Difference between revisions of "List of Inventions and Discoveries in Mechanics During the Islamic Golden Age"

From Materia Islamica
Jump to: navigation, search
(Clocks & Sundials (3))
 
Line 43: Line 43:
 
||[[File:Segment gear.jpg|70px|thumb|center|<div style="text-align:justify; word-spacing: -0.1em; letter-spacing: -0em; line-height:100%; width:100%; font-size:80%;">The segment gear.</div>]]
 
||[[File:Segment gear.jpg|70px|thumb|center|<div style="text-align:justify; word-spacing: -0.1em; letter-spacing: -0em; line-height:100%; width:100%; font-size:80%;">The segment gear.</div>]]
 
|
 
|
<div style="text-align:justify; word-spacing: -0.1em; letter-spacing: -0em; line-height:100%; width:100%;"> The Islamic Golden Age was brought about by three dynasties; the '''Abbasids''' (750—1258<ref name="Ali1996">Abdul Ali (1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SgjRRuPtfkQC&pg=PA115&dq=Abbasids+(750%E2%80%941258)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiwkuuthfbfAhXqSRUIHSTqAbUQ6AEIVzAI#v=onepage&q=Abbasids%20(750%E2%80%941258)&f=false Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times]''. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 115. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.</ref>), the '''Fatimids''' (909—1171<ref name="Ali1996fatimids">Abdul Ali (1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SgjRRuPtfkQC&pg=PA1&dq=Fatimids+(909%E2%80%941171)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixqqrNhfbfAhX8QxUIHaGfBKgQ6AEIRzAF#v=onepage&q=Fatimids%20(909%E2%80%941171)&f=false Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times]''. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.</ref>) and the '''Umayyads of Cordoba''' (929—1031<ref name="Mazumdar2013">Mumtaz Mazumdar (19 February 2013). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TyZSDp1YmpAC&pg=PP3&dq=Umayyads+of+Cordoba+(929%E2%80%941031)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitkOj6hfbfAhUfQhUIHZEBBYcQ6AEIPDAD#v=onepage&q=Umayyads%20of%20Cordoba%20(929%E2%80%941031)&f=false First Renaissance in Muslim Arab Spanish Cordoba / Khurtuba]''. GRIN Verlag. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-656-37428-2.</ref>).<ref name="TiliouineEstes2016">Habib Tiliouine; Richard J. Estes (8 April 2016). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f9f7CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA28&dq=%22Islamic+Golden+Age%22+(750%E2%80%941258)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjTsfr38vPfAhWpSRUIHSykBEIQ6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Islamic%20Golden%20Age%22%20(750%E2%80%941258)&f=false The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies: Social, Economic, Political, and Ideological Challenges]''. Springer. pp. 28–33. ISBN 978-3-319-24774-8.</ref> The Abbasids were directly descended from Muhammad's (571—632<ref name="Meri2018"> Josef Meri (12 January 2018). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=P-pGDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT949&dq=Muhammad%27s+(571%E2%80%94632)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwihgeP7g_TfAhVVoXEKHbg9ATcQ6AEIVDAI#v=onepage&q=Muhammad's%20(571%E2%80%94632)&f=false Routledge Revivals: Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006): An Encyclopedia]''. Taylor & Francis. p. 949. ISBN 978-1-351-66813-2.</ref>) bloodline through his uncle,<ref name="Zayzafoon2005">Lamia Ben Youssef Zayzafoon (2005). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=u5dJj2dSp3AC&pg=PA139&dq=Abbasid+Muhammad+uncle&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2tqqZhfTfAhWsVBUIHXl_CkAQ6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=Abbasid%20Muhammad%20uncle&f=falseThe Production of the Muslim Woman: Negotiating Text, History, and Ideology]''. Lexington Books. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7391-1078-2.}</ref><ref name="Stewart2013">Devin J. Stewart (2013). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=q1I0pcrFFSUC&pg=PA2&dq=Abbasid+Muhammad+uncle&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjMjrbDhPTfAhX9ThUIHSZ0CUIQ6AEIPDAD#v=onepage&q=Abbasid%20Muhammad%20uncle&f=falseThe Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought]''. Princeton University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-691-13484-7.</ref> the Fatimids were descended from the daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah (605—633<ref name="Esposito2004fatimah">John L. Esposito (13 May 2004). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KZcohRpc4OsC&pg=PT174&dq=fatimah+daughter+of+muhammad+born+died&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiX4uHJsoTgAhX-AmMBHRFYCIYQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=fatimah%20daughter%20of%20muhammad%20born%20died&f=false The Islamic World: Past and Present 3-Volume Set]''. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3.</ref>),<ref name="TiliouineEstes2016"/> and the Umayyad's claimed no direct ancestry.<ref name="SluglettCurrie2015">Peter Sluglett; Andrew Currie (30 January 2015). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FDxyBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA19&dq=umayyad+were+not+related+to+muhammad&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwif-Ovcs4TgAhUV4OAKHXz0C4sQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=umayyad%20were%20not%20related%20to%20muhammad&f=false Atlas of Islamic History]''. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-317-58896-2.</ref> The longest of these periods was that of the Abbasids, who were pivotal in leading two crucial revolutions, one military and the other intellectual (particularly following the ''[[Battle of Talas (751)]]'' which was hugely influential in spreading the technology of paper-making throughout the world—which until then, had remained a tightly guarded secret; although this is somewhat disputed as some evidence suggests that it was already known to the Muslims). The rise of the Islamic Golden Age thus begins in 750 and ends in 1258, when all the dynasties had ceased to exist. The end of the Abbasid dynasty was particularly traumatic, as the Mongols (who were largely illiterate<ref name="Jr.2014">John D. Langlois Jr. (14 July 2014). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9bL_AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA139&dq=Mongols+(who+were+largely+illiterate)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjU3f-QgvTfAhV1o3EKHb1NCF0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Mongols%20(who%20were%20largely%20illiterate)&f=false China Under Mongol Rule]''. Princeton University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4008-5409-7.</ref>) devastated the capital of Baghdad,<ref name="Hassan2017">Mona Hassan (10 January 2017). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pqqtDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA20&dq=devastated+the+capital+of+Baghdad+1258&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiBwbrdgPTfAhUMQhUIHSY1AY8Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=devastated%20the%20capital%20of%20Baghdad%201258&f=false Longing for the Lost Caliphate: A Transregional History]''. Princeton University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-4008-8371-4.</ref> destroying much of it's intellectual and historical heritage, and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire (the only people spared were Nestorian Christians, who at the request of Hulagu Khan's (1218—1265<ref name="Gernet1996">Jacques Gernet (31 May 1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&pg=PA361&dq=Hulagu+Khan%27s+(1218%E2%80%941265)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixztXKqITgAhWiAWMBHaDvCaYQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Hulagu%20Khan's%20(1218%E2%80%941265)&f=false A History of Chinese Civilization]''. Cambridge University Press. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7.</ref>) Christian wife, Dokuz Khatun (d. 1265<ref name="Lane2018">George Lane (25 January 2018). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=duRLDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT47&dq=Dokuz+Khatun+(d.+1265)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiR9_OrgPTfAhXfRhUIHS76B7sQ6AEINTAC#v=onepage&q=Dokuz%20Khatun%20(d.%201265)&f=false A Short History of the Mongols]''. I.B.Tauris. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-78672-339-0.</ref>), asked only for them not to be massacred<ref name="VenningFrankopan2015"> Timothy Venning; Peter Frankopan (1 May 2015). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ubflCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA341&lpg=PA341&dq=Dokuz+Khatun+spare+christians&source=bl&ots=rTua6JZ98i&sig=ACfU3U21NC9sdyh-2eMkWQQbJTqFlEcklw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjYp-_UgfTfAhVUSxUIHU37DVAQ6AEwAHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=Dokuz%20Khatun%20spare%20christians&f=false A Chronology of the Crusades]''. Routledge. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-317-49643-4.</ref>). Many Armenians (12,000 cavalrymen and 40,000 infantrymen<ref name="Laura Venegoni (2004).">Laura Venegoni (2004). ''[http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/328352 THE POLITICAL BACKGROUND OF THE MONGOLIAN CONQUESTS AND HÜLAGÜ'S WEST CONQUEST (1256-1260)]''. Türkiyat Araştırmaları (Turkish Journal). Ataturk University. p. 29-42. ''[https://web.archive.org/web/20190117042154/http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/328352 WayBackMachine Link]''. Online Copy Found on ''[http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/venegoni.html Here]'' (''[https://web.archive.org/web/20190117043046/http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/venegoni.html WayBackMachine Link]''). ISSN 1300-9052.</ref>)<ref name="Stopka2016">Krzysztof Stopka (16 December 2016). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eeq-DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA167&dq=Siege+of+Baghdad+(1258)+Armenian&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj79Nin-vPfAhURonEKHYWrCkgQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Siege%20of%20Baghdad%20(1258)%20Armenian&f=false Armenia Christiana: Armenian Religious Identity and the Churches of Constantinople and Rome (4th–15th Century)]''. Wydawnictwo UJ. p. 167. ISBN 978-83-233-9555-3.</ref> and Georgians also participated in the massacre—of ''genocidal'' proportion—murdering between 800,000—2,000,000 people.<ref name="Al-Hassan2001">A. Y. Al-Hassan (2001). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=h2g1qte4iegC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+different+aspects+of+Islamic+culture:+Science+and+technology+in+Islam&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj11YrO_vPfAhVnRBUIHcMbAbAQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=2%20nillion&f=false Science and Technology in Islam: Technology and applied sciences]''. UNESCO. p. 655. ISBN 978-92-3-103831-0.</ref> Khan died several years after the siege and was buried on Shahi Island, Iran, along with his wealth that is yet to be found.<ref name="Lane2009">George Lane (2009). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=d2SWstj6j3AC&printsec=frontcover&dq=George+Lane,+Genghis+Khan+and+Mongol+Rule,&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwipmdzNg_TfAhUeTxUIHfHzBb0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Shahi%20Island&f=false Genghis Khan and Mongol Rule]''. Hackett Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 0-87220-969-5.</ref> The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1198—1375<ref name="FriedmanFigg2017">John Block Friedman; Kristen Mossler Figg (5 July 2017). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kkQrDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA32&dq=Armenian+Kingdom+of+Cilicia+1198&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjj3oOdi_TfAhUTqXEKHTrgAcIQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Armenian%20Kingdom%20of%20Cilicia%201198&f=false Routledge Revivals: Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages (2000): An Encyclopedia]''. Taylor & Francis. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-351-66132-4.</ref>) itself ceased to exist in 1375,<ref name="Dashdondog2010">Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog (7 December 2010). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HrqqhduBapQC&pg=PA217&dq=mamluk+armenian+decline&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjryuOBifTfAhV6ShUIHWBxAI0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=mamluk%20armenian%20decline&f=false The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335)]''. BRILL. p. 217. ISBN 90-04-18635-2.</ref> when the Mamluk Empire (1250—1517<ref name="Nicolle1993">David Nicolle (29 July 1993). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=cPAovgAACAAJ&dq=Mamluk+Empire+1250-1517&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHrvb9i_TfAhXySRUIHcdOCpAQ6AEILjAB The Mamluks 1250–1517]''. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-85532-314-8.</ref>) conquered it.<ref name="Reference2011">Marshall Cavendish Reference (2011). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8Zp_5IydPGgC&pg=PA54&dq=Armenian+Kingdom+mamluks+decline+1393&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi3hcagivTfAhWDRxUIHfpDBhcQ6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=Armenian%20Kingdom%20mamluks%20decline%201393&f=false Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World]''. Marshall Cavendish. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-7614-7929-1.</ref>
+
<div style="text-align:justify; word-spacing: -0.1em; letter-spacing: -0em; line-height:100%; width:100%;"> The Islamic Golden Age was brought about by three dynasties; the '''Abbasids''' (750—1258<ref name="Ali1996">Abdul Ali (1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SgjRRuPtfkQC&pg=PA115&dq=Abbasids+(750%E2%80%941258)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiwkuuthfbfAhXqSRUIHSTqAbUQ6AEIVzAI#v=onepage&q=Abbasids%20(750%E2%80%941258)&f=false Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times]''. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 115. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.</ref>), the '''Fatimids''' (909—1171<ref name="Ali1996fatimids">Abdul Ali (1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SgjRRuPtfkQC&pg=PA1&dq=Fatimids+(909%E2%80%941171)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixqqrNhfbfAhX8QxUIHaGfBKgQ6AEIRzAF#v=onepage&q=Fatimids%20(909%E2%80%941171)&f=false Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times]''. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.</ref>) and the '''Umayyads of Cordoba''' (929—1031<ref name="Mazumdar2013">Mumtaz Mazumdar (19 February 2013). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TyZSDp1YmpAC&pg=PP3&dq=Umayyads+of+Cordoba+(929%E2%80%941031)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitkOj6hfbfAhUfQhUIHZEBBYcQ6AEIPDAD#v=onepage&q=Umayyads%20of%20Cordoba%20(929%E2%80%941031)&f=false First Renaissance in Muslim Arab Spanish Cordoba / Khurtuba]''. GRIN Verlag. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-656-37428-2.</ref>).<ref name="TiliouineEstes2016">Habib Tiliouine; Richard J. Estes (8 April 2016). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f9f7CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA28&dq=%22Islamic+Golden+Age%22+(750%E2%80%941258)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjTsfr38vPfAhWpSRUIHSykBEIQ6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Islamic%20Golden%20Age%22%20(750%E2%80%941258)&f=false The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies: Social, Economic, Political, and Ideological Challenges]''. Springer. pp. 28–33. ISBN 978-3-319-24774-8.</ref> The Abbasids were directly descended from Muhammad's (571—632<ref name="Meri2018"> Josef Meri (12 January 2018). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=P-pGDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT949&dq=Muhammad%27s+(571%E2%80%94632)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwihgeP7g_TfAhVVoXEKHbg9ATcQ6AEIVDAI#v=onepage&q=Muhammad's%20(571%E2%80%94632)&f=false Routledge Revivals: Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006): An Encyclopedia]''. Taylor & Francis. p. 949. ISBN 978-1-351-66813-2.</ref>) bloodline through his uncle,<ref name="Zayzafoon2005">Lamia Ben Youssef Zayzafoon (2005). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=u5dJj2dSp3AC&pg=PA139&dq=Abbasid+Muhammad+uncle&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2tqqZhfTfAhWsVBUIHXl_CkAQ6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=Abbasid%20Muhammad%20uncle&f=falseThe Production of the Muslim Woman: Negotiating Text, History, and Ideology]''. Lexington Books. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7391-1078-2.}</ref><ref name="Stewart2013">Devin J. Stewart (2013). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=q1I0pcrFFSUC&pg=PA2&dq=Abbasid+Muhammad+uncle&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjMjrbDhPTfAhX9ThUIHSZ0CUIQ6AEIPDAD#v=onepage&q=Abbasid%20Muhammad%20uncle&f=falseThe Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought]''. Princeton University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-691-13484-7.</ref> the Fatimids were descended from the daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah (605—633<ref name="Esposito2004fatimah">John L. Esposito (13 May 2004). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KZcohRpc4OsC&pg=PT174&dq=fatimah+daughter+of+muhammad+born+died&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiX4uHJsoTgAhX-AmMBHRFYCIYQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=fatimah%20daughter%20of%20muhammad%20born%20died&f=false The Islamic World: Past and Present 3-Volume Set]''. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3.</ref>),<ref name="TiliouineEstes2016"/> and the Umayyad's claimed no direct ancestry.<ref name="SluglettCurrie2015">Peter Sluglett; Andrew Currie (30 January 2015). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FDxyBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA19&dq=umayyad+were+not+related+to+muhammad&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwif-Ovcs4TgAhUV4OAKHXz0C4sQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=umayyad%20were%20not%20related%20to%20muhammad&f=false Atlas of Islamic History]''. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-317-58896-2.</ref> The longest of these periods was that of the Abbasids, who were pivotal in leading two crucial revolutions, one military and the other intellectual (particularly following the ''[[Battle of Talas (751)]]'' which was hugely influential in spreading the technology of paper-making throughout the world—which until then, had remained a tightly guarded secret; although this is somewhat disputed as some evidence suggests that it was already known to the Muslims). The rise of the Islamic Golden Age thus begins in 750 and ends in 1258, when all the dynasties had ceased to exist. The end of the Abbasid dynasty was particularly traumatic, as the Mongols (who were largely illiterate<ref name="Jr.2014">John D. Langlois Jr. (14 July 2014). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9bL_AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA139&dq=Mongols+(who+were+largely+illiterate)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjU3f-QgvTfAhV1o3EKHb1NCF0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Mongols%20(who%20were%20largely%20illiterate)&f=false China Under Mongol Rule]''. Princeton University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4008-5409-7.</ref>) devastated the capital of Baghdad,<ref name="Hassan2017">Mona Hassan (10 January 2017). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pqqtDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA20&dq=devastated+the+capital+of+Baghdad+1258&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiBwbrdgPTfAhUMQhUIHSY1AY8Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=devastated%20the%20capital%20of%20Baghdad%201258&f=false Longing for the Lost Caliphate: A Transregional History]''. Princeton University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-4008-8371-4.</ref> destroying much of it's intellectual and historical heritage, and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire (the only people spared were Nestorian Christians, who at the request of Hulagu Khan's (1218—1265<ref name="Gernet1996">Jacques Gernet (31 May 1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&pg=PA361&dq=Hulagu+Khan%27s+(1218%E2%80%941265)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixztXKqITgAhWiAWMBHaDvCaYQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Hulagu%20Khan's%20(1218%E2%80%941265)&f=false A History of Chinese Civilization]''. Cambridge University Press. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7.</ref>) Christian wife, Dokuz Khatun (d. 1265<ref name="Lane2018">George Lane (25 January 2018). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=duRLDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT47&dq=Dokuz+Khatun+(d.+1265)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiR9_OrgPTfAhXfRhUIHS76B7sQ6AEINTAC#v=onepage&q=Dokuz%20Khatun%20(d.%201265)&f=false A Short History of the Mongols]''. I.B.Tauris. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-78672-339-0.</ref>), asked only for them not to be massacred<ref name="VenningFrankopan2015"> Timothy Venning; Peter Frankopan (1 May 2015). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ubflCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA341&lpg=PA341&dq=Dokuz+Khatun+spare+christians&source=bl&ots=rTua6JZ98i&sig=ACfU3U21NC9sdyh-2eMkWQQbJTqFlEcklw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjYp-_UgfTfAhVUSxUIHU37DVAQ6AEwAHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=Dokuz%20Khatun%20spare%20christians&f=false A Chronology of the Crusades]''. Routledge. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-317-49643-4.</ref>). Many Armenians (12,000 cavalrymen and 40,000 infantrymen<ref name="Laura Venegoni (2004).">Laura Venegoni (2004). ''[http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/328352 THE POLITICAL BACKGROUND OF THE MONGOLIAN CONQUESTS AND HÜLAGÜ'S WEST CONQUEST (1256-1260)]''. Türkiyat Araştırmaları (Turkish Journal). Ataturk University. p. 29-42. ''[https://web.archive.org/web/20190117042154/http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/328352 WayBackMachine Link]''. Online Copy Found on ''[http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/venegoni.html Here]'' (''[https://web.archive.org/web/20190117043046/http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/venegoni.html WayBackMachine Link]''). ISSN 1300-9052.</ref>)<ref name="Stopka2016">Krzysztof Stopka (16 December 2016). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eeq-DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA167&dq=Siege+of+Baghdad+(1258)+Armenian&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj79Nin-vPfAhURonEKHYWrCkgQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Siege%20of%20Baghdad%20(1258)%20Armenian&f=false Armenia Christiana: Armenian Religious Identity and the Churches of Constantinople and Rome (4th–15th Century)]''. Wydawnictwo UJ. p. 167. ISBN 978-83-233-9555-3.</ref> and Georgians also participated in the massacre—of ''genocidal'' proportion—murdering between 800,000—2,000,000 people.<ref name="Al-Hassan2001">A. Y. Al-Hassan (2001). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=h2g1qte4iegC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+different+aspects+of+Islamic+culture:+Science+and+technology+in+Islam&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj11YrO_vPfAhVnRBUIHcMbAbAQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=2%20nillion&f=false Science and Technology in Islam: Technology and applied sciences]''. UNESCO. p. 655. ISBN 978-92-3-103831-0.</ref> Khan died several years after the siege and was buried on Shahi Island, Iran, along with his wealth that is yet to be found.<ref name="Lane2009">George Lane (2009). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=d2SWstj6j3AC&printsec=frontcover&dq=George+Lane,+Genghis+Khan+and+Mongol+Rule,&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwipmdzNg_TfAhUeTxUIHfHzBb0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Shahi%20Island&f=false Genghis Khan and Mongol Rule]''. Hackett Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 0-87220-969-5.</ref> Cilicia (Armenia; 1198—1375<ref name="FriedmanFigg2017">John Block Friedman; Kristen Mossler Figg (5 July 2017). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kkQrDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA32&dq=Armenian+Kingdom+of+Cilicia+1198&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjj3oOdi_TfAhUTqXEKHTrgAcIQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Armenian%20Kingdom%20of%20Cilicia%201198&f=false Routledge Revivals: Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages (2000): An Encyclopedia]''. Taylor & Francis. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-351-66132-4.</ref>) itself ceased to exist in 1375,<ref name="Dashdondog2010">Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog (7 December 2010). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HrqqhduBapQC&pg=PA217&dq=mamluk+armenian+decline&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjryuOBifTfAhV6ShUIHWBxAI0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=mamluk%20armenian%20decline&f=false The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335)]''. BRILL. p. 217. ISBN 90-04-18635-2.</ref> when the Mamluk Empire (1250—1517<ref name="Nicolle1993">David Nicolle (29 July 1993). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=cPAovgAACAAJ&dq=Mamluk+Empire+1250-1517&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHrvb9i_TfAhXySRUIHcdOCpAQ6AEILjAB The Mamluks 1250–1517]''. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-85532-314-8.</ref>) conquered it.<ref name="Reference2011">Marshall Cavendish Reference (2011). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8Zp_5IydPGgC&pg=PA54&dq=Armenian+Kingdom+mamluks+decline+1393&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi3hcagivTfAhWDRxUIHfpDBhcQ6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=Armenian%20Kingdom%20mamluks%20decline%201393&f=false Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World]''. Marshall Cavendish. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-7614-7929-1.</ref>
 
</div>
 
</div>
 
|}
 
|}
Line 71: Line 71:
 
|}
 
|}
 
[[File:Segment gear.jpg|1000px|thumb|center|<div style="text-align:justify; word-spacing: -0.1em; letter-spacing: -0em; line-height:100%; width:100%; font-size:80%;">The segment gear.</div>]]
 
[[File:Segment gear.jpg|1000px|thumb|center|<div style="text-align:justify; word-spacing: -0.1em; letter-spacing: -0em; line-height:100%; width:100%; font-size:80%;">The segment gear.</div>]]
<div style="text-align:justify; word-spacing: -0.1em; letter-spacing: -0em; line-height:100%; width:100%;"> The Islamic Golden Age was brought about by three dynasties; the '''Abbasids''' (750—1258<ref name="Ali1996">Abdul Ali (1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SgjRRuPtfkQC&pg=PA115&dq=Abbasids+(750%E2%80%941258)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiwkuuthfbfAhXqSRUIHSTqAbUQ6AEIVzAI#v=onepage&q=Abbasids%20(750%E2%80%941258)&f=false Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times]''. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 115. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.</ref>), the '''Fatimids''' (909—1171<ref name="Ali1996fatimids">Abdul Ali (1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SgjRRuPtfkQC&pg=PA1&dq=Fatimids+(909%E2%80%941171)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixqqrNhfbfAhX8QxUIHaGfBKgQ6AEIRzAF#v=onepage&q=Fatimids%20(909%E2%80%941171)&f=false Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times]''. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.</ref>) and the '''Umayyads of Cordoba''' (929—1031<ref name="Mazumdar2013">Mumtaz Mazumdar (19 February 2013). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TyZSDp1YmpAC&pg=PP3&dq=Umayyads+of+Cordoba+(929%E2%80%941031)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitkOj6hfbfAhUfQhUIHZEBBYcQ6AEIPDAD#v=onepage&q=Umayyads%20of%20Cordoba%20(929%E2%80%941031)&f=false First Renaissance in Muslim Arab Spanish Cordoba / Khurtuba]''. GRIN Verlag. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-656-37428-2.</ref>).<ref name="TiliouineEstes2016">Habib Tiliouine; Richard J. Estes (8 April 2016). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f9f7CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA28&dq=%22Islamic+Golden+Age%22+(750%E2%80%941258)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjTsfr38vPfAhWpSRUIHSykBEIQ6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Islamic%20Golden%20Age%22%20(750%E2%80%941258)&f=false The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies: Social, Economic, Political, and Ideological Challenges]''. Springer. pp. 28–33. ISBN 978-3-319-24774-8.</ref> The Abbasids were directly descended from Muhammad's (571—632<ref name="Meri2018"> Josef Meri (12 January 2018). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=P-pGDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT949&dq=Muhammad%27s+(571%E2%80%94632)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwihgeP7g_TfAhVVoXEKHbg9ATcQ6AEIVDAI#v=onepage&q=Muhammad's%20(571%E2%80%94632)&f=false Routledge Revivals: Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006): An Encyclopedia]''. Taylor & Francis. p. 949. ISBN 978-1-351-66813-2.</ref>) bloodline through his uncle,<ref name="Zayzafoon2005">Lamia Ben Youssef Zayzafoon (2005). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=u5dJj2dSp3AC&pg=PA139&dq=Abbasid+Muhammad+uncle&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2tqqZhfTfAhWsVBUIHXl_CkAQ6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=Abbasid%20Muhammad%20uncle&f=falseThe Production of the Muslim Woman: Negotiating Text, History, and Ideology]''. Lexington Books. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7391-1078-2.}</ref><ref name="Stewart2013">Devin J. Stewart (2013). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=q1I0pcrFFSUC&pg=PA2&dq=Abbasid+Muhammad+uncle&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjMjrbDhPTfAhX9ThUIHSZ0CUIQ6AEIPDAD#v=onepage&q=Abbasid%20Muhammad%20uncle&f=falseThe Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought]''. Princeton University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-691-13484-7.</ref> the Fatimids were descended from the daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah (605—633<ref name="Esposito2004fatimah">John L. Esposito (13 May 2004). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KZcohRpc4OsC&pg=PT174&dq=fatimah+daughter+of+muhammad+born+died&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiX4uHJsoTgAhX-AmMBHRFYCIYQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=fatimah%20daughter%20of%20muhammad%20born%20died&f=false The Islamic World: Past and Present 3-Volume Set]''. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3.</ref>),<ref name="TiliouineEstes2016"/> and the Umayyad's claimed no direct ancestry.<ref name="SluglettCurrie2015">Peter Sluglett; Andrew Currie (30 January 2015). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FDxyBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA19&dq=umayyad+were+not+related+to+muhammad&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwif-Ovcs4TgAhUV4OAKHXz0C4sQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=umayyad%20were%20not%20related%20to%20muhammad&f=false Atlas of Islamic History]''. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-317-58896-2.</ref> The longest of these periods was that of the Abbasids, who were pivotal in leading two crucial revolutions, one military and the other intellectual (particularly following the ''[[Battle of Talas (751)]]'' which was hugely influential in spreading the technology of paper-making throughout the world—which until then, had remained a tightly guarded secret; although this is somewhat disputed as some evidence suggests that it was already known to the Muslims). The rise of the Islamic Golden Age thus begins in 750 and ends in 1258, when all the dynasties had ceased to exist. The end of the Abbasid dynasty was particularly traumatic, as the Mongols (who were largely illiterate<ref name="Jr.2014">John D. Langlois Jr. (14 July 2014). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9bL_AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA139&dq=Mongols+(who+were+largely+illiterate)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjU3f-QgvTfAhV1o3EKHb1NCF0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Mongols%20(who%20were%20largely%20illiterate)&f=false China Under Mongol Rule]''. Princeton University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4008-5409-7.</ref>) devastated the capital of Baghdad,<ref name="Hassan2017">Mona Hassan (10 January 2017). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pqqtDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA20&dq=devastated+the+capital+of+Baghdad+1258&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiBwbrdgPTfAhUMQhUIHSY1AY8Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=devastated%20the%20capital%20of%20Baghdad%201258&f=false Longing for the Lost Caliphate: A Transregional History]''. Princeton University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-4008-8371-4.</ref> destroying much of it's intellectual and historical heritage, and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire (the only people spared were Nestorian Christians, who at the request of Hulagu Khan's (1218—1265<ref name="Gernet1996">Jacques Gernet (31 May 1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&pg=PA361&dq=Hulagu+Khan%27s+(1218%E2%80%941265)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixztXKqITgAhWiAWMBHaDvCaYQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Hulagu%20Khan's%20(1218%E2%80%941265)&f=false A History of Chinese Civilization]''. Cambridge University Press. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7.</ref>) Christian wife, Dokuz Khatun (d. 1265<ref name="Lane2018">George Lane (25 January 2018). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=duRLDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT47&dq=Dokuz+Khatun+(d.+1265)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiR9_OrgPTfAhXfRhUIHS76B7sQ6AEINTAC#v=onepage&q=Dokuz%20Khatun%20(d.%201265)&f=false A Short History of the Mongols]''. I.B.Tauris. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-78672-339-0.</ref>), asked only for them not to be massacred<ref name="VenningFrankopan2015"> Timothy Venning; Peter Frankopan (1 May 2015). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ubflCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA341&lpg=PA341&dq=Dokuz+Khatun+spare+christians&source=bl&ots=rTua6JZ98i&sig=ACfU3U21NC9sdyh-2eMkWQQbJTqFlEcklw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjYp-_UgfTfAhVUSxUIHU37DVAQ6AEwAHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=Dokuz%20Khatun%20spare%20christians&f=false A Chronology of the Crusades]''. Routledge. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-317-49643-4.</ref>). Many Armenians (12,000 cavalrymen and 40,000 infantrymen<ref name="Laura Venegoni (2004).">Laura Venegoni (2004). ''[http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/328352 THE POLITICAL BACKGROUND OF THE MONGOLIAN CONQUESTS AND HÜLAGÜ'S WEST CONQUEST (1256-1260)]''. Türkiyat Araştırmaları (Turkish Journal). Ataturk University. p. 29-42. ''[https://web.archive.org/web/20190117042154/http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/328352 WayBackMachine Link]''. Online Copy Found on ''[http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/venegoni.html Here]'' (''[https://web.archive.org/web/20190117043046/http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/venegoni.html WayBackMachine Link]''). ISSN 1300-9052.</ref>)<ref name="Stopka2016">Krzysztof Stopka (16 December 2016). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eeq-DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA167&dq=Siege+of+Baghdad+(1258)+Armenian&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj79Nin-vPfAhURonEKHYWrCkgQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Siege%20of%20Baghdad%20(1258)%20Armenian&f=false Armenia Christiana: Armenian Religious Identity and the Churches of Constantinople and Rome (4th–15th Century)]''. Wydawnictwo UJ. p. 167. ISBN 978-83-233-9555-3.</ref> and Georgians also participated in the massacre—of ''genocidal'' proportion—murdering between 800,000—2,000,000 people.<ref name="Al-Hassan2001">A. Y. Al-Hassan (2001). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=h2g1qte4iegC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+different+aspects+of+Islamic+culture:+Science+and+technology+in+Islam&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj11YrO_vPfAhVnRBUIHcMbAbAQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=2%20nillion&f=false Science and Technology in Islam: Technology and applied sciences]''. UNESCO. p. 655. ISBN 978-92-3-103831-0.</ref> Khan died several years after the siege and was buried on Shahi Island, Iran, along with his wealth that is yet to be found.<ref name="Lane2009">George Lane (2009). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=d2SWstj6j3AC&printsec=frontcover&dq=George+Lane,+Genghis+Khan+and+Mongol+Rule,&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwipmdzNg_TfAhUeTxUIHfHzBb0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Shahi%20Island&f=false Genghis Khan and Mongol Rule]''. Hackett Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 0-87220-969-5.</ref> The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1198—1375<ref name="FriedmanFigg2017">John Block Friedman; Kristen Mossler Figg (5 July 2017). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kkQrDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA32&dq=Armenian+Kingdom+of+Cilicia+1198&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjj3oOdi_TfAhUTqXEKHTrgAcIQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Armenian%20Kingdom%20of%20Cilicia%201198&f=false Routledge Revivals: Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages (2000): An Encyclopedia]''. Taylor & Francis. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-351-66132-4.</ref>) itself ceased to exist in 1375,<ref name="Dashdondog2010">Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog (7 December 2010). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HrqqhduBapQC&pg=PA217&dq=mamluk+armenian+decline&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjryuOBifTfAhV6ShUIHWBxAI0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=mamluk%20armenian%20decline&f=false The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335)]''. BRILL. p. 217. ISBN 90-04-18635-2.</ref> when the Mamluk Empire (1250—1517<ref name="Nicolle1993">David Nicolle (29 July 1993). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=cPAovgAACAAJ&dq=Mamluk+Empire+1250-1517&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHrvb9i_TfAhXySRUIHcdOCpAQ6AEILjAB The Mamluks 1250–1517]''. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-85532-314-8.</ref>) conquered it.<ref name="Reference2011">Marshall Cavendish Reference (2011). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8Zp_5IydPGgC&pg=PA54&dq=Armenian+Kingdom+mamluks+decline+1393&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi3hcagivTfAhWDRxUIHfpDBhcQ6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=Armenian%20Kingdom%20mamluks%20decline%201393&f=false Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World]''. Marshall Cavendish. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-7614-7929-1.</ref>
+
<div style="text-align:justify; word-spacing: -0.1em; letter-spacing: -0em; line-height:100%; width:100%;"> The Islamic Golden Age was brought about by three dynasties; the '''Abbasids''' (750—1258<ref name="Ali1996">Abdul Ali (1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SgjRRuPtfkQC&pg=PA115&dq=Abbasids+(750%E2%80%941258)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiwkuuthfbfAhXqSRUIHSTqAbUQ6AEIVzAI#v=onepage&q=Abbasids%20(750%E2%80%941258)&f=false Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times]''. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 115. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.</ref>), the '''Fatimids''' (909—1171<ref name="Ali1996fatimids">Abdul Ali (1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SgjRRuPtfkQC&pg=PA1&dq=Fatimids+(909%E2%80%941171)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixqqrNhfbfAhX8QxUIHaGfBKgQ6AEIRzAF#v=onepage&q=Fatimids%20(909%E2%80%941171)&f=false Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times]''. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.</ref>) and the '''Umayyads of Cordoba''' (929—1031<ref name="Mazumdar2013">Mumtaz Mazumdar (19 February 2013). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TyZSDp1YmpAC&pg=PP3&dq=Umayyads+of+Cordoba+(929%E2%80%941031)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitkOj6hfbfAhUfQhUIHZEBBYcQ6AEIPDAD#v=onepage&q=Umayyads%20of%20Cordoba%20(929%E2%80%941031)&f=false First Renaissance in Muslim Arab Spanish Cordoba / Khurtuba]''. GRIN Verlag. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-656-37428-2.</ref>).<ref name="TiliouineEstes2016">Habib Tiliouine; Richard J. Estes (8 April 2016). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f9f7CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA28&dq=%22Islamic+Golden+Age%22+(750%E2%80%941258)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjTsfr38vPfAhWpSRUIHSykBEIQ6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Islamic%20Golden%20Age%22%20(750%E2%80%941258)&f=false The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies: Social, Economic, Political, and Ideological Challenges]''. Springer. pp. 28–33. ISBN 978-3-319-24774-8.</ref> The Abbasids were directly descended from Muhammad's (571—632<ref name="Meri2018"> Josef Meri (12 January 2018). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=P-pGDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT949&dq=Muhammad%27s+(571%E2%80%94632)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwihgeP7g_TfAhVVoXEKHbg9ATcQ6AEIVDAI#v=onepage&q=Muhammad's%20(571%E2%80%94632)&f=false Routledge Revivals: Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006): An Encyclopedia]''. Taylor & Francis. p. 949. ISBN 978-1-351-66813-2.</ref>) bloodline through his uncle,<ref name="Zayzafoon2005">Lamia Ben Youssef Zayzafoon (2005). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=u5dJj2dSp3AC&pg=PA139&dq=Abbasid+Muhammad+uncle&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2tqqZhfTfAhWsVBUIHXl_CkAQ6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=Abbasid%20Muhammad%20uncle&f=falseThe Production of the Muslim Woman: Negotiating Text, History, and Ideology]''. Lexington Books. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7391-1078-2.}</ref><ref name="Stewart2013">Devin J. Stewart (2013). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=q1I0pcrFFSUC&pg=PA2&dq=Abbasid+Muhammad+uncle&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjMjrbDhPTfAhX9ThUIHSZ0CUIQ6AEIPDAD#v=onepage&q=Abbasid%20Muhammad%20uncle&f=falseThe Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought]''. Princeton University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-691-13484-7.</ref> the Fatimids were descended from the daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah (605—633<ref name="Esposito2004fatimah">John L. Esposito (13 May 2004). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KZcohRpc4OsC&pg=PT174&dq=fatimah+daughter+of+muhammad+born+died&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiX4uHJsoTgAhX-AmMBHRFYCIYQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=fatimah%20daughter%20of%20muhammad%20born%20died&f=false The Islamic World: Past and Present 3-Volume Set]''. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3.</ref>),<ref name="TiliouineEstes2016"/> and the Umayyad's claimed no direct ancestry.<ref name="SluglettCurrie2015">Peter Sluglett; Andrew Currie (30 January 2015). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FDxyBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA19&dq=umayyad+were+not+related+to+muhammad&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwif-Ovcs4TgAhUV4OAKHXz0C4sQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=umayyad%20were%20not%20related%20to%20muhammad&f=false Atlas of Islamic History]''. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-317-58896-2.</ref> The longest of these periods was that of the Abbasids, who were pivotal in leading two crucial revolutions, one military and the other intellectual (particularly following the ''[[Battle of Talas (751)]]'' which was hugely influential in spreading the technology of paper-making throughout the world—which until then, had remained a tightly guarded secret; although this is somewhat disputed as some evidence suggests that it was already known to the Muslims). The rise of the Islamic Golden Age thus begins in 750 and ends in 1258, when all the dynasties had ceased to exist. The end of the Abbasid dynasty was particularly traumatic, as the Mongols (who were largely illiterate<ref name="Jr.2014">John D. Langlois Jr. (14 July 2014). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9bL_AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA139&dq=Mongols+(who+were+largely+illiterate)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjU3f-QgvTfAhV1o3EKHb1NCF0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Mongols%20(who%20were%20largely%20illiterate)&f=false China Under Mongol Rule]''. Princeton University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4008-5409-7.</ref>) devastated the capital of Baghdad,<ref name="Hassan2017">Mona Hassan (10 January 2017). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pqqtDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA20&dq=devastated+the+capital+of+Baghdad+1258&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiBwbrdgPTfAhUMQhUIHSY1AY8Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=devastated%20the%20capital%20of%20Baghdad%201258&f=false Longing for the Lost Caliphate: A Transregional History]''. Princeton University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-4008-8371-4.</ref> destroying much of it's intellectual and historical heritage, and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire (the only people spared were Nestorian Christians, who at the request of Hulagu Khan's (1218—1265<ref name="Gernet1996">Jacques Gernet (31 May 1996). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&pg=PA361&dq=Hulagu+Khan%27s+(1218%E2%80%941265)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixztXKqITgAhWiAWMBHaDvCaYQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Hulagu%20Khan's%20(1218%E2%80%941265)&f=false A History of Chinese Civilization]''. Cambridge University Press. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7.</ref>) Christian wife, Dokuz Khatun (d. 1265<ref name="Lane2018">George Lane (25 January 2018). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=duRLDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT47&dq=Dokuz+Khatun+(d.+1265)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiR9_OrgPTfAhXfRhUIHS76B7sQ6AEINTAC#v=onepage&q=Dokuz%20Khatun%20(d.%201265)&f=false A Short History of the Mongols]''. I.B.Tauris. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-78672-339-0.</ref>), asked only for them not to be massacred<ref name="VenningFrankopan2015"> Timothy Venning; Peter Frankopan (1 May 2015). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ubflCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA341&lpg=PA341&dq=Dokuz+Khatun+spare+christians&source=bl&ots=rTua6JZ98i&sig=ACfU3U21NC9sdyh-2eMkWQQbJTqFlEcklw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjYp-_UgfTfAhVUSxUIHU37DVAQ6AEwAHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=Dokuz%20Khatun%20spare%20christians&f=false A Chronology of the Crusades]''. Routledge. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-317-49643-4.</ref>). Many Armenians (12,000 cavalrymen and 40,000 infantrymen<ref name="Laura Venegoni (2004).">Laura Venegoni (2004). ''[http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/328352 THE POLITICAL BACKGROUND OF THE MONGOLIAN CONQUESTS AND HÜLAGÜ'S WEST CONQUEST (1256-1260)]''. Türkiyat Araştırmaları (Turkish Journal). Ataturk University. p. 29-42. ''[https://web.archive.org/web/20190117042154/http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/328352 WayBackMachine Link]''. Online Copy Found on ''[http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/venegoni.html Here]'' (''[https://web.archive.org/web/20190117043046/http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/venegoni.html WayBackMachine Link]''). ISSN 1300-9052.</ref>)<ref name="Stopka2016">Krzysztof Stopka (16 December 2016). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eeq-DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA167&dq=Siege+of+Baghdad+(1258)+Armenian&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj79Nin-vPfAhURonEKHYWrCkgQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Siege%20of%20Baghdad%20(1258)%20Armenian&f=false Armenia Christiana: Armenian Religious Identity and the Churches of Constantinople and Rome (4th–15th Century)]''. Wydawnictwo UJ. p. 167. ISBN 978-83-233-9555-3.</ref> and Georgians also participated in the massacre—of ''genocidal'' proportion—murdering between 800,000—2,000,000 people.<ref name="Al-Hassan2001">A. Y. Al-Hassan (2001). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=h2g1qte4iegC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+different+aspects+of+Islamic+culture:+Science+and+technology+in+Islam&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj11YrO_vPfAhVnRBUIHcMbAbAQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=2%20nillion&f=false Science and Technology in Islam: Technology and applied sciences]''. UNESCO. p. 655. ISBN 978-92-3-103831-0.</ref> Khan died several years after the siege and was buried on Shahi Island, Iran, along with his wealth that is yet to be found.<ref name="Lane2009">George Lane (2009). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=d2SWstj6j3AC&printsec=frontcover&dq=George+Lane,+Genghis+Khan+and+Mongol+Rule,&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwipmdzNg_TfAhUeTxUIHfHzBb0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Shahi%20Island&f=false Genghis Khan and Mongol Rule]''. Hackett Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 0-87220-969-5.</ref> Cilicia (Armenia; 1198—1375<ref name="FriedmanFigg2017">John Block Friedman; Kristen Mossler Figg (5 July 2017). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kkQrDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA32&dq=Armenian+Kingdom+of+Cilicia+1198&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjj3oOdi_TfAhUTqXEKHTrgAcIQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Armenian%20Kingdom%20of%20Cilicia%201198&f=false Routledge Revivals: Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages (2000): An Encyclopedia]''. Taylor & Francis. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-351-66132-4.</ref>) itself ceased to exist in 1375,<ref name="Dashdondog2010">Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog (7 December 2010). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HrqqhduBapQC&pg=PA217&dq=mamluk+armenian+decline&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjryuOBifTfAhV6ShUIHWBxAI0Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=mamluk%20armenian%20decline&f=false The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335)]''. BRILL. p. 217. ISBN 90-04-18635-2.</ref> when the Mamluk Empire (1250—1517<ref name="Nicolle1993">David Nicolle (29 July 1993). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=cPAovgAACAAJ&dq=Mamluk+Empire+1250-1517&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHrvb9i_TfAhXySRUIHcdOCpAQ6AEILjAB The Mamluks 1250–1517]''. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-85532-314-8.</ref>) conquered it.<ref name="Reference2011">Marshall Cavendish Reference (2011). ''[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8Zp_5IydPGgC&pg=PA54&dq=Armenian+Kingdom+mamluks+decline+1393&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi3hcagivTfAhWDRxUIHfpDBhcQ6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=Armenian%20Kingdom%20mamluks%20decline%201393&f=false Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World]''. Marshall Cavendish. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-7614-7929-1.</ref>
 
</div>
 
</div>
 
</div>
 
</div>

Latest revision as of 19:20, 9 September 2019

147967156634005.png

Mining & MetalworkNavigation Tools & Analogue ComputersGears & Connecting MechanismsTools & InstrumentsMechanical Engines & MachinesWater Wheels & Wind MachinesAutomata Weaponry & Safety Clocks & SundialsManufacturing Control MechanismsSee alsoSources • (FootnotesReferencesAcknowledgements) • External LinksTotal Inventions & Discoveries Listed: 66

The segment gear.
The Islamic Golden Age was brought about by three dynasties; the Abbasids (750—1258[1]), the Fatimids (909—1171[2]) and the Umayyads of Cordoba (929—1031[3]).[4] The Abbasids were directly descended from Muhammad's (571—632[5]) bloodline through his uncle,[6][7] the Fatimids were descended from the daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah (605—633[8]),[4] and the Umayyad's claimed no direct ancestry.[9] The longest of these periods was that of the Abbasids, who were pivotal in leading two crucial revolutions, one military and the other intellectual (particularly following the Battle of Talas (751) which was hugely influential in spreading the technology of paper-making throughout the world—which until then, had remained a tightly guarded secret; although this is somewhat disputed as some evidence suggests that it was already known to the Muslims). The rise of the Islamic Golden Age thus begins in 750 and ends in 1258, when all the dynasties had ceased to exist. The end of the Abbasid dynasty was particularly traumatic, as the Mongols (who were largely illiterate[10]) devastated the capital of Baghdad,[11] destroying much of it's intellectual and historical heritage, and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire (the only people spared were Nestorian Christians, who at the request of Hulagu Khan's (1218—1265[12]) Christian wife, Dokuz Khatun (d. 1265[13]), asked only for them not to be massacred[14]). Many Armenians (12,000 cavalrymen and 40,000 infantrymen[15])[16] and Georgians also participated in the massacre—of genocidal proportion—murdering between 800,000—2,000,000 people.[17] Khan died several years after the siege and was buried on Shahi Island, Iran, along with his wealth that is yet to be found.[18] Cilicia (Armenia; 1198—1375[19]) itself ceased to exist in 1375,[20] when the Mamluk Empire (1250—1517[21]) conquered it.[22]

Working Title: List of Inventions and Discoveries in the Islamic World (Mechanics) | Original Publisher: Materia Islamica | Publication Date: March 22nd, 2019 | Written by: Canadian786 | Artricle No. 90.

Working Title: List of Inventions and Discoveries in the Islamic World (Mechanics) | Original Publisher: Materia Islamica | Publication Date: March 22nd, 2019 | Written by: Canadian786 | Artricle No. 90.

The segment gear.
The Islamic Golden Age was brought about by three dynasties; the Abbasids (750—1258[1]), the Fatimids (909—1171[2]) and the Umayyads of Cordoba (929—1031[3]).[4] The Abbasids were directly descended from Muhammad's (571—632[5]) bloodline through his uncle,[6][7] the Fatimids were descended from the daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah (605—633[8]),[4] and the Umayyad's claimed no direct ancestry.[9] The longest of these periods was that of the Abbasids, who were pivotal in leading two crucial revolutions, one military and the other intellectual (particularly following the Battle of Talas (751) which was hugely influential in spreading the technology of paper-making throughout the world—which until then, had remained a tightly guarded secret; although this is somewhat disputed as some evidence suggests that it was already known to the Muslims). The rise of the Islamic Golden Age thus begins in 750 and ends in 1258, when all the dynasties had ceased to exist. The end of the Abbasid dynasty was particularly traumatic, as the Mongols (who were largely illiterate[10]) devastated the capital of Baghdad,[11] destroying much of it's intellectual and historical heritage, and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire (the only people spared were Nestorian Christians, who at the request of Hulagu Khan's (1218—1265[12]) Christian wife, Dokuz Khatun (d. 1265[13]), asked only for them not to be massacred[14]). Many Armenians (12,000 cavalrymen and 40,000 infantrymen[15])[16] and Georgians also participated in the massacre—of genocidal proportion—murdering between 800,000—2,000,000 people.[17] Khan died several years after the siege and was buried on Shahi Island, Iran, along with his wealth that is yet to be found.[18] Cilicia (Armenia; 1198—1375[19]) itself ceased to exist in 1375,[20] when the Mamluk Empire (1250—1517[21]) conquered it.[22]

Article Methodology & List of Notable Historical Mechanical Scientists & Polymaths in the Islamic Golden Age

  • In accordance with the principle of peer-review and the hierarchy of evidence and relevance of research papers, this list has been compiled using the best evidence available and has been taken from a range of scientific and historical research databases. The majority of the sources hence can be easily found using the ISBN or DOI numbers (the latter of which are similar to an ISBN number but for research papers which have undergone thorough checks and re-checks through academic scholarship). This article consists of a List of Inventions and Discoveries in Islamic World with respect to the history of Islamic mechanics. This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.

List of Mentioned Notable Historical Scientists & Polymaths in Mechanics in the Islamic Golden Age

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Ibn Sina.
  • Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina[23] (Avicenna; 980—1037[24])—Ibn Sina wrote 270 different publications (450 treatises[25]), with his best known work being the "al-Qanun fi al-Tibb"[25] (or "The Canon of Medicine"[25]) in Jurjan, and finishing it in Ray around 1020.[26]
  • Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham[27] (Alhazen; 965—1040[28])—He wrote the "Kitab al-Manazir"[29] (or the "Book of Optics"[30]), which was hugely influential until the 17th century.[31] In writing it, his goal was to separate truth from error and explain the phenomena of light and vision.[31]
  • Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi[32] (R(h)azes; 865—925[33])—Razi’s best known books are "al-Hawi Fi al-Tibb"[34] (or "The Comprehensive Book in Medicine"[34]) and "Kitab Al-Mansuri".[35] The former is known in Europe as the "Liber Continens",[36] consisting of 23[34]—24 volumes.[37]
  • Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Bassal[38] (fl. 1038/1043—1075[38][39])—He lived in Toledo in Islamic Spain (711—1492), and served the royals as a botanist in a garden he had created in the Valley of the Tagus.[38] He wrote a book on agriculture known as the "al-Qasd wa 'l-bayan".[38]
  • Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Jabir ibn Sinan ar-Raqqi al-Harrani as-Sabi al-Battani[40] (Albategnius;[40] c. 858—929[40])—He lived in several areas of the Islamic world, before finally settling in Samarra, which was a newly founded city in Iraq.[40] He largely contributed to astronomy and mathematics.[40]
Tipu Sultan. The ruler of Mysore.
  • Taqi al-Dīn Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Qadhi Ma'ruf ibn Ahmad al-Shami al-'Asadi al-Rasid[41] (Taqi al-Din;[41] 1526—1585[41])—Ottoman Mathematician and astronomer. The most important of his books include "The Desire of Students for Arithmetic" and the "Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks".[42]
  • Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini[43] (Abbas ibn Firnas; Armen Firman; 809/810[43]—887[43])—A famous scientist from Muslim Spain (711—1492) who was the first human known to fly. Of the 24 craters on the moon named after Muslim scientists, one (named in 1976) contains his name.[44]
  • Al-Hasan al-Rammah al-Ahdab[45] (d. 1294/1295[46])—A famous Muslim inventor who is known as the first person to have completely purified potassium nitrate for use in gunpowder.[47] He invented the torpedo which was corroborated by evidence gathered from French military personnel at the Battle of Damiah (1248).[48]
  • Haidarali (Haider Ali; 1720—1782[49]) and Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu (Tipu Sultan; 1750—1799[49])—Emperors of the Kingdom of Mysore (1399—1948). They were one of the few people defeat the British in battle at the Battle of Pollilur (1780) using superior technology, which was invented by the Muslim kings themselves.
  • Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir[50] (c. 800—873[51]), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir[50] (c. 805—873[51]) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir[50] (c. 810—893[51])—Also known as the Banu Musa brothers, they lived in the 9th century, and wrote the "Kitáb al-Ḥiyal: Kitáb al-Hiyal" (or "The Book of Ingenious Devices").[52]
Biruni.
  • Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni[53] (Biruni; 973–1048[53])—A scientist who once said "in accordance with my natural disposition I was from my youth possessed with real greed to acquire knowledge".[54] He had an asteroid called "9936 Al-Biruni" named after him in 1986.[55] He is known as the father of geodesy.[56]
  • Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi[57] (Khwarizmi; 780—850[58])—A mathematician who coined the words "algebra" and "algorithm".[59] He is also known as the father of algebra.[60] He wrote the "Hisab al-Jabr w'al-muqabala" (or the "Science of Reduction and Confrontation", or "Science of Equations").[59]
  • Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn Khidr Khojandi (Khujundi; 900—1000[61])—A famous astronomer who built a huge observatory in Tehran, Iran, and known to have built a huge mural sextant in 994, and the first scientist to measure to an accuracy of arcseconds in astronomy.[61]
  • Ahmad ibn Abdallah Habash Hasib Marwazi (766—864[62]/874[62])—A famous astronomer who's major contributions lay in the development of trigonometry.[62] He developed new trignometric functions in his time and made several important calculations in his time in celestial observation.[62]
  • Jamshid ibn Masʿud ibn Maḥmud Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashi[63] (Kashani; 1380—1429[64])—He was born in Persia, in the town of Kashan 90 miles north of Umar's tomb in Isfahan.[65] He wrote many works, especially in astronomy.[65] He also wrote a notable book in mathematics called "The Calculators' Key".[65]
Jazari.
  • Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Yahya l-Naqqash al-Tujibi Ibn al-Zarqalluh[66] (Arzachel[67]/Azarquiel[66]; 1029—1087[68]/1100[66])—An astronomer in Islamic Spain (711—1492) notable for having invented the equatorium which plotted the positions of the sun, moon and planets.[69] One of the craters on the moon is named after him.[70]
  • Abu al-Ḥasan Ala al‐Dīn Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari[71] (Ibn al-Shatir;[71] 1304—1375[72])—He was an astronomer situated in Damascus, Syria, and his expertise lay in timekeeping, where he also designed astronomical instruments.[73] He also contributed to planetary theory.[73]
  • Sharaf al-Din Al-Muzaffar ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Muzaffar al-Tusi[74] (Sharif al-Din;[74] c. 1135—1213[74])—A mathematician he is remembered for several important works involving algebra.[75] He was also an inventor of astrolabes.[75] He was born in Iran and died in Iran, though he spent a large amount of time in Syria.[75]
  • Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman[76] (c. 16th century[77])—A Kashmiri metallurgist who was known to have fully perfected the lost-wax casting technique for his seamless globes.[78] He belongs to the same minority which has been brutalised since 1947 by India for following Islam and protesting for their right to self-determination.
  • Muhammad b. Abi Bakr b. Muhammad al-Rashidi al-Ibari [or al-Abiri] al-Isfahani[79] (c. 13th Century)—He invented a very complicated astrolabe, which has survived today. It consists of many moving parts and more information is given below.
  • Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari[80] (Jazari; 1136–1206[81])—An inventor of mechanical devices he is best remembered for his "unusual automata" which can be found in his book, the "Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices".[80]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Ibn Sina.
  • Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina[23] (Avicenna; 980—1037[24])—Ibn Sina wrote 270 different publications (450 treatises[25]), with his best known work being the "al-Qanun fi al-Tibb"[25] (or "The Canon of Medicine"[25]) in Jurjan, and finishing it in Ray around 1020.[26]
  • Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham[27] (Alhazen; 965—1040[28])—He wrote the "Kitab al-Manazir"[29] (or the "Book of Optics"[30]), which was hugely influential until the 17th century.[31] In writing it, his goal was to separate truth from error and explain the phenomena of light and vision.[31]
  • Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi[32] (R(h)azes; 865—925[33])—Razi’s best known books are "al-Hawi Fi al-Tibb"[34] (or "The Comprehensive Book in Medicine"[34]) and "Kitab Al-Mansuri".[35] The former is known in Europe as the "Liber Continens",[36] consisting of 23[34]—24 volumes.[82]
  • Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Bassal[38] (fl. 1038/1043—1075[38][39])—He lived in Toledo in Islamic Spain (711—1492), and served the royals as a botanist in a garden he had created in the Valley of the Tagus.[38] He wrote a book on agriculture known as the "al-Qasd wa 'l-bayan".[38]
  • Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Jabir ibn Sinan ar-Raqqi al-Harrani as-Sabi al-Battani[40] (Albategnius;[40] c. 858—929[40])—He lived in several areas of the Islamic world, before finally settling in Samarra, which was a newly founded city in Iraq.[40] He largely contributed to astronomy and mathematics.[40]
Tipu Sultan. The ruler of Mysore.
  • Taqi al-Dīn Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Qadhi Ma'ruf ibn Ahmad al-Shami al-'Asadi al-Rasid[41] (Taqi al-Din;[41] 1526—1585[41])—Ottoman Mathematician and astronomer. The most important of his books include "The Desire of Students for Arithmetic" and the "Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks".[42]
  • Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini[43] (Abbas ibn Firnas; Armen Firman; 809/810[43]—887[43])—A famous scientist from Muslim Spain (711—1492) who was the first human known to fly. Of the 24 craters on the moon named after Muslim scientists, one (named in 1976) contains his name.[44]
  • Al-Hasan al-Rammah al-Ahdab[45] (d. 1294/1295[46])—A famous Muslim inventor who is known as the first person to have completely purified potassium nitrate for use in gunpowder.[47] He invented the torpedo which was corroborated by evidence gathered from French military personnel at the Battle of Damiah (1248).[48]
  • Haidarali (Haider Ali; 1720—1782[49]) and Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu (Tipu Sultan; 1750—1799[49])—Emperors of the Kingdom of Mysore (1399—1948). They were one of the few people defeat the British in battle at the Battle of Pollilur (1780) using superior technology, which was invented by the Muslim kings themselves.
  • Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir[50] (c. 800—873[51]), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir[50] (c. 805—873[51]) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir[50] (c. 810—893[51])—Also known as the Banu Musa brothers, they lived in the 9th century, and wrote the "Kitáb al-Ḥiyal: Kitáb al-Hiyal" (or "The Book of Ingenious Devices").[83]
Biruni.
  • Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni[53] (Biruni; 973–1048[53])—A scientist who once said "in accordance with my natural disposition I was from my youth possessed with real greed to acquire knowledge".[54] He had an asteroid called "9936 Al-Biruni" named after him in 1986.[55] He is known as the father of geodesy.[56]
  • Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi[57] (Khwarizmi; 780—850[58])—A mathematician who coined the words "algebra" and "algorithm".[59] He is also known as the father of algebra.[60] He wrote the "Hisab al-Jabr w'al-muqabala" (or the "Science of Reduction and Confrontation", or "Science of Equations").[59]
  • Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn Khidr Khojandi (Khujundi; 900—1000[61])—A famous astronomer who built a huge observatory in Tehran, Iran, and known to have built a huge mural sextant in 994, and the first scientist to measure to an accuracy of arcseconds in astronomy.[61]
  • Ahmad ibn Abdallah Habash Hasib Marwazi (766—864[62]/874[62])—A famous astronomer who's major contributions lay in the development of trigonometry.[62] He developed new trignometric functions in his time and made several important calculations in his time in celestial observation.[62]
  • Jamshid ibn Masʿud ibn Maḥmud Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashi[63] (Kashani; 1380—1429[64])—He was born in Persia, in the town of Kashan 90 miles north of Umar's tomb in Isfahan.[65] He wrote many works, especially in astronomy.[65] He also wrote a notable book in mathematics called "The Calculators' Key".[65]
Jazari.
  • Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Yahya l-Naqqash al-Tujibi Ibn al-Zarqalluh[66] (Arzachel[67]/Azarquiel[66]; 1029—1087[68]/1100[66])—An astronomer in Islamic Spain (711—1492) notable for having invented the equatorium which plotted the positions of the sun, moon and planets.[69] One of the craters on the moon is named after him.[70]
  • Abu al-Ḥasan Ala al‐Dīn Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari[71] (Ibn al-Shatir;[71] 1304—1375[72])—He was an astronomer situated in Damascus, Syria, and his expertise lay in timekeeping, where he also designed astronomical instruments.[73] He also contributed to planetary theory.[73]
  • Sharaf al-Din Al-Muzaffar ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Muzaffar al-Tusi[74] (Sharif al-Din;[74] c. 1135—1213[74])—A mathematician he is remembered for several important works involving algebra.[75] He was also an inventor of astrolabes.[75] He was born in Iran and died in Iran, though he spent a large amount of time in Syria.[75]
  • Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman[76] (c. 16th century[77])—A Kashmiri metallurgist who was known to have fully perfected the lost-wax casting technique for his seamless globes.[78] He belongs to the same minority which has been brutalised since 1947 by India for following Islam and protesting for their right to self-determination.
  • Muhammad b. Abi Bakr b. Muhammad al-Rashidi al-Ibari [or al-Abiri] al-Isfahani[79] (c. 13th Century)—He invented a very complicated astrolabe, which has survived today. It consists of many moving parts and more information is given below.
  • Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari[80] (Jazari; 1136–1206[81])—An inventor of mechanical devices he is best remembered for his "unusual automata" which can be found in his book, the "Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices".[80]

Notable Libraries

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • The Library of the House of Wisdom—In the 12th century, this library contained at least 700,000 hand-written volumes.[84] There were 63 libraries littered across ancient Baghdad,[85] with one of the smaller libraries alone containing 150,000 volumes.[84] For context, the University of Oxford in England around this time hardly had a few chests-worth of volumes.[84]
  • The Library of Al-Azhar University—The library of the University of Al-Azhar was founded in 969 in Egypt. It is still in operation, over 1,050 years since it's founding. In 1977, it's collection contains 80,000 volumes and 20,000 historical manuscripts.[85] By 2016, the ancient manuscript collection grew to some 40,000, but many of them still require urgent digitization.[86]
  • The Library of Cordova—Established in 976 in Cordova, Spain, it contained 400,000—600,000 hand written volumes.[87] Approximately 500 people were employed to maintain it. It was one of 70 libraries established by the Muslims in Spain. After the end of the Cordoba Caliphate in 1031, the books were scattered amongst various Moorish Muslim kingdoms.[87]
  • The Library of the House of Science—The library was established in 1004, in Cairo, by the Fatimad Caliphate, and contained 100,000—600,000 hand written volumes of bound books, and 2,400 copies of the Qu'ran written in gold and silver. The library contained volumes on "jurisprudence, grammar, rhetoric, history, biography, astronomy, and chemistry".[87]
  • The Library of Tripoli, Syria—This library contained 3,000,000 hand written volumes. It contained 50,000 copies of the Qu'ran, and 80,000 commentaries. The rest were all on science. It was deliberately burned down by a European Christian priest during the First Crusade, his reason being that the library contained copies of the Qu'ran. Foreigners used to study in it.[87]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • The Library of the House of Wisdom—In the 12th century, this library contained at least 700,000 hand-written volumes.[84] There were 63 libraries littered across ancient Baghdad,[85] with one of the smaller libraries alone containing 150,000 volumes.[84] For context, the University of Oxford in England around this time hardly had a few chests-worth of volumes.[84]
  • The Library of Al-Azhar University—The library of the University of Al-Azhar was founded in 969 in Egypt. It is still in operation, over 1,050 years since it's founding. In 1977, it's collection contains 80,000 volumes and 20,000 historical manuscripts.[85] By 2016, the ancient manuscript collection grew to some 40,000, but many of them still require urgent digitization.[86]
  • The Library of Cordova—Established in 976 in Cordova, Spain, it contained 400,000—600,000 hand written volumes.[87] Approximately 500 people were employed to maintain it. It was one of 70 libraries established by the Muslims in Spain. After the end of the Cordoba Caliphate in 1031, the books were scattered amongst various Moorish Muslim kingdoms.[87]
  • The Library of the House of Science—The library was established in 1004, in Cairo, by the Fatimad Caliphate, and contained 100,000—600,000 hand written volumes of bound books, and 2,400 copies of the Qu'ran written in gold and silver. The library contained volumes on "jurisprudence, grammar, rhetoric, history, biography, astronomy, and chemistry".[87]
  • The Library of Tripoli, Syria—This library contained 3,000,000 hand written volumes. It contained 50,000 copies of the Qu'ran, and 80,000 commentaries. The rest were all on science. It was deliberately burned down by a European Christian priest during the First Crusade, his reason being that the library contained copies of the Qu'ran. Foreigners used to study in it.[87]

Mining & Metalwork (3)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Mercury absorbing gold.
  • Riverbed Gold Extraction—Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (Biruni; 973–1048) in the mid-eleventh century was the first to obtain gold using riverbed extraction using mercury.[88] This "ingenious" technique involved digging many holes into a riverbed and then filling it with mercury (which is immiscible with water much like oil is), resulting in the entrapment of gold.[88] It was then extracted using a traditional method described by Abu Muhammad al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad ibn Yaqub al-Hamdani (893—945).[88] The amalgam would be placed it into leather cloth, squeezed of water, and the residue heated until the mercury separated from the gold.[88]
  • Short-Hemmed and Short-Sleeved Hauberk—A mail shirt, the short-hemmed and short-sleeved Hauberk shirt (known in Arabic as "dir"[89]), was first invented in the Islamic world, although it isn't known precisely when (it is known the Islamic Moors used them in the 8th—9th centuries[90]).[91][n. 1] This was different from the long-hemmed long-sleeved hauberk.[91][n. 2] Interestingly, the padded surcoat (known to the Europeans as the "pourpoint"), also originating from the Middle-east; was used alongside hauberks.[92] The late Byzantines copied the short-sleeved hauberk for use (or used the long-sleeved version) which were of clear Islamic influence.[92]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Mercury absorbing gold.
  • Riverbed Gold Extraction—Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (Biruni; 973–1048) in the mid-eleventh century was the first to obtain gold using riverbed extraction using mercury.[88] This "ingenious" technique involved digging many holes into a riverbed and then filling it with mercury (which is immiscible with water much like oil is), resulting in the entrapment of gold.[88] It was then extracted using a traditional method described by Abu Muhammad al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad ibn Yaqub al-Hamdani (893—945).[88] The amalgam would be placed it into leather cloth, squeezed of water, and the residue heated until the mercury separated from the gold.[88]
  • Short-Hemmed and Short-Sleeved Hauberk—A mail shirt, the short-hemmed and short-sleeved Hauberk shirt (known in Arabic as "dir"[89]), was first invented in the Islamic world, although it isn't known precisely when (it is known the Islamic Moors used them in the 8th—9th centuries[90]).[91][n. 3] This was different from the long-hemmed long-sleeved hauberk.[91][n. 4] Interestingly, the padded surcoat (known to the Europeans as the "pourpoint"), also originating from the Middle-east; was used alongside hauberks.[92] The late Byzantines copied the short-sleeved hauberk for use (or used the long-sleeved version) which were of clear Islamic influence.[92]

Navigation Tools & Analogue Computers (10)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The Sextant
  • Sine Quadrant—Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (Khwarizmi; 780—850) was the first person to invent the sine quadrant (known as the "al-rub al-mujayyab"/"al-jayb") in the 9th century.[93] It was originally used as a graphical device for finding time as a function of altitude using the universal approximate formula.[93] It contained an altitude scale along the rim, and a set of parallel lines, horizontal or vertical, drawn with equal divisions of the altitude scale to one of the radii, parallel to the other radius.[93] Many variants were later made.[93] Abu Ja'far al-Khazin (c. 900—971) designed a trigonometric grid (known in Europe as the "sexagenarium").[93]
  • Sextant—Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn Khidr Khojandi (Khujundi; 900—1000[94]) was the first person in history to invent the sextant, which he called the "suds-ifakhri" (or "Fakhri's Sextant"), naming it after Fakhr al-Dawla (d. 997), the ruler of Rayy, Iran.[95][96] Prior to it's invention visual observations were only made by the naked eye to measure the distance between two objects.[95] A star's rays would pass through a dioptric lens placed in the upper part of a darkened chamber and the star itself would be caught as a reflection on the scale of the sextants arc.[95] It is also described by Abu Rayḥan Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Biruni (Biruni; 973–1050).[95]
  • Trigonometric Quadrant—First invented in 9th century Baghdad, they were used to solve trigonometric problems without the need for manual calculation.[97][98] The tan function itself was discovered by Ahmad ibn Abdallah Habash Hasib Marwazi (766—864/874) in 830.[99] By the 10th century, more sophisticated designs were available, with complicated mathematical markings resembling graph paper.[98] These quadrants would be constructed on the back of astrolabes or astrolabic quadrants.[98] They were popular during the Ottoman period (1299—1922), replacing the astrolabe as the empire's most favourite instrument.[98]
Plate Conjunction.
  • Plate Conjunction—Jamshid ibn Masʿud ibn Maḥmud Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashi (Kashani; 1380—1429) was the first to invent the plate conjunction (also known as the "Plate of Conjunctions").[100] It functions as a computer which mathematically illustrates when during the time of day a planetary conjunction will happen (defined as "the instance of two or more events occurring at the same point in time or space").[100] Data could be programmed directly into the instrument in order to obtain the timings.[100] The manuscript is held in the Garrett Collection of Persian, Turkish, and Indic Manuscripts at Princeton University Library.[100]
  • Plate Zone—Jamshid ibn Masʿud ibn Maḥmud Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashi (Kashani; 1380—1429) was the first to invent the plate zone (also known as the "Plate of Zones").[101] The instrument was used in "its application to the problem of finding the true longitude of the sun and moon at a given time".[101] However some believe that the instrument was created even earlier, specifically by two Arabs living in Spain, ibn as-Samh (c. 1020) and Azaquiel (az-Zarqali; c. 1060), but this possibly may only be conjecture.[101] The historian of science George A. L. Sarton (1884—1956) attributes the invention to these earlier scientists.[101]
  • Saphaea Arzachelis—Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Yahya l-Naqqash al-Tujibi Ibn al-Zarqalluh (Arzachel/Azarquiel; 1029—1087/1100) was the first to invent the Saphaea Arzachelis (also known as the "Safiha Flatus").[102] It was a flat sphere astrolabe (also known as the "Arzachel's Sphere").[102] The invention was significant since it was the first universal astrolabe (it could be used from any position anywhere on earth), and did not depend on the latitude of the observer, unlike previous astrolabes, which were limited to one position.[103] A crater on the moon was named[104] after him by Giovanni Riccioli (1598—1671).[102]
A seamless celestial globe.
  • Reversed Astrolabe—Abu al-Ḥasan Ala al‐Din Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari (Ibn al-Shatir; 1304—1375) was the first to invent the reverse astrolabe, which contains a set of horizons rotated over a fixed stereographic projection of the stars.[105] Although it is not known when the first normal astrolabe was first constructed,[106] it is an ancient ancestor of the computer, and it is used to determine the position of the zodiac and various stars at a specific time of day.[107] It is made up of several pieces of metal.[107] Shatir worked elsewhere besides in astronomy, namely as the chief muwaqqit of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria.[108]
  • Astrolabe Clock—Abu al-Ḥasan Ala al‐Din Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari (Ibn al-Shatir; 1304—1375) was the first to invent the astrolabe clock.[105] Although it is not known when the first normal astrolabe was first constructed,[109] it is an ancient ancestor of the computer, and it is used to determine the position of the zodiac and various stars at a specific time of day.[107] It is made up of several pieces of metal.[107] The historian Khalil bin Aybak al-Ṣafadi (1296—1363) confirms this that it was hung from his personal home.[105] Shatir worked elsewhere besides in astronomy, namely as the chief muwaqqit of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria.[108]
  • Linear Astrolabe—Sharaf al-Din al-Muẓaffar ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Muẓaffar al-Ṭusi (Sharif al-Din; 1135—1213) was the first to invent the linear astrolabe (also known as the "rod of al-Tuusi").[110][111] It consists of a single rod with markings on the sides. The rod "represents the meridian of the planispheric astrolabe, and two threads attached to it, with movable beads on them, can be positioned at various points along the rod to serve in place of the rete (the top plate in the usual planispheric astrolabe, whose pointers indicate the position of certain prominent stars)".[112][n. 5] His student, Kamāl al-Dīin Ibn Yūnus, later improved it.[111]
  • Seamless Celestial Globe—Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman (c. 16th century) was the first person in history to invent the seamless metal globe between 1589—1590.[113][114][115] They were invented in Kashmir, modern day Pakistan, and were also produced in Lahore, also in Pakistan (the latter created by a family of specialists consisting of a family of four generations).[116] Up until the 1985,[117] producing spheres without seams was considered a technical impossibility, even with technology available in the time that this was re-discovered.[113][118] At least 21 known seamless globes are known to have survived throughout history.[113]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The Sextant
  • Sine Quadrant—Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (Khwarizmi; 780—850) was the first person to invent the sine quadrant (known as the "al-rub al-mujayyab"/"al-jayb") in the 9th century.[93] It was originally used as a graphical device for finding time as a function of altitude using the universal approximate formula.[93] It contained an altitude scale along the rim, and a set of parallel lines, horizontal or vertical, drawn with equal divisions of the altitude scale to one of the radii, parallel to the other radius.[93] Many variants were later made.[93] Abu Ja'far al-Khazin (c. 900—971) designed a trigonometric grid (known in Europe as the "sexagenarium").[93]
  • Sextant—Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn Khidr Khojandi (Khujundi; 900—1000[94]) was the first person in history to invent the sextant, which he called the "suds-ifakhri" (or "Fakhri's Sextant"), naming it after Fakhr al-Dawla (d. 997), the ruler of Rayy, Iran.[95][96] Prior to it's invention visual observations were only made by the naked eye to measure the distance between two objects.[95] A star's rays would pass through a dioptric lens placed in the upper part of a darkened chamber and the star itself would be caught as a reflection on the scale of the sextants arc.[95] It is also described by Abu Rayḥan Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Biruni (Biruni; 973–1050).[95]
  • Trigonometric Quadrant—First invented in 9th century Baghdad, they were used to solve trigonometric problems without the need for manual calculation.[97][98] The tan function itself was discovered by Ahmad ibn Abdallah Habash Hasib Marwazi (766—864/874) in 830.[99] By the 10th century, more sophisticated designs were available, with complicated mathematical markings resembling graph paper.[98] These quadrants would be constructed on the back of astrolabes or astrolabic quadrants.[98] They were popular during the Ottoman period (1299—1922), replacing the astrolabe as the empire's most favourite instrument.[98]
Plate Conjunction.
  • Plate Conjunction—Jamshid ibn Masʿud ibn Maḥmud Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashi (Kashani; 1380—1429) was the first to invent the plate conjunction (also known as the "Plate of Conjunctions").[100] It functions as a computer which mathematically illustrates when during the time of day a planetary conjunction will happen (defined as "the instance of two or more events occurring at the same point in time or space").[100] Data could be programmed directly into the instrument in order to obtain the timings.[100] The manuscript is held in the Garrett Collection of Persian, Turkish, and Indic Manuscripts at Princeton University Library.[100]
  • Plate Zone—Jamshid ibn Masʿud ibn Maḥmud Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashi (Kashani; 1380—1429) was the first to invent the plate zone (also known as the "Plate of Zones").[101] The instrument was used in "its application to the problem of finding the true longitude of the sun and moon at a given time".[101] However some believe that the instrument was created even earlier, specifically by two Arabs living in Spain, ibn as-Samh (c. 1020) and Azaquiel (az-Zarqali; c. 1060), but this possibly may only be conjecture.[101] The historian of science George A. L. Sarton (1884—1956) attributes the invention to these earlier scientists.[101]
  • Saphaea Arzachelis—Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Yahya l-Naqqash al-Tujibi Ibn al-Zarqalluh (Arzachel/Azarquiel; 1029—1087/1100) was the first to invent the Saphaea Arzachelis (also known as the "Safiha Flatus").[102] It was a flat sphere astrolabe (also known as the "Arzachel's Sphere").[102] The invention was significant since it was the first universal astrolabe (it could be used from any position anywhere on earth), and did not depend on the latitude of the observer, unlike previous astrolabes, which were limited to one position.[103] A crater on the moon was named[104] after him by Giovanni Riccioli (1598—1671).[102]
A seamless celestial globe.
  • Reversed Astrolabe—Abu al-Ḥasan Ala al‐Din Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari (Ibn al-Shatir; 1304—1375) was the first to invent the reverse astrolabe, which contains a set of horizons rotated over a fixed stereographic projection of the stars.[105] Although it is not known when the first normal astrolabe was first constructed,[106] it is an ancient ancestor of the computer, and it is used to determine the position of the zodiac and various stars at a specific time of day.[107] It is made up of several pieces of metal.[107] Shatir worked elsewhere besides in astronomy, namely as the chief muwaqqit of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria.[108]
  • Astrolabe Clock—Abu al-Ḥasan Ala al‐Din Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari (Ibn al-Shatir; 1304—1375) was the first to invent the astrolabe clock.[105] Although it is not known when the first normal astrolabe was first constructed,[109] it is an ancient ancestor of the computer, and it is used to determine the position of the zodiac and various stars at a specific time of day.[107] It is made up of several pieces of metal.[107] The historian Khalil bin Aybak al-Ṣafadi (1296—1363) confirms this that it was hung from his personal home.[105] Shatir worked elsewhere besides in astronomy, namely as the chief muwaqqit of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria.[108]
  • Linear Astrolabe—Sharaf al-Din al-Muẓaffar ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Muẓaffar al-Ṭusi (Sharif al-Din; 1135—1213) was the first to invent the linear astrolabe (also known as the "rod of al-Tuusi").[110][111] It consists of a single rod with markings on the sides. The rod "represents the meridian of the planispheric astrolabe, and two threads attached to it, with movable beads on them, can be positioned at various points along the rod to serve in place of the rete (the top plate in the usual planispheric astrolabe, whose pointers indicate the position of certain prominent stars)".[112][n. 6] His student, Kamāl al-Dīin Ibn Yūnus, later improved it.[111]
  • Seamless Celestial Globe—Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman (c. 16th century) was the first person in history to invent the seamless metal globe between 1589—1590.[113][114][115] They were invented in Kashmir, modern day Pakistan, and were also produced in Lahore, also in Pakistan (the latter created by a family of specialists consisting of a family of four generations).[116] Up until the 1985,[117] producing spheres without seams was considered a technical impossibility, even with technology available in the time that this was re-discovered.[113][118] At least 21 known seamless globes are known to have survived throughout history.[113]

Gears & Connecting Mechanisms (8)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The segment gear.
  • Mathematical Gear/Calendar Gear—Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (Biruni; 973–1048) was the first to invent mathematical gear (also known as the calendar gear) in the year 1000.[119][120][n. 7][n. 8] It is known to have been invented by him since he cited no other authors, whereas he had for other devices that he had built, which strongly suggests it was his own creation.[121] Biruni was a Tajik by ethnicity, but Persian by culture.[122] However nothing is known about his ancestry or his childhood, but he stayed in Khwarizm until was 23 years old, thereafter travelling outside the region because he was fleeing from several kings.[122]
    • Geared Astrolabe—Muhammad b. Abi Bakr b. Muhammad al-Rashidi al-Ibari [or al-Abiri] al-Isfahani (c. 13th Century) was the first person to invent the geared astrolabe, having incorporated the mathematical gear (also known as a calendar gear) of al-Biruni into his own mechanized astrolabe.[119][120][n. 9][n. 10] The astrolabe is also the oldest complete device with cog wheels to survive from history.[123] On the "front side it is an astrolabe, linked to the calendar by a gear train" and "[o]n the back, the disc shows the phases of the Moon".[123] Images of the device can be seen on "Institute and Museum of History of Science" site.[123]
  • Worm Gear—It is not known who exactly the worm gear was built by, but it first appeared in the 13th—14th centuries in the Delhi Sultanate (1206—1526;[124] modern day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh[125]).[126][n. 11] Worm gears are "used to secure by compact means, a large reduction of speed between driving and driven shafts with a proportionate increase (except for frictional losses) in the torque of the driven shaft".[127] It is very useful because the helix thread prevents back-turning (locking itself when met with a backwards thrust) thus incapable of backwards rotation.[127] It is still used for this purpose today.[127] It was first used in geared sugar mills.
    • Geared Sugar Mills—The first geared sugar mills were built sometime between the 13th—17th centuries in the Delhi Sultanate (1206—1526[124]) empire or the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[128]) in what is now today Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.[129] Cotton gin rollers (itself an Indian Subcontinent invention) reached China in the 13th century, but crucially the Chinese do not mention having used worm gears at all even through to the 14th century.[129] Wang Zhen (fl. 1290—1333[130]) for example in 1313 depicted the cotton gin rollers which were clearly being used in China, but from his drawings it clearly lacked a depiction of a worm gear.[129] This thus indicates that the first geared sugar mills originated in the Indian subcontinent during Muslim rule since they cannot be found anywhere else.
The Worm-gear/Worm-drive was invented in the Delhi Sutanate (1206—1526), which covered Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Afghanistan.
  • Segment Gear—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the segment gear.[131] Others contest this, and say that the earliest use of the segment gear was by Ali Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi (c. 11th century), and which weren't known to any civilisation prior to him.[132] It was one of two first complex gears used for the first time to transmit high torque in machinery (the other being the epicycle gear).[133] The first appearance of segmental gears in Europe was in Italy, in Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio's clock ("Dondi's clock") in 1364.[134][119]
  • Bayonett Fitting—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the bayonet fitting (also, "bayonet mount").[135] The fitting is still used in devices such as light bulbs to fixate them into position (but which were first used for this purpose in lighting in Europe in the 1870s[136]) and also to fixate camera lenses.[137] The fitting was first used in the construction the candle clock (itself an invention of al-Jazari[138]).[135][139] The bayonet itself was invented in France in 1670,[140] who the Chinese received from the Ottomans.[141]
  • Cone/Conical Valves—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers were the first to invent cone/conical valves (others say al-Jazari).[142][n. 12][143][n. 13] They lived in the 9th century, and according to the Oxford University "History of Islam", "[m]any new mechanisms and machines were introduced during this time" one of which "included the invention of conical valves".[144] These were never seen before, with the main difference between these and past inventions being "that the Banu Musa" made "use of properly fitted cone-valves, whereas [the Greeks] Philon and Heron[,] mention only crude clack-valves and plate valves".[145]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The segment gear.
  • Mathematical Gear/Calendar Gear—Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (Biruni; 973–1048) was the first to invent mathematical gear (also known as the calendar gear) in the year 1000.[119][120][n. 14][n. 15] It is known to have been invented by him since he cited no other authors, whereas he had for other devices that he had built, which strongly suggests it was his own creation.[121] Biruni was a Tajik by ethnicity, but Persian by culture.[122] However nothing is known about his ancestry or his childhood, but he stayed in Khwarizm until was 23 years old, thereafter travelling outside the region because he was fleeing from several kings.[122]
    • Geared Astrolabe—Muhammad b. Abi Bakr b. Muhammad al-Rashidi al-Ibari [or al-Abiri] al-Isfahani (c. 13th Century) was the first person to invent the geared astrolabe, having incorporated the mathematical gear (also known as a calendar gear) of al-Biruni into his own mechanized astrolabe.[119][120][n. 16][n. 17] The astrolabe is also the oldest complete device with cog wheels to survive from history.[123] On the "front side it is an astrolabe, linked to the calendar by a gear train" and "[o]n the back, the disc shows the phases of the Moon".[123] Images of the device can be seen on "Institute and Museum of History of Science" site.[123]
  • Worm Gear—It is not known who exactly the worm gear was built by, but it first appeared in the 13th—14th centuries in the Delhi Sultanate (1206—1526;[124] modern day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh[125]).[126][n. 18] Worm gears are "used to secure by compact means, a large reduction of speed between driving and driven shafts with a proportionate increase (except for frictional losses) in the torque of the driven shaft".[127] It is very useful because the helix thread prevents back-turning (locking itself when met with a backwards thrust) thus incapable of backwards rotation.[127] It is still used for this purpose today.[127] It was first used in geared sugar mills.
    • Geared Sugar Mills—The first geared sugar mills were built sometime between the 13th—17th centuries in the Delhi Sultanate (1206—1526[124]) empire or the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[128]) in what is now today Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.[129] Cotton gin rollers (itself an Indian Subcontinent invention) reached China in the 13th century, but crucially the Chinese do not mention having used worm gears at all even through to the 14th century.[129] Wang Zhen (fl. 1290—1333[146]) for example in 1313 depicted the cotton gin rollers which were clearly being used in China, but from his drawings it clearly lacked a depiction of a worm gear.[129] This thus indicates that the first geared sugar mills originated in the Indian subcontinent during Muslim rule since they cannot be found anywhere else.
The Worm-gear/Worm-drive was invented in the Delhi Sutanate (1206—1526), which covered Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Afghanistan.
  • Segment Gear—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the segment gear.[131] Others contest this, and say that the earliest use of the segment gear was by Ali Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi (c. 11th century), and which weren't known to any civilisation prior to him.[132] It was one of two first complex gears used for the first time to transmit high torque in machinery (the other being the epicycle gear).[133] The first appearance of segmental gears in Europe was in Italy, in Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio's clock ("Dondi's clock") in 1364.[134][119]
  • Bayonett Fitting—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the bayonet fitting (also, "bayonet mount").[135] The fitting is still used in devices such as light bulbs to fixate them into position (but which were first used for this purpose in lighting in Europe in the 1870s[136]) and also to fixate camera lenses.[137] The fitting was first used in the construction the candle clock (itself an invention of al-Jazari[138]).[135][139] The bayonet itself was invented in France in 1670,[147] who the Chinese received from the Ottomans.[141]
  • Cone/Conical Valves—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers were the first to invent cone/conical valves (others say al-Jazari).[142][n. 19][143][n. 20] They lived in the 9th century, and according to the Oxford University "History of Islam", "[m]any new mechanisms and machines were introduced during this time" one of which "included the invention of conical valves".[144] These were never seen before, with the main difference between these and past inventions being "that the Banu Musa" made "use of properly fitted cone-valves, whereas [the Greeks] Philon and Heron[,] mention only crude clack-valves and plate valves".[145]

Tools & Instruments (7)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Distillation apparatus from ancient Pakistan for producing essential oils (without Avicenna's refrigerated coil).
  • Refrigerated Coil—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first to invent the refrigerated coil,[148][149][150] which cooled down vapours,[151] condensing them into liquid for collection.[152] He used this invention of his to extract the first essential oil from roses,[153] which were used to make perfume. Indeed, "[t]his is a chilled coil within which the steamed distillate is condensed back into liquid without having to wait for the natural cooling process to take place".[151] Distillation was first invented by the Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC).[154]
    • There is evidence which proves that essential oil production was known to the Indus Valley Civilisation, the people of whom's descendants inhabit modern day Pakistan (indeed one of the theories is that some of these people migrated to the south of India, and indeed there is a genetic connection through the LM-20 haplogroup gene which shows modern day Pakistanis are more related to southern Dravidian Indians than northern Gangetic Indians[155]). The Indus Valley Civilisation however didn't use a refrigerated coil (see picture); they used the system shown adjacent.
    • The Indus Valley distillation apparatus was discovered in 1975 by Paolo Rovesti (1902—1983[156]). He discovered it in the museum of Taxila, and noted that it was a "perfectly preserved distillation apparatus made of terracotta" where the "presence of perfume containers also exhibited in the museum dating from the same period, about 3000 BC, confirmed its use for the preparation of aromatic oils".[157] A second distillation apparatus was also discovered in Afghanistan dated 2000 BC.[158] Distillation was previously thought to have been no older than a 1,000 years old.[158]
The magnification properties of convex lenses was first discovered by Alhazen (965—1040).
Anatomy of the eye (Alhazen).[159]
  • Convex Magnifying Glass—Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham[27] (Alhazen; 965—1040[28]) was the first to discover the magnification properties of convex lenses and thus invent the first convex magnifying glass. Indeed, "[t]he oldest historical proof of a magnifying device, a convex lens forming a magnified image, was not recorded until the 10th century, by the Arabian scholar Alhazen".[160] Thus for the first time in history "the first real appreciation of the action of a lens, in particularly the ability of a convex form to produce a magnified image of an object appears to be due to the Arabian scholar Ibn al-Haitham [Alhazen]".[161] Alhazen wrote the "Kitab al-Manazir" (or the "Book of Optics"), which was hugely influential until the 17th century.[31]
    • Alhazen was also the first to discover the magnification properties of the eyes lens (which is also convex shaped); "[i]n one proposition of the book, in which Alhazen considers refraction through a sphere in the situation where the eye and the object lie on extensions of the same diameter, he states quite definitely that the image will be larger than the object itself".[161]
    • Before glass, gem-stones were known to the ancients which included "transparent rock-crystal", but it is not known if these were used for magnification, even though they were fashioned into convex-like shapes;[162] but this was because they were shaped that way only because of aesthetic design and not for visual correction or properties.[162] Indeed, "[s]ome historians have inferred the use of magnification in early cultures based on the complexity and minute detail in jewelry and craftwork, but this has never been definitely proven".[160] Thus practical proof is lacking.
      • Evidence for this is further strengthened by the fact that these convex-like shapes were also of poor design for magnification and visual aid, having damaged surfaces, and would have had "little value as an aid to vision".[162]
    • The very earliest record of non-convex magnification comes from the ancient Egyptians (3050 BC—641 AD[163]) where their "heiroglyphs depicting simple glass meniscal lenses represent the earliest historical reference to magnification, dating back to 800 B.C".[160]
      • The ancient Greeks (500 BC—146 BC;[164] perhaps; as it isn't certain) knew of one crude non-convex magnification property; that of their glass spheres which when filled with water which produced a magnified image.[n. 21] One Greek noted that it enabled them to read letters "however small and dim" (but it must be made clear here that it isn't known whether the Greeks referred to the magnification properties of glass itself or the water;[160] the latter seems more likely).[162] It also appears that this was a casual off-hand remark than an observation, as the Greeks did not elaborate further or seemed to be aware of its discovery; instead only emphasising the burning properties of their water-filled glass spheres.[162]
Bayonet fitting; al-Jazari (1136–1206) was the first to invent it and used it in his other invention; the candle-clock.
  • Telescope Tube—Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Jabir ibn Sinan ar-Raqqi al-Harrani as-Sabi al-Battani (Albategnius; c. 858—929[165]) was the first person to construct what was later to be known as the telescope tube, also known as the observation tube.[166] He was living in Syria when he constructed the instrument, which was to be used in locating the first crescent moon on the horizon. These tubes did not use lenses, but were still useful in that they "enabled the observer to focus on a part of the sky by eliminating light interference".[166] Another scientist, al-Biruni also mentioned them and included "an exact description of this type of apparatus" in "a section that is also dedicated to verifying the presence of the new crescent" moon.[166]
  • Bent End Funnel—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers, were the first to invent the bent end funnel.[167]
  • Double Concentric Siphon—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers, were the first to invent the double concentric siphon.[167]
Kerosene was first discovered by Razi who invented the kerosene lamp.
  • Hot and Cold Taps—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers were the first to invent the hot and cold taps, specifically in the form of a hot and cold water dispenser.[168][169] Indeed, "[p]ractical inventions included a device that could grab objects underwater, a precursor of today's dredges, and a dispenser for hot and cold water with alternating outlets, one discharging cold water and one hot".[168]
  • Kerosene Lamp—Kerosene was first discovered and purified by Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (R(h)azes; 865—925), which he recovered by refining petroleum, which lead him to the invention[170][n. 22] of the kerosene lamp.[171][n. 23][172][n. 24][173][n. 25] Kerosene lamps were not used in European civilisations until the 1850s (when the name "kerosene" was first invented[174]).[171][175] The value of oil itself only began to increase substantially after 850 with two important developments, one of which was the kerosene lamp.[176][n. 26] The other was the creation of the naphtha corps in the military.[176][n. 27][n. 28]
    • Some European historians have been particularly reluctant to call his invention a kerosene lamp outright, preferring to do him injustice instead by calling his invention a "simple lamp" which "used crude mineral oil",[177] despite the fact that many historians acknowledge that Razi was the first to isolate kerosene using two different methods and used it in burning lamps.[170][176][178][n. 29] Similarly, before Joseph Needham's (1900—1995) publication on Chinese inventions in "Science and Civilisation in China" (1954—2004), many had unquestioningly been attributed to Europeans by Europeans themselves.
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
Distillation apparatus from ancient Pakistan for producing essential oils (without Avicenna's refrigerated coil).
  • Refrigerated Coil—Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna; 980—1037) was the first to invent the refrigerated coil,[148][149][150] which cooled down vapours,[151] condensing them into liquid for collection.[152] He used this invention of his to extract the first essential oil from roses,[153] which were used to make perfume. Indeed, "[t]his is a chilled coil within which the steamed distillate is condensed back into liquid without having to wait for the natural cooling process to take place".[151] Distillation was first invented by the Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC).[154]
    • There is evidence which proves that essential oil production was known to the Indus Valley Civilisation, the people of whom's descendants inhabit modern day Pakistan (indeed one of the theories is that some of these people migrated to the south of India, and indeed there is a genetic connection through the LM-20 haplogroup gene which shows modern day Pakistanis are more related to southern Dravidian Indians than northern Gangetic Indians[155]). The Indus Valley Civilisation however didn't use a refrigerated coil (see picture); they used the system shown adjacent.
    • The Indus Valley distillation apparatus was discovered in 1975 by Paolo Rovesti (1902—1983[156]). He discovered it in the museum of Taxila, and noted that it was a "perfectly preserved distillation apparatus made of terracotta" where the "presence of perfume containers also exhibited in the museum dating from the same period, about 3000 BC, confirmed its use for the preparation of aromatic oils".[157] A second distillation apparatus was also discovered in Afghanistan dated 2000 BC.[158] Distillation was previously thought to have been no older than a 1,000 years old.[158]
The magnification properties of convex lenses was first discovered by Alhazen (965—1040).
Anatomy of the eye (Alhazen).[159]
  • Convex Magnifying Glass—Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham[27] (Alhazen; 965—1040[28]) was the first to discover the magnification properties of convex lenses and thus invent the first convex magnifying glass. Indeed, "[t]he oldest historical proof of a magnifying device, a convex lens forming a magnified image, was not recorded until the 10th century, by the Arabian scholar Alhazen".[160] Thus for the first time in history "the first real appreciation of the action of a lens, in particularly the ability of a convex form to produce a magnified image of an object appears to be due to the Arabian scholar Ibn al-Haitham [Alhazen]".[161] Alhazen wrote the "Kitab al-Manazir" (or the "Book of Optics"), which was hugely influential until the 17th century.[31]
    • Alhazen was also the first to discover the magnification properties of the eyes lens (which is also convex shaped); "[i]n one proposition of the book, in which Alhazen considers refraction through a sphere in the situation where the eye and the object lie on extensions of the same diameter, he states quite definitely that the image will be larger than the object itself".[161]
    • Before glass, gem-stones were known to the ancients which included "transparent rock-crystal", but it is not known if these were used for magnification, even though they were fashioned into convex-like shapes;[162] but this was because they were shaped that way only because of aesthetic design and not for visual correction or properties.[162] Indeed, "[s]ome historians have inferred the use of magnification in early cultures based on the complexity and minute detail in jewelry and craftwork, but this has never been definitely proven".[160] Thus practical proof is lacking.
      • Evidence for this is further strengthened by the fact that these convex-like shapes were also of poor design for magnification and visual aid, having damaged surfaces, and would have had "little value as an aid to vision".[162]
    • The very earliest record of non-convex magnification comes from the ancient Egyptians (3050 BC—641 AD[163]) where their "heiroglyphs depicting simple glass meniscal lenses represent the earliest historical reference to magnification, dating back to 800 B.C".[160]
      • The ancient Greeks (500 BC—146 BC;[164] perhaps; as it isn't certain) knew of one crude non-convex magnification property; that of their glass spheres which when filled with water which produced a magnified image.[n. 30] One Greek noted that it enabled them to read letters "however small and dim" (but it must be made clear here that it isn't known whether the Greeks referred to the magnification properties of glass itself or the water;[160] the latter seems more likely).[162] It also appears that this was a casual off-hand remark than an observation, as the Greeks did not elaborate further or seemed to be aware of its discovery; instead only emphasising the burning properties of their water-filled glass spheres.[162]
Bayonet fitting; al-Jazari (1136–1206) was the first to invent it and used it in his other invention; the candle-clock.
  • Telescope Tube—Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Jabir ibn Sinan ar-Raqqi al-Harrani as-Sabi al-Battani (Albategnius; c. 858—929[165]) was the first person to construct what was later to be known as the telescope tube, also known as the observation tube.[166] He was living in Syria when he constructed the instrument, which was to be used in locating the first crescent moon on the horizon. These tubes did not use lenses, but were still useful in that they "enabled the observer to focus on a part of the sky by eliminating light interference".[166] Another scientist, al-Biruni also mentioned them and included "an exact description of this type of apparatus" in "a section that is also dedicated to verifying the presence of the new crescent" moon.[166]
  • Bent End Funnel—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers, were the first to invent the bent end funnel.[167]
  • Double Concentric Siphon—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers, were the first to invent the double concentric siphon.[167]
Kerosene was first discovered by Razi who invented the kerosene lamp.
  • Hot and Cold Taps—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers were the first to invent the hot and cold taps, specifically in the form of a hot and cold water dispenser.[168][169] Indeed, "[p]ractical inventions included a device that could grab objects underwater, a precursor of today's dredges, and a dispenser for hot and cold water with alternating outlets, one discharging cold water and one hot".[168]
  • Kerosene Lamp—Kerosene was first discovered and purified by Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (R(h)azes; 865—925), which he recovered by refining petroleum, which lead him to the invention[170][n. 31] of the kerosene lamp.[171][n. 32][172][n. 33][173][n. 34] Kerosene lamps were not used in European civilisations until the 1850s (when the name "kerosene" was first invented[174]).[171][175] The value of oil itself only began to increase substantially after 850 with two important developments, one of which was the kerosene lamp.[176][n. 35] The other was the creation of the naphtha corps in the military.[176][n. 36][n. 37]
    • Some European historians have been particularly reluctant to call his invention a kerosene lamp outright, preferring to do him injustice instead by calling his invention a "simple lamp" which "used crude mineral oil",[177] despite the fact that many historians acknowledge that Razi was the first to isolate kerosene using two different methods and used it in burning lamps.[170][176][178][n. 38] Similarly, before Joseph Needham's (1900—1995) publication on Chinese inventions in "Science and Civilisation in China" (1954—2004), many had unquestioningly been attributed to Europeans by Europeans themselves.

Mechanical Engines & Machines (7)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The Six Cylinder Monobloc Pump.[179] This was the predecessor of the steam engine and the multi-cylinder engine.
The Clamshell Grab.[180]
  • Six Cylinder Monobloc Pump—Taqi al-Din Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Qadhi Ma'ruf ibn Ahmad al-Shami al-'Asadi al-Rasid (Taqi al-Din; 1526—1585) was the first to invent the six cylinder monobloc pump in 1559.[181][n. 39] This was the predecessor of the steam engine and the multi-cylinder engine; it employs a camshaft, piston pump, one-way valves and lead weights.[182][183][184] It worked by water flowing into the machine which drove six cams.[185] Each of the cams would move one of the pistons.[185] The cam set up results in an uncoupled movement, and hence a more uniform flow of water in the pumping pipe.[185]
    • The cylinders used are vertical; fitted into a "single wooden block which rests in the water".[186] Additionally there are "delivery pipes which lead out from the sides of the cylinders, near their tops, and are brought together into a single outlet. The pistons are provided with weights at the top and lever arms at the sides. The lever arms are supported at fulcrums and their free ends extend inside the perimeter of a scoop-wheel. As the water strikes the scoop-wheel it rotates, the scoops bear down in the succession on the lever arms and the pistons rise and fall in continuous succession".[186]
  • Steam Turbine/Steam Engine/Steam Driven Engine—Taqi al-Din Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Qadhi Ma'ruf ibn Ahmad al-Shami al-'Asadi al-Rasid (Taqi al-Din; 1526—1585) invented the worlds first steam powered engine, which was designed as a turbine in 1551.[187][188][189][190][n. 40] He is also said to have been the first person in history to see the conventional uses of steam to power machines,[190] realizing that escaping jets of boiled water could be used to power wheels.[190] He subsequently built the engine to drive a rotating spit.[190] Interestingly, the steam turbine became widespread in Europe in the 16th century.[187]
    • The Greek, Heron of Alexander (Unknown Date;[n. 41] though others claim 10 AD—c. 70 AD[191]), has however been claimed to have invented the first steam powered device; however there are several problems to this claim. The first is that historians have often made fraudulent claims in his name (the most famous being the invention of windmills).[n. 42][n. 43] Furthermore, the aeolipile did not have any practical uses[192] (although there have been attempts at making such claims,[193] the evidence is only speculative; which is why Taqi al-Din is given credit for inventing it first since his actually had a practical use). Lastly, the aeolipile may not have actually used steam, since the Greeks did not distinguish steam from air.[193][194] This is strengthened by the fact that the word "aeolipile" actually means "wind-ball".[195] It thus appears that the aeolipile was nothing more than a spinning kettle or amusement.
      • Furthermore the simplicity in the way it works does not really qualify for it to be an engine in the true sense even if it did use water, since it is just boiled water spinning in a container and no different to that of a kettle moving by releasing steam.[196]
The piston pump.
  • Piston Pump—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the piston pump.[197] Today there are many different types of piston pumps available which include plunger piston pumps, axial piston pumps and radial piston pumps.[198] Piston pums have pistons which operate inside the cylinders with the "sealing taking place by means of elastomeric packing or O-rings on the outisde of the piston".[199] They are used in applications high pressure is used, with abrasive liquids being one of the most common applications.[199] A piston pump is also known as a reciprocating pump.[199]
  • Twin Cylinder/Reciprocating Piston Engine—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the reciprocating piston engine.[200] The machine was a twin-cylinder, water-driven pump, which for the first time used suction and discharge to lift water up certain heights.[197] Up until this time—the 12th century—all water-raising machines relied on filling a container and lifting it to empty at a desired height.[197] However al-Jazari's machine forced "water through a pipe, which allowed" it "to lift water to heights never" seen before "with a relatively small-sized machine".[197]
  • Clamshell Grab—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers, were the first to invent the clamshell grab (also known as the "mechanical grab"); which was not known to exist before them.[201][167] This was used to grab objects from underwater.[202] It was also used for mining.[203]
    • The invention came as a result of their work in civil engineering where they had to excavate canals. It was made of two copper half-cylinders connected by hinges. Once lowered into the water using "qx" ropes, another set of ropes "bm" was pulled to snap them together. It was then raised through the "bm" ropes and emptied of it's contents.[180][204] They are especially useful for digging deep shafts in soft earth,[205] such as soil, sand, gravel and rock.
The Crank-Slider Mechanism.
  • Crank-Slider Mechanism–Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the crank-slider mechanism which is arguably "[b]y far the most important contribution of Al-Jazari to mechanism design".[206] This was the "first description of a crank-slider mechanism...300 years before Western Engineers, e.g., Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Leonardo Da Vinci, who used the crank-slider type mechanism in the fifteenth century".[206] It is a linkage mechanism that's used in machines such as "engine pistons, pumps, and clamping devices where a straight line motion is required".[207] It is a type of four bar mechanism "in which the path of one circling point is a circle of infinite radius".[208][209]
  • Camshaft—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the camshaft, thus giving birth to the camshaft mechanism.[210][n. 44][211][n. 45][212][n. 46] The ancients knew of the cam itself, but not the camshaft.[213] Camshafts are a crucial piece of technology found in motorised vehicles.[214] The camshaft is normally found in the cylinder block (or crankcase) and will hold a specific number of cams, which will control the operation of valves in relation to the piston position within each cylinder.[215] The camshaft first appeared in Europe in the 14th century.[216]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The Six Cylinder Monobloc Pump.[179] This was the predecessor of the steam engine and the multi-cylinder engine.
The Clamshell Grab.[180]
  • Six Cylinder Monobloc Pump—Taqi al-Din Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Qadhi Ma'ruf ibn Ahmad al-Shami al-'Asadi al-Rasid (Taqi al-Din; 1526—1585) was the first to invent the six cylinder monobloc pump in 1559.[181][n. 47] This was the predecessor of the steam engine and the multi-cylinder engine; it employs a camshaft, piston pump, one-way valves and lead weights.[182][183][184] It worked by water flowing into the machine which drove six cams.[185] Each of the cams would move one of the pistons.[185] The cam set up results in an uncoupled movement, and hence a more uniform flow of water in the pumping pipe.[185]
    • The cylinders used are vertical; fitted into a "single wooden block which rests in the water".[186] Additionally there are "delivery pipes which lead out from the sides of the cylinders, near their tops, and are brought together into a single outlet. The pistons are provided with weights at the top and lever arms at the sides. The lever arms are supported at fulcrums and their free ends extend inside the perimeter of a scoop-wheel. As the water strikes the scoop-wheel it rotates, the scoops bear down in the succession on the lever arms and the pistons rise and fall in continuous succession".[186]
  • Steam Turbine/Steam Engine/Steam Driven Engine—Taqi al-Din Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Qadhi Ma'ruf ibn Ahmad al-Shami al-'Asadi al-Rasid (Taqi al-Din; 1526—1585) invented the worlds first steam powered engine, which was designed as a turbine in 1551.[187][188][189][190][n. 48] He is also said to have been the first person in history to see the conventional uses of steam to power machines,[190] realizing that escaping jets of boiled water could be used to power wheels.[190] He subsequently built the engine to drive a rotating spit.[190] Interestingly, the steam turbine became widespread in Europe in the 16th century.[187]
    • The Greek, Heron of Alexander (Unknown Date;[n. 49] though others claim 10 AD—c. 70 AD[191]), has however been claimed to have invented the first steam powered device; however there are several problems to this claim. The first is that historians have often made fraudulent claims in his name (the most famous being the invention of windmills).[n. 50][n. 51] Furthermore, the aeolipile did not have any practical uses[192] (although there have been attempts at making such claims,[193] the evidence is only speculative; which is why Taqi al-Din is given credit for inventing it first since his actually had a practical use). Lastly, the aeolipile may not have actually used steam, since the Greeks did not distinguish steam from air.[193][194] This is strengthened by the fact that the word "aeolipile" actually means "wind-ball".[195] It thus appears that the aeolipile was nothing more than a spinning kettle or amusement.
      • Furthermore the simplicity in the way it works does not really qualify for it to be an engine in the true sense even if it did use water, since it is just boiled water spinning in a container and no different to that of a kettle moving by releasing steam.[196]
The piston pump.
  • Piston Pump—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the piston pump.[197] Today there are many different types of piston pumps available which include plunger piston pumps, axial piston pumps and radial piston pumps.[198] Piston pums have pistons which operate inside the cylinders with the "sealing taking place by means of elastomeric packing or O-rings on the outisde of the piston".[199] They are used in applications high pressure is used, with abrasive liquids being one of the most common applications.[199] A piston pump is also known as a reciprocating pump.[199]
  • Twin Cylinder/Reciprocating Piston Engine—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the reciprocating piston engine.[200] The machine was a twin-cylinder, water-driven pump, which for the first time used suction and discharge to lift water up certain heights.[197] Up until this time—the 12th century—all water-raising machines relied on filling a container and lifting it to empty at a desired height.[197] However al-Jazari's machine forced "water through a pipe, which allowed" it "to lift water to heights never" seen before "with a relatively small-sized machine".[197]
  • Clamshell Grab—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers, were the first to invent the clamshell grab (also known as the "mechanical grab"); which was not known to exist before them.[201][167] This was used to grab objects from underwater.[202] It was also used for mining.[203]
    • The invention came as a result of their work in civil engineering where they had to excavate canals. It was made of two copper half-cylinders connected by hinges. Once lowered into the water using "qx" ropes, another set of ropes "bm" was pulled to snap them together. It was then raised through the "bm" ropes and emptied of it's contents.[180][204] They are especially useful for digging deep shafts in soft earth,[217] such as soil, sand, gravel and rock.
The Crank-Slider Mechanism.
  • Crank-Slider Mechanism–Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the crank-slider mechanism which is arguably "[b]y far the most important contribution of Al-Jazari to mechanism design".[206] This was the "first description of a crank-slider mechanism...300 years before Western Engineers, e.g., Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Leonardo Da Vinci, who used the crank-slider type mechanism in the fifteenth century".[206] It is a linkage mechanism that's used in machines such as "engine pistons, pumps, and clamping devices where a straight line motion is required".[207] It is a type of four bar mechanism "in which the path of one circling point is a circle of infinite radius".[208][209]
  • Camshaft—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the camshaft, thus giving birth to the camshaft mechanism.[210][n. 52][211][n. 53][212][n. 54] The ancients knew of the cam itself, but not the camshaft.[213] Camshafts are a crucial piece of technology found in motorised vehicles.[214] The camshaft is normally found in the cylinder block (or crankcase) and will hold a specific number of cams, which will control the operation of valves in relation to the piston position within each cylinder.[215] The camshaft first appeared in Europe in the 14th century.[216]

Water Wheels & Wind Machines (8)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Horizontal Axis Windmill—The first horizontal axis windmills were invented in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.[218][n. 55] These were invented in the ninth (801—900) or tenth (901—1000) centuries.[218] These were used to grind grain, pumping water and crushing sugar-cane so that sugar could be extracted.[218] Horizontal axis windmills did not appear in Europe until the 12th century (1101—1200),[219] or 13th century (1201—1300), when they were brought back by the crusaders during the European crusading period.[220] They were so valuable that planting trees near them was forbidden, and feudal lords could only authorise their construction.[220]
    • Windpump—The first windpumps were invented in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the ninth (801—900) or tenth (901—1000) centuries as part of the functions of the horizontal axis windmills.[218][221] The Europeans later copied these windmills and spread them all across Europe.[221] These windpumps would be built in low-lying areas in order to drain water so that the fields may become drier than usual (which would improve agricultural production[222]).[221] These pumps were also used for pumping water out of wells.[222] The efficiency of the windpumps varies between 7% —30% depending on the types of blades and pumps used.[222]
Vertical axis windmills were invented in Sistan, Iran.
Heron did not invent the windmill; and claims of such have been found to have been made up, and then greatly exaggerated. Shown are drawings from the 19th century attributed to Heron, but drawn by forgists who just made them up through their own imaginations.
  • Vertical Axis Windmill—Tibetan prayer wheels were not the original inspiration for windmills, and neither was it invented in China.[223][224][n. 56] Vertical axis windmills have a long history, but they're precise inventor is not known, but the most solid evidence shows that they first originated in the Muslim Middle-east in the 10th[224][n. 57] century.[225] This is "documented by reliable writers and reinforced by ancient drawings that correspond to the remains of old mills and to modern ones still in use".[225] They were first built in Sistan, Persia where winds can blow as fast 100 mph between late spring and early summer, lasting for a period of up to four months.[225]
    • The first reference to windmills was in the 7th century, first written over 200 years later in the 9th century by Ali al-Tabari (834—927).[223] In this account it is mentioned that a Persian slave Abu Lu'lu('a), bitter at the high taxation he was forced to pay, murdered the caliph in 644.[223][226] Then, another Muslim chronicler Ali al-Mas'udi (c. 956) recounted a different story; the caliph asked the craftsman if he could build a wind machine to which he replied "By God, I will build this mill of which the world will talk".[223] Others say he killed himself soon after killing Umar.[227] It also noted that he was notable for having built mills driven by the wind from these sources.[223] Since these accounts were initially orally transmitted they are not considered wholly reliable.[223] However, this isn't to say it can't be true.[223]
      • It isn't known which religion Abu Lu'lu('a; also known as Piruz Nahavandi[227]) belonged to. He could have been Zoroastrian,[228][n. 58] Christian[229][n. 59] or Shi'i Muslim.[230][n. 60] The fact that he might be Shi'i Muslim is particularly interesting since some (not all[231][232]) Shi'i in Iran celebrate the assassination of Umar by Abu Lu'lu('a) (as the former was known to oppress Persian Muslims[232]) and have a day dedicated to the memory of the killing called "Bab Shuja al-Din" (which is what Abu Lu'Lu('a) was also called according to some scholars).[232][233][n. 61] The celebration is also known as the "Djashn-e Omar Koshi".[231]
        • The confusion over his faith lies on using the name of the followers of non-Muslim religions (for example Zoroastrians or Christians) as a way of insulting the memory of Muslims who are perceived to have done something un-Islamic as a way of symbolic derogation. This was common with at least one Mughal emperor, Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim[234] (Jahangir;[234] 1569—1627[235]), who forcefully converted his own son, Khusrau Mirza (1587—1622[236]), to Christianity as a way of insulting him for instigating a rebellion against the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[237]) in 1606, effectively branding him unworthy of Islam or Muslim support.[238] The prince was also blinded for his disloyalty in 1607.[239] This rebellion was also the cause of Muslim—Sikh friction.
    • Some historians have attempted to appropriate the invention of the windmill to the Greek figure Heron of Alexander (Unknown Birthdate[n. 62] though others claim 10 AD—c. 70 AD[191]), despite "[t]he earliest mentions of the use of wind power com[ing] from the East: India, Tibet, Afghanistan [and] Persia".[240] Crucially, there is a severe and recognised problem of Heron's "inventions" having been forged by later historians who have falsely attributed them to his name (with one example alone being the "Boas Manuscript" forgery).[n. 63] Indeed this does seem to have a long tradition amongst some historians in Europe, who have used their own imagination to claim inventions not made by Heron as his.[241][n. 64] They have simply re-drawn Heron's devices contained in his mysterious book of magic/toys known as the "Pneumatica",[n. 65] from extremely vague descriptions, resulting in these contraptions being drawn out of their own imaginations rather than from any direct evidence.[241][n. 66] Indeed the technology which these drawings illustrate, are clearly technologies that were invented centuries after Heron died.[n. 67]
      • It is now however certain that he did not invent the windmill.[241] This is especially the case considering the design details are so practically poor that it wouldn't have actually worked except perhaps in a small hand-driven toy.[n. 68] Historians have further noted that "Heron's work might have stimulated the use of wind power in the Islamic world, but there is no hard evidence to substantiate that. Nearly all the stories and the records we have from between the first and the twelfth centuries come from the Near East and Central Asia, and so those regions of the world are generally considered to be the birthplace of the windmill".[242]
  • Flywheel Noria—Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Bassal (fl. 1038/1043—1075) invented the flywheel noria.[243] He did this to "smooth out the delivery of power from the driving device to the driven machine".[243] It should be noted that some have speculated the flywheel's principle on it's own "is found both in the Neolithic spindle and in the potter's wheel"; noria's were also invented long before him; but he was the first to combine them.[244] Indeed, "Ibn Bassal (AD 1038—75) of Al Andalus...pioneered the use of a flywheel mechanism in the noria and saqiya to smooth out the delivery of power from the driving device to the driven machine".[245]
The spiral scoop wheel was invented in the 12th century.[246]
  • Spiral Scoop Wheel—A device known as the spiral scoop wheel was first invented in the 12th century in Baghdad to help raise large quantities of water using a small lift.[247][n. 69] Indeed, "[o]ne of the problems in water-raising engineering is that of raising large quantities of water through a small lift".[247][n. 70] This is resolved by using a spiral scoop wheel.[247][n. 71] It is a variation in design of the saqiya, but is instead more useful for small lifts.[248][n. 72] Saqiyas are also confusingly known as "norias", but are however separate; both have shown "remarkable powers of survival into modern times".[249]
    • Norias were first invented in the Middle-east by either the Syrians (during the Seleucid Empire; 312 BC—63 BC[250]), Iran (during the Parthian Empire; 248 BC—224 AD[251]) or the Mesopotamians who were sandwiched between the two,[252] in 200 BC in the mountainous regions.[252] The most famous are those constructed on the River Orontes, in Hama, Syria which are 20 meters in diameter (first constructed in the 9th century) and which discharge into an aqueduct, carrying the water over to towns and fields.[252] Ancient Indians are also claimants to the invention.[253]
    • Saqiyas were invented sometime in the 3rd century BC (300 BC—201 BC),[254] and are also known as "Persian Wheels". The etymological root of saqiya originates from Arabic, though it was not an Arab invention. Various claimants include Persians,[255] Egyptians,[256] Indians and Greeks.[257] As a result it isn't known who invented it. The Indian claim is particularly interesting as it could both refer to the noria or the saqiya which were being used as early as 350 BC; although the difficulty is as a result of dating ancient Indian texts (others however disagree with its Indian origins[258]).[259]
The bridge mill. This image is a sketch done by a European in the 1600s.
  • Flywheel Saqiya—Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Bassal (fl. 1038/1043—1075) invented the flywheel saqiya.[243] He did this to "smooth out the delivery of power from the driving device to the driven machine".[243] It should be noted that some have speculated the flywheel's principle on it's own "is found both in the Neolithic spindle and in the potter's wheel"; saqiya's were also invented long before him; but he was the first to combine them.[244] Indeed, "Ibn Bassal (AD 1038—75) of Al Andalus...pioneered the use of a flywheel mechanism in the noria and saqiya to smooth out the delivery of power from the driving device to the driven machine".[245]
  • Bridge Mill—The first Bridge mills were invented in Islamic Spain (711—1492[260]), specifically in Cordoba in the middle of the 12th century (1101—1200).[261][n. 73] A bridge mill is a type of mill who's entire ediface (wheel, mill house, gearing, stones and so on) is directly connected to a bridge superstructure.[262] The earliest evidence of this type of mill is documented by the Arabic geographer Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti[263] (al-Idrisi; 1100—1165[263]), noting that it had "several sets of wheels and stones".[262] This was copied by the French and by 1175 it is thought they were first described in that year.[262] The were also documented in a manuscript dated from 1317.[262] The bridge mill was suspended from a bridge by chains, and adjusted as determined by the water flow.[262]
  • Underground Water Mill—The first underground water mills were invented by Islamic engineers, although it isn't known when exactly they invented them.[264][n. 74] However, what is known is that they did indeed construct such contraptions and that they did originate from Islamic civilisation.[264][n. 75] It was from the Persian Muslims that this idea originated, who built them in underground irrigation tunnels called qanats.[264] There are many different kinds of qanats, which are determined by four main properties.[265] These are length, depth, topography, geography, acquifier type, qanat discharge, and discharge origin.[265] Qanats were first invented in Iran as far back as 3000 BC,[266] although others claim they were invented c. 1000 BC.[267] Others claim that the qanat originated outside of Iran, in adjacent Arabic lands.
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Horizontal Axis Windmill—The first horizontal axis windmills were invented in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.[218][n. 76] These were invented in the ninth (801—900) or tenth (901—1000) centuries.[218] These were used to grind grain, pumping water and crushing sugar-cane so that sugar could be extracted.[218] Horizontal axis windmills did not appear in Europe until the 12th century (1101—1200),[219] or 13th century (1201—1300), when they were brought back by the crusaders during the European crusading period.[220] They were so valuable that planting trees near them was forbidden, and feudal lords could only authorise their construction.[220]
    • Windpump—The first windpumps were invented in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the ninth (801—900) or tenth (901—1000) centuries as part of the functions of the horizontal axis windmills.[218][221] The Europeans later copied these windmills and spread them all across Europe.[221] These windpumps would be built in low-lying areas in order to drain water so that the fields may become drier than usual (which would improve agricultural production[222]).[221] These pumps were also used for pumping water out of wells.[222] The efficiency of the windpumps varies between 7% —30% depending on the types of blades and pumps used.[222]
Vertical axis windmills were invented in Sistan, Iran.
Heron did not invent the windmill; and claims of such have been found to have been made up, and then greatly exaggerated. Shown are drawings from the 19th century attributed to Heron, but drawn by forgists who just made them up through their own imaginations.
  • Vertical Axis Windmill—Tibetan prayer wheels were not the original inspiration for windmills, and neither was it invented in China.[223][224][n. 77] Vertical axis windmills have a long history, but they're precise inventor is not known, but the most solid evidence shows that they first originated in the Muslim Middle-east in the 10th[224][n. 78] century.[225] This is "documented by reliable writers and reinforced by ancient drawings that correspond to the remains of old mills and to modern ones still in use".[225] They were first built in Sistan, Persia where winds can blow as fast 100 mph between late spring and early summer, lasting for a period of up to four months.[225]
    • The first reference to windmills was in the 7th century, first written over 200 years later in the 9th century by Ali al-Tabari (834—927).[223] In this account it is mentioned that a Persian slave Abu Lu'lu('a), bitter at the high taxation he was forced to pay, murdered the caliph in 644.[223][226] Then, another Muslim chronicler Ali al-Mas'udi (c. 956) recounted a different story; the caliph asked the craftsman if he could build a wind machine to which he replied "By God, I will build this mill of which the world will talk".[223] Others say he killed himself soon after killing Umar.[227] It also noted that he was notable for having built mills driven by the wind from these sources.[223] Since these accounts were initially orally transmitted they are not considered wholly reliable.[223] However, this isn't to say it can't be true.[223]
      • It isn't known which religion Abu Lu'lu('a; also known as Piruz Nahavandi[227]) belonged to. He could have been Zoroastrian,[228][n. 79] Christian[229][n. 80] or Shi'i Muslim.[230][n. 81] The fact that he might be Shi'i Muslim is particularly interesting since some (not all[231][232]) Shi'i in Iran celebrate the assassination of Umar by Abu Lu'lu('a) (as the former was known to oppress Persian Muslims[232]) and have a day dedicated to the memory of the killing called "Bab Shuja al-Din" (which is what Abu Lu'Lu('a) was also called according to some scholars).[232][233][n. 82] The celebration is also known as the "Djashn-e Omar Koshi".[231]
        • The confusion over his faith lies on using the name of the followers of non-Muslim religions (for example Zoroastrians or Christians) as a way of insulting the memory of Muslims who are perceived to have done something un-Islamic as a way of symbolic derogation. This was common with at least one Mughal emperor, Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim[234] (Jahangir;[234] 1569—1627[235]), who forcefully converted his own son, Khusrau Mirza (1587—1622[236]), to Christianity as a way of insulting him for instigating a rebellion against the Mughal Empire (1526—1857[237]) in 1606, effectively branding him unworthy of Islam or Muslim support.[238] The prince was also blinded for his disloyalty in 1607.[239] This rebellion was also the cause of Muslim—Sikh friction.
    • Some historians have attempted to appropriate the invention of the windmill to the Greek figure Heron of Alexander (Unknown Birthdate[n. 83] though others claim 10 AD—c. 70 AD[191]), despite "[t]he earliest mentions of the use of wind power com[ing] from the East: India, Tibet, Afghanistan [and] Persia".[240] Crucially, there is a severe and recognised problem of Heron's "inventions" having been forged by later historians who have falsely attributed them to his name (with one example alone being the "Boas Manuscript" forgery).[n. 84] Indeed this does seem to have a long tradition amongst some historians in Europe, who have used their own imagination to claim inventions not made by Heron as his.[241][n. 85] They have simply re-drawn Heron's devices contained in his mysterious book of magic/toys known as the "Pneumatica",[n. 86] from extremely vague descriptions, resulting in these contraptions being drawn out of their own imaginations rather than from any direct evidence.[241][n. 87] Indeed the technology which these drawings illustrate, are clearly technologies that were invented centuries after Heron died.[n. 88]
      • It is now however certain that he did not invent the windmill.[241] This is especially the case considering the design details are so practically poor that it wouldn't have actually worked except perhaps in a small hand-driven toy.[n. 89] Historians have further noted that "Heron's work might have stimulated the use of wind power in the Islamic world, but there is no hard evidence to substantiate that. Nearly all the stories and the records we have from between the first and the twelfth centuries come from the Near East and Central Asia, and so those regions of the world are generally considered to be the birthplace of the windmill".[242]
  • Flywheel Noria—Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Bassal (fl. 1038/1043—1075) invented the flywheel noria.[243] He did this to "smooth out the delivery of power from the driving device to the driven machine".[243] It should be noted that some have speculated the flywheel's principle on it's own "is found both in the Neolithic spindle and in the potter's wheel"; noria's were also invented long before him; but he was the first to combine them.[244] Indeed, "Ibn Bassal (AD 1038—75) of Al Andalus...pioneered the use of a flywheel mechanism in the noria and saqiya to smooth out the delivery of power from the driving device to the driven machine".[245]
The spiral scoop wheel was invented in the 12th century.[246]
  • Spiral Scoop Wheel—A device known as the spiral scoop wheel was first invented in the 12th century in Baghdad to help raise large quantities of water using a small lift.[247][n. 90] Indeed, "[o]ne of the problems in water-raising engineering is that of raising large quantities of water through a small lift".[247][n. 91] This is resolved by using a spiral scoop wheel.[247][n. 92] It is a variation in design of the saqiya, but is instead more useful for small lifts.[248][n. 93] Saqiyas are also confusingly known as "norias", but are however separate; both have shown "remarkable powers of survival into modern times".[249]
    • Norias were first invented in the Middle-east by either the Syrians (during the Seleucid Empire; 312 BC—63 BC[250]), Iran (during the Parthian Empire; 248 BC—224 AD[251]) or the Mesopotamians who were sandwiched between the two,[252] in 200 BC in the mountainous regions.[252] The most famous are those constructed on the River Orontes, in Hama, Syria which are 20 meters in diameter (first constructed in the 9th century) and which discharge into an aqueduct, carrying the water over to towns and fields.[252] Ancient Indians are also claimants to the invention.[253]
    • Saqiyas were invented sometime in the 3rd century BC (300 BC—201 BC),[254] and are also known as "Persian Wheels". The etymological root of saqiya originates from Arabic, though it was not an Arab invention. Various claimants include Persians,[255] Egyptians,[256] Indians and Greeks.[257] As a result it isn't known who invented it. The Indian claim is particularly interesting as it could both refer to the noria or the saqiya which were being used as early as 350 BC; although the difficulty is as a result of dating ancient Indian texts (others however disagree with its Indian origins[258]).[259]
The bridge mill. This image is a sketch done by a European in the 1600s.
  • Flywheel Saqiya—Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Bassal (fl. 1038/1043—1075) invented the flywheel saqiya.[243] He did this to "smooth out the delivery of power from the driving device to the driven machine".[243] It should be noted that some have speculated the flywheel's principle on it's own "is found both in the Neolithic spindle and in the potter's wheel"; saqiya's were also invented long before him; but he was the first to combine them.[244] Indeed, "Ibn Bassal (AD 1038—75) of Al Andalus...pioneered the use of a flywheel mechanism in the noria and saqiya to smooth out the delivery of power from the driving device to the driven machine".[245]
  • Bridge Mill—The first Bridge mills were invented in Islamic Spain (711—1492[260]), specifically in Cordoba in the middle of the 12th century (1101—1200).[261][n. 94] A bridge mill is a type of mill who's entire ediface (wheel, mill house, gearing, stones and so on) is directly connected to a bridge superstructure.[262] The earliest evidence of this type of mill is documented by the Arabic geographer Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti[263] (al-Idrisi; 1100—1165[263]), noting that it had "several sets of wheels and stones".[262] This was copied by the French and by 1175 it is thought they were first described in that year.[262] The were also documented in a manuscript dated from 1317.[262] The bridge mill was suspended from a bridge by chains, and adjusted as determined by the water flow.[262]
  • Underground Water Mill—The first underground water mills were invented by Islamic engineers, although it isn't known when exactly they invented them.[264][n. 95] However, what is known is that they did indeed construct such contraptions and that they did originate from Islamic civilisation.[264][n. 96] It was from the Persian Muslims that this idea originated, who built them in underground irrigation tunnels called qanats.[264] There are many different kinds of qanats, which are determined by four main properties.[265] These are length, depth, topography, geography, acquifier type, qanat discharge, and discharge origin.[265] Qanats were first invented in Iran as far back as 3000 BC,[266] although others claim they were invented c. 1000 BC.[267] Others claim that the qanat originated outside of Iran, in adjacent Arabic lands.

Automata (4)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The peacock fountain.
  • Programmable Humanoid Robot—A robot is defined as "a mechanical device that can be programmed to perform a variety of tasks of manipulation and locomotion under automatic control. Thus, a robot could also be an automaton", and "is usually designed for highly variable...flexible, purposeful motions...activities, and for specific operation domains".[268] Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the programmable humanoid robot in 1206.[269][270][271][272] It consisted of "musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests".[269]
  • Peacock Fountain–Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the peacock fountain automata.[273] It worked by pulling a plug on the peacock's tail, which would release water out of its beak.[273] The contaminated water would then fill the hollow base, causing a float to rise and trigger a link where a servant would appear under the peacock and offer soap.[273] As more water is used, a second float triggers another servant holding a towel.[273] It was reset by opening the base valve, where the doors automatically close as the water level drops.[273]
  • Hand/Lever Toilet/Basin Flush–Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the mechanical flushing mechanism, which allowed water to be flushed away using a handle/lever and then refilled with water; preceding the modern flushing mechanism by several hundred years.[273] When the lever is pulled water flushes away, but after this, a female automaton refills the basin with water.[273] Historians thus credit him with the invention of the mechanical flushing mechanism,[273] with some going as far as saying he invented the flushing toilet.[274]
    • Flushing toilets (without handles/levers) were already used for a long time.[275][n. 97] The Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC[276]) in Pakistan were the first to invent the concept of flushing toilets.[277] There was a toilet in every house connected to a drainage sewage system.[278][279][280] The plumbing inside houses was so advanced that flush toilets were found as high as second floors.[281] Toilets were flushed using jars of water.[280] Hygiene in Pakistan seems to have carried on from the Indus, only 24 million (12%) Pakistanis openly defecate today,[282] whereas in India 524 million (40%) do.[283]
  • Elephant Clock—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the elephant clock.[284] It worked by the elephant body being partially filled with water which a bowl would float on; the bowl itself had a hole which was calibrated so that every half hour it would sink (leading its weight to be the motive power).[284] As the bowl sank, through the use of a string it activated a mechanism on the top of the castle (which was atop of the elephant).[284] A steel ball would then drop activating a phoenix, but would also simultaneously fall into the mouth of a snake.[284] This would then activate the elephant driver who strike an instrument sounding the hour.[284] The cycle was automated and the machine would reset after each hour was sounded.[284] It was reportedly 1.2 x 1.85 meters high. An 8m reconstruction was built at the Ibn Battuta Mall in Dubai.[284]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The peacock fountain.
  • Programmable Humanoid Robot—A robot is defined as "a mechanical device that can be programmed to perform a variety of tasks of manipulation and locomotion under automatic control. Thus, a robot could also be an automaton", and "is usually designed for highly variable...flexible, purposeful motions...activities, and for specific operation domains".[268] Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the programmable humanoid robot in 1206.[269][270][271][272] It consisted of "musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests".[269]
  • Peacock Fountain–Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the peacock fountain automata.[273] It worked by pulling a plug on the peacock's tail, which would release water out of its beak.[273] The contaminated water would then fill the hollow base, causing a float to rise and trigger a link where a servant would appear under the peacock and offer soap.[273] As more water is used, a second float triggers another servant holding a towel.[273] It was reset by opening the base valve, where the doors automatically close as the water level drops.[273]
  • Hand/Lever Toilet/Basin Flush–Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the mechanical flushing mechanism, which allowed water to be flushed away using a handle/lever and then refilled with water; preceding the modern flushing mechanism by several hundred years.[273] When the lever is pulled water flushes away, but after this, a female automaton refills the basin with water.[273] Historians thus credit him with the invention of the mechanical flushing mechanism,[273] with some going as far as saying he invented the flushing toilet.[274]
    • Flushing toilets (without handles/levers) were already used for a long time.[275][n. 98] The Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 7000 BC—c. 1300 BC[276]) in Pakistan were the first to invent the concept of flushing toilets.[277] There was a toilet in every house connected to a drainage sewage system.[278][279][280] The plumbing inside houses was so advanced that flush toilets were found as high as second floors.[281] Toilets were flushed using jars of water.[280] Hygiene in Pakistan seems to have carried on from the Indus, only 24 million (12%) Pakistanis openly defecate today,[282] whereas in India 524 million (40%) do.[283]
  • Elephant Clock—Al-Shaykh Rais Al-Amal Badii Al-Zaman Abu Al-Izz Ibn Ismail Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (Jazari; 1136–1206) was the first to invent the elephant clock.[284] It worked by the elephant body being partially filled with water which a bowl would float on; the bowl itself had a hole which was calibrated so that every half hour it would sink (leading its weight to be the motive power).[284] As the bowl sank, through the use of a string it activated a mechanism on the top of the castle (which was atop of the elephant).[284] A steel ball would then drop activating a phoenix, but would also simultaneously fall into the mouth of a snake.[284] This would then activate the elephant driver who strike an instrument sounding the hour.[284] The cycle was automated and the machine would reset after each hour was sounded.[284] It was reportedly 1.2 x 1.85 meters high. An 8m reconstruction was built at the Ibn Battuta Mall in Dubai.[284]

Weaponry & Safety (12)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The matchlock was invented in the Ottoman Empire (1299—1922) in 1394.[285] They also invented the Arquebus, Serpantine Mechanism and the Advanced Matchlock. A frequent reason which has inhibited knowledge of their contributions from being known is the problem of Eurocentrism from Europes medieval and later historians, who have repeatedly attempted to portray the Ottomans as an inferior force "dependent upon Western technology" throughout history, which almost lead to Ottoman contributions being totally eradicated from European historiography. Recent renewed interest has re-established some of these lost contributions.
  • Arquebus, Matchlock & Matchlock Mechanism—The predecessor of the musket were hook guns (known as "arquebuses") which first appeared in Europe in the early 1400s with the Germans.[286] This would later evolve into the arquebus gun by the late 1400s (with the matchlock appearing first in Germany in 1470[287]).[286] However, the technology of the arquebus and the matchlock originate with the Ottomans, who were actually the first to develop them in 1394 (known as "tufeks"[288]); making mentions of these guns throughout the 1400s (also in 1402, 1421, 1430, 1440 and 1442).[289]
    • The earliest known mass adoption of the matchlock arquebuses in the Ottoman infantry was in 1421.[290] The earliest confirmation that the Ottoman Janissary units adopted these guns is in the 1440s[291] (specifically 1443—1444 during the Ottoman—Hungarian War).[288] The Europeans first started to use them in 1470,[287] with the first illustration of the matchlock created in 1475.[292] The European design did not have a priming pan.[293]
    • The Portuguese spread the matchlock across the world in places such as India and China. The Portuguese introduced the matchlock musket to the Japanese in 1542, who then introduced it to China in 1548 (capturing them from Japanese pirates).[294] However, earlier evidence indicates that the Ottoman Turks actually introduced them to China in 1510 via the Silk Road.[294] The Chinese called them "bird guns" or "bird-beak guns".[294]
    • European technology severely lagged behind the Ottomans, as was evident from a Chinese manuscript dated in 1644 which assessed Ottoman and European weaponry.[291] The Chinese much preferred Ottoman guns for their superior quality and reliability, evidence which has challenged the long-held Eurocentric view that the Ottomans were simply copyists.[291] European historians have appropriated Ottoman technology before.
      • Orban for example was a mythical Hungarian/German weapon designer, who many European historians throughout history were quick to give the design credits of the Great Turkish bombards to. However, historians now universally dismiss this noting, "Mehmed II is known to have had Turkish craftsmen working independently of Master Orban in 1453",[295] when they were invented, and that throughout history "Eurocentrists and Orientalists alike tend to overstate the importance of foreign technicians in the Ottoman Empire...to prove the[ir] putative...inferiority and dependence upon Western technology".[296] These views lead to the unfair, false belief that the Ottomans were third-tier gun producers.[291]
      • The Ottoman matchlock was different (in fact superior) than the European design, and largely influenced Safavid (1501—1736) and Mughal (1526—1857) matchlocks.[291] Western historians also credit the Ottomans for being the first to perfect the serpantine mechanism, which was first used in Europe in the mid-15th century, whilst the Europeans obtained the perfected serpentine in the early 16th century.[297]
The first gas mask.[298]
  • Gas Mask—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893)—Also known as the Banu Musa brothers, were the first to invent the gas mask in 850.[299][300] It has however been claimed that the Greeks were the first to construct a gas mask, however they only used a sponge (which was obtained from the sea[301]), which wasn't really gas mask as it was no different to using a rag to block cover the mouth. Instead the brothers were the first to construct such a mask which they gave to miners to protect them from polluted air.[298] It was also used for people who were going deep inside wells, which were "exuding noxious vapors".[302][303][304]
  • Torpedo—Al-Hasan al-Rammah al-Ahdab (d. 1294/1295) was the first to invent the torpedo in 1275 (a missile that could travel on or under water).[305][306][307][308] He described the torpedo as like an "egg which itself and burns", which an accompanying illustration of the invention.[305] It was constructed using two sheet iron pans, tied together and made tight with the use of felt.[305] The flattened vessel was pear shaped and filled with naptha, metal fillings (to act like ball bearings) along with "good mixtures" (hinting at saltpetre).[305] It was finalised with the attachment of two rods to act as a rudder, and propelled with a large rocket.[305] It wasn't ever described by the Chinese,[305] even though they are said to have invented gunpowder and paper rockets.
16th century depiction of a Turkish Muslim Janissary soldier. The Ottomans (1299—1922) were very advanced in gun technologies, which the Europeans later appropriated as inventions having been made by them. Chinese historians have at least however confirmed that muskets were first invented by the Ottomans. This was achieved in 1465.
  • Musket—The Turks were the first to invent guns known as muskets in 1465.[309] Evidence for this is corroborated by external sources outside of Europe who meticulously documented the history of the device, whilst being fully aware of both the Western and Turkish variety.[309] Substantial evidence was collected and chronicled by medieval Chinese historians such as Chao Shih-Chen, who wrote of the muskets history in the "Shen Chhi Phu" (or the "Handbook of the Magically Efficient Tools [Muskets]"; 1598).[309] In it, he chronicles that the Ottomans had extensive contacts with China, and had made a number of important diplomatic missions; and of those missions, 1524, 1526, 1543, 1544, 1548 and 1554 were especially pivotal.[309]
    • It is important to note that this source cannot be taken lightly since this was documented by a member of the Imperial Chinese Court itself.[309] Shih-Chen was the grandson of Chao Hsing-Lu, who served as a deputy judge (or "Ssu Fu") at the Grand Court of Appeals (or "Ta Li Ssu") in Ming China (1368—1644).[309] Shih-Chen's grandfather directly stated that the origins of musket technology were from the Ottoman Turks themselves not European, clearly demonstrating that the Europeans did not invent it, given that the Chinese were well aware of the European variety.[309]
      • Crucially, the Ottoman Turks had even taught the Chinese how to first replicate the technology.[309] The Chinese were extremely happy and excited to learn about this since they did not possess musket technology themselves, and remained disappointed by the European ones.[309]
    • In Shih-Chen's history, he also directly compared the quality of the Turkish musket to that of the European possession.[309] His analysis lead him to find that the European variety was much more technologically inferior to that of the Turkish musket saying that "nothing has a greater range and does more destruction than the Rum (Turkish) musket", and that the next best piece of technology "is the Western (Portuguese) musket".[309]
    • Western historians initially found these claims bizarre until the pre-eminent Oxbridge historian/scientist[310][311] Joseph Needham (1900—1995;[312] who extensively documented many inventions and discoveries throughout his academic career; and who carries significant weight in historiography) pointed out that it doesn't, noting that "the true musket" was believed to have been "developed from the match-holding serpentine arquebus a little before 1475 in the West", but evidence "has proven that the Turks" already had muskets in their possession first in 1465.[309]
      • Needham also ends this revelation by noting that "if we are right (cf. pp. 573-6) in regarding the Islamic culture-area as the principal way-station between China and Europe in the transmission of all gunpowder weapons, an early Turkish expertise in portable firearms would be natural enough. So perhaps Chao was not so far wrong after all".[309] Importantly, the Chinese received matchlock guns from the Ottoman Turks in 1510, decades before receiving the first Western ones, highly indicative that the Ottomans developed the matchlock and musket first.
      • It is important to mention that prior to Needham's historical publications regarding Chinese inventions, discoveries and technology, Western historians had believed that almost everything was invented in Europe, and nothing had come from outside of it. This was further exacerbated by scientific racism, prejudice, notions of superiority, extensive looting during the European colonial/imperial period and ignorance.
      • Evidence of this when it comes to the treatment of the historiography of the Ottoman Empire by Western scholars can especially be found in the exaggerations and outright fabrications regarding Ottoman technologies, where deliberate attempts were made to portray the Ottomans as technologically inferior, and dependent upon European technologies and technicians.[n. 99] Historically this does not make sense as civilisations who made technological advancements were the ones who were able to win wars, and it doesn't make sense for Europeans to have invented such revolutionary technology first, given that the Ottomans were greatly feared by the Europeans, and then still have lost all their territory.
An Ottoman matchlock. The Ottomans were the first to invent the matchlock (according to Imperial Chinese historians who were aware of the European designs as well but explicitly stated all musket technology was of Turkish origin), were the first to perfect the serpentine mechanism (according to Western historians) and possibly invented the advanced matchlock (according to Venetian historians, although this isn't wholly certain). The Ottomans were also the first empire in history to successfully coordinate cannon/gun fire when they destroyed a crusader ship.
  • Coordinated Fire—The first successful use of coordinated firing of cannons occurred in October 1444.[313] The Ottomans had two cannons situated on either side of a coast with a river running through the middle.[313] A crusader fleet was intent on forcing their way through the straits in order to prevent the Turks from landing in Europe.[313] Zaifi, writing in the "Gazavatname" (or the "Chronicle of Holy Wars") documented the incident to which he was a witness to.[313]
    • An Ottoman gunner named Saruca (who would also build the Ottomans one of their Great Bombards to use in the Siege of Constantinople in 1453) directed the fire that "smashed into one of the ships, splintering its hull and sending it to the bottom of the sea".[313]
  • Serpentine-lock Mechanism & Advanced Matchlock—The advanced matchlock gun was first invented by the Ottomans, such that by the 1470s, the Ottomans had armed their Janissary's with them, according to data collected by a Venetian report.[314] However it is almost impossible to tell whether or not this was imported into Europe or developed by the Ottomans themselves.[314]
    • The reason for the uncertainty is that "[w]hile it is most probable that the word "tufenk" that appears in Ottoman weaponry-registers of certain Balkan forts in the middle of the fifteenth century refers to the matchlock arquebus, it is not known if these weapons were operated by the serpentine-lock or by the more advanced form of the matchlock mechanism".[314] It is thus important to note that in the history of guns, the advanced matchlocks did not use a serpentine mechanism like previous matchlocks.[314] However historians do note that the Ottomans were the first to perfect the serpentine mechanism (and can thus be considered it's true inventors).[314] This was the first gun that used triggering to fire bullets.[315]
Chinese vs. Muslim rockets. The Chinese didn't think of making their rockets with metal.
The "Congreve Rocket" are exact copies of the rockets developed by Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan.
  • Metal Rockets/Missiles—Rocket technology featured prominently in the design of Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan's weaponry. Although the Muslims had not invented rockets per se, they did invent missiles (known as "Bana" amongst Mysoreans[316]).[n. 100] Previously the Chinese had described paper rockets in the "Wu Pei Chih" (c. 1620s), which stated that explosive warheads were launched from wooden boxes, divided into cells that were able to hold one hundred projectiles.[317] However the ones invented by Muslims were made out of metal for the first time, and hence were superior and more powerful.
    • Mysore in effect had invented a new set of rockets (indeed they "were the first ironcased rockets successfully deployed for military use"[318]) when they decided to manufacture them with metal instead of bamboo and pasteboard. The value of these rockets was so immense that Mysore attached a company of rocketeers to each of their army brigades, and were capable of raising well over 5,000—6,000 rocket carrying troops by the 1790s.[319][320] Adding iron to the devices boosted their impact on field, allowing weapon smiths to make them increasingly more powerful, destructive and loud without worrying about the fear of exploding the container from the expansion of the exhaust gases when firing them.[317]
      • The extra thrust that this provided more than compensated for their overall weight.[317] When Sultan was killed by the British, a smorgasbord of artillery was found in the ammunition stores of the Mysore military (or the "Rocket Court").[321] There were 600 launchers, 700 serviceable rockets and over 9,000 empty rockets.[321] Between 5—10 rockets were fired from a single wheeled rocket ramp, with the target coordinates customised by adjusting the angle of projection (made possible from "calculat[ing]...the diameter of the cylinder and the distance of the target".[322] These rockets were capable of bombing targets more than 1.5 miles away[323][324][325] (7,920 feet; more than the distance of certain modern sniper rifles).
    • Mysore rockets were constructed using four crucial moieties; which were iron, steel, gunpowder and a specialised mechanical design.[322] At least two surviving specimens are known to exist; remaining preserved at the Royal Artillery Museum (under the "Woolwich Arsenal" collection).[322] One of these specimens is a 2.3 inch outer diameter casing, by 10 inches in length, tied with strips of leather forming a hide to an adjacent 3 foot, 4 inch long sword blade (1.02 m in length).[322] The second is a 1.5 inch by 7.8 inch casing with hide, but tied to a bamboo pole of 6 foot and 3 inches length (1.90m).[322]
      • The casings are made of steel (whereas the cylinders themselves were made up of soft iron), which were coupled with mutli-nozzle holes, along with a sword blade acting as the directional warhead. The propellant consisted of a specially designed gunpowder (which had been modified to produce striking aggressive bursts of energy, spreading a rapid unpleasant strong odour as well as producing smoke, along with creating a sudden and deafening sound; also unusual for it's time, the gunpowder was highly resistant to moisture ingress; making the rockets extremely durable, during even the most intense of monsoons). Altogether the rockets weighed approximately 2kg—5.4kg each,[324] with the propellant making up at least half of the rockets weight. They were capable of being fired simultaneously, making their use devastatingly efficient.[322]
    • Rocket technology never ceased to be researched after 1799; the year where Mysore collapsed under the British Empire. T.L. Varghese, V.N. Krishnamurthy, writing in "The Chemistry and Technology of Solid Rocket Propellants" (2017), show in great detail the vast and eclectic consequences the spread of this Muslim technology had been, and how it spurred European scientists (including Alfred Nobel who developed a blasting gel by using Nitroglycerine and Nitrocellulose) to vastly improve rocket chemistry over the coming century.[326] The British eventually copied the designs and transported them to Europe where they were used during the Napoleonic Wars (having also claimed all the credit for the Mysore inventions).[327]
  • Horseman's Axe—A weapon known as the horseman's axe was first invented by medieval Muslim weapon-smiths, although it isn't known precisely when. In the 15th century it was increasingly being supplanted by the mace, which was making a popular comeback, however, its effect was far less that of the horseman's axe.[328][n. 101] The "Tirant lo Blanc" (1490) noted that it was of Islamic origin, and remained the "deadliest weapon when fighting in full armour" when it was used by cavalrymen.[328][n. 102] The horseman's axe appears to be a cross between a war-hammer and an axe (halberds are similarly combination weapons, made up of a spear and axe[329]).
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The matchlock was invented in the Ottoman Empire (1299—1922) in 1394.[285] They also invented the Arquebus, Serpantine Mechanism and the Advanced Matchlock. A frequent reason which has inhibited knowledge of their contributions from being known is the problem of Eurocentrism from Europes medieval and later historians, who have repeatedly attempted to portray the Ottomans as an inferior force "dependent upon Western technology" throughout history, which almost lead to Ottoman contributions being totally eradicated from European historiography. Recent renewed interest has re-established some of these lost contributions.
  • Arquebus, Matchlock & Matchlock Mechanism—The predecessor of the musket were hook guns (known as "arquebuses") which first appeared in Europe in the early 1400s with the Germans.[286] This would later evolve into the arquebus gun by the late 1400s (with the matchlock appearing first in Germany in 1470[287]).[286] However, the technology of the arquebus and the matchlock originate with the Ottomans, who were actually the first to develop them in 1394 (known as "tufeks"[288]); making mentions of these guns throughout the 1400s (also in 1402, 1421, 1430, 1440 and 1442).[289]
    • The earliest known mass adoption of the matchlock arquebuses in the Ottoman infantry was in 1421.[290] The earliest confirmation that the Ottoman Janissary units adopted these guns is in the 1440s[291] (specifically 1443—1444 during the Ottoman—Hungarian War).[288] The Europeans first started to use them in 1470,[287] with the first illustration of the matchlock created in 1475.[292] The European design did not have a priming pan.[293]
    • The Portuguese spread the matchlock across the world in places such as India and China. The Portuguese introduced the matchlock musket to the Japanese in 1542, who then introduced it to China in 1548 (capturing them from Japanese pirates).[294] However, earlier evidence indicates that the Ottoman Turks actually introduced them to China in 1510 via the Silk Road.[294] The Chinese called them "bird guns" or "bird-beak guns".[294]
    • European technology severely lagged behind the Ottomans, as was evident from a Chinese manuscript dated in 1644 which assessed Ottoman and European weaponry.[291] The Chinese much preferred Ottoman guns for their superior quality and reliability, evidence which has challenged the long-held Eurocentric view that the Ottomans were simply copyists.[291] European historians have appropriated Ottoman technology before.
      • Orban for example was a mythical Hungarian/German weapon designer, who many European historians throughout history were quick to give the design credits of the Great Turkish bombards to. However, historians now universally dismiss this noting, "Mehmed II is known to have had Turkish craftsmen working independently of Master Orban in 1453",[295] when they were invented, and that throughout history "Eurocentrists and Orientalists alike tend to overstate the importance of foreign technicians in the Ottoman Empire...to prove the[ir] putative...inferiority and dependence upon Western technology".[296] These views lead to the unfair, false belief that the Ottomans were third-tier gun producers.[291]
      • The Ottoman matchlock was different (in fact superior) than the European design, and largely influenced Safavid (1501—1736) and Mughal (1526—1857) matchlocks.[291] Western historians also credit the Ottomans for being the first to perfect the serpantine mechanism, which was first used in Europe in the mid-15th century, whilst the Europeans obtained the perfected serpentine in the early 16th century.[297]
The first gas mask.[298]
  • Gas Mask—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893)—Also known as the Banu Musa brothers, were the first to invent the gas mask in 850.[299][300] It has however been claimed that the Greeks were the first to construct a gas mask, however they only used a sponge (which was obtained from the sea[301]), which wasn't really gas mask as it was no different to using a rag to block cover the mouth. Instead the brothers were the first to construct such a mask which they gave to miners to protect them from polluted air.[298] It was also used for people who were going deep inside wells, which were "exuding noxious vapors".[302][303][304]
  • Torpedo—Al-Hasan al-Rammah al-Ahdab (d. 1294/1295) was the first to invent the torpedo in 1275 (a missile that could travel on or under water).[305][306][307][308] He described the torpedo as like an "egg which itself and burns", which an accompanying illustration of the invention.[305] It was constructed using two sheet iron pans, tied together and made tight with the use of felt.[305] The flattened vessel was pear shaped and filled with naptha, metal fillings (to act like ball bearings) along with "good mixtures" (hinting at saltpetre).[305] It was finalised with the attachment of two rods to act as a rudder, and propelled with a large rocket.[305] It wasn't ever described by the Chinese,[305] even though they are said to have invented gunpowder and paper rockets.
16th century depiction of a Turkish Muslim Janissary soldier. The Ottomans (1299—1922) were very advanced in gun technologies, which the Europeans later appropriated as inventions having been made by them. Chinese historians have at least however confirmed that muskets were first invented by the Ottomans. This was achieved in 1465.
  • Musket—The Turks were the first to invent guns known as muskets in 1465.[309] Evidence for this is corroborated by external sources outside of Europe who meticulously documented the history of the device, whilst being fully aware of both the Western and Turkish variety.[309] Substantial evidence was collected and chronicled by medieval Chinese historians such as Chao Shih-Chen, who wrote of the muskets history in the "Shen Chhi Phu" (or the "Handbook of the Magically Efficient Tools [Muskets]"; 1598).[309] In it, he chronicles that the Ottomans had extensive contacts with China, and had made a number of important diplomatic missions; and of those missions, 1524, 1526, 1543, 1544, 1548 and 1554 were especially pivotal.[309]
    • It is important to note that this source cannot be taken lightly since this was documented by a member of the Imperial Chinese Court itself.[309] Shih-Chen was the grandson of Chao Hsing-Lu, who served as a deputy judge (or "Ssu Fu") at the Grand Court of Appeals (or "Ta Li Ssu") in Ming China (1368—1644).[309] Shih-Chen's grandfather directly stated that the origins of musket technology were from the Ottoman Turks themselves not European, clearly demonstrating that the Europeans did not invent it, given that the Chinese were well aware of the European variety.[309]
      • Crucially, the Ottoman Turks had even taught the Chinese how to first replicate the technology.[309] The Chinese were extremely happy and excited to learn about this since they did not possess musket technology themselves, and remained disappointed by the European ones.[309]
    • In Shih-Chen's history, he also directly compared the quality of the Turkish musket to that of the European possession.[309] His analysis lead him to find that the European variety was much more technologically inferior to that of the Turkish musket saying that "nothing has a greater range and does more destruction than the Rum (Turkish) musket", and that the next best piece of technology "is the Western (Portuguese) musket".[309]
    • Western historians initially found these claims bizarre until the pre-eminent Oxbridge historian/scientist[310][311] Joseph Needham (1900—1995;[312] who extensively documented many inventions and discoveries throughout his academic career; and who carries significant weight in historiography) pointed out that it doesn't, noting that "the true musket" was believed to have been "developed from the match-holding serpentine arquebus a little before 1475 in the West", but evidence "has proven that the Turks" already had muskets in their possession first in 1465.[309]
      • Needham also ends this revelation by noting that "if we are right (cf. pp. 573-6) in regarding the Islamic culture-area as the principal way-station between China and Europe in the transmission of all gunpowder weapons, an early Turkish expertise in portable firearms would be natural enough. So perhaps Chao was not so far wrong after all".[309] Importantly, the Chinese received matchlock guns from the Ottoman Turks in 1510, decades before receiving the first Western ones, highly indicative that the Ottomans developed the matchlock and musket first.
      • It is important to mention that prior to Needham's historical publications regarding Chinese inventions, discoveries and technology, Western historians had believed that almost everything was invented in Europe, and nothing had come from outside of it. This was further exacerbated by scientific racism, prejudice, notions of superiority, extensive looting during the European colonial/imperial period and ignorance.
      • Evidence of this when it comes to the treatment of the historiography of the Ottoman Empire by Western scholars can especially be found in the exaggerations and outright fabrications regarding Ottoman technologies, where deliberate attempts were made to portray the Ottomans as technologically inferior, and dependent upon European technologies and technicians.[n. 103] Historically this does not make sense as civilisations who made technological advancements were the ones who were able to win wars, and it doesn't make sense for Europeans to have invented such revolutionary technology first, given that the Ottomans were greatly feared by the Europeans, and then still have lost all their territory.
An Ottoman matchlock. The Ottomans were the first to invent the matchlock (according to Imperial Chinese historians who were aware of the European designs as well but explicitly stated all musket technology was of Turkish origin), were the first to perfect the serpentine mechanism (according to Western historians) and possibly invented the advanced matchlock (according to Venetian historians, although this isn't wholly certain). The Ottomans were also the first empire in history to successfully coordinate cannon/gun fire when they destroyed a crusader ship.
  • Coordinated Fire—The first successful use of coordinated firing of cannons occurred in October 1444.[313] The Ottomans had two cannons situated on either side of a coast with a river running through the middle.[313] A crusader fleet was intent on forcing their way through the straits in order to prevent the Turks from landing in Europe.[313] Zaifi, writing in the "Gazavatname" (or the "Chronicle of Holy Wars") documented the incident to which he was a witness to.[313]
    • An Ottoman gunner named Saruca (who would also build the Ottomans one of their Great Bombards to use in the Siege of Constantinople in 1453) directed the fire that "smashed into one of the ships, splintering its hull and sending it to the bottom of the sea".[313]
  • Serpentine-lock Mechanism & Advanced Matchlock—The advanced matchlock gun was first invented by the Ottomans, such that by the 1470s, the Ottomans had armed their Janissary's with them, according to data collected by a Venetian report.[314] However it is almost impossible to tell whether or not this was imported into Europe or developed by the Ottomans themselves.[314]
    • The reason for the uncertainty is that "[w]hile it is most probable that the word "tufenk" that appears in Ottoman weaponry-registers of certain Balkan forts in the middle of the fifteenth century refers to the matchlock arquebus, it is not known if these weapons were operated by the serpentine-lock or by the more advanced form of the matchlock mechanism".[314] It is thus important to note that in the history of guns, the advanced matchlocks did not use a serpentine mechanism like previous matchlocks.[314] However historians do note that the Ottomans were the first to perfect the serpentine mechanism (and can thus be considered it's true inventors).[314] This was the first gun that used triggering to fire bullets.[315]
Chinese vs. Muslim rockets. The Chinese didn't think of making their rockets with metal.
The "Congreve Rocket" are exact copies of the rockets developed by Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan.
  • Metal Rockets/Missiles—Rocket technology featured prominently in the design of Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan's weaponry. Although the Muslims had not invented rockets per se, they did invent missiles (known as "Bana" amongst Mysoreans[316]).[n. 104] Previously the Chinese had described paper rockets in the "Wu Pei Chih" (c. 1620s), which stated that explosive warheads were launched from wooden boxes, divided into cells that were able to hold one hundred projectiles.[317] However the ones invented by Muslims were made out of metal for the first time, and hence were superior and more powerful.
    • Mysore in effect had invented a new set of rockets (indeed they "were the first ironcased rockets successfully deployed for military use"[318]) when they decided to manufacture them with metal instead of bamboo and pasteboard. The value of these rockets was so immense that Mysore attached a company of rocketeers to each of their army brigades, and were capable of raising well over 5,000—6,000 rocket carrying troops by the 1790s.[319][320] Adding iron to the devices boosted their impact on field, allowing weapon smiths to make them increasingly more powerful, destructive and loud without worrying about the fear of exploding the container from the expansion of the exhaust gases when firing them.[317]
      • The extra thrust that this provided more than compensated for their overall weight.[317] When Sultan was killed by the British, a smorgasbord of artillery was found in the ammunition stores of the Mysore military (or the "Rocket Court").[321] There were 600 launchers, 700 serviceable rockets and over 9,000 empty rockets.[321] Between 5—10 rockets were fired from a single wheeled rocket ramp, with the target coordinates customised by adjusting the angle of projection (made possible from "calculat[ing]...the diameter of the cylinder and the distance of the target".[322] These rockets were capable of bombing targets more than 1.5 miles away[323][324][325] (7,920 feet; more than the distance of certain modern sniper rifles).
    • Mysore rockets were constructed using four crucial moieties; which were iron, steel, gunpowder and a specialised mechanical design.[322] At least two surviving specimens are known to exist; remaining preserved at the Royal Artillery Museum (under the "Woolwich Arsenal" collection).[322] One of these specimens is a 2.3 inch outer diameter casing, by 10 inches in length, tied with strips of leather forming a hide to an adjacent 3 foot, 4 inch long sword blade (1.02 m in length).[322] The second is a 1.5 inch by 7.8 inch casing with hide, but tied to a bamboo pole of 6 foot and 3 inches length (1.90m).[322]
      • The casings are made of steel (whereas the cylinders themselves were made up of soft iron), which were coupled with mutli-nozzle holes, along with a sword blade acting as the directional warhead. The propellant consisted of a specially designed gunpowder (which had been modified to produce striking aggressive bursts of energy, spreading a rapid unpleasant strong odour as well as producing smoke, along with creating a sudden and deafening sound; also unusual for it's time, the gunpowder was highly resistant to moisture ingress; making the rockets extremely durable, during even the most intense of monsoons). Altogether the rockets weighed approximately 2kg—5.4kg each,[324] with the propellant making up at least half of the rockets weight. They were capable of being fired simultaneously, making their use devastatingly efficient.[322]
    • Rocket technology never ceased to be researched after 1799; the year where Mysore collapsed under the British Empire. T.L. Varghese, V.N. Krishnamurthy, writing in "The Chemistry and Technology of Solid Rocket Propellants" (2017), show in great detail the vast and eclectic consequences the spread of this Muslim technology had been, and how it spurred European scientists (including Alfred Nobel who developed a blasting gel by using Nitroglycerine and Nitrocellulose) to vastly improve rocket chemistry over the coming century.[326] The British eventually copied the designs and transported them to Europe where they were used during the Napoleonic Wars (having also claimed all the credit for the Mysore inventions).[327]
  • Horseman's Axe—A weapon known as the horseman's axe was first invented by medieval Muslim weapon-smiths, although it isn't known precisely when. In the 15th century it was increasingly being supplanted by the mace, which was making a popular comeback, however, its effect was far less that of the horseman's axe.[328][n. 105] The "Tirant lo Blanc" (1490) noted that it was of Islamic origin, and remained the "deadliest weapon when fighting in full armour" when it was used by cavalrymen.[328][n. 106] The horseman's axe appears to be a cross between a war-hammer and an axe (halberds are similarly combination weapons, made up of a spear and axe[329]).

Clocks & Sundials (3)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Star-shaped Gnomon (with an Open Annulus)—In 1371, Abu al-Ḥasan Ala al‐Din Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari (Ibn al-Shatir; 1304—1375) was the first to invent the star-shaped gnomon (with an open annulus). The North American Sundial Society reconstructed a medieval sundial using his technology which was "mounted with precision on a west wall of the...UWA campus in Crawley, Perth" where a "star-shaped gnomon with an open annulus" casted "a spot of time on the wall", and that "[d]uring the course of the afternoon, the spot moves from the bottom of the wall to the top, recording Italian Hours until sunset, a common and practical way of measuring time used since the Arabic sundial of al-Shatir in 1371".[330]
The perforated gnomon was independently invented by Ibn Junis in by the end of the 10th century. There are also Chinese claims that it was used in ancient China, however these are impossible to verify.
  • Pinhole/Perforated Gnomon—The pinhole gnomon was invented by both the Muslims of the Mediterranean, more specifically the Arabs, and the mythical[331] Chinese during the reign of Emperor Yao (2356 BC—2255 BC), independently of one another.[332][n. 107] It was invented in the Muslim world by Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Yunus al-Sadafi al-Misri (Ibn Junis; c. 950—1009).[332] The main problem with the Chinese claim however is that Yao's reign is "shrouded in legend".[332] This makes it very difficult to ascertain exactly what they invented or discovered; or even if they existed.
    • Indeed there are no written records or evidence that the emperor existed from that time, and there are great claims attributed to them which do not make sense such as that these emperors "invented fire".[333] Emperor Yao was even said to have been enemies with an ancient dragon called Kung Kung, who caused a flood that "wiped out the earth", thus making it very to believe he was actually real, as well as his contributions to science.[334]
      • However this is not to say the gnomon was unknown to the Chinese since that time.[332] Indeed there are records from Chinese history which mention the gnomon being used in 500 BC, where it mandated that all gnomons had to have the same height by law.[332]
    • Other civilisations may also have known of the gnomons even though written accounts of evidence are totally lacking.[332] It is speculated that the ancient Egyptians knew of them in 1500 BC, the ancient Indians may have known about them as well, as well the Mesopotamians, Babylonians (who the ancient Greeks had learnt of the gnomon as well as dividing the day into twelve parts) and the Chaldeans.[332]
    • The gnomon works depending on it's height. Since "the sun is not a point but a disc with a certain apparent diameter, the edge of this shadow lacked definition because of the penumbra which surrounded it...[t]o overcome this difficulty" installing "a circular disc, through which a round hole was pierced on top of the gnomon" the "shadow then left on the ground formed a little round spot, the image of the sun, the centre of which could easily be determined".[332]
  • Metronome—Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini (Abbas ibn Firnas; Armen Firman; 809/810—887) was the first to invent the metronome.[335][336][337][338][339][340][341] It was later claimed to have been invented in 1814, Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel (1777—1826), but patented in 1815 by Johann Nepomuk Maelzel (1772—1838) who copied it from him.[336] The metronome "is used by musicians to help keep a steady tempo as they place, or to work on issuese of irregular timing, or to help internalize a clear sense of timing and tempo".[341] Its used by composers usually as a standard tempo reference to "indicate the intended tempo for a piece".[341]
    • It is essentially a device "that produces metrical ticks (beats, clicks)—settable in beats per minute. These ticks represent a fixed, regular aural pulse; some metronones also include synchronised visual motion (e.g. pendulum-swing)".[341]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
  • Star-shaped Gnomon (with an Open Annulus)—In 1371, Abu al-Ḥasan Ala al‐Din Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari (Ibn al-Shatir; 1304—1375) was the first to invent the star-shaped gnomon (with an open annulus). The North American Sundial Society reconstructed a medieval sundial using his technology which was "mounted with precision on a west wall of the...UWA campus in Crawley, Perth" where a "star-shaped gnomon with an open annulus" casted "a spot of time on the wall", and that "[d]uring the course of the afternoon, the spot moves from the bottom of the wall to the top, recording Italian Hours until sunset, a common and practical way of measuring time used since the Arabic sundial of al-Shatir in 1371".[330]
The perforated gnomon was independently invented by Ibn Junis in by the end of the 10th century. There are also Chinese claims that it was used in ancient China, however these are impossible to verify.
  • Pinhole/Perforated Gnomon—The pinhole gnomon was invented by both the Muslims of the Mediterranean, more specifically the Arabs, and the mythical[331] Chinese during the reign of Emperor Yao (2356 BC—2255 BC), independently of one another.[332][n. 108] It was invented in the Muslim world by Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Yunus al-Sadafi al-Misri (Ibn Junis; c. 950—1009).[332] The main problem with the Chinese claim however is that Yao's reign is "shrouded in legend".[332] This makes it very difficult to ascertain exactly what they invented or discovered; or even if they existed.
    • Indeed there are no written records or evidence that the emperor existed from that time, and there are great claims attributed to them which do not make sense such as that these emperors "invented fire".[333] Emperor Yao was even said to have been enemies with an ancient dragon called Kung Kung, who caused a flood that "wiped out the earth", thus making it very to believe he was actually real, as well as his contributions to science.[334]
      • However this is not to say the gnomon was unknown to the Chinese since that time.[332] Indeed there are records from Chinese history which mention the gnomon being used in 500 BC, where it mandated that all gnomons had to have the same height by law.[332]
    • Other civilisations may also have known of the gnomons even though written accounts of evidence are totally lacking.[332] It is speculated that the ancient Egyptians knew of them in 1500 BC, the ancient Indians may have known about them as well, as well the Mesopotamians, Babylonians (who the ancient Greeks had learnt of the gnomon as well as dividing the day into twelve parts) and the Chaldeans.[332]
    • The gnomon works depending on it's height. Since "the sun is not a point but a disc with a certain apparent diameter, the edge of this shadow lacked definition because of the penumbra which surrounded it...[t]o overcome this difficulty" installing "a circular disc, through which a round hole was pierced on top of the gnomon" the "shadow then left on the ground formed a little round spot, the image of the sun, the centre of which could easily be determined".[332]
  • Metronome—Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini (Abbas ibn Firnas; Armen Firman; 809/810—887) was the first to invent the metronome.[335][336][337][338][339][340][341] It was later claimed to have been invented in 1814, Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel (1777—1826), but patented in 1815 by Johann Nepomuk Maelzel (1772—1838) who copied it from him.[336] The metronome "is used by musicians to help keep a steady tempo as they place, or to work on issuese of irregular timing, or to help internalize a clear sense of timing and tempo".[341] Its used by composers usually as a standard tempo reference to "indicate the intended tempo for a piece".[341]
    • It is essentially a device "that produces metrical ticks (beats, clicks)—settable in beats per minute. These ticks represent a fixed, regular aural pulse; some metronones also include synchronised visual motion (e.g. pendulum-swing)".[341]

Manufacturing (3)

This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The spinning wheel.
  • Paper Packaging—Paper packaging was first used in 1035 in Cairo, during the Abbasid Caliphate (750—1258), who used it to wrap up edible foods and hardware.[342][343][n. 109] The Persian explorer, Nasiri Khosrau (1004—1088), travelled to Cairo, and was shocked to see paper being used for something other than writing; instead, to wrap up products sold by merchants; noting "sellers of vegetables, spices, hardware, [are] provided with paper in which all they sold was immediately wrapped up, if it were not so already".[342][343] It was also around this time that paper was first re-pulped and re-used.[343]
  • Papermaking Pulp—In papermaking, the Muslim Arabs were the first to introduce the use of a trip-hammer. The original method included beating cleansed rags into a pulp (the usual method of doing this was by pestle and mortar). This intensive process was time-consuming and labour intensive; and it had been used for hundreds of years. The Muslims introduced the trip hammer which vastly improved the maceration process, and it was soon adopted by the Chinese themselves. The workers "treading upon the end of the horizontal tilt-bar...caused the hammer to fall heavily upon the substance to be beaten".[344]
  • Spinning Wheel—It is not exactly known when the spinning wheel was invented, but there are two civilisations which have claims on it.[345] One is Indian and the other is Arabic Muslim.[345] Some have given India the credit for having invented it between 500 and 1000 AD,[346] although Indian historians themselves have noted that "references to cotton spinning are so vague that none clearly identifies a wheel...[t]he references could equally indicate earlier methods of hand spinning".[345][n. 110] The earliest reference is made in 1350, saying they were first used in the previous century.[345] This was not ambiguous.[345]
    • The earliest physical evidence for the spinning wheel comes from Baghdad in 1237.[345] China first depicted it in c. 1270 and Europe in c. 1280.[345] However the earliest written reference to spinning wheels comes from the Islamic world in c. 1030, whereas it was alluded to next in China in c. 1090.[345][n. 111] It is also notable that China at the time due to technological constraints in the materials that they worked with which were incapable of being spun; therefore they wouldn't have been able to invent the spinning wheel.[345] Therefore, the strongest claimant appears to be Muslim civilisation.[345]
This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete.
The spinning wheel.
  • Paper Packaging—Paper packaging was first used in 1035 in Cairo, during the Abbasid Caliphate (750—1258), who used it to wrap up edible foods and hardware.[342][343][n. 112] The Persian explorer, Nasiri Khosrau (1004—1088), travelled to Cairo, and was shocked to see paper being used for something other than writing; instead, to wrap up products sold by merchants; noting "sellers of vegetables, spices, hardware, [are] provided with paper in which all they sold was immediately wrapped up, if it were not so already".[342][343] It was also around this time that paper was first re-pulped and re-used.[343]
  • Papermaking Pulp—In papermaking, the Muslim Arabs were the first to introduce the use of a trip-hammer. The original method included beating cleansed rags into a pulp (the usual method of doing this was by pestle and mortar). This intensive process was time-consuming and labour intensive; and it had been used for hundreds of years. The Muslims introduced the trip hammer which vastly improved the maceration process, and it was soon adopted by the Chinese themselves. The workers "treading upon the end of the horizontal tilt-bar...caused the hammer to fall heavily upon the substance to be beaten".[344]
  • Spinning Wheel—It is not exactly known when the spinning wheel was invented, but there are two civilisations which have claims on it.[345] One is Indian and the other is Arabic Muslim.[345] Some have given India the credit for having invented it between 500 and 1000 AD,[346] although Indian historians themselves have noted that "references to cotton spinning are so vague that none clearly identifies a wheel...[t]he references could equally indicate earlier methods of hand spinning".[345][n. 113] The earliest reference is made in 1350, saying they were first used in the previous century.[345] This was not ambiguous.[345]
    • The earliest physical evidence for the spinning wheel comes from Baghdad in 1237.[345] China first depicted it in c. 1270 and Europe in c. 1280.[345] However the earliest written reference to spinning wheels comes from the Islamic world in c. 1030, whereas it was alluded to next in China in c. 1090.[345][n. 114] It is also notable that China at the time due to technological constraints in the materials that they worked with which were incapable of being spun; therefore they wouldn't have been able to invent the spinning wheel.[345] Therefore, the strongest claimant appears to be Muslim civilisation.[345]

Control Mechanisms (1)

  • Two Step Discontinuous Level Control—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers were the first to invent the two step discontinuous level control.[347][348] These were said to have been invented in 840.[347] A way of understanding this is that "[t]his can be defined as 'the action of a controller whose output changes from one state to another due to a variation in its input'[.]".[349] Indeed, an example "of this control is that of a float operated filling v/v say for a cistern".[349] It works in the following way;
    • "In normal condition the output of the float is nil and no water passes through the valve, should the water level drop the float detects this and operates the valve to change to its second state which is open and water flows. When the level re-establishes then the float controls the valve to return to its primary state which is closed. In this way the float is controlling the water level by changing the valve between two different states".[349] This is thus defined as a two step discontinuous level control.
  • Two Step Discontinuous Level Control—Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 800—873), Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 805—873) and al-Hasan ibn Musa ibn Shakir (c. 810—893), also known as the Banu Musa brothers were the first to invent the two step discontinuous level control.[347][348] These were said to have been invented in 840.[347] A way of understanding this is that "[t]his can be defined as 'the action of a controller whose output changes from one state to another due to a variation in its input'[.]".[349] Indeed, an example "of this control is that of a float operated filling v/v say for a cistern".[349] It works in the following way;
    • "In normal condition the output of the float is nil and no water passes through the valve, should the water level drop the float detects this and operates the valve to change to its second state which is open and water flows. When the level re-establishes then the float controls the valve to return to its primary state which is closed. In this way the float is controlling the water level by changing the valve between two different states".[349] This is thus defined as a two step discontinuous level control.

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ Quote: "Next comes the first layer of mail - in this instance a long-hemmed long-sleeved hauberk captured from the Crusaders, then a layer of quilted cotton filled with silk waste. This kazaghand is based on one described in Usama's Memoires. The second layer of mail has a short-hemmed short-sleeved mail hauberk of Islamic origin. Over this was the outer layer of silk brocade."
    1. David Nicolle (28 July 1994). Saracen Faris AD 1050–1250. Bloomsbury USA. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-85532-453-4.
  2. ^ Quote: "Next comes the first layer of mail - in this instance a long-hemmed long-sleeved hauberk captured from the Crusaders, then a layer of quilted cotton filled with silk waste. This kazaghand is based on one described in Usama's Memoires. The second layer of mail has a short-hemmed short-sleeved mail hauberk of Islamic origin. Over this was the outer layer of silk brocade."
    1. David Nicolle (28 July 1994). Saracen Faris AD 1050–1250. Bloomsbury USA. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-85532-453-4.
  3. ^ Quote: "Next comes the first layer of mail - in this instance a long-hemmed long-sleeved hauberk captured from the Crusaders, then a layer of quilted cotton filled with silk waste. This kazaghand is based on one described in Usama's Memoires. The second layer of mail has a short-hemmed short-sleeved mail hauberk of Islamic origin. Over this was the outer layer of silk brocade."
    1. David Nicolle (28 July 1994). Saracen Faris AD 1050–1250. Bloomsbury USA. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-85532-453-4.
  4. ^ Quote: "Next comes the first layer of mail - in this instance a long-hemmed long-sleeved hauberk captured from the Crusaders, then a layer of quilted cotton filled with silk waste. This kazaghand is based on one described in Usama's Memoires. The second layer of mail has a short-hemmed short-sleeved mail hauberk of Islamic origin. Over this was the outer layer of silk brocade."
    1. David Nicolle (28 July 1994). Saracen Faris AD 1050–1250. Bloomsbury USA. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-85532-453-4.
  5. ^ Quote: "Al-Tūsī Linear Astrolabe. Sharaf al-Din was also the inventor of a linear astrolabe, a single rod with markings on it (sometimes called “the rod of al-Tūusī”). The rod represents the meridian of the planispheric astrolabe, and two threads attached to it, with movable beads on them, can be positioned at various points along the rod to serve in place of the rete (the top plate in the usual planispheric astrolabe, whose pointers indicate the position of certain prominent stars). The rod has a number of scales, one of which represents the intersections of the altitude circles with the meridian. Another represents the intersections with the meridian of concentric circles that are the stereographic projections of the circles containing the beginnings of the zodiacal signs. (See Figure 1.)".
    1. Berggren, J. Lennart (2008). Al-Tūsī, Sharaf Al-Dīn Al-Muzaffar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Muzaffar. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner & Sons. Online Copy Found Here (WayBackMachine Link). ISBN 9780684315591. Retrieved February 13th, 2019.
  6. ^ Quote: "Al-Tūsī Linear Astrolabe. Sharaf al-Din was also the inventor of a linear astrolabe, a single rod with markings on it (sometimes called “the rod of al-Tūusī”). The rod represents the meridian of the planispheric astrolabe, and two threads attached to it, with movable beads on them, can be positioned at various points along the rod to serve in place of the rete (the top plate in the usual planispheric astrolabe, whose pointers indicate the position of certain prominent stars). The rod has a number of scales, one of which represents the intersections of the altitude circles with the meridian. Another represents the intersections with the meridian of concentric circles that are the stereographic projections of the circles containing the beginnings of the zodiacal signs. (See Figure 1.)".
    1. Berggren, J. Lennart (2008). Al-Tūsī, Sharaf Al-Dīn Al-Muzaffar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Muzaffar. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner & Sons. Online Copy Found Here (WayBackMachine Link). ISBN 9780684315591. Retrieved February 13th, 2019.
  7. ^ Quote: "The completion of the astratium in the fourteenth century may be linked continuously backward through history to the first simple gearing. Price suggests that the origin of mechanized astronomical devices, such as the astrarium, may well have been the Islamic tradition of equatoria which gradually migrated to the Western world, in particular through the descriptions of instruments in the Libros del Saber of Alfonso the Wise (ca. 1276). He points out that concrete evidence of this migration is to be found in the fact that the dials and complicated gearwork of de' Dondi's astrarium constitute a series of equatoria. De' Dondi state that this was in fact what he had done, basing the series on the instructions provided by Campanus of Novara in his Theorica planetarum (see below, pp. 15-16). These are mechanized in the same manner as the well-known calendrical device described by al-Biruni in about A. D. 1000 which was subsequently employed in the geared astrolabe of Muhammed b. Abi Bakr of Isfahan of A. D. 1221-1222, in the Museum of the History of Science at Oxford."
    1. Bedini, Silvio A.; Maddison, Francis R. (1966). Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 56 (5): 1. pp 9-10. doi:10.2307/1006002. ISSN 0065-9746.
  8. ^ Quote: "An early example of mathematical gearing is featured on the reverse of an astrolabe made around 1221/2 CE by Abi-Bakr of Isfahan (Museium of the History of Science, Oxford, inv. 48213). The engaging wheels have different tooth counts to reduce the motion of the rete3 to indicate the moon's phase and age, with a zodiacal calendar showing the relative positions of the Sun and Moon. The positioning and design of the tooth wheels in Abi Bakr's astrolabte correspond closely with an illustrated design produced some 200 years earlier by the Muslim polymath, al-Biruni (973-1048). To facilitate precise manual division of the wheels, the tooth count in Abi Bakr's lunar train was modified to include more even numbers (Price 1974)".
    1. Bernard Lightman (4 April 2016). A Companion to the History of Science. John Wiley & Sons. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-118-62077-9.
  9. ^ Quote: "The completion of the astratium in the fourteenth century may be linked continuously backward through history to the first simple gearing. Price suggests that the origin of mechanized astronomical devices, such as the astrarium, may well have been the Islamic tradition of equatoria which gradually migrated to the Western world, in particular through the descriptions of instruments in the Libros del Saber of Alfonso the Wise (ca. 1276). He points out that concrete evidence of this migration is to be found in the fact that the dials and complicated gearwork of de' Dondi's astrarium constitute a series of equatoria. De' Dondi state that this was in fact what he had done, basing the series on the instructions provided by Campanus of Novara in his Theorica planetarum (see below, pp. 15-16). These are mechanized in the same manner as the well-known calendrical device described by al-Biruni in about A. D. 1000 which was subsequently employed in the geared astrolabe of Muhammed b. Abi Bakr of Isfahan of A. D. 1221-1222, in the Museum of the History of Science at Oxford."
    1. Bedini, Silvio A.; Maddison, Francis R. (1966). Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 56 (5): 1. pp 9-10. doi:10.2307/1006002. ISSN 0065-9746.
  10. ^ Quote: "An early example of mathematical gearing is featured on the reverse of an astrolabe made around 1221/2 CE by Abi-Bakr of Isfahan (Museium of the History of Science, Oxford, inv. 48213). The engaging wheels have different tooth counts to reduce the motion of the rete3 to indicate the moon's phase and age, with a zodiacal calendar showing the relative positions of the Sun and Moon. The positioning and design of the tooth wheels in Abi Bakr's astrolabte correspond closely with an illustrated design produced some 200 years earlier by the Muslim polymath, al-Biruni (973-1048). To facilitate precise manual division of the wheels, the tooth count in Abi Bakr's lunar train was modified to include more even numbers (Price 1974)".
    1. Bernard Lightman (4 April 2016). A Companion to the History of Science. John Wiley & Sons. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-118-62077-9.
  11. ^ Quote: "What was needed to make the roller-gin more effective was the worm-gearing and the crank-handle, whereby one roller alone would need to be rotated, while the gearing took care of the other one. One possible clue which may narrow the date of its introduction is the fact that when the cotton gin reached China from India in the thirteenth century, it still lacked worm-gearing: this is not shown in the depiction of the gin in 1313 by Wang Zhen, nor mentioned in his account of the device. This could imply that worm-gearing came to be employed in the Indian cotton gin only after it had diffused from here to China. If so, the incorporation of the gearing could be placed within the span of the thirteenth to the seventeenth century when the geared sugar mills are first reported. Of the crank-handle, the earliest depictions belong to the seventeenth century".
    1. Irfan Habib (2011). Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500. Pearson Education India. p. 53. ISBN 978-81-317-2791-1.
  12. ^ Quote: "The Banu Musa were masters in the exploitation of small variations in aero static and hydrostatic pressures and in using conical valves as "in-line" components in flow systems, the first known use of conical valves as automatic controllers".
    1. Donald R. Hill (1991). [www.jstor.org/stable/24936907 Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East]. Vol. 264, No. 5 (MAY 1991), pp. 100-105. Scientific American. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  13. ^ Quote: "Another mechanical element developed by Muslim researchers is the conic valve that had not been designed by any previous civilization. The conic valve was used in many different parts of devices in Al-Jazari’s book".
    1. Şen, Zekâi (2013). Ancient water robotics and Abou-l Iz Al-Jazari. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. 13 (3): 699–709. doi:10.2166/ws.2013.031. ISSN 1606-9749
  14. ^ Quote: "The completion of the astratium in the fourteenth century may be linked continuously backward through history to the first simple gearing. Price suggests that the origin of mechanized astronomical devices, such as the astrarium, may well have been the Islamic tradition of equatoria which gradually migrated to the Western world, in particular through the descriptions of instruments in the Libros del Saber of Alfonso the Wise (ca. 1276). He points out that concrete evidence of this migration is to be found in the fact that the dials and complicated gearwork of de' Dondi's astrarium constitute a series of equatoria. De' Dondi state that this was in fact what he had done, basing the series on the instructions provided by Campanus of Novara in his Theorica planetarum (see below, pp. 15-16). These are mechanized in the same manner as the well-known calendrical device described by al-Biruni in about A. D. 1000 which was subsequently employed in the geared astrolabe of Muhammed b. Abi Bakr of Isfahan of A. D. 1221-1222, in the Museum of the History of Science at Oxford."
    1. Bedini, Silvio A.; Maddison, Francis R. (1966). Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 56 (5): 1. pp 9-10. doi:10.2307/1006002. ISSN 0065-9746.
  15. ^ Quote: "An early example of mathematical gearing is featured on the reverse of an astrolabe made around 1221/2 CE by Abi-Bakr of Isfahan (Museium of the History of Science, Oxford, inv. 48213). The engaging wheels have different tooth counts to reduce the motion of the rete3 to indicate the moon's phase and age, with a zodiacal calendar showing the relative positions of the Sun and Moon. The positioning and design of the tooth wheels in Abi Bakr's astrolabte correspond closely with an illustrated design produced some 200 years earlier by the Muslim polymath, al-Biruni (973-1048). To facilitate precise manual division of the wheels, the tooth count in Abi Bakr's lunar train was modified to include more even numbers (Price 1974)".
    1. Bernard Lightman (4 April 2016). A Companion to the History of Science. John Wiley & Sons. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-118-62077-9.
  16. ^ Quote: "The completion of the astratium in the fourteenth century may be linked continuously backward through history to the first simple gearing. Price suggests that the origin of mechanized astronomical devices, such as the astrarium, may well have been the Islamic tradition of equatoria which gradually migrated to the Western world, in particular through the descriptions of instruments in the Libros del Saber of Alfonso the Wise (ca. 1276). He points out that concrete evidence of this migration is to be found in the fact that the dials and complicated gearwork of de' Dondi's astrarium constitute a series of equatoria. De' Dondi state that this was in fact what he had done, basing the series on the instructions provided by Campanus of Novara in his Theorica planetarum (see below, pp. 15-16). These are mechanized in the same manner as the well-known calendrical device described by al-Biruni in about A. D. 1000 which was subsequently employed in the geared astrolabe of Muhammed b. Abi Bakr of Isfahan of A. D. 1221-1222, in the Museum of the History of Science at Oxford."
    1. Bedini, Silvio A.; Maddison, Francis R. (1966). Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 56 (5): 1. pp 9-10. doi:10.2307/1006002. ISSN 0065-9746.
  17. ^ Quote: "An early example of mathematical gearing is featured on the reverse of an astrolabe made around 1221/2 CE by Abi-Bakr of Isfahan (Museium of the History of Science, Oxford, inv. 48213). The engaging wheels have different tooth counts to reduce the motion of the rete3 to indicate the moon's phase and age, with a zodiacal calendar showing the relative positions of the Sun and Moon. The positioning and design of the tooth wheels in Abi Bakr's astrolabte correspond closely with an illustrated design produced some 200 years earlier by the Muslim polymath, al-Biruni (973-1048). To facilitate precise manual division of the wheels, the tooth count in Abi Bakr's lunar train was modified to include more even numbers (Price 1974)".
    1. Bernard Lightman (4 April 2016). A Companion to the History of Science. John Wiley & Sons. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-118-62077-9.
  18. ^ Quote: "What was needed to make the roller-gin more effective was the worm-gearing and the crank-handle, whereby one roller alone would need to be rotated, while the gearing took care of the other one. One possible clue which may narrow the date of its introduction is the fact that when the cotton gin reached China from India in the thirteenth century, it still lacked worm-gearing: this is not shown in the depiction of the gin in 1313 by Wang Zhen, nor mentioned in his account of the device. This could imply that worm-gearing came to be employed in the Indian cotton gin only after it had diffused from here to China. If so, the incorporation of the gearing could be placed within the span of the thirteenth to the seventeenth century when the geared sugar mills are first reported. Of the crank-handle, the earliest depictions belong to the seventeenth century".
    1. Irfan Habib (2011). Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500. Pearson Education India. p. 53. ISBN 978-81-317-2791-1.
  19. ^ Quote: "The Banu Musa were masters in the exploitation of small variations in aero static and hydrostatic pressures and in using conical valves as "in-line" components in flow systems, the first known use of conical valves as automatic controllers".
    1. Donald R. Hill (1991). [www.jstor.org/stable/24936907 Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East]. Vol. 264, No. 5 (MAY 1991), pp. 100-105. Scientific American. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  20. ^ Quote: "Another mechanical element developed by Muslim researchers is the conic valve that had not been designed by any previous civilization. The conic valve was used in many different parts of devices in Al-Jazari’s book".
    1. Şen, Zekâi (2013). Ancient water robotics and Abou-l Iz Al-Jazari. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. 13 (3): 699–709. doi:10.2166/ws.2013.031. ISSN 1606-9749
  21. ^ Quote: "The lenses mentioned by the Greeks appear to have been globular rather than lenticular in shape. The one referred to by Aristophanes in 424 B.C., for example, was only a glass globe filled with water. In common with concave mirrors these water spheres were used more as burning-glasses than as aids to vision. Seneca, it is true, remarks that Aristophanes' globe could be used to read letters, 'however small and dim', but elsewhere refers more particularly to its burning properties".
    1. Henry C. King (2003). The History of the Telescope. Courier Corporation. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-486-43265-6.
  22. ^ Quote: "The first Muslim scholar to write about the distillation of petroleum was the Persian-born Muhammad al-Razi, who spent most of his adult life in the late ninth century as a physician and chemist in Baghdad. In his Kitab al-Asrar, or Book of Secrets, he mentions the use of naffatah , or kerosene lamps, for heating and lighting, establishing that such devices were in existence in the Muslim world more than a thousand years before they became known in the West. He gives two methods for making kerosene, one using clay as an absorbent and another using sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). The distillation is to be repeated until the distillate is perfectly clear and "safe to light," meaning that the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been substantially removed".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  23. ^ Quote: "The great Persian scholar, Muhammad al-Razi (865-925 AD), wrote more than 200 books and articles, in whcih he documented fundamental contributions to medicine, alchemy, music, and philosophy. He discovered numerous chemicals and compounds, including kerosene, which he recovered from petroleum. Kerosene has been used for heating ever since".
    1. Chang Samuel Hsu; Paul R. Robinson (20 December 2017). Springer Handbook of Petroleum Technology. Springer. pp. 9-10. ISBN 978-3-319-49347-3.
  24. ^ Quote: "The process of distilling crude oil/petroleum into kerosene, as well as other hydrocarbon compounds, has first been documented about in the ninth century by the Persian scholar Rhazes. In his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets), the physician and chemist Razi described two methods for the production of kerosene, termed naft abyad ("white naphtha"), using an apparatus called an alembic. One method used clay as an absorbent, whereas the other method used ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac). The distillation process was repeated until the final product was perfectly clear and safe to light; i.e. the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been mostly removed from the original hydrocarbon mixture. Kerosene was also produced during the same period from oil shale and bitumen by heating the rock to extract the oil, which was then distilled".
    1. Martin Kaltschmitt; Ulf Neuling (9 August 2017). Biokerosene: Status and Prospects. Springer. p. 44. ISBN 978-3-662-53065-8.
  25. ^ Quote: "Kerosene, or paraffin as it is known in the United Kingdom, is a thin clear liquid made from hydrocarbons. It started as a substitute in lamps and then later in heaters to replace coal. Al-Razi, a 9th century Persian physician and chemist referred to a simple lamp in his notes that used crude mineral oil. He called it "naffatah" and described a rough distilling process using crude oil and bitumen. Al-Razi used clay as an absorbent, repeating the distillation process until the liquid was clear and safe to light".
    1. Woodrow W. Clark; Grant Cooke (26 November 2014). The Green Industrial Revolution: Energy, Engineering and Economics. Elsevier Science. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-12-802553-6.
  26. ^ Quote: "The first Muslim scholar to write about the distillation of petroleum was the Persian-born Muhammad al-Razi, who spent most of his adult life in the late ninth century as a physician and chemist in Baghdad. In his Kitab al-Asrar, or Book of Secrets, he mentions the use of naffatah , or kerosene lamps, for heating and lighting, establishing that such devices were in existence in the Muslim world more than a thousand years before they became known in the West. He gives two methods for making kerosene, one using clay as an absorbent and another using sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). The distillation is to be repeated until the distillate is perfectly clear and "safe to light," meaning that the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been substantially removed".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  27. ^ Quote: "Two developments around the year 850 increased the power of the oil czars. The first was the increased demand from a new fighting corps established in the regular Abbasid army called the naffatun , or naphtha troops. The second was the introduction of refined lamp oil, or kerosene, manufactured from crude oil by distillation. This was what the Muslims called white naphtha, or naft abyad. It was made then much as it is today, except that instead of high-volume, continuous-process distillation towers, the medieval Arabs used an apparatus called al-inbiq, a batch-process still whose name we have taken into English as alembic.".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  28. ^ Quote: "The first Muslim scholar to write about the distillation of petroleum was the Persian-born Muhammad al-Razi, who spent most of his adult life in the late ninth century as a physician and chemist in Baghdad. In his Kitab al-Asrar, or Book of Secrets, he mentions the use of naffatah , or kerosene lamps, for heating and lighting, establishing that such devices were in existence in the Muslim world more than a thousand years before they became known in the West. He gives two methods for making kerosene, one using clay as an absorbent and another using sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). The distillation is to be repeated until the distillate is perfectly clear and "safe to light," meaning that the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been substantially removed".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  29. ^ Quote: "The first Muslim scholar to write about the distillation of petroleum was the Persian-born Muhammad al-Razi, who spent most of his adult life in the late ninth century as a physician and chemist in Baghdad. In his Kitab al-Asrar, or Book of Secrets, he mentions the use of naffatah , or kerosene lamps, for heating and lighting, establishing that such devices were in existence in the Muslim world more than a thousand years before they became known in the West. He gives two methods for making kerosene, one using clay as an absorbent and another using sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). The distillation is to be repeated until the distillate is perfectly clear and "safe to light," meaning that the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been substantially removed".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  30. ^ Quote: "The lenses mentioned by the Greeks appear to have been globular rather than lenticular in shape. The one referred to by Aristophanes in 424 B.C., for example, was only a glass globe filled with water. In common with concave mirrors these water spheres were used more as burning-glasses than as aids to vision. Seneca, it is true, remarks that Aristophanes' globe could be used to read letters, 'however small and dim', but elsewhere refers more particularly to its burning properties".
    1. Henry C. King (2003). The History of the Telescope. Courier Corporation. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-486-43265-6.
  31. ^ Quote: "The first Muslim scholar to write about the distillation of petroleum was the Persian-born Muhammad al-Razi, who spent most of his adult life in the late ninth century as a physician and chemist in Baghdad. In his Kitab al-Asrar, or Book of Secrets, he mentions the use of naffatah , or kerosene lamps, for heating and lighting, establishing that such devices were in existence in the Muslim world more than a thousand years before they became known in the West. He gives two methods for making kerosene, one using clay as an absorbent and another using sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). The distillation is to be repeated until the distillate is perfectly clear and "safe to light," meaning that the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been substantially removed".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  32. ^ Quote: "The great Persian scholar, Muhammad al-Razi (865-925 AD), wrote more than 200 books and articles, in whcih he documented fundamental contributions to medicine, alchemy, music, and philosophy. He discovered numerous chemicals and compounds, including kerosene, which he recovered from petroleum. Kerosene has been used for heating ever since".
    1. Chang Samuel Hsu; Paul R. Robinson (20 December 2017). Springer Handbook of Petroleum Technology. Springer. pp. 9-10. ISBN 978-3-319-49347-3.
  33. ^ Quote: "The process of distilling crude oil/petroleum into kerosene, as well as other hydrocarbon compounds, has first been documented about in the ninth century by the Persian scholar Rhazes. In his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets), the physician and chemist Razi described two methods for the production of kerosene, termed naft abyad ("white naphtha"), using an apparatus called an alembic. One method used clay as an absorbent, whereas the other method used ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac). The distillation process was repeated until the final product was perfectly clear and safe to light; i.e. the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been mostly removed from the original hydrocarbon mixture. Kerosene was also produced during the same period from oil shale and bitumen by heating the rock to extract the oil, which was then distilled".
    1. Martin Kaltschmitt; Ulf Neuling (9 August 2017). Biokerosene: Status and Prospects. Springer. p. 44. ISBN 978-3-662-53065-8.
  34. ^ Quote: "Kerosene, or paraffin as it is known in the United Kingdom, is a thin clear liquid made from hydrocarbons. It started as a substitute in lamps and then later in heaters to replace coal. Al-Razi, a 9th century Persian physician and chemist referred to a simple lamp in his notes that used crude mineral oil. He called it "naffatah" and described a rough distilling process using crude oil and bitumen. Al-Razi used clay as an absorbent, repeating the distillation process until the liquid was clear and safe to light".
    1. Woodrow W. Clark; Grant Cooke (26 November 2014). The Green Industrial Revolution: Energy, Engineering and Economics. Elsevier Science. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-12-802553-6.
  35. ^ Quote: "The first Muslim scholar to write about the distillation of petroleum was the Persian-born Muhammad al-Razi, who spent most of his adult life in the late ninth century as a physician and chemist in Baghdad. In his Kitab al-Asrar, or Book of Secrets, he mentions the use of naffatah , or kerosene lamps, for heating and lighting, establishing that such devices were in existence in the Muslim world more than a thousand years before they became known in the West. He gives two methods for making kerosene, one using clay as an absorbent and another using sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). The distillation is to be repeated until the distillate is perfectly clear and "safe to light," meaning that the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been substantially removed".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  36. ^ Quote: "Two developments around the year 850 increased the power of the oil czars. The first was the increased demand from a new fighting corps established in the regular Abbasid army called the naffatun , or naphtha troops. The second was the introduction of refined lamp oil, or kerosene, manufactured from crude oil by distillation. This was what the Muslims called white naphtha, or naft abyad. It was made then much as it is today, except that instead of high-volume, continuous-process distillation towers, the medieval Arabs used an apparatus called al-inbiq, a batch-process still whose name we have taken into English as alembic.".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  37. ^ Quote: "The first Muslim scholar to write about the distillation of petroleum was the Persian-born Muhammad al-Razi, who spent most of his adult life in the late ninth century as a physician and chemist in Baghdad. In his Kitab al-Asrar, or Book of Secrets, he mentions the use of naffatah , or kerosene lamps, for heating and lighting, establishing that such devices were in existence in the Muslim world more than a thousand years before they became known in the West. He gives two methods for making kerosene, one using clay as an absorbent and another using sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). The distillation is to be repeated until the distillate is perfectly clear and "safe to light," meaning that the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been substantially removed".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  38. ^ Quote: "The first Muslim scholar to write about the distillation of petroleum was the Persian-born Muhammad al-Razi, who spent most of his adult life in the late ninth century as a physician and chemist in Baghdad. In his Kitab al-Asrar, or Book of Secrets, he mentions the use of naffatah , or kerosene lamps, for heating and lighting, establishing that such devices were in existence in the Muslim world more than a thousand years before they became known in the West. He gives two methods for making kerosene, one using clay as an absorbent and another using sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). The distillation is to be repeated until the distillate is perfectly clear and "safe to light," meaning that the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been substantially removed".
    1. Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  39. ^ However, some historians have noted that it may actually have been inspired by a pump that al-Jazari had made 300 years before al-Din.
    1. Marco Ceccarelli (1 December 2009). Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science: Their Contributions and Legacies. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 15. ISBN 978-90-481-2346-9.
  40. ^ Quote: "A steam-driven rotating spit for roasting food was one of the most innovative of the machines described in al-Din's book "The Subline Methods of Spiritual Machines". Attached to one end of the spit was a wheel with vanes, which was made to turn by directing steam onto it through the nozzle of a copper vessel of water heated over the fire...al-Din's invention was no mere novelty and harnessed the power to drive a mechanical device. His rudimentary steam turbine predated Giovanni Branca's almost identical machine often considered the first of it's kind by 78 years."
    1. Adam Hart-Davis (1 May 2012). Engineers. Dorling Kindersley Limited. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-1-4093-2224-5.
  41. ^ The origins of the Pneumatica are not really known, and neither is Heron's exact birthdate. Many of the inventions in the book are attributed to him but he himself stated that only some were his but he didn't specify, indicated he could have taken them from any of the number of previous empires or civilisations before him. The devices contained in the book weren't even really engineering, since they were also merely considered as magical devices or possibly even toys (it isn't known). Furthermore, the original book doesn't even exist given way to forgery, exaggeration, imagination and appropriation.
    Quote: "The exact dates of Heron's birth and death are not known. Surmises lie between the second century B.C. and the third century A.D.; some time in the first century A.D. is perhaps the most probable. His Pneumatica...consists of descriptions of various ingenious apparatuses that operated on the basis of air or water; some of them are what we would now call toys or even "magic" devices. He himself said that he added some of his own inventions, but he did not say which ones they were. The book was known and referred to in medieval times, but many transcripts and translations into Latin or Greek have been lost either in whole or in part. An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  42. ^ Troubling, some European historians have claimed he was familiar with Heron of Alexandria's novel, which contained information regarding a contraption known as the "aeolipile", which contained a description of a "principle" that stated the alleged machine "relied on water being heated in a closed vessel and the steam being forced through twin nozzles for it's spinning action". However, such a claim has no concrete proof given how many European historians of the past have often associated inventions to Heron which weren't really inventions so much as they were fabrications. Some historians have even forged outlandish claims based on his alleged work; whether by accident or by purpose; for instance in regards to the invention of the worlds first windmills (which were invented in Persia during the 10th century) modern scholars have noted; Quote: "Ancient manuscripts, however, have often suffered from mistranslations, revisions, and interpolations by other hands over the centuries. In some, even diagrams were changed to suit the whims of the revisionists, and there are instances of forgeries...Mentioning the Boas monograph is apposite here because of the well known ascription of the invention of the windmill to Heron of Alexandria by virtue of his account of it as one of the many devices in his pnuematica 2000 years ago. This ascription is now discounted by most authorities in varying degrees ranging from outright rejection through wistful reluctance to relinquish the idea, to acceptance as only a toy." (Pg. 4); and further that "Thus Herons work might have stimulated the use of wind power in the Islamic world, but there is no hard evidence to substantiate that".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Pg. 6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  43. ^ European authors are still short of calling Taqi's invention as the "first", showing inherent bias towards Whites having invented it, despite obviously insinuating that he was the first to build such a device. For instance see; Ian Stewart (2 February 2012). Seventeen Equations that Changed the World. Profile Books. p. 199. ISBN 1-84765-769-9.
  44. ^ Quote: "In the machines he designed, Al-Jazari was the first to use the systems that are reminiscent of "the crankshaft" and "camshaft" that are now used in all motor vehicles (9-11)".
    1. Penbegul, Necmettin; Atar, Murat; Kendirci, Muammer; Bozkurt, Yasar; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal; Verit, Ayhan; Kadıoglu, Ates (2014). Primitive robotic procedures: Automotions for medical liquids in 12th century Asia minor. Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia. 86 (4): 300. doi:10.4081/aiua.2014.4.300. ISSN 2282-4197.
  45. ^ Quote: "It was, however, a quite different type of automaton that marked the revolution we are describing, thanks particularly to the contribution of the Persian mechanician Al Jazzari, whose book, mentioned above, seems to reveal appliances hitherto unknown. He gives a description of true sequential automata, driven notably by a camshaft, which transforms the circular motion of a sort of crankshaft into an alternating motion of a distributor: such automata thus mark a break with the Graeco-Roman concept of the simple device endowed with automatic movements".
    1. Georges Ifrah (2001). A Universal History Of Computing: From The Abacus To The Quantum Computer. John Wiley. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-471-39671-0.
  46. ^ Quote: "For centuries the inventions of automated crankshaft, camshaft, reciprocating double-action piston suction hydraulic pump with suction pipes, overshot curvaceous water turbines, and crank-connecting rod mechanism have been credited to Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519) and Lester Allan Pelton (1829 – 1908). Recently, the concepts of these proven significant inventions in fluid mechanics and energy conversion systems have been found mentioned in the manuscripts of an inventor whose name is Abu-Aliz Al-Jazari (1136-1206). Leonardo da Vinci got these ideas from Al-Jazari’s manuscripts and did not acknowledge Al-Jazari in his relevant manuscripts. In Lester Allan Pelton receives the credit for inventing the over-shot curvaceous water turbine whereas the over-shot curvaceous water turbine was described in Al-Jazari’s manuscript which was made publicly available for reading many centuries before the time of Lester Allan Pelton. The concepts of these inventions which are described in Al-Jazari’s manuscripts proves that his manuscripts were among the sources from which Leonardo da Vinci got these ideas and that Al-Jazari invented the over-shot curvaceous water turbine many centuries before Lester Allan Pelton are presented in this paper. It has been virtually proved that the true inventor of automated crankshaft, camshaft, reciprocating double-action piston suction hydraulic pump with suction pipes, overshot curvaceous water turbines, and crank-connecting rod mechanism is Abu-Aliz Al-Jazari.".
    1. Waleed Faris Salah Elmoselhy (2017). "The True Inventor Of Some Early Mechanical Engineering Devices And Mechanisms". Al-Shajarah: Journal of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC). 22(1) p. 29-64. Retrieved February 21st, 2019.
  47. ^ However, some historians have noted that it may actually have been inspired by a pump that al-Jazari had made 300 years before al-Din.
    1. Marco Ceccarelli (1 December 2009). Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science: Their Contributions and Legacies. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 15. ISBN 978-90-481-2346-9.
  48. ^ Quote: "A steam-driven rotating spit for roasting food was one of the most innovative of the machines described in al-Din's book "The Subline Methods of Spiritual Machines". Attached to one end of the spit was a wheel with vanes, which was made to turn by directing steam onto it through the nozzle of a copper vessel of water heated over the fire...al-Din's invention was no mere novelty and harnessed the power to drive a mechanical device. His rudimentary steam turbine predated Giovanni Branca's almost identical machine often considered the first of it's kind by 78 years."
    1. Adam Hart-Davis (1 May 2012). Engineers. Dorling Kindersley Limited. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-1-4093-2224-5.
  49. ^ The origins of the Pneumatica are not really known, and neither is Heron's exact birthdate. Many of the inventions in the book are attributed to him but he himself stated that only some were his but he didn't specify, indicated he could have taken them from any of the number of previous empires or civilisations before him. The devices contained in the book weren't even really engineering, since they were also merely considered as magical devices or possibly even toys (it isn't known). Furthermore, the original book doesn't even exist given way to forgery, exaggeration, imagination and appropriation.
    Quote: "The exact dates of Heron's birth and death are not known. Surmises lie between the second century B.C. and the third century A.D.; some time in the first century A.D. is perhaps the most probable. His Pneumatica...consists of descriptions of various ingenious apparatuses that operated on the basis of air or water; some of them are what we would now call toys or even "magic" devices. He himself said that he added some of his own inventions, but he did not say which ones they were. The book was known and referred to in medieval times, but many transcripts and translations into Latin or Greek have been lost either in whole or in part. An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  50. ^ Troubling, some European historians have claimed he was familiar with Heron of Alexandria's novel, which contained information regarding a contraption known as the "aeolipile", which contained a description of a "principle" that stated the alleged machine "relied on water being heated in a closed vessel and the steam being forced through twin nozzles for it's spinning action". However, such a claim has no concrete proof given how many European historians of the past have often associated inventions to Heron which weren't really inventions so much as they were fabrications. Some historians have even forged outlandish claims based on his alleged work; whether by accident or by purpose; for instance in regards to the invention of the worlds first windmills (which were invented in Persia during the 10th century) modern scholars have noted; Quote: "Ancient manuscripts, however, have often suffered from mistranslations, revisions, and interpolations by other hands over the centuries. In some, even diagrams were changed to suit the whims of the revisionists, and there are instances of forgeries...Mentioning the Boas monograph is apposite here because of the well known ascription of the invention of the windmill to Heron of Alexandria by virtue of his account of it as one of the many devices in his pnuematica 2000 years ago. This ascription is now discounted by most authorities in varying degrees ranging from outright rejection through wistful reluctance to relinquish the idea, to acceptance as only a toy." (Pg. 4); and further that "Thus Herons work might have stimulated the use of wind power in the Islamic world, but there is no hard evidence to substantiate that".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Pg. 6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  51. ^ European authors are still short of calling Taqi's invention as the "first", showing inherent bias towards Whites having invented it, despite obviously insinuating that he was the first to build such a device. For instance see; Ian Stewart (2 February 2012). Seventeen Equations that Changed the World. Profile Books. p. 199. ISBN 1-84765-769-9.
  52. ^ Quote: "In the machines he designed, Al-Jazari was the first to use the systems that are reminiscent of "the crankshaft" and "camshaft" that are now used in all motor vehicles (9-11)".
    1. Penbegul, Necmettin; Atar, Murat; Kendirci, Muammer; Bozkurt, Yasar; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal; Verit, Ayhan; Kadıoglu, Ates (2014). Primitive robotic procedures: Automotions for medical liquids in 12th century Asia minor. Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia. 86 (4): 300. doi:10.4081/aiua.2014.4.300. ISSN 2282-4197.
  53. ^ Quote: "It was, however, a quite different type of automaton that marked the revolution we are describing, thanks particularly to the contribution of the Persian mechanician Al Jazzari, whose book, mentioned above, seems to reveal appliances hitherto unknown. He gives a description of true sequential automata, driven notably by a camshaft, which transforms the circular motion of a sort of crankshaft into an alternating motion of a distributor: such automata thus mark a break with the Graeco-Roman concept of the simple device endowed with automatic movements".
    1. Georges Ifrah (2001). A Universal History Of Computing: From The Abacus To The Quantum Computer. John Wiley. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-471-39671-0.
  54. ^ Quote: "For centuries the inventions of automated crankshaft, camshaft, reciprocating double-action piston suction hydraulic pump with suction pipes, overshot curvaceous water turbines, and crank-connecting rod mechanism have been credited to Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519) and Lester Allan Pelton (1829 – 1908). Recently, the concepts of these proven significant inventions in fluid mechanics and energy conversion systems have been found mentioned in the manuscripts of an inventor whose name is Abu-Aliz Al-Jazari (1136-1206). Leonardo da Vinci got these ideas from Al-Jazari’s manuscripts and did not acknowledge Al-Jazari in his relevant manuscripts. In Lester Allan Pelton receives the credit for inventing the over-shot curvaceous water turbine whereas the over-shot curvaceous water turbine was described in Al-Jazari’s manuscript which was made publicly available for reading many centuries before the time of Lester Allan Pelton. The concepts of these inventions which are described in Al-Jazari’s manuscripts proves that his manuscripts were among the sources from which Leonardo da Vinci got these ideas and that Al-Jazari invented the over-shot curvaceous water turbine many centuries before Lester Allan Pelton are presented in this paper. It has been virtually proved that the true inventor of automated crankshaft, camshaft, reciprocating double-action piston suction hydraulic pump with suction pipes, overshot curvaceous water turbines, and crank-connecting rod mechanism is Abu-Aliz Al-Jazari.".
    1. Waleed Faris Salah Elmoselhy (2017). "The True Inventor Of Some Early Mechanical Engineering Devices And Mechanisms". Al-Shajarah: Journal of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC). 22(1) p. 29-64. Retrieved February 21st, 2019.
  55. ^ Quote: "From the ninth or tenth century onwards, there are records of the new invention of the horizontal windmill being put to a variety of uses, from grinding grain to pumping water and crushing sugar-cane in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran".
    1. Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  56. ^ 'Quote: "The belief seems to be quite widespread that the Chinese invented the windmill and have been using it for 2000 years...The eminent scholar Joseph Needham, whose monumental work in many volumes, Science and Civilisation in China [1965], is the recognized classic text in the field, states that the earliest really important reference dates back to 1219. There is a report of a visit in that year to Samarkand by a celebrated Chinese statesman and patron of astronomy and engineering, Yehlu Chhu-Tshai, who in a poem wrote that stored wheat was milled by the rushing wind and that the inhabitants used windmills just as the poeople of the south used water mills. Later Chinese references to the windmill again all point to its transmission from lands adjacent to western China as being the most likely supposition, and that it was carried there by sailors or merchants from Central or Southwest Asia. Needham points out further that the references suggest that the introduction of the windmill took place no earlier, because it never before received a specific character or specific wording; it might have been confused with the rotary winnowing fan, however, which is much older".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 9. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  57. ^ Quote: "It would seem, then, that we can take the tenth century as the earliest known date for acceptable documentation of the vertical-axis windmill, and the location as the most probably West or Central Asia."
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 9. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  58. ^ Quote: "Other narratives of the incident provide extra details not mentioned in the above report. Ibn Abbaas (May Allah be pleased with him) said that 'Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) was stabbed in the morning by Abu Lu 'lu 'ah (Fairuz), a slave of Al-Mughirah ibn Shu 'bah (May Allah be pleased with him). He was a Magian (Zoroastrian). Abu Rafi' said that Abu Lu 'lu 'ah used to make mills".
    1. Abdul Malik Mujahid. Golden Stories of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A). Darussalam Publishers. p. 392. GGKEY:TXKYGN3YTDN.
  59. ^ Quote: "The second part of the text here translated begins with the graphic account of 'Umar's assassination by a Christian slave, Abu Lu'lu'ah, in 23/643. Several dates are given for his death. We are further presented with his genealogy, physical descriptions, different accounts of his birth and age, the names of his children and wives, and the period of time he was a Muslim.".
    1. Ṭabarī; Tabari (17 February 1994). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 14: The Conquest of Iran A.D. 641-643/A.H. 21-23. SUNY Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-7914-1294-7.
  60. ^ Another iteration tells a different story, and at the very least implies he had joined a group of Muslims known as the followers of Ali (it is particularly notable that the followers of Ali are also known as Shias; and, that they decided to protect him; and this especially, and heavily, indicates that he had at least become one of them for the Shias to be so protective of him). They even risked their own lives by providing him an alibi. Abu Lu'lu('a) then fled whilst being under their protection, and manged to escape with his life. The Shias had, in effect, helped move him to this different region, perhaps even organised his marriage and thereafter denied ever knowing him.
    Quote: "Firuz was a Persian artisan, a slave of an Arab who unfairly confiscated all of Firuz's outside earnings. Firuz appealed to the caliph 'Umar, introducing himself as a maker of many things. 'Umar asked what Firuz could make for him, and Firuz replied, "A mill turned by the wind." Seeing that 'Umar would give him no relief, Firuz made a two-bladed dagger with the handle in the middle and with this he killed 'Umar. He then ran out of the mill where the act had been committed. 'Ali happened to be sitting outside; as Firuz ran past, he rose and changed his seat. When pursuers came to 'Ali, they asked if he had seen Firuz. 'Ali replied, "As long as I have been sitting on this spot, I have not seen him." Having provided a temporary alibi for Firuz, 'Ali then advised Firuz to return to Iran and quickly take a wife. With a special prayer 'Ali transported Firuz to Kashan, normally a journey of several months. There he was welcomed and married. When his pursuers arrived in Kashan several months later inquiring about a certain Firuz recently come from Iraq, they were told that there was such a man but he had come several months ago and had married then, so he could not be the one they sought".
    1. Michael M. J. Fischer (15 July 2003). Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-299-18473-5.
  61. ^ Quote: "Apparantly from Abbas I's reign, cursing of the two or three first caliphs became concentrated on Umar, who was vilified in many different ways. This gave the background to the ritual murder of Umar, a feast originally intended to celebrate his Persian murderer, the 'miller' Abu Lu'lu, also called Firuz, or "Baba Chugea el din" [Baba Shuja al-Din] who, according to du Mans, gave the name of the feast celebrated each year. Thevenot mentions "la fete d'Omar Koschodziazade" [kushandagi/kushanda-zada?] which could have been another name of the feast later known as aid-i Umar-kushan. Legendary accounts of this 'miller' are reported...Very few details are given on the feast celebrated on 9 Rabi..., the wrongly supposed anniversary of Umar's death. This feast is continued to be celebrated by rejoicing and the burning of Umar's effigy at night. According to du Mans and Chardin, among the first three caliphs, Umar was the most hated by Persians. Ritual cursing on him, la nat bar Umar, was constantly uttered by them in punlic and private life. This could endanger the life of Sunnis, such as Uzbek convoys who reacted violently to it".
    1. Charles Melville (1996). Safavid Persia, The History and Politics of an Islamic Society. pg. 161-162. Centre of Middle Eastern Studies. University of Cambrdige. I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. WayBackMachine Link. ISBN 1-86064-023-0.
  62. ^ The origins of the Pneumatica are not really known, and neither is Heron's exact birthdate. Many of the inventions in the book are attributed to him but he himself stated that only some were his but he didn't specify, indicated he could have taken them from any of the number of previous empires or civilisations before him. The devices contained in the book weren't even really engineering, since they were also merely considered as magical devices or possibly even toys (it isn't known). Furthermore, the original book doesn't even exist given way to forgery, exaggeration, imagination and appropriation.
    Quote: "The exact dates of Heron's birth and death are not known. Surmises lie between the second century B.C. and the third century A.D.; some time in the first century A.D. is perhaps the most probable. His Pneumatica...consists of descriptions of various ingenious apparatuses that operated on the basis of air or water; some of them are what we would now call toys or even "magic" devices. He himself said that he added some of his own inventions, but he did not say which ones they were. The book was known and referred to in medieval times, but many transcripts and translations into Latin or Greek have been lost either in whole or in part. An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  63. ^ Quote: "Ancient manuscripts, however, have often suffered from mistranslations, revisions, and interpolations by other hands over the centuries. In some, even diagrams were changed to suit the whims of revisionists, and there are instances of forgeries. Drachman [1961], Needham [1965], Vowles [1930], and White [1962] all cite examples of these aberrations. Marie Boas provides a good illustration of the treatment a manuscript can undergo in her detailed monograph, "Hero's Pneumatica - A Study of its Transmissions and Influence" [1949]. Mentioning the Boas monograph is apposite here because of ther well-known ascription of the invention of the windmill to Heron (a variant of Hero) of Alexandria, by virtue of his account of it as one of the many devices in his Pneumatica of 2000 years ago. This ascription is now discounted by most authorities in vary degrees, ranging from outright rejection, through wistful reluctance to relinquish the idea, to acceptance as only a toy. There is difficulty with respect to the provenance of a sketch in the Pneumatica and some disagreement as to the exact meaning of certain key words. This story is reviewed here because it is a classic example of the difficulty of making a positive attribution from an ancient manuscript. Was Heron really the inventor of the windmill as a practical prime mover, and was his invention the inspiration for those that followed, even though centuries elapsed between the birth of the idea and its fulfilment?...Heron's work might have stimulated the use of wind power in the Islamic world, but there is no hard evidence to substantiate that. Nearly all the stories and the records we have from between the first and the twelfth centuries come from the Near East and Central Asia, and so those regions of the world are generally considered to be the birthplace of the windmill".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4-6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  64. ^ For example, two historians Woodcroft and Schmidt are known to have fabricated drawings and tried to pass them off as Heron's original invention. They are known to have written translations of the Pneumatica in 1851 and 1899 respectively.
    Quote: "An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
    However these contain glaring contradictions and obvious forged information.
    Quote: "The opening sentence of the relevant chapter in the Pneumatica is given by Woodcroft as "the construction of an organ from which when the win blows the sound of a flute shall be produced." Schmidt provides essentially the same translation of his German version. Both contain diagrams [Figure 1-1(a) and (b)] showing a shaft with blades at one end and four pegs at the other, the pegs intermittently striking a lever rod which then lifts a piston contained in a cylinder. Between lifts, the piston falls in the cylinder of its own weight, resulting in air being pumped to a musical organ. Although both drawings are based on the description in the text, each suits the translater's own imagination: Woodcroft presents a horizontal-axis rotor having four sails, a type unknown until the twelfth century, and Schmidt shows a water-mill type of rotor, again from a much later era. But Schmidt does discuss in his introduction a much cruder version of the rotor illustrated in Figure 1-1(c). According to Drachman [1961], who has made a detailed reassessment in recent years, this is as close to the original sketch as we are likely to get. Vowles also discusses the Pneumatica puzzle [1930] and shows four examples of transmogrified images from various later manuscripts that help to compound the confusion".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4-6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  65. ^ The origins of the Pneumatica are not really known, and neither is Heron's exact birthdate. Many of the inventions in the book are attributed to him but he himself stated that only some were his but he didn't specify, indicated he could have taken them from any of the number of previous empires or civilisations before him. The devices contained in the book weren't even really engineering, since they were also merely considered as magical devices or possibly even toys (it isn't known). Furthermore, the original book doesn't even exist given way to forgery, exaggeration, imagination and appropriation.
    Quote: "The exact dates of Heron's birth and death are not known. Surmises lie between the second century B.C. and the third century A.D.; some time in the first century A.D. is perhaps the most probable. His Pneumatica...consists of descriptions of various ingenious apparatuses that operated on the basis of air or water; some of them are what we would now call toys or even "magic" devices. He himself said that he added some of his own inventions, but he did not say which ones they were. The book was known and referred to in medieval times, but many transcripts and translations into Latin or Greek have been lost either in whole or in part. An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  66. ^ For example, two historians Woodcroft and Schmidt are known to have fabricated drawings and tried to pass them off as Heron's original invention. They are known to have written translations of the Pneumatica in 1851 and 1899 respectively.
    Quote: "An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
    However these contain glaring contradictions and obvious forged information.
    Quote: "The opening sentence of the relevant chapter in the Pneumatica is given by Woodcroft as "the construction of an organ from which when the win blows the sound of a flute shall be produced." Schmidt provides essentially the same translation of his German version. Both contain diagrams [Figure 1-1(a) and (b)] showing a shaft with blades at one end and four pegs at the other, the pegs intermittently striking a lever rod which then lifts a piston contained in a cylinder. Between lifts, the piston falls in the cylinder of its own weight, resulting in air being pumped to a musical organ. Although both drawings are based on the description in the text, each suits the translater's own imagination: Woodcroft presents a horizontal-axis rotor having four sails, a type unknown until the twelfth century, and Schmidt shows a water-mill type of rotor, again from a much later era. But Schmidt does discuss in his introduction a much cruder version of the rotor illustrated in Figure 1-1(c). According to Drachman [1961], who has made a detailed reassessment in recent years, this is as close to the original sketch as we are likely to get. Vowles also discusses the Pneumatica puzzle [1930] and shows four examples of transmogrified images from various later manuscripts that help to compound the confusion".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4-6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  67. ^ For example, two historians Woodcroft and Schmidt are known to have fabricated drawings and tried to pass them off as Heron's original invention. They are known to have written translations of the Pneumatica in 1851 and 1899 respectively.
    Quote: "An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
    However these contain glaring contradictions and obvious forged information.
    Quote: "The opening sentence of the relevant chapter in the Pneumatica is given by Woodcroft as "the construction of an organ from which when the win blows the sound of a flute shall be produced." Schmidt provides essentially the same translation of his German version. Both contain diagrams [Figure 1-1(a) and (b)] showing a shaft with blades at one end and four pegs at the other, the pegs intermittently striking a lever rod which then lifts a piston contained in a cylinder. Between lifts, the piston falls in the cylinder of its own weight, resulting in air being pumped to a musical organ. Although both drawings are based on the description in the text, each suits the translater's own imagination: Woodcroft presents a horizontal-axis rotor having four sails, a type unknown until the twelfth century, and Schmidt shows a water-mill type of rotor, again from a much later era. But Schmidt does discuss in his introduction a much cruder version of the rotor illustrated in Figure 1-1(c). According to Drachman [1961], who has made a detailed reassessment in recent years, this is as close to the original sketch as we are likely to get. Vowles also discusses the Pneumatica puzzle [1930] and shows four examples of transmogrified images from various later manuscripts that help to compound the confusion".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4-6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  68. ^ Quote: "In addition to the difficulty we have with the drawings of Heron's device, the exact meaning of some of the words leaves us in doubt. Two prime examples are the word anemurion, meaning a windmill or only a weathervane, and whether Heron uses the word organon to mean a musical organ or just as a generic term, as we might speak of an organ of the body. There are design problems as well, such as turning the device into the wind (stated as being possible in the text) and the peg-driven tripping and return motion (in lieu of a crank) requiring a very rapid oscillating movement of the piston. Neither of these operations seems to be possible except in a very small model that could be moved by hand, and one having a very light piston. So perhaps the device was meant to be a toy and not an invention to be taken seriously as a useful working machine".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  69. ^ Quote: "One of the problems in water-raising engineering is that of raising large quantities of water through a small lift. The problem can be solved by using a spiral scoop-wheel (Figure 8.5), which raises water to the ground level with a high degree of efficiency. This machine is very popular in Egypt nowadays, and engineers at a research laboratory near Cairo have been trying to improve the shape of the scoop in order to achieve maximum output. Although it appears very modern in design, this is not the case, since a twelfth-century miniature from Baghdad shows a spiral scoop-wheel driven by two oxen. The transmission of power is the same as that employed with the standard saqiya.24".
    1. Donald Routledge Hill (1996). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Psychology Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-15291-4.
  70. ^ Quote: "One of the problems in water-raising engineering is that of raising large quantities of water through a small lift. The problem can be solved by using a spiral scoop-wheel (Figure 8.5), which raises water to the ground level with a high degree of efficiency. This machine is very popular in Egypt nowadays, and engineers at a research laboratory near Cairo have been trying to improve the shape of the scoop in order to achieve maximum output. Although it appears very modern in design, this is not the case, since a twelfth-century miniature from Baghdad shows a spiral scoop-wheel driven by two oxen. The transmission of power is the same as that employed with the standard saqiya.24".
    1. Donald Routledge Hill (1996). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Psychology Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-15291-4.
  71. ^ Quote: "One of the problems in water-raising engineering is that of raising large quantities of water through a small lift. The problem can be solved by using a spiral scoop-wheel (Figure 8.5), which raises water to the ground level with a high degree of efficiency. This machine is very popular in Egypt nowadays, and engineers at a research laboratory near Cairo have been trying to improve the shape of the scoop in order to achieve maximum output. Although it appears very modern in design, this is not the case, since a twelfth-century miniature from Baghdad shows a spiral scoop-wheel driven by two oxen. The transmission of power is the same as that employed with the standard saqiya.24".
    1. Donald Routledge Hill (1996). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Psychology Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-15291-4.
  72. ^ Quote: "We have already noted that the spiral scoop-wheel, which is essentially a variant of the saqiya, was in use no later than the twelfth century. Its growing popularity today is no doubt due to its high productivity for fairly small lifts. According to Molenaar, its average output varies from 36,000 litres an hour for a life of 180 cm, to an output of 114,000 litres an hour for a 30 cm lift".
    1. Donald Hill (19 November 2013). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-317-76157-0.
  73. ^ Quote: "Such mills are also recorded as having operated at Murcia in Islamic Spain, while the earliest record of a bridge mill is reputedly from Cordoba in the middle of the twelfth century".
    1. Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. p. 62. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  74. ^ Quote: "The ingenuity of Islamic engineers is further attested by at least three innovations in delivering water to watermills that appear to have been largely unknown outside the Muslim world. In Persia, horizontal-wheeled watermills were situated in front of dams so that water could be conducted from the back of the dam through a large pope to drive the waterwheel. The Persians also situated watermills within underground irrigation tunnels, or qanats, in order to exploit the flow of water in the tunnels. In Islamic Spain, watermills were located on the main canals of valley-floor irrigation systems [Fig. 2.3]. It is not yet clear, however, when any of these innovations first occurred".
    1. Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. pp. 62–65. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  75. ^ Quote: "The ingenuity of Islamic engineers is further attested by at least three innovations in delivering water to watermills that appear to have been largely unknown outside the Muslim world. In Persia, horizontal-wheeled watermills were situated in front of dams so that water could be conducted from the back of the dam through a large pope to drive the waterwheel. The Persians also situated watermills within underground irrigation tunnels, or qanats, in order to exploit the flow of water in the tunnels. In Islamic Spain, watermills were located on the main canals of valley-floor irrigation systems [Fig. 2.3]. It is not yet clear, however, when any of these innovations first occurred".
    1. Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. pp. 62–65. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  76. ^ Quote: "From the ninth or tenth century onwards, there are records of the new invention of the horizontal windmill being put to a variety of uses, from grinding grain to pumping water and crushing sugar-cane in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran".
    1. Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  77. ^ 'Quote: "The belief seems to be quite widespread that the Chinese invented the windmill and have been using it for 2000 years...The eminent scholar Joseph Needham, whose monumental work in many volumes, Science and Civilisation in China [1965], is the recognized classic text in the field, states that the earliest really important reference dates back to 1219. There is a report of a visit in that year to Samarkand by a celebrated Chinese statesman and patron of astronomy and engineering, Yehlu Chhu-Tshai, who in a poem wrote that stored wheat was milled by the rushing wind and that the inhabitants used windmills just as the poeople of the south used water mills. Later Chinese references to the windmill again all point to its transmission from lands adjacent to western China as being the most likely supposition, and that it was carried there by sailors or merchants from Central or Southwest Asia. Needham points out further that the references suggest that the introduction of the windmill took place no earlier, because it never before received a specific character or specific wording; it might have been confused with the rotary winnowing fan, however, which is much older".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 9. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  78. ^ Quote: "It would seem, then, that we can take the tenth century as the earliest known date for acceptable documentation of the vertical-axis windmill, and the location as the most probably West or Central Asia."
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 9. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  79. ^ Quote: "Other narratives of the incident provide extra details not mentioned in the above report. Ibn Abbaas (May Allah be pleased with him) said that 'Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) was stabbed in the morning by Abu Lu 'lu 'ah (Fairuz), a slave of Al-Mughirah ibn Shu 'bah (May Allah be pleased with him). He was a Magian (Zoroastrian). Abu Rafi' said that Abu Lu 'lu 'ah used to make mills".
    1. Abdul Malik Mujahid. Golden Stories of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A). Darussalam Publishers. p. 392. GGKEY:TXKYGN3YTDN.
  80. ^ Quote: "The second part of the text here translated begins with the graphic account of 'Umar's assassination by a Christian slave, Abu Lu'lu'ah, in 23/643. Several dates are given for his death. We are further presented with his genealogy, physical descriptions, different accounts of his birth and age, the names of his children and wives, and the period of time he was a Muslim.".
    1. Ṭabarī; Tabari (17 February 1994). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 14: The Conquest of Iran A.D. 641-643/A.H. 21-23. SUNY Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-7914-1294-7.
  81. ^ Another iteration tells a different story, and at the very least implies he had joined a group of Muslims known as the followers of Ali (it is particularly notable that the followers of Ali are also known as Shias; and, that they decided to protect him; and this especially, and heavily, indicates that he had at least become one of them for the Shias to be so protective of him). They even risked their own lives by providing him an alibi. Abu Lu'lu('a) then fled whilst being under their protection, and manged to escape with his life. The Shias had, in effect, helped move him to this different region, perhaps even organised his marriage and thereafter denied ever knowing him.
    Quote: "Firuz was a Persian artisan, a slave of an Arab who unfairly confiscated all of Firuz's outside earnings. Firuz appealed to the caliph 'Umar, introducing himself as a maker of many things. 'Umar asked what Firuz could make for him, and Firuz replied, "A mill turned by the wind." Seeing that 'Umar would give him no relief, Firuz made a two-bladed dagger with the handle in the middle and with this he killed 'Umar. He then ran out of the mill where the act had been committed. 'Ali happened to be sitting outside; as Firuz ran past, he rose and changed his seat. When pursuers came to 'Ali, they asked if he had seen Firuz. 'Ali replied, "As long as I have been sitting on this spot, I have not seen him." Having provided a temporary alibi for Firuz, 'Ali then advised Firuz to return to Iran and quickly take a wife. With a special prayer 'Ali transported Firuz to Kashan, normally a journey of several months. There he was welcomed and married. When his pursuers arrived in Kashan several months later inquiring about a certain Firuz recently come from Iraq, they were told that there was such a man but he had come several months ago and had married then, so he could not be the one they sought".
    1. Michael M. J. Fischer (15 July 2003). Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-299-18473-5.
  82. ^ Quote: "Apparantly from Abbas I's reign, cursing of the two or three first caliphs became concentrated on Umar, who was vilified in many different ways. This gave the background to the ritual murder of Umar, a feast originally intended to celebrate his Persian murderer, the 'miller' Abu Lu'lu, also called Firuz, or "Baba Chugea el din" [Baba Shuja al-Din] who, according to du Mans, gave the name of the feast celebrated each year. Thevenot mentions "la fete d'Omar Koschodziazade" [kushandagi/kushanda-zada?] which could have been another name of the feast later known as aid-i Umar-kushan. Legendary accounts of this 'miller' are reported...Very few details are given on the feast celebrated on 9 Rabi..., the wrongly supposed anniversary of Umar's death. This feast is continued to be celebrated by rejoicing and the burning of Umar's effigy at night. According to du Mans and Chardin, among the first three caliphs, Umar was the most hated by Persians. Ritual cursing on him, la nat bar Umar, was constantly uttered by them in punlic and private life. This could endanger the life of Sunnis, such as Uzbek convoys who reacted violently to it".
    1. Charles Melville (1996). Safavid Persia, The History and Politics of an Islamic Society. pg. 161-162. Centre of Middle Eastern Studies. University of Cambrdige. I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. WayBackMachine Link. ISBN 1-86064-023-0.
  83. ^ The origins of the Pneumatica are not really known, and neither is Heron's exact birthdate. Many of the inventions in the book are attributed to him but he himself stated that only some were his but he didn't specify, indicated he could have taken them from any of the number of previous empires or civilisations before him. The devices contained in the book weren't even really engineering, since they were also merely considered as magical devices or possibly even toys (it isn't known). Furthermore, the original book doesn't even exist given way to forgery, exaggeration, imagination and appropriation.
    Quote: "The exact dates of Heron's birth and death are not known. Surmises lie between the second century B.C. and the third century A.D.; some time in the first century A.D. is perhaps the most probable. His Pneumatica...consists of descriptions of various ingenious apparatuses that operated on the basis of air or water; some of them are what we would now call toys or even "magic" devices. He himself said that he added some of his own inventions, but he did not say which ones they were. The book was known and referred to in medieval times, but many transcripts and translations into Latin or Greek have been lost either in whole or in part. An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  84. ^ Quote: "Ancient manuscripts, however, have often suffered from mistranslations, revisions, and interpolations by other hands over the centuries. In some, even diagrams were changed to suit the whims of revisionists, and there are instances of forgeries. Drachman [1961], Needham [1965], Vowles [1930], and White [1962] all cite examples of these aberrations. Marie Boas provides a good illustration of the treatment a manuscript can undergo in her detailed monograph, "Hero's Pneumatica - A Study of its Transmissions and Influence" [1949]. Mentioning the Boas monograph is apposite here because of ther well-known ascription of the invention of the windmill to Heron (a variant of Hero) of Alexandria, by virtue of his account of it as one of the many devices in his Pneumatica of 2000 years ago. This ascription is now discounted by most authorities in vary degrees, ranging from outright rejection, through wistful reluctance to relinquish the idea, to acceptance as only a toy. There is difficulty with respect to the provenance of a sketch in the Pneumatica and some disagreement as to the exact meaning of certain key words. This story is reviewed here because it is a classic example of the difficulty of making a positive attribution from an ancient manuscript. Was Heron really the inventor of the windmill as a practical prime mover, and was his invention the inspiration for those that followed, even though centuries elapsed between the birth of the idea and its fulfilment?...Heron's work might have stimulated the use of wind power in the Islamic world, but there is no hard evidence to substantiate that. Nearly all the stories and the records we have from between the first and the twelfth centuries come from the Near East and Central Asia, and so those regions of the world are generally considered to be the birthplace of the windmill".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4-6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  85. ^ For example, two historians Woodcroft and Schmidt are known to have fabricated drawings and tried to pass them off as Heron's original invention. They are known to have written translations of the Pneumatica in 1851 and 1899 respectively.
    Quote: "An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
    However these contain glaring contradictions and obvious forged information.
    Quote: "The opening sentence of the relevant chapter in the Pneumatica is given by Woodcroft as "the construction of an organ from which when the win blows the sound of a flute shall be produced." Schmidt provides essentially the same translation of his German version. Both contain diagrams [Figure 1-1(a) and (b)] showing a shaft with blades at one end and four pegs at the other, the pegs intermittently striking a lever rod which then lifts a piston contained in a cylinder. Between lifts, the piston falls in the cylinder of its own weight, resulting in air being pumped to a musical organ. Although both drawings are based on the description in the text, each suits the translater's own imagination: Woodcroft presents a horizontal-axis rotor having four sails, a type unknown until the twelfth century, and Schmidt shows a water-mill type of rotor, again from a much later era. But Schmidt does discuss in his introduction a much cruder version of the rotor illustrated in Figure 1-1(c). According to Drachman [1961], who has made a detailed reassessment in recent years, this is as close to the original sketch as we are likely to get. Vowles also discusses the Pneumatica puzzle [1930] and shows four examples of transmogrified images from various later manuscripts that help to compound the confusion".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4-6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  86. ^ The origins of the Pneumatica are not really known, and neither is Heron's exact birthdate. Many of the inventions in the book are attributed to him but he himself stated that only some were his but he didn't specify, indicated he could have taken them from any of the number of previous empires or civilisations before him. The devices contained in the book weren't even really engineering, since they were also merely considered as magical devices or possibly even toys (it isn't known). Furthermore, the original book doesn't even exist given way to forgery, exaggeration, imagination and appropriation.
    Quote: "The exact dates of Heron's birth and death are not known. Surmises lie between the second century B.C. and the third century A.D.; some time in the first century A.D. is perhaps the most probable. His Pneumatica...consists of descriptions of various ingenious apparatuses that operated on the basis of air or water; some of them are what we would now call toys or even "magic" devices. He himself said that he added some of his own inventions, but he did not say which ones they were. The book was known and referred to in medieval times, but many transcripts and translations into Latin or Greek have been lost either in whole or in part. An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  87. ^ For example, two historians Woodcroft and Schmidt are known to have fabricated drawings and tried to pass them off as Heron's original invention. They are known to have written translations of the Pneumatica in 1851 and 1899 respectively.
    Quote: "An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
    However these contain glaring contradictions and obvious forged information.
    Quote: "The opening sentence of the relevant chapter in the Pneumatica is given by Woodcroft as "the construction of an organ from which when the win blows the sound of a flute shall be produced." Schmidt provides essentially the same translation of his German version. Both contain diagrams [Figure 1-1(a) and (b)] showing a shaft with blades at one end and four pegs at the other, the pegs intermittently striking a lever rod which then lifts a piston contained in a cylinder. Between lifts, the piston falls in the cylinder of its own weight, resulting in air being pumped to a musical organ. Although both drawings are based on the description in the text, each suits the translater's own imagination: Woodcroft presents a horizontal-axis rotor having four sails, a type unknown until the twelfth century, and Schmidt shows a water-mill type of rotor, again from a much later era. But Schmidt does discuss in his introduction a much cruder version of the rotor illustrated in Figure 1-1(c). According to Drachman [1961], who has made a detailed reassessment in recent years, this is as close to the original sketch as we are likely to get. Vowles also discusses the Pneumatica puzzle [1930] and shows four examples of transmogrified images from various later manuscripts that help to compound the confusion".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4-6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  88. ^ For example, two historians Woodcroft and Schmidt are known to have fabricated drawings and tried to pass them off as Heron's original invention. They are known to have written translations of the Pneumatica in 1851 and 1899 respectively.
    Quote: "An English translation by Bennet Woodcroft [1851] and a German one by Wilhelm Schmidt [1899]. The latter contains the original Greek wording side by side with the German, and it is generally accepted as a standard text".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
    However these contain glaring contradictions and obvious forged information.
    Quote: "The opening sentence of the relevant chapter in the Pneumatica is given by Woodcroft as "the construction of an organ from which when the win blows the sound of a flute shall be produced." Schmidt provides essentially the same translation of his German version. Both contain diagrams [Figure 1-1(a) and (b)] showing a shaft with blades at one end and four pegs at the other, the pegs intermittently striking a lever rod which then lifts a piston contained in a cylinder. Between lifts, the piston falls in the cylinder of its own weight, resulting in air being pumped to a musical organ. Although both drawings are based on the description in the text, each suits the translater's own imagination: Woodcroft presents a horizontal-axis rotor having four sails, a type unknown until the twelfth century, and Schmidt shows a water-mill type of rotor, again from a much later era. But Schmidt does discuss in his introduction a much cruder version of the rotor illustrated in Figure 1-1(c). According to Drachman [1961], who has made a detailed reassessment in recent years, this is as close to the original sketch as we are likely to get. Vowles also discusses the Pneumatica puzzle [1930] and shows four examples of transmogrified images from various later manuscripts that help to compound the confusion".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4-6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  89. ^ Quote: "In addition to the difficulty we have with the drawings of Heron's device, the exact meaning of some of the words leaves us in doubt. Two prime examples are the word anemurion, meaning a windmill or only a weathervane, and whether Heron uses the word organon to mean a musical organ or just as a generic term, as we might speak of an organ of the body. There are design problems as well, such as turning the device into the wind (stated as being possible in the text) and the peg-driven tripping and return motion (in lieu of a crank) requiring a very rapid oscillating movement of the piston. Neither of these operations seems to be possible except in a very small model that could be moved by hand, and one having a very light piston. So perhaps the device was meant to be a toy and not an invention to be taken seriously as a useful working machine".
    1. Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  90. ^ Quote: "One of the problems in water-raising engineering is that of raising large quantities of water through a small lift. The problem can be solved by using a spiral scoop-wheel (Figure 8.5), which raises water to the ground level with a high degree of efficiency. This machine is very popular in Egypt nowadays, and engineers at a research laboratory near Cairo have been trying to improve the shape of the scoop in order to achieve maximum output. Although it appears very modern in design, this is not the case, since a twelfth-century miniature from Baghdad shows a spiral scoop-wheel driven by two oxen. The transmission of power is the same as that employed with the standard saqiya.24".
    1. Donald Routledge Hill (1996). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Psychology Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-15291-4.
  91. ^ Quote: "One of the problems in water-raising engineering is that of raising large quantities of water through a small lift. The problem can be solved by using a spiral scoop-wheel (Figure 8.5), which raises water to the ground level with a high degree of efficiency. This machine is very popular in Egypt nowadays, and engineers at a research laboratory near Cairo have been trying to improve the shape of the scoop in order to achieve maximum output. Although it appears very modern in design, this is not the case, since a twelfth-century miniature from Baghdad shows a spiral scoop-wheel driven by two oxen. The transmission of power is the same as that employed with the standard saqiya.24".
    1. Donald Routledge Hill (1996). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Psychology Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-15291-4.
  92. ^ Quote: "One of the problems in water-raising engineering is that of raising large quantities of water through a small lift. The problem can be solved by using a spiral scoop-wheel (Figure 8.5), which raises water to the ground level with a high degree of efficiency. This machine is very popular in Egypt nowadays, and engineers at a research laboratory near Cairo have been trying to improve the shape of the scoop in order to achieve maximum output. Although it appears very modern in design, this is not the case, since a twelfth-century miniature from Baghdad shows a spiral scoop-wheel driven by two oxen. The transmission of power is the same as that employed with the standard saqiya.24".
    1. Donald Routledge Hill (1996). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Psychology Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-15291-4.
  93. ^ Quote: "We have already noted that the spiral scoop-wheel, which is essentially a variant of the saqiya, was in use no later than the twelfth century. Its growing popularity today is no doubt due to its high productivity for fairly small lifts. According to Molenaar, its average output varies from 36,000 litres an hour for a life of 180 cm, to an output of 114,000 litres an hour for a 30 cm lift".
    1. Donald Hill (19 November 2013). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-317-76157-0.
  94. ^ Quote: "Such mills are also recorded as having operated at Murcia in Islamic Spain, while the earliest record of a bridge mill is reputedly from Cordoba in the middle of the twelfth century".
    1. Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. p. 62. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  95. ^ Quote: "The ingenuity of Islamic engineers is further attested by at least three innovations in delivering water to watermills that appear to have been largely unknown outside the Muslim world. In Persia, horizontal-wheeled watermills were situated in front of dams so that water could be conducted from the back of the dam through a large pope to drive the waterwheel. The Persians also situated watermills within underground irrigation tunnels, or qanats, in order to exploit the flow of water in the tunnels. In Islamic Spain, watermills were located on the main canals of valley-floor irrigation systems [Fig. 2.3]. It is not yet clear, however, when any of these innovations first occurred".
    1. Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. pp. 62–65. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  96. ^ Quote: "The ingenuity of Islamic engineers is further attested by at least three innovations in delivering water to watermills that appear to have been largely unknown outside the Muslim world. In Persia, horizontal-wheeled watermills were situated in front of dams so that water could be conducted from the back of the dam through a large pope to drive the waterwheel. The Persians also situated watermills within underground irrigation tunnels, or qanats, in order to exploit the flow of water in the tunnels. In Islamic Spain, watermills were located on the main canals of valley-floor irrigation systems [Fig. 2.3]. It is not yet clear, however, when any of these innovations first occurred".
    1. Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. pp. 62–65. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  97. ^ The reliability of this website isd quite adequate:
    Quote: "Chris Woodford. Hello! I'm Chris Woodford, a British science writer, and I write all the articles on Explain that Stuff".
    Quote: "Books: I've written lots of books on science and technology, including the hugely popular how-it-works titles Cool Stuff and How it Works (How Cool Stuff Works) (with Ben Morgan et al), Cool Stuff 2.0 (The Gadget Book) (with Jon Woodcock), and Cool Stuff Exploded (published by Dorling Kindersley/DK), which have sold nearly four million copies worldwide. A couple of years ago, I wrote Science: A Visual/Children's Encyclopedia with Steve Parker, which has been garnering lots of five star reviews on Amazon. My latest book, Atoms Under the Floorboards: The Surprising Science Hidden in Your Home, is published by Bloomsbury and is available worldwide. I also work as a consultant and science adviser on other people's books, including children's science titles by Robert Winston, Johnny Ball, and Richard Hammond. Most recently, I've been helping David Macaulay with a revised edition of his classic mammoth book, The Way Things Work Now, which was Amazon.com's number one children's non-fiction book for 2016."
    Quote: "Awards: Books I've written, edited, consulted on, or otherwise contributed to have been translated into about 20 different languages and won or been shortlisted for over 40 awards, including the Royal Society Young People's Book Prize (in the UK) and the National Science Teachers Association Outstanding Science Trade Book award (in the United States). Atoms Under the Floorboards won The American Institute of Physics Science Writing Award for Books 2016 and was named one of Physics World's Top 10 Physics Books of 2015. You can find a full list of my books, with review comments and details of the awards or other recognitions they've received on my personal website, chriswoodford.com."
    Quote: "Qualifications and experience: In case you're interested, I have an MA in Natural Sciences from Cambridge University. I specialized in physics (which I was very lucky to have been able to study at the Cavendish Laboratory) and experimental psychology, but also covered chemistry, crystallography, materials science, and math. (That's largely why the articles on Explain that Stuff lean so heavily toward the physical sciences rather than life-science topics, which I know less about.) I've also spent a lot of my time working with computers and the Internet (I worked at IBM for about five years) and built my very first website in 1994, using an IBM System/390 mainframe and Mosaic. I had my first magazine article published back in 1981 (I was very young!) and I've been writing about science and technology pretty much ever since."
    1. Chris Woodford. Explain That Stuff. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 15th, 2019.
  98. ^ The reliability of this website isd quite adequate:
    Quote: "Chris Woodford. Hello! I'm Chris Woodford, a British science writer, and I write all the articles on Explain that Stuff".
    Quote: "Books: I've written lots of books on science and technology, including the hugely popular how-it-works titles Cool Stuff and How it Works (How Cool Stuff Works) (with Ben Morgan et al), Cool Stuff 2.0 (The Gadget Book) (with Jon Woodcock), and Cool Stuff Exploded (published by Dorling Kindersley/DK), which have sold nearly four million copies worldwide. A couple of years ago, I wrote Science: A Visual/Children's Encyclopedia with Steve Parker, which has been garnering lots of five star reviews on Amazon. My latest book, Atoms Under the Floorboards: The Surprising Science Hidden in Your Home, is published by Bloomsbury and is available worldwide. I also work as a consultant and science adviser on other people's books, including children's science titles by Robert Winston, Johnny Ball, and Richard Hammond. Most recently, I've been helping David Macaulay with a revised edition of his classic mammoth book, The Way Things Work Now, which was Amazon.com's number one children's non-fiction book for 2016."
    Quote: "Awards: Books I've written, edited, consulted on, or otherwise contributed to have been translated into about 20 different languages and won or been shortlisted for over 40 awards, including the Royal Society Young People's Book Prize (in the UK) and the National Science Teachers Association Outstanding Science Trade Book award (in the United States). Atoms Under the Floorboards won The American Institute of Physics Science Writing Award for Books 2016 and was named one of Physics World's Top 10 Physics Books of 2015. You can find a full list of my books, with review comments and details of the awards or other recognitions they've received on my personal website, chriswoodford.com."
    Quote: "Qualifications and experience: In case you're interested, I have an MA in Natural Sciences from Cambridge University. I specialized in physics (which I was very lucky to have been able to study at the Cavendish Laboratory) and experimental psychology, but also covered chemistry, crystallography, materials science, and math. (That's largely why the articles on Explain that Stuff lean so heavily toward the physical sciences rather than life-science topics, which I know less about.) I've also spent a lot of my time working with computers and the Internet (I worked at IBM for about five years) and built my very first website in 1994, using an IBM System/390 mainframe and Mosaic. I had my first magazine article published back in 1981 (I was very young!) and I've been writing about science and technology pretty much ever since."
    1. Chris Woodford. Explain That Stuff. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 15th, 2019.
  99. ^ Gábor Ágoston, a pre-eminent historian of the Ottoman empire, for instance notes "Eurocentrists and Orientalists alike tend to overstate the importance of foreign technicians in the Ottoman Empire...to prove the putative Ottoman inferiority and dependence upon Western technology".
    1. Gábor Ágoston (24 March 2005). Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-521-84313-3.
  100. ^
    • Quote: "According to Amithaba Ghosh, 'Tipu's rockets could be considered as the first missiles, because the rocket could only carry itself, the propellant, its casing and the stabilizing stick', while 'the missile is distinguished by its ability to carry something more - like the sword or the bomb'. Tipu also used sword fixed rockets."
    1. Kaveh Yazdani (10 January 2017). India, Modernity and the Great Divergence: Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.). BRILL. p. 253. ISBN 978-90-04-33079-5.
  101. ^ Quote: "There was widespread belief in miracle-working swords on the Christian side of the frontier, the most famous weapon being the Sword of St Ferdinand (King Ferdinand III) which was kept in Seville Cathedral. The sword represented three things to the Spanish military elite: strength, justice and the Christian Cross. The mace revived in popularity in Christian Iberia in the 15th century, yet the hero in Tirant lo Blanc still maintained that the horseman's axe of Islamic origin remained the deadliest weapon when fighting in full armour, when it was hung from a cavalryman's saddle-bow".
    1. David Nicolle (15 May 1998). Granada 1492: The twilight of Moorish Spain. Bloomsbury USA. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-85532-740-5.
  102. ^ Quote: "There was widespread belief in miracle-working swords on the Christian side of the frontier, the most famous weapon being the Sword of St Ferdinand (King Ferdinand III) which was kept in Seville Cathedral. The sword represented three things to the Spanish military elite: strength, justice and the Christian Cross. The mace revived in popularity in Christian Iberia in the 15th century, yet the hero in Tirant lo Blanc still maintained that the horseman's axe of Islamic origin remained the deadliest weapon when fighting in full armour, when it was hung from a cavalryman's saddle-bow".
    1. David Nicolle (15 May 1998). Granada 1492: The twilight of Moorish Spain. Bloomsbury USA. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-85532-740-5.
  103. ^ Gábor Ágoston, a pre-eminent historian of the Ottoman empire, for instance notes "Eurocentrists and Orientalists alike tend to overstate the importance of foreign technicians in the Ottoman Empire...to prove the putative Ottoman inferiority and dependence upon Western technology".
    1. Gábor Ágoston (24 March 2005). Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-521-84313-3.
  104. ^
    • Quote: "According to Amithaba Ghosh, 'Tipu's rockets could be considered as the first missiles, because the rocket could only carry itself, the propellant, its casing and the stabilizing stick', while 'the missile is distinguished by its ability to carry something more - like the sword or the bomb'. Tipu also used sword fixed rockets."
    1. Kaveh Yazdani (10 January 2017). India, Modernity and the Great Divergence: Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.). BRILL. p. 253. ISBN 978-90-04-33079-5.
  105. ^ Quote: "There was widespread belief in miracle-working swords on the Christian side of the frontier, the most famous weapon being the Sword of St Ferdinand (King Ferdinand III) which was kept in Seville Cathedral. The sword represented three things to the Spanish military elite: strength, justice and the Christian Cross. The mace revived in popularity in Christian Iberia in the 15th century, yet the hero in Tirant lo Blanc still maintained that the horseman's axe of Islamic origin remained the deadliest weapon when fighting in full armour, when it was hung from a cavalryman's saddle-bow".
    1. David Nicolle (15 May 1998). Granada 1492: The twilight of Moorish Spain. Bloomsbury USA. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-85532-740-5.
  106. ^ Quote: "There was widespread belief in miracle-working swords on the Christian side of the frontier, the most famous weapon being the Sword of St Ferdinand (King Ferdinand III) which was kept in Seville Cathedral. The sword represented three things to the Spanish military elite: strength, justice and the Christian Cross. The mace revived in popularity in Christian Iberia in the 15th century, yet the hero in Tirant lo Blanc still maintained that the horseman's axe of Islamic origin remained the deadliest weapon when fighting in full armour, when it was hung from a cavalryman's saddle-bow".
    1. David Nicolle (15 May 1998). Granada 1492: The twilight of Moorish Spain. Bloomsbury USA. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-85532-740-5.
  107. ^ Its invention was discovered independently by both the Muslim and Chinese civilisations thousands of years apart.
    Quote: "It goes without saying that such work cannot be improvised, so we are justified in thinking that gnomons must have been in use in China from very early times. Let us stress that what we have been discussing here are the first appearances of the gnomon in written records. These records also tell us that astronomical observations were initiated in China in the era of Yao, an emperor shrouded in legend, who lived in the twenty-third century before Christ; it is said that he had two of his astronomers executed because they failed to predict an eclipse of the sun. The same sources also reveal that the perforated gnomon was known in China from earliest times. The peoples living on the shores of Mediterranean discovered this instrument and its use must later. Its invention was there attributed to the Arab astronomer Ibn Junis who lived at the end of the tenth century AD".
    1. René R.J. Rohr (6 September 2012). Sundials: History, Theory, and Practice. Courier Corporation. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-486-15170-0.
  108. ^ Its invention was discovered independently by both the Muslim and Chinese civilisations thousands of years apart.
    Quote: "It goes without saying that such work cannot be improvised, so we are justified in thinking that gnomons must have been in use in China from very early times. Let us stress that what we have been discussing here are the first appearances of the gnomon in written records. These records also tell us that astronomical observations were initiated in China in the era of Yao, an emperor shrouded in legend, who lived in the twenty-third century before Christ; it is said that he had two of his astronomers executed because they failed to predict an eclipse of the sun. The same sources also reveal that the perforated gnomon was known in China from earliest times. The peoples living on the shores of Mediterranean discovered this instrument and its use must later. Its invention was there attributed to the Arab astronomer Ibn Junis who lived at the end of the tenth century AD".
    1. René R.J. Rohr (6 September 2012). Sundials: History, Theory, and Practice. Courier Corporation. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-486-15170-0.
  109. ^ Quote: "The first recorded use of paper for packaging was in 1035, when a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped for the customer after they were sold".
    1. Diana Twede (2005). The Origins of Paper Based Packaging. Michigan State University. Charm. p. 288-300 (found on pg. 289). WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 14th, 2019.
  110. ^ Quote: "One controversial aspect of the history of technology in North India concerns the spinning wheel. Because cotton textiles originated in India, it has long been assumed that the spinning wheel, as used with cotton, must also have been invented in the subcontinent, perhaps between AD 500 and 1000. However, early references to cotton spinning are so vague that none clearly identifies a wheel, according to Irfan Habib. The references could equally indicate earlier methods of hand spinning. The earliest unambiguous reference is in a document dating from about 1350 which mentions women using spinning wheels in the previous century. Habib also points out that the most usual word in India for a spinning wheel is charkha, and this derives from the Persian language. He therefore thinks that the spinning wheel was introduced into India from Iran in the thirteenth century. If the spinning wheel is not an Indian invention, where did it originate? The earliest clear illustrations of this machine come from Baghdad (drawin in 1237), China (c. 1270) and Europe (c. 1280). It might seem from this that spinning wheels appeared in China and Europe at almost the same time, and one may be tempted to think that conquests of the Mongol armies both in Eastern Europe and in China had created conditions for especially rapid transmission of new technologies. This may be true of some inventions...but is not convincing in this case because simpler forms of wheel for winding bobbins were in use much earlier, and some silk-processing equipment was also widely disseminated before the Mongol conquests began. Alonside these machines is some evidence that spinning wheels of some sort may have already come into use in both China and the Islamic world during the eleventh century".
    1. Arnold Pacey (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-262-66072-3.
  111. ^ Quote: "However, in view of the vagueness of the evidence, arguments about origins should not be pushed too far. It may be useful to think again in terms of a technological dialogue in whcih the westward dissemination of silk and cotton textiles from China and India respectively stimulated many local responses. These may have included numerous minor innovations, and once the winding wheel was known, some form of wheel for spinning may have been suggested to the minds of a number of individuals in quite different places. The possibility of independent regional invention was all the greater because of the distinctive qualities of textiles manufactured in different places. For example, surviving specimens of silk fabric show that thread production in the Islamic countries (and Europe) was always twisted to make it stronger, whereas Chinese manufacturers seem to have avoided this because fabric woven from twisted thread was stiffer and less lustrous. For that reason, mechanical devices for twisting thread are more likely to have been invented in the West rather than China. Indeed, there is an Islamic description of a silk twisting machine dating from just before 1030. Experience of this machine could have led to a distinctive approach to spinning other textile fibres, and may ultimately have contributed to the invention of the specifically European type of spinning wheel known as the Saxony wheel. Some emphasis on silk manufactures is justified because of the suggestion by some historians that, in China, mechanized techniques developed first in silk workshops and were then adapted for use with cotton and other fibres. In this context, the first process to consider is unwinding the long, continuous filament from the silk-worm cocoon. This was done by plunging the cocoons into hot water, which killed the 'worm' whilst loosening the filament. At quite an early date, and certainly before 1090, silk-reeling machines were being used in China which had a small heated bath of water containing the cocoons at one end and a large reel onto which the filaments were wound at the other (figure 8). Two other processes were necessary before silk thread or yarn was ready for weaving. Firstly, several filaments had to be combined in a single, strong thread. This is where Islamic workers chose to twist the filaments together. In China, thread was often produced without twisting, by relying on the natural gum from the cocoon which coated each filament. This could hold the filaments together once they had been brought into contact on a winding wheel adapted for 'doubling' threads. The gum protected and strengthened the thread during weaving, but was eventually removed by steeping the finished cloth in water".
    1. Arnold Pacey (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. pp. 23–26. ISBN 978-0-262-66072-3.
  112. ^ Quote: "The first recorded use of paper for packaging was in 1035, when a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped for the customer after they were sold".
    1. Diana Twede (2005). The Origins of Paper Based Packaging. Michigan State University. Charm. p. 288-300 (found on pg. 289). WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 14th, 2019.
  113. ^ Quote: "One controversial aspect of the history of technology in North India concerns the spinning wheel. Because cotton textiles originated in India, it has long been assumed that the spinning wheel, as used with cotton, must also have been invented in the subcontinent, perhaps between AD 500 and 1000. However, early references to cotton spinning are so vague that none clearly identifies a wheel, according to Irfan Habib. The references could equally indicate earlier methods of hand spinning. The earliest unambiguous reference is in a document dating from about 1350 which mentions women using spinning wheels in the previous century. Habib also points out that the most usual word in India for a spinning wheel is charkha, and this derives from the Persian language. He therefore thinks that the spinning wheel was introduced into India from Iran in the thirteenth century. If the spinning wheel is not an Indian invention, where did it originate? The earliest clear illustrations of this machine come from Baghdad (drawin in 1237), China (c. 1270) and Europe (c. 1280). It might seem from this that spinning wheels appeared in China and Europe at almost the same time, and one may be tempted to think that conquests of the Mongol armies both in Eastern Europe and in China had created conditions for especially rapid transmission of new technologies. This may be true of some inventions...but is not convincing in this case because simpler forms of wheel for winding bobbins were in use much earlier, and some silk-processing equipment was also widely disseminated before the Mongol conquests began. Alonside these machines is some evidence that spinning wheels of some sort may have already come into use in both China and the Islamic world during the eleventh century".
    1. Arnold Pacey (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-262-66072-3.
  114. ^ Quote: "However, in view of the vagueness of the evidence, arguments about origins should not be pushed too far. It may be useful to think again in terms of a technological dialogue in whcih the westward dissemination of silk and cotton textiles from China and India respectively stimulated many local responses. These may have included numerous minor innovations, and once the winding wheel was known, some form of wheel for spinning may have been suggested to the minds of a number of individuals in quite different places. The possibility of independent regional invention was all the greater because of the distinctive qualities of textiles manufactured in different places. For example, surviving specimens of silk fabric show that thread production in the Islamic countries (and Europe) was always twisted to make it stronger, whereas Chinese manufacturers seem to have avoided this because fabric woven from twisted thread was stiffer and less lustrous. For that reason, mechanical devices for twisting thread are more likely to have been invented in the West rather than China. Indeed, there is an Islamic description of a silk twisting machine dating from just before 1030. Experience of this machine could have led to a distinctive approach to spinning other textile fibres, and may ultimately have contributed to the invention of the specifically European type of spinning wheel known as the Saxony wheel. Some emphasis on silk manufactures is justified because of the suggestion by some historians that, in China, mechanized techniques developed first in silk workshops and were then adapted for use with cotton and other fibres. In this context, the first process to consider is unwinding the long, continuous filament from the silk-worm cocoon. This was done by plunging the cocoons into hot water, which killed the 'worm' whilst loosening the filament. At quite an early date, and certainly before 1090, silk-reeling machines were being used in China which had a small heated bath of water containing the cocoons at one end and a large reel onto which the filaments were wound at the other (figure 8). Two other processes were necessary before silk thread or yarn was ready for weaving. Firstly, several filaments had to be combined in a single, strong thread. This is where Islamic workers chose to twist the filaments together. In China, thread was often produced without twisting, by relying on the natural gum from the cocoon which coated each filament. This could hold the filaments together once they had been brought into contact on a winding wheel adapted for 'doubling' threads. The gum protected and strengthened the thread during weaving, but was eventually removed by steeping the finished cloth in water".
    1. Arnold Pacey (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. pp. 23–26. ISBN 978-0-262-66072-3.

References

  1. ^ a b Abdul Ali (1996). Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 115. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.
  2. ^ a b Abdul Ali (1996). Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-7533-008-5.
  3. ^ a b Mumtaz Mazumdar (19 February 2013). First Renaissance in Muslim Arab Spanish Cordoba / Khurtuba. GRIN Verlag. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-656-37428-2.
  4. ^ a b c d Habib Tiliouine; Richard J. Estes (8 April 2016). The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies: Social, Economic, Political, and Ideological Challenges. Springer. pp. 28–33. ISBN 978-3-319-24774-8.
  5. ^ a b Josef Meri (12 January 2018). Routledge Revivals: Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006): An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 949. ISBN 978-1-351-66813-2.
  6. ^ a b Lamia Ben Youssef Zayzafoon (2005). Production of the Muslim Woman: Negotiating Text, History, and Ideology. Lexington Books. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7391-1078-2.}
  7. ^ a b Devin J. Stewart (2013). Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-691-13484-7.
  8. ^ a b John L. Esposito (13 May 2004). The Islamic World: Past and Present 3-Volume Set. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3.
  9. ^ a b Peter Sluglett; Andrew Currie (30 January 2015). Atlas of Islamic History. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-317-58896-2.
  10. ^ a b John D. Langlois Jr. (14 July 2014). China Under Mongol Rule. Princeton University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4008-5409-7.
  11. ^ a b Mona Hassan (10 January 2017). Longing for the Lost Caliphate: A Transregional History. Princeton University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-4008-8371-4.
  12. ^ a b Jacques Gernet (31 May 1996). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7.
  13. ^ a b George Lane (25 January 2018). A Short History of the Mongols. I.B.Tauris. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-78672-339-0.
  14. ^ a b Timothy Venning; Peter Frankopan (1 May 2015). A Chronology of the Crusades. Routledge. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-317-49643-4.
  15. ^ a b Laura Venegoni (2004). THE POLITICAL BACKGROUND OF THE MONGOLIAN CONQUESTS AND HÜLAGÜ'S WEST CONQUEST (1256-1260). Türkiyat Araştırmaları (Turkish Journal). Ataturk University. p. 29-42. WayBackMachine Link. Online Copy Found on Here (WayBackMachine Link). ISSN 1300-9052.
  16. ^ a b Krzysztof Stopka (16 December 2016). Armenia Christiana: Armenian Religious Identity and the Churches of Constantinople and Rome (4th–15th Century). Wydawnictwo UJ. p. 167. ISBN 978-83-233-9555-3.
  17. ^ a b A. Y. Al-Hassan (2001). Science and Technology in Islam: Technology and applied sciences. UNESCO. p. 655. ISBN 978-92-3-103831-0.
  18. ^ a b George Lane (2009). Genghis Khan and Mongol Rule. Hackett Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 0-87220-969-5.
  19. ^ a b John Block Friedman; Kristen Mossler Figg (5 July 2017). Routledge Revivals: Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages (2000): An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-351-66132-4.
  20. ^ a b Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog (7 December 2010). The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335). BRILL. p. 217. ISBN 90-04-18635-2.
  21. ^ a b David Nicolle (29 July 1993). The Mamluks 1250–1517. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-85532-314-8.
  22. ^ a b Marshall Cavendish Reference (2011). Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-7614-7929-1.
  23. ^ a b Hassan Tahiri (18 November 2015). Mathematics and the Mind: An Introduction into Ibn Sīnā’s Theory of Knowledge. Springer. p. 9. ISBN 978-3-319-25238-4.
  24. ^ a b Aisha Khan (15 January 2006). Avicenna (Ibn Sina): Muslim Physician and Philosopher of the Eleventh Century. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4042-0509-3.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Koh, G. (2009). The Canon of Medicine. BMJ. 339 (dec09 2): b5358–b5358. doi:10.1136/bmj.b5358. ISSN 0959-8138.
  26. ^ a b Robin D. Tribhuwan (2009). Body Image, Human Reproduction and Birth Control. Discovery Publishing House. p. 15. ISBN 978-81-8356-388-8.
  27. ^ a b c d Roshdi Rashed (2 May 2013). Ibn al-Haytham and Analytical Mathematics: A History of Arabic Sciences and Mathematics. Routledge. p. 416. ISBN 978-1-136-19108-4.
  28. ^ a b c d Eric S. Swanson (25 September 2015).Science and Society: Understanding Scientific Methodology, Energy, Climate, and Sustainability. Springer. p. 112. ISBN 978-3-319-21987-5.
  29. ^ a b Tbakhi, Abdelghani; Amr, Samir S. (2007). Ibn Al-Haytham: Father of Modern Optics. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 27 (6): 464–467. doi:10.5144/0256-4947.2007.464. ISSN 0256-4947.
  30. ^ a b Al-Khalili, Jim (2015). In retrospect: Book of Optics. Nature. 518 (7538): 164–165. doi:10.1038/518164a. ISSN 0028-0836.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Alghamdi, Malak A.; Ziermann, Janine M.; Diogo, Rui (2017). An untold story: The important contributions of Muslim scholars for the understanding of human anatomy. The Anatomical Record. 300 (6): 986–1008. doi:10.1002/ar.23523. ISSN 1932-8486.
  32. ^ a b Amr, Samir S.; Tbakhi, Abdulghani (2007). Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya Al Razi (Rhazes): Philosopher, Physician and Alchemist. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 27 (4): 305–307. doi:10.5144/0256-4947.2007.305. ISSN 0256-4947.
  33. ^ a b Stuart Anderson (2005). Making Medicines: A Brief History of Pharmacy and Pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-85369-597-4.
  34. ^ a b c d e f Tibi, S. (2006). Al-Razi and Islamic medicine in the 9th century. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 99 (4): 206–207. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.4.206. ISSN 0141-0768.
  35. ^ a b S. M. Imamuddin (1981). Muslim Spain: 711-1492 A.D. : a Sociological Study. BRILL. p. 195. ISBN 90-04-06131-2.
  36. ^ a b Zargaran, Arman; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Nikaein, Farzad (2012). Rhazes′ concepts and manuscripts on nutrition in treatment and health care. Ancient Science of Life. 31 (4): 160. doi:10.4103/0257-7941.107357. ISSN 0257-7941
  37. ^ Islamic Scientific Thought and Muslim Achievements in Science: Papers Presented. Ministry of Science and Technology, National Hijra Centenary Committee, and Organization of Islamic Conference. 1983. p. 85.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h Syed M. Imamuddin (1981). Muslim Spain: 0711-1492 A.D. Brill Archive. p. 165. GGKEY:XW6HET8PB00.
  39. ^ a b Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (Unknown Date). Flywheel Effect for a Saqiya From Kitab al-Filaha of Ibn Bassal (fl. 1038-1075). History, Science, Technology. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 13th, 2019.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Inayatullah Ibrahim Lalani (November 2009). Al-Battani Shield: Counteracting Global Warming: A New Approach. iUniverse. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-4401-8002-6.
  41. ^ a b c d e f Salim Ayduz (Unknown Date). Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay. Muslim Heritage. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 18th, 2019.
  42. ^ a b Helaine Selin (12 March 2008). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 2080. ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2.
  43. ^ a b c d e f Arif Hoetoro (31 December 2018). Ekonomi Mikro Islam: Pendekatan Integratif. Universitas Brawijaya Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-602-432-669-2.
  44. ^ a b FSTC (Unknown Date). Illustrious Names in the Heavens: Arabic and Islamic Names of the Moon Craters. Muslim Heritage. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 18th, 2019.
  45. ^ a b The Silk Road Encyclopedia. Seoul Selection. 18 July 2016. p. 759. ISBN 978-1-62412-076-3.
  46. ^ a b Mohamed Mansour (Unknown Date). Muslim Rocket Technology. Muslim Heritage. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 18th, 2019.
  47. ^ a b Chittabrata Palit (2009). An Ancient Indian System of Rasayana: Suvarnatantra a Treatise on Alchemy. Gyan Publishing House. p. 102. ISBN 978-81-7835-692-1.
  48. ^ a b A. Bowdoin Van Riper (2004). Rockets and Missiles: The Life Story of a Technology. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-0-313-32795-7.
  49. ^ a b c d Mahmood Khan Mahmood (29 June 2013). Kingdom of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan: Sultanat E Khudadad. Xlibris Corporation. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4836-1536-3.
  50. ^ a b c d e f John J. O'Connor, Edmund F. Robertson (November 1999). Banu Musa brothers. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. School of Mathematics and Statistics. University of St Andrews, Scotland. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 18th, 2019.
  51. ^ a b c d e f Tony Abboud (15 January 2006). Al Kindi: The Father of Arab Philosophy. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4042-0511-6.
  52. ^ The Book of Ingenious Devices / Kitáb al-Ḥiyal: Kitáb al-Hiyal. By The Banú (sons of) Músà bin Shákir. Springer Science & Business Media. 31 December 1978. ISBN 978-90-277-0833-5.
  53. ^ a b c d Lisa Rezende (2006). Chronology of Science. Infobase Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-4381-2980-8.
  54. ^ a b Kemal Ataman (2008). Understanding Other Religions: Al-Biruni's and Gadamer's "fusion of Horizons". CRVP. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-56518-252-3.
  55. ^ a b Lutz D. Schmadel (10 June 2012). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 712. ISBN 978-3-642-29718-2.
  56. ^ a b Bridget Lim; Bill Scheppler (15 July 2016). Al-Biruni: Greatest Polymath of the Islamic Golden Age. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-5081-7132-4.
  57. ^ a b Corona Brezina (2006). Al-Khwarizmi: The Inventor of Algebra. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4042-0513-0.
  58. ^ a b Everett Jenkins, Jr. (7 May 2015). The Muslim Diaspora (Volume 1, 570-1500): A Comprehensive Chronology of the Spread of Islam in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. McFarland. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-4766-0888-4.
  59. ^ a b c d Robert E. Krebs (2004). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-313-32433-8.
  60. ^ a b Deborah Todd; Joseph A. Angelo (14 May 2014). A to Z of Scientists in Space and Astronomy. Infobase Publishing. pp. 186–187. ISBN 978-1-4381-0923-7.
  61. ^ a b c d Jonathan Powell (2018). Rare Astronomical Sights and Sounds. Springer. p. 36. ISBN 978-3-319-97701-0.
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h Helaine Selin (31 July 1997). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 392. ISBN 978-0-7923-4066-9.
  63. ^ a b Muzaffar Iqbal (15 May 2017). Studies in the Making of Islamic Science: Knowledge in Motion. Taylor & Francis. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-351-89725-9.
  64. ^ a b Ravi P Agarwal; Syamal K Sen (11 November 2014). Creators of Mathematical and Computational Sciences. Springer. p. 128. ISBN 978-3-319-10870-4.
  65. ^ a b c d e f J.L. Berggren (25 November 2014). Episodes in the Mathematics of Medieval Islam. Springer. pp. 15–21. ISBN 978-1-4612-4608-4.
  66. ^ a b c d e f Samsó, Julio (2018). Ibn al-Zarqālluh. Brill Online. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 18th, 2019.
  67. ^ a b Rosalyn Rossignol (2006). Critical Companion to Chaucer: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. Infobase Publishing. p. 335. ISBN 978-1-4381-0840-7.
  68. ^ a b Ibrahim Kalin; Salim Ayduz; Caner Dagli (2014). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 453. ISBN 978-0-19-981257-8.
  69. ^ a b John Gill (9 December 2008). Andalucia: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-970451-4.
  70. ^ a b S. M. Chong; Albert Lim; P. S. Ang (25 July 2002). Photographic Atlas of the Moon. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-81392-1.
  71. ^ a b c d Roberts, Victor (1966). The Planetary Theory of Ibn al-Shatir: Latitudes of the Planets. Isis. 57 (2): 208–219. doi:10.1086/350114. ISSN 0021-1753.
  72. ^ a b Muzaffar Iqbal (2009). The Making of Islamic Science. The Other Press. pp. 24. ISBN 978-967-5062-31-5.
  73. ^ a b c d Helaine Selin (11 November 2013). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 412. ISBN 978-94-017-1416-7.
  74. ^ a b c d e f John J. O'Connor, Edmund F. Robertson (July 1999). Sharaf al-Din al-Muzaffar al-Tusi. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 18th 2019.
  75. ^ a b c d e f Helaine Selin (11 November 2013). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 412. ISBN 978-94-017-1416-7.
  76. ^ a b Muzaffar Husain Syed; Syed Saud Akhtar; B D Usmani (14 September 2011). Concise History of Islam. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 251. ISBN 978-93-82573-47-0.
  77. ^ a b Adam Hart-Davis (3 April 2017). Engineers: From the Great Pyramids to Spacecraft. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-4093-2224-5.
  78. ^ a b Adam Hart-Davis (3 April 2017). Engineers: From the Great Pyramids to Spacecraft. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-4093-2224-5.
  79. ^ a b Astrolabe with Geared Calendar, by Muhammad b. Abi Bakr, Isfahan, 1221/2. History of Science Museum. Oxford University. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 18th, 2019.
  80. ^ a b c d Marco Ceccarelli (1 December 2009). Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science: Their Contributions and Legacies. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 1. ISBN 978-90-481-2346-9.
  81. ^ a b Zekai Sen (28 March 2008). Solar Energy Fundamentals and Modeling Techniques: Atmosphere, Environment, Climate Change and Renewable Energy. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-84800-134-3.
  82. ^ Islamic Scientific Thought and Muslim Achievements in Science: Papers Presented. Ministry of Science and Technology, National Hijra Centenary Committee, and Organization of Islamic Conference. 1983. p. 85.
  83. ^ The Book of Ingenious Devices / Kitáb al-Ḥiyal: Kitáb al-Hiyal. By The Banú (sons of) Músà bin Shákir. Springer Science & Business Media. 31 December 1978. ISBN 978-90-277-0833-5.
  84. ^ a b c d e f C.G. Weeramantry (19 September 1988). Islamic Jurisprudence: An International Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-349-19456-8.
  85. ^ a b c d Ibrahim Al-Kindilchie, Amer (2014). Libraries in Iraq and Egypt: A comparative study. International Library Review. 9 (1): 113–123. doi:10.1016/0020-7837(77)90054-1. ISSN 0020-7837.
  86. ^ a b Walid Ghali Nasr (2016). The State of Manuscript Digitisation Projects in Egypt. Aga Khan University. Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations, London. Library and Information Science in the Middle East and North Africa, Vol. 3. p. 302-318. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved January 27th, 2019.
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h Elayyan, Ribhi Mustafa (2014). The history of the Arabic-Islamic Libraries: 7th to 14th Centuries. International Library Review. 22 (2): 119–135. doi:10.1016/0020-7837(90)90014-7. ISSN 0020-7837.
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h Astrid Sigel; Helmut Sigel (14 February 1997). Metal Ions in Biological Systems: Volume 34: Mercury and its Effects on Environment and Biology. CRC Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-8247-9828-4.
  89. ^ a b Usama ibn Munqidh (3 July 2008). The Book of Contemplation: Islam and the Crusades. Penguin Books Limited. p. 446. ISBN 978-0-14-045513-7.
  90. ^ a b Martin Windrow (20 January 2012). Osprey Men-At-Arms: A Celebration. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-78096-267-2.
  91. ^ a b c d David Nicolle (28 July 1994). Saracen Faris AD 1050–1250. Bloomsbury USA. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-85532-453-4.
  92. ^ a b c d Mark C. Bartusis (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204-1453. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 323–324. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j François Charette (1 January 2003). Kitāb Fī Al-ālāt Al-falakīyah. BRILL. p. 209-211. ISBN 90-04-13015-2.
  94. ^ a b Jonathan Powell (2018). Rare Astronomical Sights and Sounds. Springer. p. 36. ISBN 978-3-319-97701-0.
  95. ^ a b c d e f g h Clifford Edmund Bosworth; M.S.Asimov (August 2002). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 202. ISBN 978-81-208-1596-4.
  96. ^ a b Babadzhanov, Pulat B. (2016). Astronomical Research and Education in Tajikistan. Transactions of the International Astronomical Union. 24 (03): 187–196. doi:10.1017/S0251107X00000742. ISSN 0251-107X.
  97. ^ a b Emilia Calvo (2008). A Shared Legacy: Islamic Science East and West : Homage to Professor J. M. Millàs Vallicrosa. Edicions Universitat Barcelona. pp. 332–333. ISBN 978-84-475-3285-8.
  98. ^ a b c d e f g h Josef W. Meri; David A. King (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. Taylor & Francis. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-0-415-96691-7.
  99. ^ a b Selin, Helaine (2000). Mathematics Across Cultures The History of Non-Western Mathematics. 2. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-4301-1. ISSN 1568-2145. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  100. ^ a b c d e f g h Kennedy, E. S. (1947). Al-Kāshī's "Plate of Conjunctions" Isis. 38 (1/2): 56–59. doi:10.1086/348036. ISSN 0021-1753.
  101. ^ a b c d e f g h Kennedy, E. S. (1952). A Fifteenth-Century Planetary Computer: al-Kāshī's ``Ṭabaq al-Manāṭeq. II. Longitudes, Distances, and Equations of the Planets". Isis. 43 (1): 42–50. doi:10.1086/349363. ISSN 0021-1753.
  102. ^ a b c d e f Jacqueline de Weever (8 April 2014). Chaucer Name Dictionary: A Guide to Astrological, Biblical, Historical, Literary, and Mythological Names in the Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Routledge. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-135-61446-1.
  103. ^ a b Audun Holme (23 September 2010). Geometry: Our Cultural Heritage. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 178. ISBN 978-3-642-14441-7.
  104. ^ a b Stephen P. Blake (8 April 2016). Astronomy and Astrology in the Islamic World. Edinburgh University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7486-4911-2.
  105. ^ a b c d e f King, David A. (1983). The Astronomy of the Mamluks. Isis. 74 (4): 531–555. doi:10.1086/353360. ISSN 0021-1753.
  106. ^ a b Robert E. Krebs (2004). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-313-32433-8.
  107. ^ a b c d e f g h Geoffrey Chaucer (2002). A Treatise on the Astrolabe. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8061-3413-0.
  108. ^ a b c d Thomas Philipp; Ulrich Haarmann (12 February 1998). The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-521-59115-7.
  109. ^ a b Robert E. Krebs (2004). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-313-32433-8.
  110. ^ a b Britannica Educational Publishing (1 April 2010). The Britannica Guide to The History of Mathematics. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-61530-221-5.
  111. ^ a b c d Helaine Selin (11 November 2013). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 894. ISBN 978-94-017-1416-7.
  112. ^ a b Berggren, J. Lennart (2008). Al-Tūsī, Sharaf Al-Dīn Al-Muzaffar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Muzaffar. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner & Sons. Online Copy Found Here (WayBackMachine Link). ISBN 9780684315591. Retrieved February 13th, 2019.
  113. ^ a b c d e f Adam Hart-Davis (3 April 2017). Engineers: From the Great Pyramids to Spacecraft. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-4093-2224-5.
  114. ^ a b Najma Kazi (Unknown Date). Seeking Seamless Scientific Wonders: Review of Emilie Savage-Smith's Work. Muslim Heritage. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 12th, 2019.
  115. ^ a b Jaimini Sarkar (August 2011). Indian Science Through the Ages. Science Reporter. NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository. p. 8-14. [WayBackMachine Link]. Retrieved February 12th, 2019.
  116. ^ a b Helaine Selin (12 March 2008). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 1034–1035. ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2.
  117. ^ a b Savage-Smith, Emilie; Belloli, Andrea P. A. (1985). Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use. Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology (46): 1–354. doi:10.5479/si.00810258.46.1. ISSN 0081-0258.
  118. ^ a b Haroon Mirani (March 7th, 2014). Celebrating Luqman’s Celestial Sphere. Greater Kashmir. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 12th, 2019.
  119. ^ a b c d e f Bedini, Silvio A.; Maddison, Francis R. (1966). Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 56 (5): 1. pp 9-10. doi:10.2307/1006002. ISSN 0065-9746.
  120. ^ a b c d Bernard Lightman (4 April 2016). A Companion to the History of Science. John Wiley & Sons. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-118-62077-9.
  121. ^ a b Field, J.V; Wright, M.T (1985). The early history of mathematical gearing. Endeavour. 9 (4): 198–203. doi:10.1016/0160-9327(85)90078-X. ISSN 0160-9327.
  122. ^ a b c d Mohaini Mohamed (2000). Great Muslim Mathematicians. Penerbit UTM. p. 64-66. ISBN 978-983-52-0157-8.
  123. ^ a b c d e f [1]. Institute and Museum of History of Science (Gallileo Images of the Universe From Antiquity to the Telescope). WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 12th, 2019.
  124. ^ a b c d Devin J. Stewart (2013). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-691-13484-7.
  125. ^ a b Peter Sluglett; Andrew Currie (30 January 2015). Atlas of Islamic History. Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-317-58897-9.
  126. ^ a b Irfan Habib (2011). Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500. Pearson Education India. p. 53. ISBN 978-81-317-2791-1.
  127. ^ a b c d e f Franklin D. Jones; Henry H. Ryffel (1984). Gear Design Simplified. Industrial Press Inc. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-8311-1159-5.
  128. ^ a b Berkshire Publishing Group, LLC. (10 July 2010). Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, 2nd Edition, McNeil-Bently-Christian-Croiser, 2010: Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. Bukupedia. p. 71. GGKEY:HHYLKJ7D4ZB.
  129. ^ a b c d e f Irfan Habib (2011). Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500. Pearson Education India. p. 53. ISBN 978-81-317-2791-1.
  130. ^ Cultures of Knowledge: Technology in Chinese History. BRILL. 14 November 2011. p. 306. ISBN 978-90-04-21936-6.
  131. ^ a b P. Hill (6 December 2012). The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma 'rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 273. ISBN 978-94-010-2573-7.
  132. ^ a b Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy and life sciences. CRC Press. p. 788-789. ISBN 978-0-415-12412-6.
  133. ^ a b Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan (21 August 2012). The Role of the Arab-Islamic World in the Rise of the West: Implications for Contemporary Trans-Cultural Relations. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-230-39320-2.
  134. ^ a b William P. Crosher (20 November 2014). A Gear Chronology: Significant Events and Dates Affecting Gear Development. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 26–28. ISBN 978-1-4990-7119-1.
  135. ^ a b c d Urvija Banerji (February 4th, 2016). The Robot Clocks of 12th-Century Turkey. Atlast Obscura. Archive.is Link. Retrieved February 22nd, 2019.
  136. ^ a b Will Potts; Julia Morrison; Ian Granger (8 January 2018). AQA AS/A-Level Design and Technology: Product Design. Hodder Education. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-5104-1364-1.
  137. ^ a b Allied Chambers (1998). The Chambers Dictionary. Allied Publishers. p. 137. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8.
  138. ^ a b al-Jazarī, Ibn al-Razzāz (1974). The candle-clock of the swordsman: 83–86. doi:10.1007/978-94-010-2573-7_8.
  139. ^ a b {P. Hill (6 December 2012). The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: (Kitāb fī ma 'rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya). Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 253. ISBN 978-94-010-2573-7.
  140. ^ Vol.1,2, by lt. col. Williams History of the wars caused by the French revolution. Vol.3,4, by W.C. Stafford History of England's campaigns in India and China; and of the Indian mutiny. 1864. p. 82.
  141. ^ a b Joseph Needham (22 January 1987). Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge University Press. pp. 455–456. ISBN 978-0-521-30358-3.
  142. ^ a b Donald R. Hill (1991). [www.jstor.org/stable/24936907 Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East]. Vol. 264, No. 5 (MAY 1991), pp. 100-105. Scientific American. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  143. ^ a b Şen, Zekâi (2013). Ancient water robotics and Abou-l Iz Al-Jazari. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. 13 (3): 699–709. doi:10.2166/ws.2013.031. ISSN 1606-9749
  144. ^ a b John L. Esposito (6 April 2000). The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-19-988041-6.
  145. ^ a b John Freely (30 March 2015). Light from the East: How the Science of Medieval Islam Helped to Shape the Western World. I.B.Tauris. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-78453-138-6.
  146. ^ Cultures of Knowledge: Technology in Chinese History. BRILL. 14 November 2011. p. 306. ISBN 978-90-04-21936-6.
  147. ^ Vol.1,2, by lt. col. Williams History of the wars caused by the French revolution. Vol.3,4, by W.C. Stafford History of England's campaigns in India and China; and of the Indian mutiny. 1864. p. 82.
  148. ^ a b Komeh-Nkrumah (September 2nd, 2014). THERAPEUTIC, BIO-AFFECTING AND BODY TREATING COMPOSITION. United States Patent. Patent No.: US 8,821,948 B2. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 11th, 2019.
  149. ^ a b Richard Myers (2003). The Basics of Chemistry. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-313-3166
  150. ^ a b Victoria H. Edwards (31 August 2015). The Aromatherapy Companion: Medicinal Uses/Ayurvedic Healing/Body-Care Blends/Perfumes & Scents/Emotional Health & Well-Being. Storey Publishing, LLC. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-61212-786-6.
  151. ^ a b c d Madoc Arundel, Christopher Miller (September 2014). Rum as a Medieval European Possibility. Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. (SCA) and the American Homebrewers' Association. pg. 1-17. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 11th, 2019.
  152. ^ a b Maryam Khoubnasabjafari, Eliza Sadeghifar, Majid Khalili, Jalil Vaez-Gharamaleki, Abolghasem Jouyban (2011). Contribution of Iranian chemists in research activities, on the occasion of the International Year of Chemistry. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Quím. Farm. Vol. 40 (2). pg. 240-260, 2011. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 11th, 2019.
  153. ^ a b Cher Kaufmann (17 April 2018). Nature's Essential Oils: Aromatic Alchemy for Well-Being (Countryman Know How). Countryman Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-58157-460-9.
  154. ^ a b AA. VV. (11 April 2016). Nitrogeno. Fontana Editore. pp. 2. ISBN 978-88-98750-26-9.
  155. ^ a b Описание гаплогруппы L-M20 (Description of haplogroup L-M20). Gentis (История Вашего Рода, записанная в ДНК). WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 12th, 2019.
  156. ^ a b Jennifer Peace Rhind; David Pirie (2012). Essential Oils: A Handbook for Aromatherapy Practice. Singing Dragon. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-84819-089-4.
  157. ^ a b Julia Lawless (22 November 2012). Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health and well-being. (Text Only). HarperCollins Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-00-740521-3.
  158. ^ a b c d ORMUS The Secret Alchemy of Mary Magdalene ~ Revealed ~ (Part A). ORMUS® USA/Japan. December 2007. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-9793737-0-1.
  159. ^ a b Adam Hart-Davis (2012). Science: The Definitive Visual Guide. Dorling Kindersley. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4093-8314-7.
  160. ^ a b c d e f g h Kriss, Timothy C.; Kriss, Vesna Martich (1998). History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying Glass to Microneurosurgery. Neurosurgery. 42 (4): 899–907. doi:10.1097/00006123-199804000-00116. ISSN 0148-396X.
  161. ^ a b c d S. Bradbury (15 May 2014). The Evolution of the Microscope. Elsevier. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4831-6432-8.
  162. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Henry C. King (2003). The History of the Telescope. Courier Corporation. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-486-43265-6.
  163. ^ a b L. Mays (19 May 2010). Ancient Water Technologies. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 55. ISBN 978-90-481-8632-7.
  164. ^ a b Louise Park (15 January 2013). Ancient Greece. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4777-0148-5.
  165. ^ a b Joseph A. Angelo (14 May 2014). Encyclopedia of Space and Astronomy. Infobase Publishing. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-4381-1018-9.
  166. ^ a b c d e f Régis Morelon (1996). General Survey Of Arabic Astronomy. pg. 1-19. From Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Volume 1. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 9th, 2019.
  167. ^ a b c d e f Donald R. Hill (1979). The Book of Ingenious Devices / Kitáb al-Ḥiyal: Kitáb al-Hiyal. By The Banú (sons of) Músà bin Shákir. Springer Science & Business Media. 31 December 1978. pp. 21. ISBN 978-90-277-0833-5.
  168. ^ a b c d Victor Margolin (1 January 2015). World History of Design. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-4725-6650-8.
  169. ^ a b Dick Teresi (11 May 2010). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya. Simon and Schuster. p. 334. ISBN 978-1-4391-2860-2.
  170. ^ a b c d Abdul Nasir (27 August 2014). Sejarah Sistem Fiskal Migas Indonesia. Gramedia Widiasarana. p. 30. ISBN 978-602-251-679-8.
  171. ^ a b c d Chang Samuel Hsu; Paul R. Robinson (20 December 2017). Springer Handbook of Petroleum Technology. Springer. pp. 9-10. ISBN 978-3-319-49347-3.
  172. ^ a b Martin Kaltschmitt; Ulf Neuling (9 August 2017). Biokerosene: Status and Prospects. Springer. p. 44. ISBN 978-3-662-53065-8.
  173. ^ a b Woodrow W. Clark; Grant Cooke (26 November 2014). The Green Industrial Revolution: Energy, Engineering and Economics. Elsevier Science. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-12-802553-6.
  174. ^ a b John Hrastar (5 June 2014). Liquid Natural Gas in the United States: A History. McFarland. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7864-7859-0.
  175. ^ a b James A. Kent; Tilak V. Bommaraju; Scott D. Barnicki (1 August 2017). Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology. Springer. p. 19. ISBN 978-3-319-52287-6.
  176. ^ a b c d e f Zayn Bilkadi (January/February 1995). The Oil Weapons. Saudi Aramco World. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 16th, 2019.
  177. ^ a b Miltiades Varvounis (14 December 2016). Made in Poland: The Women and Men Who Changed the World. Xlibris UK. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-5245-9664-4.
  178. ^ a b Alec Groysman (17 February 2014). Corrosion in Systems for Storage and Transportation of Petroleum Products and Biofuels: Identification, Monitoring and Solutions. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 221. ISBN 978-94-007-7884-9.
  179. ^ a b Cesare Rossi; Flavio Russo; Ferruccio Russo (13 March 2009). Ancient Engineers' Inventions: Precursors of the Present. Springer. p. 116. ISBN 978-90-481-2253-0.
  180. ^ a b c d Clifford Edmund Bosworth; M.S.Asimov (August 2002). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 254. ISBN 978-81-208-1596-4.
  181. ^ a b Adam Hart-Davis (3 April 2017). Engineers: From the Great Pyramids to Spacecraft. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 56-57. ISBN 978-1-4093-2224-5.
  182. ^ a b Sigfried J. de Laet (1994). History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. p. 366. ISBN 978-92-3-102813-7.
  183. ^ a b Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy and life sciences. CRC Press. p. 779. ISBN 978-0-415-12412-6.
  184. ^ a b Kaveh Yazdani (10 January 2017). India, Modernity and the Great Divergence: Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.). BRILL. p. 44. ISBN 978-90-04-33079-5.
  185. ^ a b c d e f Emilio Bautista Paz; Marco Ceccarelli; Javier Echávarri Otero (2 August 2010). A Brief Illustrated History of Machines and Mechanisms. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 73. ISBN 978-90-481-2512-8.
  186. ^ a b c d The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Archive. 1954. p. 861. ISBN 90-04-07164-4.
  187. ^ a b c d Dietrich Eckardt (23 September 2014). Gas Turbine Powerhouse: The Development of the Power Generation Gas Turbine at BBC - ABB - Alstom. De Gruyter. p. 58. ISBN 978-3-11-036938-0.
  188. ^ a b Robert Messler (22 November 2013). Reverse Engineering: Mechanisms, Structures, Systems & Materials. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-07-182466-8.
  189. ^ a b Adam Hart-Davis (1 May 2012). Engineers. Dorling Kindersley Limited. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-1-4093-2224-5.
  190. ^ a b c d e f g h Adam Hart-Davis (1 May 2012). Engineers. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-4093-2224-5.
  191. ^ a b c d David E. Newton (25 November 2014). Wind Energy: A Reference Handbook: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-61069-690-6.
  192. ^ a b arco Ceccarelli (17 August 2007). Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science: Their Contributions and Legacies. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4020-6366-4.
  193. ^ a b c d Leslie A White (16 June 2016). Modern Capitalist Culture. Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-315-42444-6.
  194. ^ a b Sheldon L. Glashow (1994). From Alchemy to Quarks: The Study of Physics as a Liberal Art. Brooks/Cole Pub. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-534-16656-4.
  195. ^ a b Charles G. Fraser (15 December 1948). Half-Hours with Great Scientists: The Story of Physics. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. p. 377. ISBN 978-1-4875-9724-5.
  196. ^ a b Sara Louise Kras (August 2003). The Steam Engine. Infobase Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-7910-7453-4.
  197. ^ a b c d e f g h Marco Ceccarelli (1 December 2009). Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science: Their Contributions and Legacies. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 8-9. ISBN 978-90-481-2346-9.
  198. ^ a b Sean Bennett (2 February 2010). Heavy Duty Truck Systems. Cengage Learning. p. 360. ISBN 1-4354-8382-0.
  199. ^ a b c d e f Michael Volk (21 October 2013). Pump Characteristics and Applications. CRC Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-1-4665-6309-4.
  200. ^ a b Zekai Sen (28 March 2008). Solar Energy Fundamentals and Modeling Techniques: Atmosphere, Environment, Climate Change and Renewable Energy. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-84800-134-3.
  201. ^ a b S. Frederick Starr (6 October 2013). Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia's Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-4008-4880-5.
  202. ^ a b Victor Margolin (1 January 2015). World History of Design. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-4725-6650-8.
  203. ^ a b Adam Hart-Davis (31 January 2011). What the past did for us. Ebury Publishing. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4090-7452-6.
  204. ^ a b Unesco (1992). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. UNESCO. p. 254. ISBN 978-92-3-103654-5.
  205. ^ How it Works: Science and Technology. Marshall Cavendish. 2003. pp. 704. ISBN 978-0-7614-7319-0.
  206. ^ a b c d Ceccarelli, Marco (2010). Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science. History of Mechanism and Machine Science. 7. pg. 5. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2346-9. ISSN 1875-3442.
  207. ^ a b David A. Madsen (2002). Engineering Drawing and Design. Cengage Learning. p. 511. ISBN 0-7668-1634-6.
  208. ^ a b Michael M. Stanisic (19 March 2014). Mechanisms and Machines: Kinematics, Dynamics, and Synthesis. Cengage Learning. p. 392. ISBN 978-1-305-17794-9.
  209. ^ a b Michael M. Stanisic (15 April 2014). Mechanisms and Machines: Kinematics, Dynamics, and Synthesis, SI Edition. Cengage Learning. p. 392. ISBN 978-1-305-17818-2.
  210. ^ a b Penbegul, Necmettin; Atar, Murat; Kendirci, Muammer; Bozkurt, Yasar; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal; Verit, Ayhan; Kadıoglu, Ates (2014). Primitive robotic procedures: Automotions for medical liquids in 12th century Asia minor. Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia. 86 (4): 300. doi:10.4081/aiua.2014.4.300. ISSN 2282-4197.
  211. ^ a b Georges Ifrah (2001). A Universal History Of Computing: From The Abacus To The Quantum Computer. John Wiley. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-471-39671-0.
  212. ^ a b Waleed Faris Salah Elmoselhy (2017). "The True Inventor Of Some Early Mechanical Engineering Devices And Mechanisms". Al-Shajarah: Journal of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC). 22(1) p. 29-64. Retrieved February 21st, 2019.
  213. ^ a b Wilson, Andrew (2002). Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy. The Journal of Roman Studies. 92: 1. doi:10.2307/3184857. ISSN 0075-4358.
  214. ^ a b Victor Albert Walter Hillier (1991). Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology. Nelson Thornes. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7487-0531-3.
  215. ^ a b D. J. Leeming; Reg Hartley (1981). Heavy Vehicle Technology. Nelson Thornes. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7487-0275-6.
  216. ^ a b André Lehr (1981).De geschiedenis van het astronomisch kunstuurwerk: zijn techniek en muziek. Nijhoff. p. 227. ISBN 978-90-247-9082-1.
  217. ^ How it Works: Science and Technology. Marshall Cavendish. 2003. pp. 704. ISBN 978-0-7614-7319-0.
  218. ^ a b c d e f g h Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  219. ^ a b Francis C. Moon (30 May 2007). The Machines of Leonardo Da Vinci and Franz Reuleaux: Kinematics of Machines from the Renaissance to the 20th Century. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-4020-5598-0.
  220. ^ a b c d Mariano Martín (22 March 2016). Alternative Energy Sources and Technologies: Process Design and Operation. Springer. p. 28. ISBN 978-3-319-28752-2.
  221. ^ a b c d e f Susan Carol Hauser (October 2017). Barn: Form and Function of an American Icon. Voyageur Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7603-4973-1.
  222. ^ a b c d e f Madan Mohan Das; Mimi Das Saikia; Bhargab Mohan Das (22 August 2013). Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machines. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 362. ISBN 978-81-203-4799-1.
  223. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  224. ^ a b c d Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 9. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  225. ^ a b c d e f Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 7. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  226. ^ a b Richard Leslie Hills (12 September 1996). Power from Wind: A History of Windmill Technology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-521-56686-5.
  227. ^ a b c d Michael Newton (17 April 2014). Famous Assassinations in World History: An Encyclopedia (2 volumes). ABC-CLIO. p. 585. ISBN 978-1-61069-286-1.
  228. ^ a b Abdul Malik Mujahid. Golden Stories of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A). Darussalam Publishers. p. 392. GGKEY:TXKYGN3YTDN.
  229. ^ a b Ṭabarī; Tabari (17 February 1994). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 14: The Conquest of Iran A.D. 641-643/A.H. 21-23. SUNY Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-7914-1294-7.
  230. ^ a b Michael M. J. Fischer (15 July 2003). Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-299-18473-5.
  231. ^ a b c d E. H. Kessler; D. J. Wong-MingJi (2009). Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-84844-738-7.
  232. ^ a b c d e f Raihan Ismail (7 March 2016). Saudi Clerics and Shi'a Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-19-062750-8.
  233. ^ a b Charles Melville (1996). Safavid Persia, The History and Politics of an Islamic Society. pg. 161-162. Centre of Middle Eastern Studies. University of Cambrdige. I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. WayBackMachine Link. ISBN 1-86064-023-0.
  234. ^ a b c d Anil Relia (14 October 2014). The Indian Portrait - 4: Muraqqa - an Anthological Journey of the Mughal Empire. Archer Art Gallery. p. 28. GGKEY:5UAG0J7GUDQ.
  235. ^ a b George C. Kohn (2006). Dictionary of Wars. Infobase Publishing. p. 347. ISBN 978-1-4381-2916-7.
  236. ^ a b J. Gordon Melton (15 January 2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History (4 Volumes): 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. p. 1163. ISBN 978-1-61069-026-3.
  237. ^ a b Hafiz Ikhlas Ansari (15 December 2018). Islam: A Brief Look at Faith and History (Revised Edition). Lulu.com. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-365-71364-4.
  238. ^ a b Munis D. Faruqui (27 August 2012). The Princes of the Mughal Empire, 1504–1719. Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-139-53675-2.
  239. ^ a b Munis D. Faruqui (27 August 2012). The Princes of the Mughal Empire, 1504-1719. Cambridge University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-107-02217-1.
  240. ^ a b Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  241. ^ a b c d e f Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 4-6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  242. ^ a b Shepherd, Dennis G (December 1990). Historical Development of the Windmill. Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; from the National Wind Technology Center's Information Portal, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory). pg. 6. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  243. ^ a b c d e f g h Trevor M. Letcher (11 May 2017). Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines. Elsevier Science. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-12-809429-7.
  244. ^ a b c d White, Lynn (1964). Theophilus Redivivus. Technology and Culture. 5 (2): 224. doi:10.2307/3101163. ISSN 0040-165X.
  245. ^ a b c d Ragheb, Magdi (2017). History of Harnessing Wind Power: 127–143. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-809451-8.00007-2.
  246. ^ a b Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy and life sciences. CRC Press. p. 774. ISBN 978-0-415-12412-6.
  247. ^ a b c d e f Donald Routledge Hill (1996). "A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times". Psychology Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-15291-4.
  248. ^ a b Donald Hill (19 November 2013). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-317-76157-0.
  249. ^ a b Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy and life sciences. CRC Press. pp. 775. ISBN 978-0-415-12412-6.
  250. ^ a b Robert Byron (27 June 2016). The Road to Oxiana: New edition linked and annotaded. MarcoPolo. p. 130. ISBN 978-989-8575-68-5.
  251. ^ a b Jaydipsinh Dodiya (2006). Perspectives on the Novels of Rohinton Mistry. Sarup & Sons. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-7625-722-0.
  252. ^ a b c d e f Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy and life sciences. CRC Press. pp. 775. ISBN 978-0-415-12412-6.
  253. ^ a b Zaheer Baber (16 May 1996). The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India. SUNY Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-7914-2920-4.
  254. ^ a b Walter Scheidel (8 November 2012). The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Economy. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-521-89822-5.
  255. ^ a b Mary B. Woods; Michael Woods (1 January 2011). Ancient Agricultural Technology: From Sickles to Plows. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7613-7269-1.
  256. ^ a b Helaine Selin (31 July 1997). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 949–. ISBN 978-0-7923-4066-9.
  257. ^ a b Andreas N. Angelakis; Arie S. Issar (29 June 2013). Diachronic Climatic Impacts on Water Resources: with Emphasis on the Mediterranean Region. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 167. ISBN 978-3-642-61084-4.
  258. ^ a b Zaheer Baber (16 May 1996). The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India. SUNY Press. pp. 77. ISBN 978-0-7914-2920-4.
  259. ^ a b Joseph Needham; Colin A. Ronan (14 September 1995). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-521-46773-5.
  260. ^ a b S. M. Imamuddin (1981). Muslim Spain: 711-1492 A.D. : a Sociological Study. BRILL. p. 8. ISBN 90-04-06131-2.
  261. ^ a b Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. p. 62. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  262. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Terry S. Reynolds (1983). Stronger Than a Hundred Men: A History of the Vertical Water Wheel. JHU Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8018-7248-8.
  263. ^ a b c d Bruce Ware Allen (20 November 2018). Tiber: Eternal River of Rome. University Press of New England. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-5126-0334-7.
  264. ^ a b c d e f Adam Lucas (2006). Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology. BRILL. pp. 62–65. ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
  265. ^ a b c d Ali Asghar Semsar Yazdi; Majid Labbaf Khaneiki (1 December 2016). Qanat Knowledge: Construction and Maintenance. Springer. pp. 28–31. ISBN 978-94-024-0957-4.
  266. ^ a b Raymond W. Miller; Roy Luther Donahue (1 March 1990). Soils: an introduction to soils and plant growth. Prentice Hall. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-13-820226-2.
  267. ^ a b K. Sato; Y. Iwasa (6 December 2012). Groundwater Updates. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 76. ISBN 978-4-431-68442-8.
  268. ^ a b Nof, Shimon Y. (2009). Automation: What It Means to Us Around the World: 13–52. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-78831-7_3.
  269. ^ a b c d Romdhane, Lotfi; Zeghloul, Saïd (2009). AL-JAZARI (1136–1206). 7: 1–21. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2346-9_1. ISSN 1875-3442 .
  270. ^ a b Marco Ceccarelli (1 December 2009). Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science: Their Contributions and Legacies. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 4. ISBN 978-90-481-2346-9.
  271. ^ a b Yates, David R.; Vaessen, Christophe; Roupret, Morgan (2011). From Leonardo to da Vinci: the history of robot-assisted surgery in urology. BJU International. 108 (11): 1708–1713. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10576.x. ISSN 1464-4096.
  272. ^ a b Mavridis, Nikolaos (2015). A review of verbal and non-verbal human–robot interactive communication. Robotics and Autonomous Systems. 63: 22–35. doi:10.1016/j.robot.2014.09.031. ISSN 0921-8890.
  273. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Mark E. Rosheim (11 August 1994). Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 9–11. ISBN 978-0-471-02622-8.
  274. ^ a b Ashok K. Hemal; Mani Menon (6 September 2018). Robotics in Genitourinary Surgery. Springer. p. 12. ISBN 978-3-319-20645-5.
  275. ^ a b Chris Woodford (January 1st, 2019). How toilets work. Explain That Stuff. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 15th, 2019.
  276. ^ a b Mukhtar Ahmed (25 October 2014). Ancient Pakistan - an Archaeological History: Volume III: Harappan Civilization - the Material Culture. Amazon. pp. 307–308. ISBN 978-1-4959-6643-9.
  277. ^ a b Charles Austin (15 June 2015). The Toilet Book: What Goes In Matters. First Edition Design Pub. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-62287-951-9.
  278. ^ a b Saeid Eslamian; Faezeh A. Eslamian (1 September 2017). Handbook of Drought and Water Scarcity: Management of Drought and Water Scarcity. CRC Press. p. 689. ISBN 978-1-351-85113-8.
  279. ^ a b Petri S. Juuti; Tapio Katko; H. Vuorinen (1 February 2007). Environmental History of Water. IWA Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-84339-110-4.
  280. ^ a b c d Andreas N. Angelakis; Joan B. Rose (14 September 2014). Evolution of Sanitation and Wastewater Technologies through the Centuries. IWA Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-78040-484-4.
  281. ^ a b Paul Asbury Seaman (1996). Far Above the Plain: Private Profiles and Admissable Evidence from the First Forty Years of Murree Christian School, Pakistan, 1956-1996. William Carey Library. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-87808-268-1.
  282. ^ a b Kitka Goyol (2018). Pakistan- Empowering communities to end open defecation using participatory community-led approaches. Wash Futures (UNICEF). pg. 1-12. pg. 2. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 15th, 2019.
  283. ^ a b Peter Beaumont (19th March 2018). Life without toilets: the photographer tackling a global taboo. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 15th, 2019.
  284. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Cesare Rossi; Flavio Russo (26 August 2016). Ancient Engineers' Inventions: Precursors of the Present. Springer. p. 364. ISBN 978-3-319-44476-5.
  285. ^ a b Saidel, Benjamin Adam (2000). Matchlocks, Flintlocks, and Saltpetre: The Chronological Implications for the Use of Matchlock Muskets among Ottoman-Period Bedouin in the Southern Levant. International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 4 (3): 191–216. doi:10.1023/A:1009551608190. ISSN 1092-7697.
  286. ^ a b c d Kenneth Chase; Kenneth Warren Chase (7 July 2003). Firearms: A Global History to 1700. Cambridge University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-521-82274-9.
  287. ^ a b c d Robert Elgood (15 November 1995). Firearms of the Islamic World. I.B.Tauris. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-85043-963-9.
  288. ^ a b c d Gábor Ágoston (2014). Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Revolution, 1450-1800. Journal of World History. Vol. 25. No. 1 (March 2014). pp. 85-124 (found on pg. 83). Retrieved February 16th, 2019.
  289. ^ a b Ágoston, Gábor (2011). Military Transformation in the Ottoman Empire and Russia, 1500–1800. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. 12 (2): 281–319. doi:10.1353/kri.2011.0018. ISSN 1538-5000.
  290. ^ a b Abbès Zouache (2014-2015). Western vs. Eastern Way of War in the Late Medieval Near East: An Unsuitable Paradigm: A Review Essay of David Nicolle’s Late Mamlūk Military Equipment*. Mamluk Studio Review. French National Centre for Scientific Research. MIDDLE EAST DOCUMENTATION CENTER (MEDOC) THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. p. 301-325 (found on p. 308). Archive.is Link. Retrieved February 17th, 2019.
  291. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Syed Ramsey (12 May 2016). Tools of War: History of Weapons in Early Modern Times. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 15. ISBN 978-93-86019-82-0.
  292. ^ a b Spencer C. Tucker (23 December 2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East (6 volumes): From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 898. ISBN 978-1-85109-672-5.
  293. ^ a b Robert Elgood (15 November 1995). Firearms of the Islamic World. I.B.Tauris. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-85043-963-9.
  294. ^ a b c d e f Kenneth Chase; Kenneth Warren Chase (7 July 2003). Firearms: A Global History to 1700. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-521-82274-9.
  295. ^ a b Paul E.J. Hammer (15 May 2017). Warfare in Early Modern Europe 1450–1660. Taylor & Francis. p. 511. ISBN 978-1-351-87376-5.
  296. ^ a b Gábor Ágoston (24 March 2005). Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-521-84313-3.
  297. ^ a b Gábor Ágoston (24 March 2005). Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84313-3.
  298. ^ a b c d Donald R. Hill (1991). [http://www.jstor.org/stable/24936907 Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East. Scientific American, Vol. 264, No. 5 (MAY 1991), pp. 100-105. Retrieved February 24th, 2019.
  299. ^ a b Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy and life sciences. CRC Press. p. 786. ISBN 978-0-415-12412-6.
  300. ^ a b Jill Harness (June 8th, 2013). An Illustrated History of the Gas Mask. Mental Floss. Archive.is Link. Retrieved February 24th, 2019.
  301. ^ a b Emily Prokop (15 October 2018). The Story Behind: The Extraordinary History Behind Ordinary Objects. Mango Media Inc. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-63353-829-0.
  302. ^ a b Conrad, Lawrence I. (1982). Taun and Waba Conceptions of Plague and Pestilence in Early Islam. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 25 (3): 268. doi:10.2307/3632188. ISSN 0022-4995.
  303. ^ a b M. J. L. Young (16 May 1990). Religion, Learning and Science in the 'Abbasid Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-521-32763-3.
  304. ^ a b John Freely (30 March 2015). Light from the East: How the Science of Medieval Islam Helped to Shape the Western World. I.B.Tauris. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-78453-138-6.
  305. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l J. R. Partington (1999). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. JHU Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-8018-5954-0.
  306. ^ a b Hans Delbr_ck (1990). The Dawn of Modern Warfare. University of Nebraska Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-8032-6586-7.
  307. ^ a b Finn, A., & Scheding, S. (2010). Developments and Challenges for Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles. Intelligent Systems Reference Library. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10704-7.
  308. ^ a b Andrew W. Sanders (25 May 2017). Drone Swarms. (Abstract Page) p. 8. US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth United States. Archive.is Link. Retrieved February 23rd, 2019.
  309. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Joseph Needham (22 January 1987). Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge University Press. pp. 455–456. ISBN 978-0-521-30358-3.
  310. ^ a b Arri Eisen; Gary Laderman (4 March 2015). Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy. Routledge. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-317-46013-8.
  311. ^ a b Manuel Perez Garcia; Lucio De Sousa (6 December 2017). Global History and New Polycentric Approaches: Europe, Asia and the Americas in a World Network System. Springer. p. 23. ISBN 978-981-10-4053-5.
  312. ^ a b Ho Peng Yoke (13 October 2005). Reminiscence Of A Roving Scholar: Science, Humanities And Joseph Needham. World Scientific. p. 11. ISBN 978-981-4479-94-3.
  313. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ágoston, Gábor (2014). Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Revolution, 1450–1800. Journal of World History. 25 (1): 85–124. doi:10.1353/jwh.2014.0005. ISSN 1527-8050.
  314. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gábor Ágoston (24 March 2005). Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire. pg. 88-89. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84313-3.
  315. ^ a b George Cameron Stone (13 March 2013). A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor: in All Countries and in All Times. Courier Corporation. p. 441. ISBN 978-0-486-13129-0.
  316. ^ a b Roy Porter (17 March 2003). The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 4, Eighteenth-Century Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 685. ISBN 978-0-521-57243-9.
  317. ^ a b c d e f A. Bowdoin Van Riper (29 October 2007). Rockets and Missiles: The Life Story of a Technology. JHU Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8018-8792-5.
  318. ^ a b Estefania Wenger (1 March 2017). Tipu Sultan: A Biography. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 978-93-86367-44-0.
  319. ^ a b Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Jaim, Jasmine (2014). "War Rockets in India": 1–4. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-3934-5_10216-1.
  320. ^ a b Kaveh Yazdani (10 January 2017). India, Modernity and the Great Divergence: Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.). BRILL. p. 252. ISBN 978-90-04-33079-5.
  321. ^ a b c d Anwar Haroon (June 2013). Kingdom of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Xlibris Corporation. p. 298. ISBN 978-1-4836-1534-9.
  322. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Jaim, H M Iftekhar; Jaim, Jasmine (2013). "The Decisive Nature of the Indian War Rocket in the Anglo-Mysore Wars of the Eighteenth Century". Arms & Armour. 8 (2): 131–138. ISSN 1741-6124. doi:10.1179/174962611X13097916223244.
  323. ^ a b Ron Miller (1 September 2007). Satellites. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8225-7154-4.
  324. ^ a b c d Ron Miller (1 August 2007). Rockets. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-58013-688-4.
  325. ^ a b Ray Spangenburg; Diane Kit Moser (2009). Wernher Von Braun, Revised Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-4381-0413-3.
  326. ^ a b T.L. Varghese; V.N. Krishnamurthy (3 January 2017). The Chemistry and Technology of Solid Rocket Propellants (A Treatise on Solid Propellants). Allied Publishers. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-93-85926-33-4.
  327. ^ a b A. Bowdoin Van Riper (29 October 2007). Rockets and Missiles: The Life Story of a Technology. JHU Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8018-8792-5.
  328. ^ a b c d David Nicolle (15 May 1998). Granada 1492: The twilight of Moorish Spain. Bloomsbury USA. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-85532-740-5.
  329. ^ a b Donald B. Wagner (1993). Iron and Steel in Ancient China. BRILL. p. 185. ISBN 90-04-09632-9.
  330. ^ a b Four Minutes Til Sunset. 20th November 2013. North American Sundial Society. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 8th, 2019.
  331. ^ a b W. Scott Morton; Charlton M. Lewis (21 September 2004). China: Its History and Culture. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-07-146526-7.
  332. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p René R.J. Rohr (6 September 2012). Sundials: History, Theory, and Practice. Courier Corporation. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-486-15170-0.
  333. ^ a b Fang Fu Ruan (2013-11-22). Sex in China: Studies in Sexology in Chinese Culture. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4899-0609-0.
  334. ^ a b Jeremy Roberts (1 January 2004). Chinese Mythology A to Z. Infobase Publishing. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-4381-1990-8
  335. ^ a b White, Lynn (1961). Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition. Technology and Culture. 2 (2): 97. doi:10.2307/3101411. ISSN 0040-165X
  336. ^ a b c d ThePiano.SG Staff (January 1st, 2016). History of the Metronome. The Piano SG. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 14th, 2019.
  337. ^ a b Yash Ambre, Christopher Carvalho, Ronald Fernandes (2016-2017). HUMAN VOICE TO MUSICAL NOTES USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 14th, 2019.
  338. ^ a b Lynn Townsend White (1 January 1978). Medieval Religion and Technology: Collected Essays. University of California Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-520-03566-9.
  339. ^ a b John Freely (18 December 2010). Light from the East: How the Science of Medieval Islam helped to shape the Western World. I.B.Tauris. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-85773-101-2.
  340. ^ a b Norman Roth (5 July 2017). Routledge Revivals: Medieval Jewish Civilization (2003): An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 489. ISBN 978-1-351-67698-4.
  341. ^ a b c d e f g h Rechberger, Herman (1 February 2018). Balkania: Rhythms in songs and dances from Albania, Bulgaria, The Republic of Macedonia, Romania and Serbia. Fennica Gehrman Ltd. p. 139. ISBN 978-952-5489-27-9.
  342. ^ a b c d Diana Twede (2005). The Origins of Paper Based Packaging. Michigan State University. Charm. p. 288-300 (found on pg. 289). WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved February 14th, 2019.
  343. ^ a b c d e f Dard Hunter (1978). Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. Courier Corporation. pp. 471–472. ISBN 978-0-486-23619-3.
  344. ^ a b Dard Hunter (1978). Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. Courier Corporation. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-486-23619-3.
  345. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Arnold Pacey (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-262-66072-3.
  346. ^ a b C. Wayne Smith; J. Tom Cothren (30 August 1999). Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. John Wiley & Sons. p. viii. ISBN 978-0-471-18045-6.
  347. ^ a b c d Adamy, J.; Flemming, A. (2004). Soft variable-structure controls: a survey. Automatica. 40 (11): 1821–1844. doi:10.1016/j.automatica.2004.05.017. ISSN 0005-1098
  348. ^ a b Mark Sen Gupta (February 28th, 2019). The Future of Basic Control Innovation . Arc Advisory Group. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 14th, 2019.
  349. ^ a b c d e f Controller Theory CONTROL ACTIONS Two step control action. Marine Engineering. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved March 14th, 2019.

Acknowledgements

Thank you mum for your support and sacrifice. Your help has meant the world to me in more ways you can imagine. At my most darkest moments, you were my light. You have always been my light. I love you. And I always will. Thank you for being there for me, X.—March 22nd, 2019.

External Links

The Islamic Golden Age (c. 750—c. 1258)
List of Inventions, Discoveries and Innovations: Mechanics · Medicine ·