The Unknown Muslim Victims of Japanese Unit 731 in WWII (1932—1945)

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According to population estimates, China after World War II should have had a Muslim population of more than 40 million,[1] but today it is hardly close to this. What happened to these missing Muslims is unknown. Some were certainly killed when the Japanese invaded, and others may have met more sinister ends. Unit 731 used a variety of different ethnicities for experimentation. Some certainly may have been Muslim, and might have met their deaths here.

Chinese Muslims

Nanjing Massacre:— When the Japanese invaded Nanjing and proceeded to carry out the Nanjing massacre (November 1937—February 1938),[2] many of their victims were also Muslims.[3] Pre-war census had put the Muslim population with at least 40,000 people, but after the massacre, this population had been near totally annihilated.[3] Chinese Muslims either fled in the evacuations from the city or were killed.[3] However there were still Muslim burial squads within the city that had organized themselves for the purposes of honouring the Muslim dead.[3] The burial squads had immense trouble finding who was a Muslim and who was not.[3] Therefore their only choice was to bury only identifiable Muslims.[3] What the Muslims of Nanjing had already done was to cover their dead with cloth, and marked the bodies with earth, and thereafter placed an identifiable marker.[3] Many of the Muslims that had been killed were found near mosques throughout the city.[3] Many of these Muslims had been raped to death by the Japanese and many of the bodies had been stabbed with bayonets, slashed, beheaded, or shot.[3] To add insult to injury, the burial squads (which were organised into ten or so men) had to get the permission of the "Society for the Maintainance of Order" (colloquially termed "traitor" Chinese) in order to be allowed to transport the bodies to several cemeteries near the "Refugee Zone".[3] Aside from the obvious markers, there was also no clear way of finding what had happened to other Chinese Muslims; they could have been taken away in groups and murdered,[3] or possibly taken for experimentation with Unit 731.

Japanese troops looting the corpses of Chinese at Nanjing (1937).

A particularly harrowing tale of how badly the Japanese treated Chinese civilians was illustrated through the diary of a reverend who witnessed first hand the murder of several generations of an entire family of Muslims in Nanjing, which resulted in only two survivors.

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking - which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree - the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese. One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.
On December 13th, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan [Muslim] named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her one-year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina, the baby being killed with a bayonet.
Some soldiers then went to the next room where were Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and he two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the older being raped by 2-3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed into her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and her mother.
The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7-8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 years respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. After being wounded the 8 year old girl crawled to the next room where lay the body of her mother. Here she stayed for 14 days with her 4 year old sister who had escaped unharmed. The two children lived on puffed rice and the rice crusts that form in the pan when the rice is cooked.
It was from the older of these children that the photographer was able to get part of the story, and verify and correct certain details told him by a neighbour and a relative. The child said the soldiers came every day taking things from the house, but the two children were not discovered as they hid under some old sheets
...[A]fter 14 days the old woman...returned to the neighbourhood and found the two children. It was she who led the photographer to an open space where the bodies had been taken afterwards. Through questioning her and Mrs. Hsia's brother and the little girl, a clear knowledge of the terrible traged was gained. The picture shows the bodies of the 16 and 14 year old girls, each lying in a group of people slain at the same time. Mrs. Hsia and her baby are shown last.
—Rev. John Magee, American Episcopal Church Mission, and resident in China for 25 years.[4][5]

Survivor:— The little 8-year old girl that survived,[6] would go on to live well into her eighties, and is still currently alive.[7] In 2005, the China Daily wrote a biographical piece of her ordeal that had occurred 67 years prior to the interview.[7] In 2005, she was 75 years old, and recounted the story of the murder of her family members and neighbours.[7] Horrendously, Japanese revisionist historians Higashinakano Osamu and Magsumura Goshio questioned the veracity of her family's murder during the mid-1990s, and the overall massacre at Nanjing.[7] The accusations prompted her to act so much so that she sued the books publishers in Chian for ¥800,000 yuan ($96,600 dollars) in 2000; exclaiming "I survived from the pile of dead bodies, how could I be a fake witness?...I just want to be healthy so I can sue them to the end".[7] The Chinese themselves had previously caved into Japanese pressure, as China needed trade in the 1970s, and had therefore dropped wartime reparation claims.[7] It was not until the 1990s did China finally pluck up the courage to challenge the Japanese worldview.[7] This was in direct response to the Japanese becoming nationalistic, with right-wing parties growing even more boisterous in the politics of the island nation.[7] The BBC reported that "[i]n tears, she told a news conference how Japanese soldiers slaughtered seven out of nine members of her immediate family, and how she heard the cries of her sister as she was raped with her mother".[6][n. 1] A total ofbetween 50,000—340,000 Chinese died in the massacre.[8]

Xia Shuqin, 84 years old now.

Organization

Clandestine "Kempeitei" agents.

Bio-Research:— Unit 731 was a Japanese biological warfare[9] and research unit based in China, Manchuria, consisting of several divisions. It's origins lay in 1894,[9] when Japanese medical officers performed particularly poorly during combat with Chinese forces in East Asia.[9] Japanese physicians were eventually sent over to Europe by the Japanese government in order to learn modern medical techniques.[9] The Japanese would surpass the Europeans and arguably,[9] had the best military medical system the world have ever seen.[9] This was especially the case with controlling infectious disease, pathogens and epidemics.[9] Fascination with bacteria grew to dangerous heights and eventually lead to bacterial weaponization.[9] In the year of 1932, the "Epidemic Prevention Laboratory", otherwise known as "Unit 731" (headed by General and Surgeon-doctor[10] Shiro Ishii), moved from their headquarters in Tokyo to Pingfang, China,[9] where they would conduct biological research on Chinese civilians,[9] It consisted of 150 laboratory buildings and 5 external campsites.[11] A secret military police force, known as the "Kempeitei",[9] abducted thousands of Chinese civilians for Unit 731, who's specialty lay in typhoid experimentation;[9] as well as glanders disease,[9] hemorrhagic fever[9] and bubonic plague.[9] It was set up under the premise it was a Japanese "lumber mill",[12] and victims were referred to as "logs" ("maruta"/丸太).[13][14][15] Additionally, those who were assigned to the unit were told "don't look, don't listen, don't tell".[13]

Victim Treatment:— Victims were kept shackled, but were well fed and exercised; former staff at the facility stated that this was because "[u]nless you work with a healthy body, you can't get results".[16] Men, women and children were used.[16] It is notable that Japanese doctors refused to allow the use of anaethetics,[14] believing they would interfere with research, and so were not used when subjects were dismembered.[16] A medicial assistant working in this area of research said test subjects knew it was "over" for them and went along quietly.[16] However upon seeing a scalpel the subject would repeatedly scream, with their face "twisting" in agony.[16] Approximately 70% of the victims were of Chinese origin, and 30% were a mixture of Soviet, Mongolian and Korean.[17] The "Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics" (2011), in a sub section written by Takashi Tsuchiya, claim however that most were Chinese and some were soldiers of the Allies, who were mostly American, Australian or New Zealander.[18] It's annual budget was $80 million dollars (in 2011 dollars), with 3,000 scientists and researchers employed under Dr. Ishii for a total of 10 years (bringing total funding up to $800 million dollars).[18] It was said to have been lavished so well that it was the most luxurious research center in all of Japan's empire.[18] Those employed at Unit 731 had half the budget as payment, while the rest went on research.[18] All surviving data was then sold to the USA for ¥250,000 yen ($2 million in 2011 dollars).[18]

Unit 731 aerial photo. A crematorium is visible.
Japanese dissecting a small child, after vivisection.

Death Toll:— Unit 731 developed a delivery systems for weaponized bubonic plague (as well as anthrax, and tetanus) using fleas contained in porcelain bombs;[11][19] embedded in cotton, rice and wheat.[9] These were dropped across several cities in Chechiang.[9] This first attempt at infecting the Chinese ended in almost total failure; causing the deaths of only 24 people.[9] Ningbo, Zhejiang Province (1940) and Changde (1941) were later used as test cities, but these were far more deadly, killing an estimated 400,000 Chinese.[16] The numbers estimated for germ warfare have been somewhat disputed, ranging from 50,000 to 250,000 by Western historians.[14] Three years after the war had ended, there were still many Chinese dying from these bombings.[16] By the end of the war it's death toll exceeded that of the atomic bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima.[16] The Chinese were not only affected but Japanese; approximately 1,700 Japanese soldiers were also killed in a Cholera outbreak that backfired and infected 10,000 Japanese soldiers in Changteh (1941).[20] Former employees of Unit 731 also even went on to murder Japanese citizens after the war.[21] In late January 1948 for example, one of it's unbeknownst members entered a Tokyo bank where the suspect recognized an employee suffering from symptoms of dysentery.[21] He tricked all 17 staff members into letting him administer a toxic poison,[21] killing 12 of them immediately.[21] He made off with a ¥160,000 yen in cash.[21][n. 2]

Known Experiments

The "Kempeitei" (secret police) would round up Chinese and political dissidents for Dr. Ishii's experiments. Ishii was very well funded by the Japanese government.
  • Live Vivisection Research:— Body organs such as the stomach (including that of the oesophagus) were removed and reattached to the intestines.[16] Infants in particular were tied down, and were said to have been screaming for their mothers while experiments were being done on their bodies.[16] Brains, kidney's and lungs were also removed under these vivisections.[16] In one instance, a test subject was immediately tied down, and had an axe driven through his skull and had his brain removed upon short notice.[16] Japanese who even contracted disease during experiments were also dissected and vivisected.[18]
  • Blood Loss & Amputation Research:— Limbs were amputated to study the loss of blood from the human body.[16] In some cases surgeons would reattach torn limbs to different parts of the body, including reattaching legs to arm sockets.[16] In other instances, limbs were defrosted to cause the onset of gangrene which would never be treated.[16] Defrosting, gangrene and pain were also studied extensively.[16][22] Additionally, horse urine was injected into the kidneys (presumably to study the effects of renal clearance), gasoline and prussic acid,[23] as well as air to cause blood clots.[16] Blood transfusions were also done with various blood types.[18][24] For instance a person with "Group O" blood was transfused with someone who had "Group A" blood,[18] leading to immune attack and death.
  • Freezing Limbs & Gangrene Research:— Freezing experiments were also conducted in relation to amputations;[16][22] where limbs were frozen and then cut off and then reattached.[16] Test subjects were also soaked with water and then tied naked to stakes during the winter months in order to accelerate the effects of freezing.[16] Confirmation of limbs freezing checked by hitting body parts with a stick until a hard and hollow sound could be heard emanating from the limb.[16] In another instance two Chinese clawed each other when put in a -40oC to -50oC chamber.[18] This research is still being used to study the effects of frostbite.[16]
One of the most horrific experiments was freezing subjects until a hollow sound could be heard when they were struck with a stick.
  • Weapons Testing & Development Research:— Test subjects were tied to stakes at different weapons testing ranges in order to test the effects of grenade blast radii.[16] Others were directly shot and had their exit wound and entries studied,[25][26] later being killed if they survived.[16] Flamethrowers were also used on test subjects in order to find the most effective range for deployment on field.[16] Human subjects were also placed into glass gas chambers;[14] for the purposes of chemical weapons testing in the form of gases.[16] There were even chambers used for pressure testing and G-force experiments until they died violently.[16][14][27][28][n. 3]
  • Biological & Chemical Research:— Victims were sent to biological and chemical testing sites;[16] where they were exposed to lethal doses of pathogens and chemicals.[16] These were later developed into bombs which were regularly thrown from aircraft onto densely populated Chinese civilian areas in order to test epidemic capabilities.[16] Test subjects were also made into flea producing factories;[16] where billions of fleas were bred for the development of biological bombs through hosting.[16] Approximately 3,000,000—8,000,000 rats, and other animals were infected for epidemic research and flea production.[18][29][30]
  • Sexual Research:— Prisoners were tricked into receiving vaccinations;[16] when they were really injected with sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and syphyllis.[16][22] Although penicillins were available during this time, the Japanese simply let these diseases develop and then studied the effects.[16] Transmission of the diseases was also by means of rape.[16] Doctors at the test site would rape prisoners in order to get them pregnant and then study the results.[16] These women would be dissected alive either before or after birth, and their fetus's removed.[16][31] They were also infected with other venereal diseases.[14][n. 4]

Known Members

Employees:— The biological weapons complex consisted of 3,000 employees.[11] Manchuria was chosen because of it's poor sanitation conditions, and previous outbreaks of infectious diseases such as Cholera (1919) and the Pneumonic Plague (1910, 1920, 1927).[11] It is notable that the Japanese brutality of their enemies was unusually equal across all nationalities.[32] The first prosecutions against Unit 731 were when 12 soldiers and scientists were tried in the Soviet Union (in Khabarovsk, Siberia), where the unit's activities first began seeping into the public domain;[21] in 1950 trial records were published by the authorities, which stipulated 3,000 Chinese victims and political dissidents were subjected to 10 years worth of experimentation.[21] The Americans however, repeatedly attempted to cover this up; primarily because they wanted to use the data for themselves. The United States gave total immunity to anyone who was involved.[21] At least 11 cities were attacked, and (according to Western historians) 10,000 people died in these experiments, although Chinese and Japanese historians claim a much higher number of 270,000 from 1932 to 1945.[33] Notable members include Ryoichi Naito, Masaji Kitano, Hideo Futagi—Founders of Japan Blood Bank,[34] Kameo Tasaki of the Department of Dermatology and Urology of Machuria Medical College, who was responsible for injection and infection experiments,[18] Hisato Yoshimura, of the Faculty of Medicine at Kyoto Imperial University, and Kazuharu Tanimura of the Army Medical College in Tokyo[18] who both oversaw separate freezing experiments using live human beings,[18] Naco Ikeda, a doctor from Osaka who conducted tetanus and hemorrhagic fever experiments,[18] Satoshi Sugawara—salt water torture.[18] Takeshi Ogasawara—air injection.[18] and Naokiti Suzuki—brain vivisections.[18] Other members include Yoshio Shinozuka,[35] Ueda Yataro[36] and Hisato Yoshimura[37]

According to population estimates, China after World War II should have had a Muslim population of more than 40 million,[38] but today it is hardly close to this. What happened to these missing Muslims is unknown. Some were certainly killed when the Japanese invaded, and others may have met more sinister ends. Unit 731 used a variety of different ethnicities for experimentation. Some certainly may have been Muslim, and might have met their deaths here.

Chinese Muslims

Japanese troops looting the corpses of Chinese at Nanjing (1937).

Nanjing Massacre:— When the Japanese invaded Nanjing and proceeded to carry out the Nanjing massacre (November 1937—February 1938),[2] many of their victims were also Muslims.[3] Pre-war census had put the Muslim population with at least 40,000 people, but after the massacre, this population had been near totally annihilated.[3] Chinese Muslims either fled in the evacuations from the city or were killed.[3] However there were still Muslim burial squads within the city that had organized themselves for the purposes of honouring the Muslim dead.[3] The burial squads had immense trouble finding who was a Muslim and who was not.[3] Therefore their only choice was to bury only identifiable Muslims.[3] What the Muslims of Nanjing had already done was to cover their dead with cloth, and marked the bodies with earth, and thereafter placed an identifiable marker.[3] Many of the Muslims that had been killed were found near mosques throughout the city.[3] Many of these Muslims had been raped to death by the Japanese and many of the bodies had been stabbed with bayonets, slashed, beheaded, or shot.[3] To add insult to injury, the burial squads (which were organised into ten or so men) had to get the permission of the "Society for the Maintainance of Order" (colloquially termed "traitor" Chinese) in order to be allowed to transport the bodies to several cemeteries near the "Refugee Zone".[3] Aside from the obvious markers, there was also no clear way of finding what had happened to other Chinese Muslims; they could have been taken away in groups and murdered,[3] or possibly taken for experimentation with Unit 731.

A particularly harrowing tale of how badly the Japanese treated Chinese civilians was illustrated through the diary of a reverend who witnessed first hand the murder of several generations of an entire family of Muslims in Nanjing, which resulted in only two survivors.

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking - which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree - the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese. One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.
On December 13th, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan [Muslim] named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her one-year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina, the baby being killed with a bayonet.
Some soldiers then went to the next room where were Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and he two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the older being raped by 2-3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed into her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and her mother.
The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7-8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 years respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. After being wounded the 8 year old girl crawled to the next room where lay the body of her mother. Here she stayed for 14 days with her 4 year old sister who had escaped unharmed. The two children lived on puffed rice and the rice crusts that form in the pan when the rice is cooked.
It was from the older of these children that the photographer was able to get part of the story, and verify and correct certain details told him by a neighbour and a relative. The child said the soldiers came every day taking things from the house, but the two children were not discovered as they hid under some old sheets
...[A]fter 14 days the old woman...returned to the neighbourhood and found the two children. It was she who led the photographer to an open space where the bodies had been taken afterwards. Through questioning her and Mrs. Hsia's brother and the little girl, a clear knowledge of the terrible traged was gained. The picture shows the bodies of the 16 and 14 year old girls, each lying in a group of people slain at the same time. Mrs. Hsia and her baby are shown last.
—Rev. John Magee, American Episcopal Church Mission, and resident in China for 25 years.[4][5]
Xia Shuqin, 84 years old now.

Survivor:— The little 8-year old girl that survived,[6] would go on to live well into her eighties, and is still currently alive.[7] In 2005, the China Daily wrote a biographical piece of her ordeal that had occurred 67 years prior to the interview.[7] In 2005, she was 75 years old, and recounted the story of the murder of her family members and neighbours.[7] Horrendously, Japanese revisionist historians Higashinakano Osamu and Magsumura Goshio questioned the veracity of her family's murder during the mid-1990s, and the overall massacre at Nanjing.[7] The accusations prompted her to act so much so that she sued the books publishers in Chian for ¥800,000 yuan ($96,600 dollars) in 2000; exclaiming "I survived from the pile of dead bodies, how could I be a fake witness?...I just want to be healthy so I can sue them to the end".[7] The Chinese themselves had previously caved into Japanese pressure, as China needed trade in the 1970s, and had therefore dropped wartime reparation claims.[7] It was not until the 1990s did China finally pluck up the courage to challenge the Japanese worldview.[7] This was in direct response to the Japanese becoming nationalistic, with right-wing parties growing even more boisterous in the politics of the island nation.[7] The BBC reported that "[i]n tears, she told a news conference how Japanese soldiers slaughtered seven out of nine members of her immediate family, and how she heard the cries of her sister as she was raped with her mother".[6][n. 5] A total ofbetween 50,000—340,000 Chinese died in the massacre.[8]

Organization

Clandestine "Kempeitei" agents.

Bio-Research:— Unit 731 was a Japanese biological warfare[9] and research unit based in China, Manchuria, consisting of several divisions. It's origins lay in 1894,[9] when Japanese medical officers performed particularly poorly during combat with Chinese forces in East Asia.[9] Japanese physicians were eventually sent over to Europe by the Japanese government in order to learn modern medical techniques.[9] The Japanese would surpass the Europeans and arguably,[9] had the best military medical system the world have ever seen.[9] This was especially the case with controlling infectious disease, pathogens and epidemics.[9] Fascination with bacteria grew to dangerous heights and eventually lead to bacterial weaponization.[9] In the year of 1932, the "Epidemic Prevention Laboratory", otherwise known as "Unit 731" (headed by General and Surgeon-doctor[10] Shiro Ishii), moved from their headquarters in Tokyo to Pingfang, China,[9] where they would conduct biological research on Chinese civilians,[9] It consisted of 150 laboratory buildings and 5 external campsites.[11] A secret military police force, known as the "Kempeitei",[9] abducted thousands of Chinese civilians for Unit 731, who's specialty lay in typhoid experimentation;[9] as well as glanders disease,[9] hemorrhagic fever[9] and bubonic plague.[9] It was set up under the premise it was a Japanese "lumber mill",[12] and victims were referred to as "logs" ("maruta"/丸太).[13][14][15] Additionally, those who were assigned to the unit were told "don't look, don't listen, don't tell".[13]

Unit 731 aerial photo. A crematorium is visible.

Victim Treatment:— Victims were kept shackled, but were well fed and exercised; former staff at the facility stated that this was because "[u]nless you work with a healthy body, you can't get results".[16] Men, women and children were used.[16] It is notable that Japanese doctors refused to allow the use of anaethetics,[14] believing they would interfere with research, and so were not used when subjects were dismembered.[16] A medicial assistant working in this area of research said test subjects knew it was "over" for them and went along quietly.[16] However upon seeing a scalpel the subject would repeatedly scream, with their face "twisting" in agony.[16] Approximately 70% of the victims were of Chinese origin, and 30% were a mixture of Soviet, Mongolian and Korean.[17] The "Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics" (2011), in a sub section written by Takashi Tsuchiya, claim however that most were Chinese and some were soldiers of the Allies, who were mostly American, Australian or New Zealander.[18] It's annual budget was $80 million dollars (in 2011 dollars), with 3,000 scientists and researchers employed under Dr. Ishii for a total of 10 years (bringing total funding up to $800 million dollars).[18] It was said to have been lavished so well that it was the most luxurious research center in all of Japan's empire.[18] Those employed at Unit 731 had half the budget as payment, while the rest went on research.[18] All surviving data was then sold to the USA for ¥250,000 yen ($2 million in 2011 dollars).[18]

Japanese dissecting a small child, after vivisection.

Death Toll:— Unit 731 developed a delivery systems for weaponized bubonic plague (as well as anthrax, and tetanus) using fleas contained in porcelain bombs;[11][19] embedded in cotton, rice and wheat.[9] These were dropped across several cities in Chechiang.[9] This first attempt at infecting the Chinese ended in almost total failure; causing the deaths of only 24 people.[9] Ningbo, Zhejiang Province (1940) and Changde (1941) were later used as test cities, but these were far more deadly, killing an estimated 400,000 Chinese.[16] The numbers estimated for germ warfare have been somewhat disputed, ranging from 50,000 to 250,000 by Western historians.[14] Three years after the war had ended, there were still many Chinese dying from these bombings.[16] By the end of the war it's death toll exceeded that of the atomic bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima.[16] The Chinese were not only affected but Japanese; approximately 1,700 Japanese soldiers were also killed in a Cholera outbreak that backfired and infected 10,000 Japanese soldiers in Changteh (1941).[20] Former employees of Unit 731 also even went on to murder Japanese citizens after the war.[21] In late January 1948 for example, one of it's unbeknownst members entered a Tokyo bank where the suspect recognized an employee suffering from symptoms of dysentery.[21] He tricked all 17 staff members into letting him administer a toxic poison,[21] killing 12 of them immediately.[21] He made off with a ¥160,000 yen in cash.[21][n. 6]

Known Experiments

The "Kempeitei" (secret police) would round up Chinese and political dissidents for Dr. Ishii's experiments. Ishii was very well funded by the Japanese government.
  • Live Vivisection Research:— Body organs such as the stomach (including that of the oesophagus) were removed and reattached to the intestines.[16] Infants in particular were tied down, and were said to have been screaming for their mothers while experiments were being done on their bodies.[16] Brains, kidney's and lungs were also removed under these vivisections.[16] In one instance, a test subject was immediately tied down, and had an axe driven through his skull and had his brain removed upon short notice.[16] Japanese who even contracted disease during experiments were also dissected and vivisected.[18]
  • Blood Loss & Amputation Research:— Limbs were amputated to study the loss of blood from the human body.[16] In some cases surgeons would reattach torn limbs to different parts of the body, including reattaching legs to arm sockets.[16] In other instances, limbs were defrosted to cause the onset of gangrene which would never be treated.[16] Defrosting, gangrene and pain were also studied extensively.[16][22] Additionally, horse urine was injected into the kidneys (presumably to study the effects of renal clearance), gasoline and prussic acid,[23] as well as air to cause blood clots.[16] Blood transfusions were also done with various blood types.[18][24] For instance a person with "Group O" blood was transfused with someone who had "Group A" blood,[18] leading to immune attack and death.
  • Freezing Limbs & Gangrene Research:— Freezing experiments were also conducted in relation to amputations;[16][22] where limbs were frozen and then cut off and then reattached.[16] Test subjects were also soaked with water and then tied naked to stakes during the winter months in order to accelerate the effects of freezing.[16] Confirmation of limbs freezing checked by hitting body parts with a stick until a hard and hollow sound could be heard emanating from the limb.[16] In another instance two Chinese clawed each other when put in a -40oC to -50oC chamber.[18] This research is still being used to study the effects of frostbite.[16]
One of the most horrific experiments was freezing subjects until a hollow sound could be heard when they were struck with a stick.
  • Weapons Testing & Development Research:— Test subjects were tied to stakes at different weapons testing ranges in order to test the effects of grenade blast radii.[16] Others were directly shot and had their exit wound and entries studied,[25][26] later being killed if they survived.[16] Flamethrowers were also used on test subjects in order to find the most effective range for deployment on field.[16] Human subjects were also placed into glass gas chambers;[14] for the purposes of chemical weapons testing in the form of gases.[16] There were even chambers used for pressure testing and G-force experiments until they died violently.[16][14][27][28][n. 7]
  • Biological & Chemical Research:— Victims were sent to biological and chemical testing sites;[16] where they were exposed to lethal doses of pathogens and chemicals.[16] These were later developed into bombs which were regularly thrown from aircraft onto densely populated Chinese civilian areas in order to test epidemic capabilities.[16] Test subjects were also made into flea producing factories;[16] where billions of fleas were bred for the development of biological bombs through hosting.[16] Approximately 3,000,000—8,000,000 rats, and other animals were infected for epidemic research and flea production.[18][29][30]
  • Sexual Research:— Prisoners were tricked into receiving vaccinations;[16] when they were really injected with sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and syphyllis.[16][22] Although penicillins were available during this time, the Japanese simply let these diseases develop and then studied the effects.[16] Transmission of the diseases was also by means of rape.[16] Doctors at the test site would rape prisoners in order to get them pregnant and then study the results.[16] These women would be dissected alive either before or after birth, and their fetus's removed.[16][31] They were also infected with other venereal diseases.[14][n. 8]

Known Members

Employees:— The biological weapons complex consisted of 3,000 employees.[11] Manchuria was chosen because of it's poor sanitation conditions, and previous outbreaks of infectious diseases such as Cholera (1919) and the Pneumonic Plague (1910, 1920, 1927).[11] It is notable that the Japanese brutality of their enemies was unusually equal across all nationalities.[32] The first prosecutions against Unit 731 were when 12 soldiers and scientists were tried in the Soviet Union (in Khabarovsk, Siberia), where the unit's activities first began seeping into the public domain;[21] in 1950 trial records were published by the authorities, which stipulated 3,000 Chinese victims and political dissidents were subjected to 10 years worth of experimentation.[21] The Americans however, repeatedly attempted to cover this up; primarily because they wanted to use the data for themselves. The United States gave total immunity to anyone who was involved.[21] At least 11 cities were attacked, and (according to Western historians) 10,000 people died in these experiments, although Chinese and Japanese historians claim a much higher number of 270,000 from 1932 to 1945.[33] Notable members include Ryoichi Naito, Masaji Kitano, Hideo Futagi—Founders of Japan Blood Bank,[34] Kameo Tasaki of the Department of Dermatology and Urology of Machuria Medical College, who was responsible for injection and infection experiments,[18] Hisato Yoshimura, of the Faculty of Medicine at Kyoto Imperial University, and Kazuharu Tanimura of the Army Medical College in Tokyo[18] who both oversaw separate freezing experiments using live human beings,[18] Naco Ikeda, a doctor from Osaka who conducted tetanus and hemorrhagic fever experiments,[18] Satoshi Sugawara—salt water torture.[18] Takeshi Ogasawara—air injection.[18] and Naokiti Suzuki—brain vivisections.[18] Other members include Yoshio Shinozuka,[35] Ueda Yataro[36] and Hisato Yoshimura[37]

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ She eventually won the ruling against the Japanese authors, who represented Asia University, Japan. She had originally sued for ¥15 million yen, but received ¥4 million yen ($44,500 dollars) instead from the Tokyo District Court and The Supreme Court of Japan.
    1. Author on Nanjing loses libel appeal. February 7th, 2009. The Japan Times. Retrieved August 4th, 2016.
    2. Chinese hail Nanjing Massacre witness' libel suit victory. February 9th, 2009. People's Daily Online. Retrieved August 4th, 2016.
  2. ^ Dr. Ishii was even called in when it became clear that the method of administration and death was similar to that done in Manchuria several years prior at his facility.
    1. Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. (December 1989). Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. pp. 47. ISSN 00963402.
  3. ^ Camera men would record Chinese dying slowly in pressure chambers.
    1. Sheldon H. Harris (3 May 2002). Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45, and the American Cover-up. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-134-82751-0.
  4. ^ The purpose of this research was to investigate venereal disease, which was a massive problem for Japanese soldiers who were ordered to rape civilians. As a result many contracted venereal diseases.
    1. Peter Williams; David Wallace (1989). Unit 731: Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II. Free Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-02-935301-1.
  5. ^ She eventually won the ruling against the Japanese authors, who represented Asia University, Japan. She had originally sued for ¥15 million yen, but received ¥4 million yen ($44,500 dollars) instead from the Tokyo District Court and The Supreme Court of Japan.
    1. Author on Nanjing loses libel appeal. February 7th, 2009. The Japan Times. Retrieved August 4th, 2016.
    2. Chinese hail Nanjing Massacre witness' libel suit victory. February 9th, 2009. People's Daily Online. Retrieved August 4th, 2016.
  6. ^ Dr. Ishii was even called in when it became clear that the method of administration and death was similar to that done in Manchuria several years prior at his facility.
    1. Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. (December 1989). Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. pp. 47. ISSN 00963402.
  7. ^ Camera men would record Chinese dying slowly in pressure chambers.
    1. Sheldon H. Harris (3 May 2002). Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45, and the American Cover-up. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-134-82751-0.
  8. ^ The purpose of this research was to investigate venereal disease, which was a massive problem for Japanese soldiers who were ordered to rape civilians. As a result many contracted venereal diseases.
    1. Peter Williams; David Wallace (1989). Unit 731: Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II. Free Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-02-935301-1.

References

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  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Katsuichi Honda; Frank Gibney; Karen Sandness (24 February 2015). The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame. Routledge. pp. 267. ISBN 978-1-317-45566-0.
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