List of Published Articles
List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
Pakistan superimposed on an ancient version of itself (the "Harappan"/"Indus Valley Civilisation").
: For many non-Pakistanis, the idea of what and who Pakistanis are can often be a confusing one, since historically speaking Pakistan has never really been known as "Pakistan" throughout much of it's 65,000 year old history (in fact it was only officially known as Pakistan in 1947; and is an anagram of the ancient states Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh and Balochistan). Indeed it's been known by a series of different names; Mehrgarth (c. 7000 BC—c. 2000 BC), the Indus Valley (c. 3300 BC—c. 1300 BC), West India and even India itself (in fact the word "India" itself is not indigenous to South Asia, but comes from old Persian and ancient Greek, meaning "people of the Indus"—it should be noted that the modern-day country of India—born in 1947—has culturally appropriated this name, despite the Indus river basin having nothing to do with the majority of its people with "Ganga-Yamuna"
being far more appropriate names as these are the main river basins of that country). The easiest way to understand Pakistani identity is to understand that Pakistanis are a people who are genetically, linguistically, racially, ethnically, culturally and religiously distinct from other subcontinent people and therefore themselves form a very unique identity. The people who live in Pakistan now have remained the same as those that were there for the past 65,000 years, but unlike other subcontinent peoples Pakistanis have added admixtures of new DNA from the various large scale historical migrations. The recorded history of Pakistan is thus older than the history of modern-day India. Given its extensive age, a significant number of inventions and discoveries have thus rightfully been attributed to Pakistan (since they originate in its lands) and not modern-day India.