The Black Death in North Africa & Western Asian Arab Societies (628—1844)

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Major Epidemics:— The bubonic plague[n. 1] outbreak of the 14th century (also known as the "Black Death") was actually the sixth major plague outbreak to hit Muslim North Africa and Western Asia; prior to it's outbreak there had already been five major epidemics.[1] The most notable outbreaks being the Plague of Shirawayh (628) in Persia, the Plague of Yezdigird (c. 634—642; which was a minor plague) and the Plague of Amwas (638) in Syria, the Plague of Kufah (669; minor)[2] in Iraq, and the Violent Plague (688; also known as the Plague of Jarif) in Iraq, Syria and Egypt.[1][n. 2] The fourth major epidemic was the Plague of Maidens in Iraq (706; particularly notable as most it's victims were women) and the fifth and final plague was the Plague of the Notables in Iraq and Syria (c. 716—717).[1] Other minor plague outbreaks continued in the later centuries however, such as the Adi ibn Artah (718—719) and Crows (744—745) in Syria and Iraq, and Iraq respectively.[1] The 14th century plague from China[n. 3] that began then afterwards again lead to higher mortality rate of Muslim-kind; which affected many cities; between 1347—1349 Egypt for example fell deathly ill.[3][n. 4] Other places affected were Crimea (1346),[4] Baghdad (1347 and 1349) in Iraq,[5][4] Damascus (1348) in Syria,[5][6] Mecca (1348) in Saudi Arabia,[7] Tripoli (1348) in Tunisia,[6] Muslim and Christian Spain (1348),[6] Marrakesh (1349) in Morocco,[8] Lisbon (1349) in Muslim and Christian Portugal,[6] and Aden (1351) in Yemen.[4]

Major outbreaks of the plague during the second epidemic of the 14th century.
17th century Islamic view of jannah (paradise).[9]

Muslim Humanity for the Infected:— Europeans were often incredulous at how Muslims readily accepted the consequences of the plague, and were surprised they were not going as mental as them.[n. 5][n. 6][n. 7] An Italian from Florence even fabricated wild accusations against Muslims; "[i]t commenced with the infidels [Muslims] this cruel inhumanity, that mothers and fathers abandoned their children, and children their fathers and mothers, one brother the other and other relatives, a thing cruel and astonishing, and something very foreign to human nature, detestable to faithful Christians, who yet soon followed the barbaric nations in practising this same cruelty".[10] However the opposite actually occurred, in contrast to the ignorance of this European view.[10] The Muslims readily accepted the plague as it was seen as a source of martyrdom and mercy by God in order to hasten going to paradise.[10][11] The European view of barbarism was ironic; one of the reasons for the rapid spread of the disease to the entire continent of Europe was that the Europeans had extremely bad hygiene practices,[12] they didn't use water to cleanse themselves after defacating. European cities were full of human excrement dumped from houses onto the public streets infested with rats.[12] Hygiene practises in the Muslim world were, and still are, much more hygienic which is why the disease spread slowly. Despite this however, epidemics also later occurred in 1669 in Persia.[13]

Muslim Death Toll:— The plague killed millions as it had done before,[n. 8] although it is not known how many people had died from the bacterial infection, even in Europe,[14] where it is accepted to be ~33%.[14] North Africa and Western Asia are similarly believed to have had a mortality rate of some 33%,[15][16] meaning that at the very least, the disease would have wiped out a third of the Muslim population.[17][n. 9] However, records from Asia have not been studied extensively by historians, and the numbers remain speculative.[17] Additionally, North Africa and Western Asia may also have had a lesser death toll overall when compared to Europeans, although reasons for this are not entirely clear.[17] Other estimates range from between 25%—50% of the population between 1347 to 1351 alone.[18][19][20] According to calculations conducted by the Vatican in 1351, some 23.8 million people may have died of the disease in Europe, giving a mortality rate of 31% if their demographic numbered 75 million at the least (still yet other sources claim that between one third to one fourth of the European demographic was wiped out or about 25 million[21]).[15] It has even been argued that up to 60% of Europeans might have perished.[14][22] This mortality rate is believed to be widely similar to how many North Africans and Western Asian Arabs would have died.[23] Still yet, other sources claim that the plague killed 50 million (in the known world)—and 200 million people between 1328 and 1352 globally.[16][14][n. 10]

Ibn Battuta travelled extensively between 1346 and 1349, and witnessed many plague epidemics break. He survived and was never infected.[24]
Muslims relied on science and spirituality to cope.

Historical Sources of the Islamic Plague & Later History:— A witness statement from Ibn al-Wardi (who died in 1349), and who was from Aleppo in Syria wrote an essay called "Risalah al-Naba an 'Alwaba" which described the pestilence's sudden rise within the Muslim world.[25] At least four manuscripts of this description, detailing the spread of the plague are believed to exist, and it is particularly notable that they all use words such as "struck", "cleansed", "uprooted", "reviled", "ravished", "humbled", and "triumphed" within it's structure.[25] It is therefore an extremely important historical source within Muslim history regarding the pestilence.[25][n. 11][n. 12] Further plague outbreaks did occur after 1351, most notably North African, Western Asian and European outbreaks occurred from 1360—1363, 1374, 1400, 1438—1439, 1456—1457, 1464—1466, 1481—1485, 1500—1503, 1518—1531, 1544—1548, 1563—1566, 1573—1588, 1596—1599, 1602—1611, 1623—1640, 1644—1654 and 1664—1667; they were not local, but pandemic.[26] The plague had all but disappeared in Europe by 1722 (and which therefore could explain why Europe advanced so much whilst other countries were still ravaged by the plague which had inevitable economic consequences).[26] The 18th century therefore saw Istanbul affected for 68 years, Anatolia for 57 years, Egypt for 44 years, Albania for 42 years, Bosnia for 41 years, Syria for 33 years, Ottoman Bulgaria for 18 years, Algiers for 45 years, Tunis for 19 years.[27] The most serious outbreaks occurred in Istanbul, Salonika and Aleppo, exploding every 20 years, and killing between 10%—33% of people.[27]

Rise of the non-Arab Muslims:— The Islamic world did not have anything even remotely as similar to the plague doctors in Europe, or religious nutjobs walking from city to city telling people to devote themselves to God in order to end the pestilence. These latter hysterical prone devotees were known as the "flagellants", who would whip themselves, even when it was obvious they were bleeding. What was perhaps even more significant was that the pestilence gave rise to several non-Arab Muslim empires.[28] These were most notably, the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[29]), the Ottoman Empire (1288[30]/1299[31]—1922[31]), the Safavids (1501—1736[32]) and the Great Golden Horde (1259—1419[33]/1502[34]).[28] However one of these empires would fall by the 1400s, even though by the 1370s, they had reached their full strength; this was the Golden Horde, which was hit with the black plague in the 15th century.[28] Timur the Tamerlane would also destroy their capital Saray, and they would become vulnerable to the Russians who were growing ever more powerful.[28] Internal rivalries finally killed off the empire, which broke up into smaller states such as the Kazan Khanate and the Crimean Khanate.[28] Ivan the Terrible then murdered off many Muslims, forcing them to either convert to Orthodox Christianity or to die by the sword.[28] The Crimean Khanate did hold out bravely against the encroaching Russians, and lasted until the 18th century.[28] Since then it had long lasting consequences for the Tatar Muslims who have until this day not been liberated from the Russian yoke.[28] The rest of the Muslim empires would all fall by the 20th century.

A plague doctor from Europe.[35]
Major outbreaks of the plague during the second epidemic of the 14th century.

Major Epidemics:— The bubonic plague[n. 13] outbreak of the 14th century (also known as the "Black Death") was actually the sixth major plague outbreak to hit Muslim North Africa and Western Asia; prior to it's outbreak there had already been five major epidemics.[1] The most notable outbreaks being the Plague of Shirawayh (628) in Persia, the Plague of Yezdigird (c. 634—642; which was a minor plague) and the Plague of Amwas (638) in Syria, the Plague of Kufah (669; minor)[2] in Iraq, and the Violent Plague (688; also known as the Plague of Jarif) in Iraq, Syria and Egypt.[1][n. 14] The fourth major epidemic was the Plague of Maidens in Iraq (706; particularly notable as most it's victims were women) and the fifth and final plague was the Plague of the Notables in Iraq and Syria (c. 716—717).[1] Other minor plague outbreaks continued in the later centuries however, such as the Adi ibn Artah (718—719) and Crows (744—745) in Syria and Iraq, and Iraq respectively.[1] The 14th century plague from China[n. 15] that began then afterwards again lead to higher mortality rate of Muslim-kind; which affected many cities; between 1347—1349 Egypt for example fell deathly ill.[3][n. 16] Other places affected were Crimea (1346),[4] Baghdad (1347 and 1349) in Iraq,[5][4] Damascus (1348) in Syria,[5][6] Mecca (1348) in Saudi Arabia,[7] Tripoli (1348) in Tunisia,[6] Muslim and Christian Spain (1348),[6] Marrakesh (1349) in Morocco,[8] Lisbon (1349) in Muslim and Christian Portugal,[6] and Aden (1351) in Yemen.[4]

17th century Islamic view of jannah (paradise).[9]

Muslim Humanity for the Infected:— Europeans were often incredulous at how Muslims readily accepted the consequences of the plague, and were surprised they were not going as mental as them.[n. 17][n. 18][n. 19] An Italian from Florence even fabricated wild accusations against Muslims; "[i]t commenced with the infidels [Muslims] this cruel inhumanity, that mothers and fathers abandoned their children, and children their fathers and mothers, one brother the other and other relatives, a thing cruel and astonishing, and something very foreign to human nature, detestable to faithful Christians, who yet soon followed the barbaric nations in practising this same cruelty".[10] However the opposite actually occurred, in contrast to the ignorance of this European view.[10] The Muslims readily accepted the plague as it was seen as a source of martyrdom and mercy by God in order to hasten going to paradise.[10][11] The European view of barbarism was ironic; one of the reasons for the rapid spread of the disease to the entire continent of Europe was that the Europeans had extremely bad hygiene practices,[12] they didn't use water to cleanse themselves after defacating. European cities were full of human excrement dumped from houses onto the public streets, often filled with rubbish of all kinds, and infested with rats.[12] Hygiene practises in the Muslim world were, and still are, much more hygienic which is why the disease spread slowly. Despite this however, epidemics also later occurred in 1669 in Persia.[13]

Ibn Battuta travelled extensively between 1346 and 1349, and witnessed many plague epidemics break. He survived and was never infected.[24]

Muslim Death Toll:— The plague killed millions as it had done before,[n. 20] although it is not known how many people had died from the bacterial infection, even in Europe,[14] where it is accepted to be ~33%.[14] North Africa and Western Asia are similarly believed to have had a mortality rate of some 33%,[15][16] meaning that at the very least, the disease would have wiped out a third of the Muslim population.[17][n. 21] However, records from Asia have not been studied extensively by historians, and the numbers remain speculative.[17] Additionally, North Africa and Western Asia may also have had a lesser death toll overall when compared to Europeans, although reasons for this are not entirely clear.[17] Other estimates range from between 25%—50% of the population between 1347 to 1351 alone.[18][19][20] According to calculations conducted by the Vatican in 1351, some 23.8 million people may have died of the disease in Europe, giving a mortality rate of 31% if their demographic numbered 75 million at the least (still yet other sources claim that between one third to one fourth of the European demographic was wiped out or about 25 million[21]).[15] It has even been argued that up to 60% of Europeans might have perished.[14][36] This mortality rate is believed to be widely similar to how many North Africans and Western Asian Arabs would have died.[23] Still yet, other sources claim that the plague killed 50 million (in the known world)—and 200 million people between 1328 and 1352 globally.[16][14][n. 22]

Muslims relied on science and spirituality to cope.

Historical Sources of the Islamic Plague & Later History:— A witness statement from Ibn al-Wardi (who died in 1349), and who was from Aleppo in Syria wrote an essay called "Risalah al-Naba an 'Alwaba" which described the pestilence's sudden rise within the Muslim world.[25] At least four manuscripts of this description, detailing the spread of the plague are believed to exist, and it is particularly notable that they all use words such as "struck", "cleansed", "uprooted", "reviled", "ravished", "humbled", and "triumphed" within it's structure.[25] It is therefore an extremely important historical source within Muslim history regarding the pestilence.[25][n. 23][n. 24] Further plague outbreaks did occur after 1351, most notably North African, Western Asian and European outbreaks occurred from 1360—1363, 1374, 1400, 1438—1439, 1456—1457, 1464—1466, 1481—1485, 1500—1503, 1518—1531, 1544—1548, 1563—1566, 1573—1588, 1596—1599, 1602—1611, 1623—1640, 1644—1654 and 1664—1667; they were not local, but pandemic.[26] The plague had all but disappeared in Europe by 1722 (and which therefore could explain why Europe advanced so much whilst other countries were still ravaged by the plague which had inevitable economic consequences).[26] The 18th century therefore saw Istanbul affected for 68 years, Anatolia for 57 years, Egypt for 44 years, Albania for 42 years, Bosnia for 41 years, Syria for 33 years, Ottoman Bulgaria for 18 years, Algiers for 45 years, Tunis for 19 years.[27] The most serious outbreaks occurred in Istanbul, Salonika and Aleppo, exploding every 20 years, and killing between 10%—33% of people.[27]

A plague doctor from Europe.[35]

Rise of the non-Arab Muslims:— The Islamic world did not have anything even remotely as similar to the plague doctors in Europe, or religious nutjobs walking from city to city telling people to devote themselves to God in order to end the pestilence. These latter hysterical prone devotees were known as the "flagellants", who would whip themselves, even when it was obvious they were bleeding. What was perhaps even more significant was that the pestilence gave rise to several non-Arab Muslim empires.[28] These were most notably, the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[29]), the Ottoman Empire (1288[30]/1299[31]—1922[31]), the Safavids (1501—1736[37]) and the Great Golden Horde (1259—1419[38]/1502[34]).[28] However one of these empires would fall by the 1400s, even though by the 1370s, they had reached their full strength; this was the Golden Horde, which was hit with the black plague in the 15th century.[28] Timur the Tamerlane would also destroy their capital Saray, and they would become vulnerable to the Russians who were growing ever more powerful.[28] Internal rivalries finally killed off the empire, which broke up into smaller states such as the Kazan Khanate and the Crimean Khanate.[28] Ivan the Terrible then murdered off many Muslims, forcing them to either convert to Orthodox Christianity or to die by the sword.[28] The Crimean Khanate did hold out bravely against the encroaching Russians, and lasted until the 18th century.[28] Since then it had long lasting consequences for the Tatar Muslims who have until this day not been liberated from the Russian yoke.[28] The rest of the Muslim empires would all fall by the 20th century.

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ This was a very dangerous disease that wherever the plague went it caused what writers called a "demographic collapse", as it was that deadly.
    1. J. R. McNeill; Erin Stewart Mauldin (22 December 2014). A Companion to Global Environmental History. John Wiley & Sons. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-118-97753-8.
  2. ^ This particular plague was so horrendous that at one point over 70,000 people were dying per day; and the only means of preventing looting and other pests was to lock up the houses of the dead permanently.
    1. Dols, Michael W. (1974). "Plague in Early Islamic History". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 94 (3): 371. doi:10.2307/600071. ISSN 0003-0279.
  3. ^ The disease was spread from China to Western Asia, North Africa and Europe by the Mongols.
    1. Jackson J. Spielvogel (1 January 2014). Western Civilization: Volume B: 1300-1815. Cengage Learning. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-285-98300-4.
    At least 25 million Chinese and Indians died when the plague affected them.
    1. George C. Kohn (2007). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. Infobase Publishing. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-4381-2923-5.
  4. ^ These outbreaks in Egypt killed between 100,000—300,000 people in Cairo alone, out of a city-wide population of 1.6 million, 100,000—300,000 in Alexandria and 900,000 in Fustat.
    1. Joseph Patrick Byrne (2004). The Black Death. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 104-105. ISBN 978-0-313-32492-5.
  5. ^ This isn't to say Muslims did nothing about the plague, but Muslims did advocate wearing religious charms for protective purposes, as well as prayer. While the Europeans preferred to flee from the plague, thus spreading it to even more more places, Muslims disagreed, and there was some debate on whether or not flight was the best option. It depended on the condition; for example, where that was plague, low elevation, marshes, stagnant waters, exposures from the south, coastal areas, cool areas, dry areas, and mountainous areas. If this wasn't feasable then conditions where areas were considered safe or free from the plague were to be copied. They were advised to stay inside, and cover away from sunlight, and especially to stay cool. Islamic scholars detested flight away, based on religious reasons; since the plague was seen as God's doing, Allah's will was inevitable and so fleeing was both useless and unnecessary.
    1. Robert S. Gottfried (11 May 2010). Black Death. Simon and Schuster. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-4391-1846-7.
  6. ^ The Europeans literally went mad when the plague hit Europe, where they increasingly became even more barbaric than they were before, blaming foreigners or perceived to be foreigners for their disease. Jews were especially targeted, and even well past the black death outbreak of the 14th century, Jews were still being hounded by Europeans extensively over the course of the next few centuries as a result of the plague, resulting in many, many horrendous massacres. Many of their communities were wiped out and went extinct. At least 350 of their communities suffered from torture and murdered. One of the prime accusations were that Jews were poisoning wells with ground up basilisk powder; which was a mythical animal that frightened medieval Europeans. Muslim pilgrims were also blamed for the plague and "regarded as mere instruments of the malicious Jews". Additionally, the Catholic Church was directly responsible for the Jewish persecutions.
    1. Michel Tibayrenc (31 July 2007). Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases: Modern Methodologies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-470-11419-3.
    2. R. Michael (31 March 2008). A History of Catholic Antisemitism: The Dark Side of the Church. Springer. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-230-61117-7.
    Jews in Germany and Sweden were also especially well persecuted over the plague, and were usually accompanied by the maddened and barbaric flagellants, who were religious fanatics that visited towns and cities proclaiming intense devotion to the Christian religion, resulting in violence against non-Christian non-Europeans and Europeans alike.
    1. Anna Foa (2000). The Jews of Europe After the Black Death. University of California Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-520-08765-1.
  7. ^ There was no way Muslims could even persecute non-Muslims or blame them for the plague in general since Islamic law did not allow for such a thing to even occur, in stark contrast to Europe.
    1. John Aberth (16 January 2011). Plagues in World History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 54. ISBN 978-1-4422-0796-7.
  8. ^ Justinians plague, in early medieval period is believed itself to have wiped out 100 million globally.
    1. Gill Davies (August 2011). The Illustrated Timeline of Medicine. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4488-4796-9.
  9. ^ Some authors even state that mosques contained piles of dead bodies, victims of the plague.
    1. Kevin Cunningham (1 January 2011). Bubonic Plague. ABDO Publishing Company. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-61784-048-7.
  10. ^ Additionally, periodic outbreaks of the pestilence would yet claim even more lives during the next four centuries.
    1. Gail Jarrow (5 April 2016). Bubonic Panic: When Plague Invaded America. Highlights Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-62979-562-1.
  11. ^ Other descriptions are written in manuscripts from Cairo, such as those of Ibrahim al-Mimar, which also describes Syria, and Palestine amidst the sudden plague outbreaks
    1. Joseph P. Byrne Ph.D. (16 January 2012). Encyclopedia of the Black Death. ABC-CLIO. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-59884-254-8.
  12. ^ One of the interesting consequences of the black death was that it weakened the Arab empires, but allowed non-Arab empires to flourish and take their places. Four major power erupted after the plague, which were the Ottomans, Mughals, Safavids and the Golden Horde. These became true socio-cultural-artistic and military powers after the Arab demise.
    1. Habib Tiliouine; Richard J. Estes (8 April 2016). The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies: Social, Economic, Political, and Ideological Challenges. Springer. p. 57. ISBN 978-3-319-24774-8.
  13. ^ This was a very dangerous disease that wherever the plague went it caused what writers called a "demographic collapse", as it was that deadly.
    1. J. R. McNeill; Erin Stewart Mauldin (22 December 2014). A Companion to Global Environmental History. John Wiley & Sons. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-118-97753-8.
  14. ^ This particular plague was so horrendous that at one point over 70,000 people were dying per day; and the only means of preventing looting and other pests was to lock up the houses of the dead permanently.
    1. Dols, Michael W. (1974). "Plague in Early Islamic History". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 94 (3): 371. doi:10.2307/600071. ISSN 0003-0279.
  15. ^ The disease was spread from China to Western Asia, North Africa and Europe by the Mongols.
    1. Jackson J. Spielvogel (1 January 2014). Western Civilization: Volume B: 1300-1815. Cengage Learning. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-285-98300-4.
    At least 25 million Chinese and Indians died when the plague affected them.
    1. George C. Kohn (2007). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. Infobase Publishing. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-4381-2923-5.
  16. ^ These outbreaks in Egypt killed between 100,000—300,000 people in Cairo alone, out of a city-wide population of 1.6 million, 100,000—300,000 in Alexandria and 900,000 in Fustat.
    1. Joseph Patrick Byrne (2004). The Black Death. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 104-105. ISBN 978-0-313-32492-5.
  17. ^ This isn't to say Muslims did nothing about the plague, but Muslims did advocate wearing religious charms for protective purposes, as well as prayer. While the Europeans preferred to flee from the plague, thus spreading it to even more more places, Muslims disagreed, and there was some debate on whether or not flight was the best option. It depended on the condition; for example, where that was plague, low elevation, marshes, stagnant waters, exposures from the south, coastal areas, cool areas, dry areas, and mountainous areas. If this wasn't feasable then conditions where areas were considered safe or free from the plague were to be copied. They were advised to stay inside, and cover away from sunlight, and especially to stay cool. Islamic scholars detested flight away, based on religious reasons; since the plague was seen as God's doing, Allah's will was inevitable and so fleeing was both useless and unnecessary.
    1. Robert S. Gottfried (11 May 2010). Black Death. Simon and Schuster. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-4391-1846-7.
  18. ^ The Europeans literally went mad when the plague hit Europe, where they increasingly became even more barbaric than they were before, blaming foreigners or perceived to be foreigners for their disease. Jews were especially targeted, and even well past the black death outbreak of the 14th century, Jews were still being hounded by Europeans extensively over the course of the next few centuries as a result of the plague, resulting in many, many horrendous massacres. Many of their communities were wiped out and went extinct. At least 350 of their communities suffered from torture and murdered. One of the prime accusations were that Jews were poisoning wells with ground up basilisk powder; which was a mythical animal that frightened medieval Europeans. Muslim pilgrims were also blamed for the plague and "regarded as mere instruments of the malicious Jews". Additionally, the Catholic Church was directly responsible for the Jewish persecutions.
    1. Michel Tibayrenc (31 July 2007). Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases: Modern Methodologies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-470-11419-3.
    2. R. Michael (31 March 2008). A History of Catholic Antisemitism: The Dark Side of the Church. Springer. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-230-61117-7.
    Jews in Germany and Sweden were also especially well persecuted over the plague, and were usually accompanied by the maddened and barbaric flagellants, who were religious fanatics that visited towns and cities proclaiming intense devotion to the Christian religion, resulting in violence against non-Christian non-Europeans and Europeans alike.
    1. Anna Foa (2000). The Jews of Europe After the Black Death. University of California Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-520-08765-1.
  19. ^ There was no way Muslims could even persecute non-Muslims or blame them for the plague in general since Islamic law did not allow for such a thing to even occur, in stark contrast to Europe.
    1. John Aberth (16 January 2011). Plagues in World History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 54. ISBN 978-1-4422-0796-7.
  20. ^ Justinians plague, in early medieval period is believed itself to have wiped out 100 million globally.
    1. Gill Davies (August 2011). The Illustrated Timeline of Medicine. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4488-4796-9.
  21. ^ Some authors even state that mosques contained piles of dead bodies, victims of the plague.
    1. Kevin Cunningham (1 January 2011). Bubonic Plague. ABDO Publishing Company. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-61784-048-7.
  22. ^ Additionally, periodic outbreaks of the pestilence would yet claim even more lives during the next four centuries.
    1. Gail Jarrow (5 April 2016). Bubonic Panic: When Plague Invaded America. Highlights Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-62979-562-1.
  23. ^ Other descriptions are written in manuscripts from Cairo, such as those of Ibrahim al-Mimar, which also describes Syria, and Palestine amidst the sudden plague outbreaks
    1. Joseph P. Byrne Ph.D. (16 January 2012). Encyclopedia of the Black Death. ABC-CLIO. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-59884-254-8.
  24. ^ One of the interesting consequences of the black death was that it weakened the Arab empires, but allowed non-Arab empires to flourish and take their places. Four major power erupted after the plague, which were the Ottomans, Mughals, Safavids and the Golden Horde. These became true socio-cultural-artistic and military powers after the Arab demise.
    1. Habib Tiliouine; Richard J. Estes (8 April 2016). The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies: Social, Economic, Political, and Ideological Challenges. Springer. p. 57. ISBN 978-3-319-24774-8.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Dols, Michael W. (1974). "Plague in Early Islamic History". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 94 (3): 371. doi:10.2307/600071. ISSN 0003-0279.
  2. ^ a b Abdul Nasser Kaadan, Mahmud Angrini (Unknown Date; possibly 2010/2011 give youngest source is from 2010 in the paper). Was the Plague Disease a Motivating or an Inhibiting Factor in the Early Muslim Community?. Ishim. Retrieved August 24th, 2016.
  3. ^ a b Joseph Patrick Byrne (2004). The Black Death. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 104-105. ISBN 978-0-313-32492-5.
  4. ^ a b c d e f John Aberth (16 January 2011). Plagues in World History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-4422-0796-7.
  5. ^ a b c d George C. Kohn (2007). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. Infobase Publishing. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-4381-2923-5.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Brian Ward (August 2011). The Story of Medicine. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 24. ISBN 978-1-4488-4792-1.
  7. ^ a b Ole Jørgen Benedictow (2004). The Black Death, 1346-1353: The Complete History. Boydell Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-84383-214-0.
  8. ^ a b Roberta Alexander; Jan Lombardi (2007). A community of readers: a thematic approach to reading. Houghton Mifflin. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-618-91867-6.
  9. ^ a b Melik Kaylan (July 18, 2012). Heaven on Earth. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 24th, 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d e f NA NA (30 April 2016). The Black Death: The Great Mortality of 1348-1350: A Brief History with Documents. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 96. ISBN 978-1-137-10349-9.
  11. ^ a b ^ Josef W. Meri (31 October 2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 236. ISBN 978-1-135-45596-5.
  12. ^ a b c d Editors of Kingfisher (9 September 2004). The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia. Kingfisher. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-7534-5784-9.
  13. ^ a b Albrecht Fuess; Jan-Peter Hartung (3 June 2014). Court Cultures in the Muslim World: Seventh to Nineteenth Centuries. Routledge. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-136-91781-3.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h John Kelly (21 August 2012). The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time. HarperCollins. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-06-224321-8.
  15. ^ a b c d Jim Garrison (2000). Civilization and the Transformation of Power. Cosimo, Inc. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-931044-00-4.
  16. ^ a b c d Sean Martin (19 October 2011). The Black Death. Oldcastle Books. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-84243-553-3.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Diane Zahler (2009). The Black Death. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8225-9076-7.
  18. ^ a b Gill Davies (August 2011). The Illustrated Timeline of Medicine. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-4488-4796-9.
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