 741 + 2006 + 1635) = 4759/12548 x 100 = 37.926% [4759/16,000 x 100=29.744%]
  31. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 4+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. (53665+178689+181326+157143+52571+41014+62201)/3,731,079 = 19.475% [Whites] (53665+178689+181326+157143+52571+41014+62201/4,960,000 x 100) = 14.65%
  32. ^ The Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) is a ranking system of educational progression in Scotland. The lowest level is SCQF-1 (access courses), and the highest SCQF-12 (doctorates).
  33. ^
    See first (cited below): Summary statistics for attainment, leaver destinations and healthy living, No. 2: 2012 Edition. The Scottish Government. Monday, June 25, 2012. ISBN: 9781780459066. The Report (main page introduction), (In PDF, Tables 1 to 10 only). Main findings appear in supplementary table (Table 1.11). Retrieved 12 October 2013.
    SCQF-5 (Standard Grade/GCSE-Level)
    • Around 16.2% of Indians, 11.9% of Pakistani and 4.1% of Chinese have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-5 (levels 1 and 2).
    • Around 5.6% of Indians, 4.9% of Pakistanis and 2.6% of Chinese have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-5 (levels 3 and 4).
    • Around 5.7% of Pakistanis and an unknown number of Indians and Chinese have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-5 (levels 4 and 5).
  34. ^ SCQF-6 (Highers/AS-Level)
    • Around 18.4% of Pakistani, 16.9% of Indians and 13.9% of Chinese have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-6 (levels 1 and 2).
    • Around 16.0% of Chinese, 15.5% of Indians and 12.2% of Pakistanis have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-6 (levels 3 and 4).
    • Around 16.3% of Pakistanis, 16.0% of Chinese and 11.3% of Indians and have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-6 (levels 4 and 5).
  35. ^ SCQF-7 (Advanced Higher/A-Level)
    • Around 30.4% of Chinese, 13.4% of Indians, and 13.3% of Pakistani have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-7 (levels 1 and 2).
    • Around 10.3% of Chinese, 7.0% of Indians, and 2.2% of Pakistanis have qualifications equivalent to SCQF-7 (levels 3 and above).
  36. ^ See Table 37a for domiciled students for year cylce 2011/2012, assuming no significant changes in population after 2011 census was taken (at the time of the census the academic cycle was 2010/2011): Taylor, John. Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2011-12 (22 March 2013). Scottish Funding Council. (Table 37a. Scottish domiciled qualifiers from higher education courses at Scottish HEIs and colleges by detailed level of qualification obtained and ethnicity: 2011-12) [Sources: Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and Scottish Funding Council (SFC).]. p. 75. Retrieved 22 October 2013. See page 12 of census release summary for population data: Wilson, Amy.2011 Census: Key Results on Population, Ethnicity, Identity, Language, Religion, Health, Housing and Accommodation in Scotland - Release 2A. Statistical Bulletin. (26 September 2013). (Table 2: Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011) [National Records of Scotland]. p. 12. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  37. ^ The rest usually dominated by Indians, who constitute around 2.5% (1,412,958) of the demographic. The courses in which Indians are overrepresented are in computer science, engineering & technology, architecture, building & planning, social studies, law, business & administrative studies, medicine & dentistry, subjects allied to medicine, and biological sciences (a total of 10 subjects). In contrast British Pakistanis are over represented in education, mathematical sciences, computer science, engineering & technology, social studies, law, business & administrative studies, medicine & dentistry, subjects allied to medicine, and the biological sciences (a total of 10 subjects).
  38. ^ Ethnic minority attainment data is widely available for the entirety of the United Kingdom, but is somewhat difficult to obtain for the UK's individual countries, which includes Scotland. One reason for this may be in the fact that the numbers of students in England dwarfs those in comparison to the smaller countries that make up the union, because of it's substantially larger population.
  39. ^ There are around 270,180 (domiciled) students in the UK were awarded first degrees in the academic cycle 2004-2005 and of this total, around 241,300 students were awarded classified honours degrees, of which only 28,665 (or 11.9%) were awarded the coveted first-class grade. Of the remaining students, 120,110 (or 49.8%) obtained upper second-class honours, 80,105 (or 33.2%) obtained lower second class honours and 12,420 (or 5.1%) obtained third-class honours degrees.
    1. Richardson., John T.E. (February 2008) The attainment of ethnic minority students in UK higher education. Studies in Higher Education. Vol. 33, No. 1, February 2008, 33–48. p. 37. The Open University, UK Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  40. ^ (classified as a 2:1 or above)
    1. Richardson., John T.E. (February 2008) The attainment of ethnic minority students in UK higher education. Studies in Higher Education. Vol. 33, No. 1, February 2008, 33–48. p. 37. The Open University, UK Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  41. ^ A forum discussing the issue. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  42. ^
    1. Binning, George (11 November 2008).BNP targets university students. Glasgow Guardian. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    2. Dicker, Ron (18 September 2013). Mosque Bacon Attack Lands Wayne Stilwel 10 Months In Jail. Huffinghton Post. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    3. Islamophobia Today (23 DECEMBER 2012). Man who threatened to blow up Glasgow Central Mosque is jailed. Islamophobia Today. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    4. Pitt, Bob (20 December 2012). Man who threatened to blow up Glasgow Central Mosque is jailed. Islamophobia Watch. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    5. STV (20 December 2012). Man threatened to blow up Glasgow mosque with bomb in backpack. STV News. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    6. Daily Record. (20 December 2012). Man jailed for two years after threatening to blow up Glasgow mosque with bomb in backpack. Daily Record. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    7. McAnally, Ashlie (Friday 21 December 2012). Ex-soldier jailed after threat to bomb mosque. Herald Scotland. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
    8. BBC News (20 December 2012) Man jailed for Glasgow Central Mosque bomb threat. BBC News. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  43. ^ According to a memorial, "[s]cores of women braved freezing temperatures to "reclaim" a walkway in memory of murder victim Farah Noor Adams. The Kelvin Walkway in Glasgow was the sight of the brutal rape and murder of the 34-year-old".
    1. Morag Eyrie (April 20th, 2006). March for Farah Noor Adams. Flickr. Retrieved January 13th, 2017.
    2. Oread Daily (March 13th, 2006). WOMEN MARCH AGAINST VIOLENCE. Oread Daily Blog. Retrieved January 13th, 2017.
  44. ^ The agency may have possibly made as much as £2,320,000 (Rs.297.4 million) from the 16,000 students, and a further £1,305,000 (Rs.167.3 million) from the appeals alone. There were even reports that up to 200,000 passports had been held by the UKBA, and if true the amount of money taken from Pakistanis could have totalled up to around £29,000,000 (Rs.3.72 billion).
    1. Walsh, Declan (Islamabad) (Sunday 4 October 2009). Visa snarl-up leaves thousands of Pakistani students barred from UK. The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
    Quote: "One student, due to start a mathematics course at Cambridge last Thursday, said it was impossible to get useful information by email or phone from British officials in Abu Dhabi, which is 1,400 miles from Islamabad...I understand Britain has security concerns but I've paid £145 in non-refundable fees. I think I have a right to know what the hell is going on," he said...Well-to-do Pakistanis have been complaining about the revamped visa system for months, saying it has become grindingly slow, faceless and error-prone..."
  45. ^
    1. Walsh, Declan (Islamabad) (Sunday 4 October 2009). Visa snarl-up leaves thousands of Pakistani students barred from UK. The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
    Quote: In July the Lahore pipe band was refused clearance to attend a festival in Glasgow, while in August the national blind cricket team was turned down. The UKBA said it was not clear the visually impaired players would return home."
  46. ^ The photo was taken in Islamabad, Pakistan, October 1999. BBC News. There are numerous examples of UKBA racism. In 2013 they forced Chinese businesses to close in protest of discrimination.
    1. Pai, Hsiao-Hung (24 October 2013). How Chinatown is striking back at immigration 'fishing' raids. The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  47. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 4+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. (874+2124+1195+679+218+149+127)/26789 x 100= 20.031% [Pakistani] = (874+2124+1195+679+218+149+127)/32,000 =16.769%
  48. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 4+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. (656+1836+845+590+233+204+202)/11335 x 100= 40.282% [Indian] = (656+1836+845+590+233+204+202)/15,000 = 30.44%
  49. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 4+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. (670+1439+809+355+47+48+39)/12548 x 100=27.152% [china] = 670+1439+809+355+47+48+39/16,000 = 21.294%
  50. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 3+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Pakistani]: 872+662+331+161+19+13+14 = 2072/26789 = 7.735% [2072/32,000=6.475%]
  51. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 3+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Indians]: 232+194+142+68+13+15+10 = 674/11335 = 5.946% [674/15,000=4.483%]
  52. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 3+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Chinese]: 307+236+126+62+4+3+3 = 741/12548 = 5.905% [741/16,000=4.631%]
  53. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 2+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Pakistani]: 2317+695+454+214+33+28+27 = 3768/26789 = 14.966% [3768/32,000=11.775%]
  54. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 2+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Indians]: 1086+229+206+107+15+19+16 = 1678/11335 = 14.804% [1678/15,000=11.187%]
  55. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 2+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Chinese]: 1480+258+161+78+7+8+14 = 2006/12548 = 15.987% [2006/16,000=12.538%]
  56. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 1+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Pakistani]: 1981+1395+943+406+68+105+81 = 4979/26789 = 18.586% [4979/32,000=15.559%]
  57. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 1+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Indians]: 584+452+353+178+42+43+30 = 1682/11335 = 14.839% [1682/15,000=11.213%]
  58. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 1+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Chinese]: 642+423+338+169+27+16+20 = 1635/12548 = 13.030% [1635/16,000=10.219%]
  59. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents No Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Pakistani]: 26789 - (5,366 + 2,072 + 3,768 + 4,979) = 10604/26789 x 100 = 39.583% [10604/32,000 x 100=33.138%]
  60. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents No Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Indians]: 11335 - (674 + 1678 + 1682 + 4566) = 2735/11335 x 100 = 24.129% [2735/15,000 x 100=18.233%]
  61. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents No Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. [Scottish Chinese]: 12548 - (3407 + 741 + 2006 + 1635) = 4759/12548 x 100 = 37.926% [4759/16,000 x 100=29.744%]
  62. ^ Scotlands Census 2001 (29 April 2001) S216 Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL). Analyser S216. Retrieved 4 November 2013. [Click download tab to reveal data, 16-74 ONLY on page].
    • According to the raw data supplied by the 2001 Census the following presents Level 4+ Qualifications for the following ethnic groups.
    1. (53665+178689+181326+157143+52571+41014+62201)/3,731,079 = 19.475% [Whites] (53665+178689+181326+157143+52571+41014+62201/4,960,000 x 100) = 14.65%

References

  1. ^ a b c d Wilson, Amy.2011 Census: Key Results on Population, Ethnicity, Identity, Language, Religion, Health, Housing and Accommodation in Scotland - Release 2A. Statistical Bulletin. (26 September 2013). (Table 2: Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011) [National Records of Scotland]. p. 12. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Wilson, Amy.2011 Census: Key Results on Population, Ethnicity, Identity, Language, Religion, Health, Housing and Accommodation in Scotland - Release 2A. Statistical Bulletin. (26 September 2013). (Table 3: Fifteen most reported countries of birth outside the UK, Scotland, 2011 and 2001) [National Records of Scotland]. p. 17. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  3. ^ a b Wilson, Amy.2011 Census: Key Results on Population, Ethnicity, Identity, Language, Religion, Health, Housing and Accommodation in Scotland - Release 2A. Statistical Bulletin. (26 September 2013). [National Records of Scotland]. p. 10. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  4. ^ a b Wilson, Amy.2011 Census: Key Results on Population, Ethnicity, Identity, Language, Religion, Health, Housing and Accommodation in Scotland - Release 2A. Statistical Bulletin. (26 September 2013). [National Records of Scotland]. p. 4. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  5. ^ a b Elisabet Weedon, Sheila Riddell, Gillean McCluskey and Kristina Konstantoni (March 2013). Muslim Families’ Educational Experiences in England and Scotland Final Report. Centre for Research in Education Inclusion and Diversity. (CREID). University of Edinburgh; The Alwaleed Centre. p. 22. See Figure 3.10, green line on graph chart.
  6. ^ a b c d Average tariff score and follow-up leaver destinations, by pupil characteristic, 2008/09 to 2011/12. Attainment and destinations. The Scottish Government. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
    --Other educational statistics available here.
  7. ^ Summary statistics for attainment, leaver destinations and healthy living, No. 2: 2012 Edition. The Scottish Government. Monday, June 25, 2012. ISBN: 9781780459066. The Report (main page introduction), (In PDF, Tables 1 to 10 only). Main findings appear in supplementary table (Table 1.11). Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  8. ^ Collins, Vicky. School lifts Muslim headscarf ban Craigholme U-turn after Herald told of campaign Saturday. Herald Scotland. 23 March 2002. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  9. ^ Collins, Vicky. School lifts Muslim headscarf ban Craigholme U-turn after Herald told of campaign Saturday. Herald Scotland. 23 March 2002. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d Taylor, John. Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2011-12 (22 March 2013). Scottish Funding Council. (Table 37a. Scottish domiciled qualifiers from higher education courses at Scottish HEIs and colleges by detailed level of qualification obtained and ethnicity: 2011-12) [Sources: Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and Scottish Funding Council (SFC).]. p. 75. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d Taylor, John. Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2011-12 (22 March 2013). Scottish Funding Council. (Table 27. Entrants to higher education at Scottish HEIs and colleges by ethnicity: 2002-03 to 2011-12) [Sources: Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and Scottish Funding Council (SFC).]. p. 60. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  12. ^ a b Taylor, John. Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2011-12 (22 March 2013). Scottish Funding Council. p. 2. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  13. ^ "Overseas students' £15m boost to Scotland". The Scotsman. 12 August 2010 21:42. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  14. ^ Briefing on ethnicity and educational attainment, June 2012. The Runnymede Trust. 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  15. ^ a b Taylor, John. Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2011-12 (22 March 2013). Scottish Funding Council. (Table 37b. Scottish domiciled qualifiers from higher education courses at Scottish HEIs and colleges by ethnicity: 2002-03 to 2011-12) [Sources: Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and Scottish Funding Council (SFC).]. p. 75. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d HESA (December 2012). Contents of 'Students in Higher Education Institutions', Download, 2011/12, Table J (UK domiciled undergraduate students of known ethnicity by subject area and ethnicity). Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA). Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Richardson..2C_John_T.E._.28February_2008.29
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Broecke, Stijn. Nicholls, Tom. (2007). Ethnicity and degree attainment. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA) [MPRA Paper No. 35284, posted 8. December 2011 18:41 UTC]. p. 6. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  19. ^ a b Broecke, Stijn. Nicholls, Tom. (2006).Ethnicity and Degree Attainment. p. 5 Department for Education and Skills. (Research Report No RW92). Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  20. ^ a b Broecke, Stijn. Nicholls, Tom. (2006).Ethnicity and Degree Attainment. p. 5 Department for Education and Skills. (Research Report No RW92). Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  21. ^ a b Broecke, Stijn. Nicholls, Tom. (2006).Ethnicity and Degree Attainment. p. 6,12-15 Department for Education and Skills. (Research Report No RW92). Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Broecke, Stijn. Nicholls, Tom. (2006).Ethnicity and Degree Attainment. p. 16-17 (see figures 3 and 4). Department for Education and Skills. (Research Report No RW92). Retrieved 28 October 2013.
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