Sikh 'Holocaust' of 1762 (Vaḍḍā Ghallūghārā)

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'Holocaust':— The Sikh 'Holocaust' of 1762 is an alleged 'massacre' of Sikhs that occurred in the Punjab on February 5th/8th,[1] 1762 when the Sikh leadership, unprovoked, attacked the Muslims of the Durrani Empire headed by Ahmad Shah, terrorizing their cities.[n. 1] The Sikhs were only able to carry this out after the Europeans began invading and weakening Islamic India (since 1606, the Sikhs had actually remained quite subservient).[2][n. 2] Modern Sikh sources have claimed it was a 'genocide', but British historians (even Indian[3][4]) of the 18th century have historically referred to it as the "Battle of Ghalu Ghara",[n. 3] which the Sikhs nowadays translate to mean "holocaust" despite the fact that they were armed.[5][6][n. 4] Estimates of the dead vary between 5,000[7]—35,000.[8][9] A smaller battle also occurred in 1746 (which Sikhs call the "lesser holocaust"),[2] where it is claimed up to 10,000[n. 5] were killed.[3][9] The real holocaust however involved the deaths of some 10—11 million people[10][11] (which also had tens of thousands of Muslim victims),[n. 6][n. 7] and was perpetrated by the White supremacist Nazi Germans in the 20th century. Also, in relation to the actual holocaust, the massacres of 1746 and 1762 were not killings that arose out of racial or religious hatred but because of militancy, the desecration of mosques, and the murdering of Muslim men, women and children. The retaliation of 1762 was said to have been so large that "fifty chariots were necessary to transport the heads of the victims", where "mosques desecrated by the Sikhs [were] washed with their blood".[3][n. 8]

Islamic India (1750).
Islamic India (1750).

'Holocaust':— The Sikh 'Holocaust' of 1762 is an alleged 'massacre' of Sikhs that occurred in the Punjab on February 5th/8th,[12] 1762 when the Sikh leadership, unprovoked, attacked the Muslims of the Durrani Empire headed by Ahmad Shah, terrorizing their cities.[n. 9] The Sikhs were only able to carry this out after the Europeans began invading and weakening Islamic India (since 1606, the Sikhs had actually remained quite subservient).[2][n. 10] Modern Sikh sources have claimed it was a 'genocide', but British historians (even Indian[3][4]) of the 18th century have historically referred to it as the "Battle of Ghalu Ghara",[n. 11] which the Sikhs nowadays translate to mean "holocaust" despite the fact that they were armed.[13][14][n. 12] Estimates of the dead vary between 5,000[7]—35,000.[8][9] A smaller battle also occurred in 1746 (which Sikhs call the "lesser holocaust"),[2] where it is claimed up to 10,000[n. 13] were killed.[3][9] The real holocaust however involved the deaths of some 10—11 million people[10][11] (which also had tens of thousands of Muslim victims),[n. 14][n. 15] and was perpetrated by the White supremacist Nazi Germans in the 20th century. Also, in relation to the actual holocaust, the massacres of 1746 and 1762 were not killings that arose out of racial or religious hatred but because of militancy, the desecration of mosques, and the murdering of Muslim men, women and children. The retaliation of 1762 was said to have been so large that "fifty chariots were necessary to transport the heads of the victims", where "mosques desecrated by the Sikhs [were] washed with their blood".[3][n. 16]

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ Indian authors themselves have never denied that it was the Sikhs that actually caused the conflict in the first place, for example, according to the "Times of India", 250 years after the event, said: "It was 250 years ago that thousands of Sikhs were killed in two days (February 5 & 6, 1762) at Kup-Rohira near Malerkotla. Known as the Vadda Ghallughara (great holocaust), this massacre of Sikhs at the hands of Afghan invader Ahmed Shah Abdali was a fallout of Sikhs looting money and other precious articles from Abdali's forces, especially after his fourth invasion in 1757".
    1. Neel Kamal (February 6th, 2012). Lest we forget. Times of India. Retrieved January 9th, 2017.
  2. ^ However, there was a minor rebellion by the Sikh Banda Bahadur. This was the first time the Sikhs had organised a proper rebellion against the Mughals.
    1. Farooqui Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. p. 341. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1.
  3. ^ The Sikhs themselves recognise that it was done in retaliation for challenging Ahmad Shah's power.
    1. Surinder Singh Johar (1 January 1998). Holy Sikh Shrines. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 978-81-7533-073-3.
  4. ^ A bigger holocaust of Muslims occurred in 1947, when Sikhs and Hindus started murdering Muslims as they made their way across to the Pakistan.
    Quote: "Kill two Muslims for each Sikh or Hindu killed. And double and triple the number in case of women. Rape for rape, and torture for torture, they say. And if one house of a Sikh is burnt, torch the whole village of the Muslims".
    1. Farzana Moon (2008). Holocaust of the East. Cambridge Scholars. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-84718-498-6.
  5. ^ Even this first 'holocaust' was caused by Sikhs themselves who murdered the smaller brother of Diwan Lakhpat Rai, which was done through a "misal" cell (armed militant Sikhs), that was lead by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.
    1. Giorgio Shani (6 December 2007). Sikh Nationalism and Identity in a Global Age. Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-134-10189-4.
  6. ^ Victims of the Nazi regime in camps that were close to death or dying were derogatorily referred to as "Muslims" (Muselmannen), which the other prisoners also hated. This may originate in the very literal meaning of the word from Arabic which means to submit oneself unconditionally to God.
    1. Joseph Pugliese (20 March 2013). State Violence and the Execution of Law: Biopolitcal Caesurae of Torture, Black Sites, Drones. Routledge. pp. 116–118. ISBN 978-1-135-07301-5.
  7. ^ However it is still unknown exactly how many Muslims were murdered by the Nazis.
    1. The Salisbury Review. Salisbury Group. 2004. p. 13.
    However but what is known is that:
    Quote: "As per the most recent study, Bosnjaci u Jasenovackom logoru (Bosniaks in Jasenovac concentration camp) by the author Nihad Halilbegovic, at least 103,000 Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslim Slavs) perished during the Holocaust at the hands of the Nazi regime and Croation Ustase".
    1. Anwar El-Shahawy (18 October 2010). Allah and Space. Xlibris Corporation. p. 210. ISBN 978-1-4535-8135-3.
  8. ^ According to the Sikh point of view, he also retaliated by invading Amritsar and descrating their holy temple. It is alleged that the Golden Temple was blown up with gunpowder, as well as the holy pool having been descrated as well. After Ahmad Shah left for Afghanistan in 1767, the Sikhs got their temple back.
    1. Surinder Singh Johar (1 January 1998). Holy Sikh Shrines. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 978-81-7533-073-3.
  9. ^ Indian authors themselves have never denied that it was the Sikhs that actually caused the conflict in the first place, for example, according to the "Times of India", 250 years after the event, said: "It was 250 years ago that thousands of Sikhs were killed in two days (February 5 & 6, 1762) at Kup-Rohira near Malerkotla. Known as the Vadda Ghallughara (great holocaust), this massacre of Sikhs at the hands of Afghan invader Ahmed Shah Abdali was a fallout of Sikhs looting money and other precious articles from Abdali's forces, especially after his fourth invasion in 1757".
    1. Neel Kamal (February 6th, 2012). Lest we forget. Times of India. Retrieved January 9th, 2017.
  10. ^ However, there was a minor rebellion by the Sikh Banda Bahadur. This was the first time the Sikhs had organised a proper rebellion against the Mughals.
    1. Farooqui Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. p. 341. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1.
  11. ^ The Sikhs themselves recognise that it was done in retaliation for challenging Ahmad Shah's power.
    1. Surinder Singh Johar (1 January 1998). Holy Sikh Shrines. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 978-81-7533-073-3.
  12. ^ A bigger holocaust of Muslims occurred in 1947, when Sikhs and Hindus started murdering Muslims as they made their way across to the Pakistan.
    Quote: "Kill two Muslims for each Sikh or Hindu killed. And double and triple the number in case of women. Rape for rape, and torture for torture, they say. And if one house of a Sikh is burnt, torch the whole village of the Muslims".
    1. Farzana Moon (2008). Holocaust of the East. Cambridge Scholars. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-84718-498-6.
  13. ^ Even this first 'holocaust' was caused by Sikhs themselves who murdered the smaller brother of Diwan Lakhpat Rai, which was done through a "misal" cell (armed militant Sikhs), that was lead by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.
    1. Giorgio Shani (6 December 2007). Sikh Nationalism and Identity in a Global Age. Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-134-10189-4.
  14. ^ Victims of the Nazi regime in camps that were close to death or dying were derogatorily referred to as "Muslims" (Muselmannen), which the other prisoners also hated. This may originate in the very literal meaning of the word from Arabic which means to submit oneself unconditionally to God.
    1. Joseph Pugliese (20 March 2013). State Violence and the Execution of Law: Biopolitcal Caesurae of Torture, Black Sites, Drones. Routledge. pp. 116–118. ISBN 978-1-135-07301-5.
  15. ^ However it is still unknown exactly how many Muslims were murdered by the Nazis.
    1. The Salisbury Review. Salisbury Group. 2004. p. 13.
    However but what is known is that:
    Quote: "As per the most recent study, Bosnjaci u Jasenovackom logoru (Bosniaks in Jasenovac concentration camp) by the author Nihad Halilbegovic, at least 103,000 Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslim Slavs) perished during the Holocaust at the hands of the Nazi regime and Croation Ustase".
    1. Anwar El-Shahawy (18 October 2010). Allah and Space. Xlibris Corporation. p. 210. ISBN 978-1-4535-8135-3.
  16. ^ According to the Sikh point of view, he also retaliated by invading Amritsar and descrating their holy temple. It is alleged that the Golden Temple was blown up with gunpowder, as well as the holy pool having been descrated as well. After Ahmad Shah left for Afghanistan in 1767, the Sikhs got their temple back.
    1. Surinder Singh Johar (1 January 1998). Holy Sikh Shrines. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 978-81-7533-073-3.

References

  1. ^ The Sikh Review. Sikh Cultural Centre. 2007. p. 11.
  2. ^ a b c d Jack David Eller (24 June 2009). Cultural Anthropology: Global Forces, Local Lives. Routledge. p. 314. ISBN 978-1-134-01243-5.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Claude Markovits (1 February 2004). A History of Modern India, 1480-1950. Anthem Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-84331-004-4.
  4. ^ a b S. Gajrani (2004). History, Religion and Culture of India. Gyan Publishing House. p. 211. ISBN 978-81-8205-060-0.
  5. ^ The Sikh Review. Sikh Cultural Centre. 2007. p. 36.
  6. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, or, Dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature. Adam & Charles Black. 1859. p. 692.
  7. ^ a b Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (11 June 2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  8. ^ a b Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (27 March 2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. OUP Oxford. p. 445. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.
  9. ^ a b c d Kristen Haar; Sewa Singh Kalsi (1 January 2009). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2.
  10. ^ a b Shirley Russak Wachtel (2005). The Story of Blima: A Holocaust Survivor. Townsend Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-59194-051-7.
  11. ^ a b Arthur G. Gish (1 June 2012). Muslim, Christian, Jew: The Oneness of God and the Unity of Our Faith . . . A Personal Journey in Three Abrahamic Religions. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-61097-363-2.
  12. ^ The Sikh Review. Sikh Cultural Centre. 2007. p. 11.
  13. ^ The Sikh Review. Sikh Cultural Centre. 2007. p. 36.
  14. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, or, Dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature. Adam & Charles Black. 1859. p. 692.

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