List of Muslim Contributions to Video Gaming

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This is by no means an exhaustive list, and thus should be considered incomplete. Older version here: History of Muslims in the Video-Games Industry (1980—Present)

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

This is a List of Muslim Contributions to Video Gaming, highlighting only the most successful writers, designers, coders and games developers of Muslim origin—and who are, at the very least, cultural Muslims[n. 1] even if they are not at all religious. In the West there are significant populations[n. 2] of Muslims living, working and contributing to society, but who unfortunately also suffer from social problems, such as the recent emergence of racialised[n. 3] Islamophobia and discrimination—unsurprising given the fact that the West has always had a turbulent history[n. 4] when it comes to racial and ethnic conflict, with the worst[n. 5] of it being represented by the events of the Holocaust (1941—1945).[1] Many Muslims in Europe are either recent 20th century immigrants[2] (or their descendents, and who have successfully integrated into the West), or Westerners themselves who have converted[n. 6] to Islam. With the absorption of such a diverse range of cultures, and the increased contact between the East and West,[3] this phenomenon has given birth to a rich culture of video games design (including from those who are half-Muslim[n. 7]); with some individuals proving pivotal to the development of some of the most popular games ever developed. This list includes the likes of Imran Sarwar (the designer of "Grand Theft Auto V" (2013) and "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018)) to the more recent Amir Rao and Waqar Azim. This article documents these particular individuals so that they are remembered throughout history (so that at least this begins to destroy the myth that Muslims "do not integrate", keep to themselves or stay on the margins of society[n. 8][4][5]). Since there are so many of Muslim contributors, this article specifically excludes those who have played minor to medium roles—since they deserve an article of their own.
Nasir Gebelli; one of the most famous Muslim coders in video games history (and one of John Romero's idols).
Nasir Gebelli; one of the most famous Muslim coders in video games history (and one of John Romero's idols).
This is a List of Muslim Contributions to Video Gaming, highlighting only the most successful writers, designers, coders and games developers of Muslim origin—and who are, at the very least, cultural Muslims[n. 9] even if they are not at all religious. In the West there are significant populations[n. 10] of Muslims living, working and contributing to society, but who unfortunately also suffer from social problems, such as the recent emergence of racialised[n. 11] Islamophobia and discrimination—unsurprising given the fact that the West has always had a turbulent history[n. 12] when it comes to racial and ethnic conflict, with the worst[n. 13] of it being represented by the events of the Holocaust (1941—1945).[1] Many Muslims in Europe are either recent 20th century immigrants[2] (or their descendents, and who have successfully integrated into the West), or Westerners themselves who have converted[n. 14] to Islam. With the absorption of such a diverse range of cultures, and the increased contact between the East and West,[3] this phenomenon has given birth to a rich culture of video games design (including from those who are half-Muslim[n. 15]); with some individuals proving pivotal to the development of some of the most popular games ever developed. This list includes the likes of Imran Sarwar (the designer of "Grand Theft Auto V" (2013) and "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018)) to the more recent Amir Rao and Waqar Azim. This article documents these particular individuals so that they are remembered throughout history (so that at least this begins to destroy the myth that Muslims "do not integrate", keep to themselves or stay on the margins of society[n. 16][4][5]). Since there are so many of Muslim contributors, this article specifically excludes those who have played minor to medium roles—since they deserve an article of their own.

Working Title: List of Muslim Programmers, Story Creators & Character Designers in Video Gaming | Original Publisher: Materia Islamica | Publication Date: September 24th, 2021 | Written by: Canadian786 | Artricle No. 99
See alsoSources • (FootnotesReferencesAcknowledgements) • External Links

Definition

Aga Khan University, Karachi.
Akdn-uk-fma-agaedmund-sumner-0005 28177494727.jpg
Aga Khan University, London.
What is a Muslim?—This question is best answered by what Islamic law says; as it is not determined by the specific level of religiosity of a person; accordingly this has been summarised by Gianluca P. Parolin, the Associate Professor of law[6] at the Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations (Est. 2002, London, UK; ISMC[7]); of the Aga Khan University (Est. 1983, Karachi, Pakistan; AKU[8]), a non-denominational [non-sectarian], "autonomous not-for-profit university".[8]
Quote: "A Muslim is a Muslim by birth or by conversion. Islam presents itself as the natural religion of mankind, and some Koranic verses support such a view (Q. 30:30-32), underpinned by traditions (hadiths) relating to Muhammad's words, 'No child is born but upon the "natural religion (fitrah)". It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a polytheist'. Such a natural inclination to worship the one God is an inherent disposition that leads men to a pure monotheism (hanifiyah) epitomised by Islam".[9]
Quote: "Every child of a Muslim man is a Muslim according to Islamic law; here a well-established rule is borrowed from Jewish law, which, however applies it to the woman...The combination of the Jewish and the Islamic rule may give rise to a positive conflict...; in the case of the offspring of a Muslim man and a Jewish woman, indeed, the child is a Muslim under Islamic law and a Jew under Jewish law. A Muslim woman is obliged to marry a Muslim man and therefore can only give birth to a Muslim child".[9]
The AKU was first established by the 49th Imam of the Nizari Ismailis (a branch of the Shi'i), Aga Khan IV (1936—Present[10]) and was given chartered status as a university in 1983 by the Government of Pakistan.[8] It's influence is immense; having an annual economic impact of over $1 billion dollars in Pakistan alone (and also provides 42,000 jobs throughout country).[11][12] The AKF is a part of the Aga Khan Foundation (Est. 1967,[13] Geneva, Switzerland;[14][15] AKF[16]).
  • The current Aga Khan, Khan IV, is also a Harvard University alumni; having graduated with a Bachelor's Degree in Islamic History in 1959.[15]
Also, there are people who consider "Muslimness" not be limited by the definition above, but prefer to either call themselves Culturally Muslim, Half-Muslim, Agnostic Muslim or even Atheist Muslim.[n. 17][n. 18] There is no basis for this idea in Islam theologically but it greatly depends on how one sees their identity.
  • e.g. in South Asia it is not uncommon for people of interfaith marriages to call themselves half-Muslim since religion plays a larger role in the identity of people over there, rather than race or ethnicity as is common in elsewhere in the world (e.g. Balkan Muslims classify their ethnicity as Muslim.[17][n. 19][18]).
Aga Khan University, Karachi.
Akdn-uk-fma-agaedmund-sumner-0005 28177494727.jpg
Aga Khan University, London.

What is a Muslim?—This question is best answered by what Islamic law says; as it is not determined by the specific level of religiosity of a person; accordingly this has been summarised by Gianluca P. Parolin, the Associate Professor of law[6] at the Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations (Est. 2002, London, UK; ISMC[7]); of the Aga Khan University (Est. 1983, Karachi, Pakistan; AKU[8]), a non-denominational [non-sectarian], "autonomous not-for-profit university".[8]

Quote: "A Muslim is a Muslim by birth or by conversion. Islam presents itself as the natural religion of mankind, and some Koranic verses support such a view (Q. 30:30-32), underpinned by traditions (hadiths) relating to Muhammad's words, 'No child is born but upon the "natural religion (fitrah)". It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a polytheist'. Such a natural inclination to worship the one God is an inherent disposition that leads men to a pure monotheism (hanifiyah) epitomised by Islam".[9]

Quote: "Every child of a Muslim man is a Muslim according to Islamic law; here a well-established rule is borrowed from Jewish law, which, however applies it to the woman...The combination of the Jewish and the Islamic rule may give rise to a positive conflict...; in the case of the offspring of a Muslim man and a Jewish woman, indeed, the child is a Muslim under Islamic law and a Jew under Jewish law. A Muslim woman is obliged to marry a Muslim man and therefore can only give birth to a Muslim child".[9]

The AKU was first established by the 49th Imam of the Nizari Ismailis (a branch of the Shi'i), Aga Khan IV (1936—Present[10]) and was given chartered status as a university in 1983 by the Government of Pakistan.[8] It's influence is immense; having an annual economic impact of over $1 billion dollars in Pakistan alone (and also provides 42,000 jobs throughout country).[11][12] The AKF is a part of the Aga Khan Foundation (Est. 1967,[13] Geneva, Switzerland;[14][15] AKF[16]).

  • The current Aga Khan, Khan IV, is also a Harvard University alumni; having graduated with a Bachelor's Degree in Islamic History in 1959.[15]

Also, there are people who consider "Muslimness" not be limited by the definition above, but prefer to either call themselves Culturally Muslim, Half-Muslim, Agnostic Muslim or even Atheist Muslim.[n. 20][n. 21] There is no basis for this idea in Islam theologically but it greatly depends on how one sees their identity.

  • e.g. in South Asia it is not uncommon for people of interfaith marriages to call themselves half-Muslim since religion plays a larger role in the identity of people over there, rather than race or ethnicity as is common in elsewhere in the world (e.g. Balkan Muslims classify their ethnicity as Muslim.[17][n. 22][18]).

(Sirius Software; Gebelli Software & SquareSoft) Nasir Gebelli (1980—1993)

"Secret of Mana" (1993). US cover art for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) game. This was the first game in history to introduce competitive multiplayer.
  • Nasir Gebelli (1957[19][20]—Present) is a former video games design pioneer active between 1980 and 1993, and most well known for his work on the "Final Fantasy" series. By the end of his career he had become something of a legend in the industry. However prior to his rapid rise, Gebelli initially started out as a humble computer science undergraduate studying at the University of California, Davis, and it is here where his story truly begins.[21]
    • Gebelli wasn't a very good student; in fact he consistently received bad grades throughout college. This, curiously, would go on to change his career direction, because it was during this time that he first began writing computer games for fun as a stress reliever.[22] This new hobby would lead him to lasting fame amongst designers (so much so that historians would name him as the "father of the computer games industry").
    • Gebelli's first professional breakthrough came when he began working for Sirius Software[n. 23] (1980—1983). The company was founded by Jerry Jewell (19??—Present), Terry Bradley (19??—Present) and Gebelli himself; largely "founded on the games of [the latter who programmed them]".[23] It was mostly down to Nasir that the company became as successful as it did; with historians remarking that it was Nasir who "helped propel the company's profits into the millions".[20] In just 2.5 years the company had accumulated $4 million dollars in sales revenue.[19][20]
      • Sirius Software itself was formed out of a chance meeting between Gebelli and Jewell, and was entirely unique for the circumstances of the culture of the era; in the 1980s having personal computers was considered odd since they weren't very useful.[24] Most people who had them either used them to "hack tools or make tools...or games".[24] Hackers would then go to computer stores to show off their hacks.[24]
        • This was what Gebelli had done with Jewell, and where the latter first took an interest in him.[24] One of the hack's Gebelli had developed was made into a sellable programme called "E-Z Draw" which found great success amongst the Apple II (1977—1993) audience.[24]
      • One of the most interesting aspects of Gebelli's place in computing history is that he was directly competing with companies that were later to become colossal juggernauts; Microsoft was one such company. By 1983, Gebelli's prolific talent had earned Sirius $11 million dollars in revenue, propelling the business to become the 15th most successful software company in the world.[25]
        • Microsoft ranked 2nd place with revenues of $55 million dollars.[25] Today Microsoft makes a staggering $143 billion dollars per year.[26]
    • Tragically, Gebelli left Sirius Software after having a disagreement with the other founders, and chose instead to found his own company called Gebelli Software in 1982.[19][20] By 1984 Gebelli achieved widespread recognition in the games industry; people credited him as the potent "driving force in the Apple game software arena",[27] However, it wasn't all smooth sailing; a sudden shock in the form of the Video Game Market Crash (1983) forced Gebelli Software, like Sirius (along with many others) to completely collapse into bankruptcy.
      • The impact of this is most evident from public records which show Gebelli struggled to attain the income that he had previously made at Sirius, with his company only being valued at $201,000 to $500,000 dollars.[28] Market capacity had shrunk from a high of $2 billion dollars to a shocking low of $0.06 billion dollars[29] (meaning that 97% of the income in the games industry was lost within the space of a single year[29]), understandably this forced Gebelli to go on hiatus until 1986 (in between he had taken up another hobby; world travel).
    • By this specific time Gebelli had already written the codes for a number of extraordinatily successful games for the Apple II computer, single-handedly programming games such as "Both Barrels" (1980), "Star Cruiser" (1980), "Phantom Five" (1980), "Cyber Strike" (1980), "Gorgon" (1981), "Space Eggs" (1981), "Pulsar II" (1981), "Auto Bahn" (1981), "Horizon V" (1981), "Firebird" (1981), "Russki Duck" (1982), "Zenith" (1982), and "Neptune" (1982), "ScubaVenture" (1983) and "Mouser" (1983). As a result of this work he caught the eye of a certain Japanese games company; this was SquareSoft (now known more familiarly as Square Enix). This is the company that would develop the "Final Fantasy" franchise.
Japanese Cover art for "Final Fantasy III" (1990). The game was only ever released in Japan when it came out; not being released outside of Japan until 2006 for Nintendo DS and PSP. The first three "Final Fantasy" games were constructed through Gebelli's code. The series is still going strong, with the fifteenth instalment ("Final Fantasy XVI") set for global release sometime in 2021.
  • In 1986, Gebelli was ready to get back into games design; according to an interview conducted by "1up.com"—a now defunct games news site—Sakaguchi said the president of Square directly sought him out to hire him; saying "[t]he core FF project team was completed when Square's president [Masafumi Miyamoto] hired Nasir Gebelli, an Iranian-American programmer who had achieved computer-nerd fame in the early '80s with the 3D shooters and other games he created for the Apple II computer. "I was a huge fan of his," Sakaguchi said. "When the president bought him into the company, I was all 'Wow, it's Nasir, let me have your autograph!'".[30] Thus began Gebelli's career in Japan, which would lead him to even greater success and fame.
    • Interestingly, according to an interview conducted in 2011 by Gamasutra, Takashi Tokita (19??—Present[n. 24]), games designer and producer of Square Enix, implied that it was Hironobu Sakaguchi (1962—Present[31][32]), who was a fan of Gebelli's work, who actually sought him out and recruited him to work for the Japanese firm.[33] Gebelli was also hired at the same time as Shinichiro Kajitani (1960—Present[34]).[35] However according to Gebelli, Masafumi Miyamoto was the one who also introduced him to the game developers at Square.[36] This is also backed up by another games creator from Square who also worked with him, Hiromichi Tanaka (1962—Present). Recalling back to this time, Tanaka explains;
      • "The owner of Square at that time was Mr. [Masafumi] Miyamoto, and at a gathering for this game creators’ association called SST (Super Software Team) at CES, a tech industry event outside Japan, he met a programmer named Nasir Gebelli who made Apple II games by himself. They talked together about all these incredible dreams they had and immediately hit it off. Mr. [Hironobu] Sakaguchi, myself and other people in the company were Apple II users, so we were familiar with him and even had some of his software. He was known for putting together really high-quality programs, so it was kind of an, “Ah!! Yeah yeah, that guy!” moment. [laughs] Through that Nasir came to join us. Together, we first made The 3-D Battles of WorldRunner, then our second work was Rad Racer. FFI was the project we started once we had decided to really put together a serious game using this new programmer".[37]
    • The first "Final Fantasy" game saw tremendous success, selling 400,000 copies in Japan; and eventually generated total global lifetime sales of at least 2 million copies (as of 2011).[30] The second sold 1.08 million copies in Japan,[38] with total global sales amounting to 1.28 million.[38] The third instalment sold 1.40 million copies in Japan,[38] with total global lifetime sales—including those of remakes and re-releases[n. 25]—of 3.48 million copies. The trilogy's success in Japan provided the launchpad for it's continuation, spawning a franchise that is still running today; as of 2020 the franchise has sold 144 million copies globally (generating staggering revenues in excess of $11.7 billion dollars).[39]
      • In total, Gebelli had single-handedly programmed "Tobidase Daisakusen / 3-D WorldRunner" (1987), "Highway Star / Rad Racer" (1987), "JJ: Tobidase Daisakusen II" (1987), and "Rad Racer II" (1990), in addition to "Final Fantasy" (1987), "Final Fantasy II" (1988), "Final Fantasy III" (1990) and "Secret of Mana" (1993).[19][20] Thereafter Gebelli retired from the industry and gradually withdrew from public life and settled down.
Nasir Gebelli (b. 1957) and John Romero (b. 1967) in 1998. This was the first and only ever interview Gebelli gave until his second with Romero in 2017. Romero was greatly influenced by Gebelli, and has called him his personal "programming God".
  • However, Gebelli's lasting and most significant influence would be on another games designer; John Romero (1967—Present[40]), the founder of id Software, and creator of the hugely influential games series' themselves "Commander Keen" (1990—1991[41][42]), "Wolfenstein 3D" (1992[43][44]), "Doom" (1993—1997[n. 26]) and "Quake" (1996[45][46]); the latter would go on inspire the creation of "Half-Life" (1998—2020[n. 27]) and "Counter-Strike" (1999[47]—2014[n. 28]); subsequently making Valve (owners of the Steam market[48]) famous.[49][n. 29] Romero is known as a "rock-star among game developers".[40] Bethesda Softworks would later purchase id and subsequently remake "Wolfenstein" (2014) and "Doom" (2020).
    • In the book "Honoring the Code: Conversations with Great Game Designers" (2013), author Matt Barton interviewed Romero who was asked "who inspires him the most"; he replied "Nasir Gebelli is my favourite. He's my number one programming god, my idol. He's awesome".[50]
    • It is particularly notable that Romero himself is the only person to have ever interviewed Gebelli.[19] Even though news media have alluded that he may have given interviews outside of the ones he has given to Romero (e.g. Gamasutra stated that since retiring in 1993 "he's rarely done interviews about his work in games"), there appears to be no such evidence of this; indeed Romero seems to be the only one.[19]
      • The 1998 interview has been published in word form in the history book "The Untold History of Japanese Game Developers Volume 3" (2018) by John Szczepaniak (19??—Present).[20] Romero posted a copy of Gebelli's entry on his Twitter account, where he shows it appears on pages 208, 209 and 210 (there is currently no preview available past page 209 online but from the image the interview continues past this).[19]
      • Gebelli's last public interview was conducted in November 2017, in a podcast called the "Apple Time Warp Podcast" (2013—2020[51]) hosted by John Romero and Craig Johnston (19??—Present).[51] Gebelli's last public appearance before this was back in 1998 (again, having been interviewed by Romero); almost a staggering 20 years before he would ever be interviewed again; a fact not lost by the games news media site Gamasutra, who commented that the Apple podcast presented "an impossibly rare interview" opportunity.[52]
    • The historian and games designer Brenda Brathwaite (1966—Present; also known as Brenda L. Romero), author of "Breaking into the Game Industry: Advice for a Successful Career from Those Who Have Done It" (2011), and wife of John Romero, goes as far as labelling him as the "Father of the Computer Games Industry".[53]

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

"Secret of Mana" (1993). US cover art for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) game. This was the first game in history to introduce competitive multiplayer.
  • Nasir Gebelli (1957[19][20]—Present) is a former video games design pioneer active between 1980 and 1993, and most well known for his work on the "Final Fantasy" series. By the end of his career he had become something of a legend in the industry. However prior to his rapid rise, Gebelli initially started out as a humble computer science undergraduate studying at the University of California, Davis, and it is here where his story truly begins.[21]
    • Gebelli wasn't a very good student; in fact he consistently received bad grades throughout college. This, curiously, would go on to change his career direction, because it was during this time that he first began writing computer games for fun as a stress reliever.[22] This new hobby would lead him to lasting fame amongst designers (so much so that historians would name him as the "father of the computer games industry").
    • Gebelli's first professional breakthrough came when he began working for Sirius Software[n. 30] (1980—1983). The company was founded by Jerry Jewell (19??—Present), Terry Bradley (19??—Present) and Gebelli himself; largely "founded on the games of [the latter who programmed them]".[23] It was mostly down to Nasir that the company became as successful as it did; with historians remarking that it was Nasir who "helped propel the company's profits into the millions".[20] In just 2.5 years the company had accumulated $4 million dollars in sales revenue.[19][20]
      • Sirius Software itself was formed out of a chance meeting between Gebelli and Jewell, and was entirely unique for the circumstances of the culture of the era; in the 1980s having personal computers was considered odd since they weren't very useful.[24] Most people who had them either used them to "hack tools or make tools...or games".[24] Hackers would then go to computer stores to show off their hacks.[24]
        • This was what Gebelli had done with Jewell, and where the latter first took an interest in him.[24] One of the hack's Gebelli had developed was made into a sellable programme called "E-Z Draw" which found great success amongst the Apple II (1977—1993) audience.[24]
      • One of the most interesting aspects of Gebelli's place in computing history is that he was directly competing with companies that were later to become colossal juggernauts; Microsoft was one such company. By 1983, Gebelli's prolific talent had earned Sirius $11 million dollars in revenue, propelling the business to become the 15th most successful software company in the world.[25]
        • Microsoft ranked 2nd place with revenues of $55 million dollars.[25] Today Microsoft makes a staggering $143 billion dollars per year.[26]
    • Tragically, Gebelli left Sirius Software after having a disagreement with the other founders, and chose instead to found his own company called Gebelli Software in 1982.[19][20] By 1984 Gebelli achieved widespread recognition in the games industry; people credited him as the potent "driving force in the Apple game software arena",[27] However, it wasn't all smooth sailing; a sudden shock in the form of the Video Game Market Crash (1983) forced Gebelli Software, like Sirius (along with many others) to completely collapse into bankruptcy.
      • The impact of this is most evident from public records which show Gebelli struggled to attain the income that he had previously made at Sirius, with his company only being valued at $201,000 to $500,000 dollars.[28] Market capacity had shrunk from a high of $2 billion dollars to a shocking low of $0.06 billion dollars[29] (meaning that 97% of the income in the games industry was lost within the space of a single year[29]), understandably this forced Gebelli to go on hiatus until 1986 (in between he had taken up another hobby; world travel).
    • By this specific time Gebelli had already written the codes for a number of extraordinatily successful games for the Apple II computer, single-handedly programming games such as "Both Barrels" (1980), "Star Cruiser" (1980), "Phantom Five" (1980), "Cyber Strike" (1980), "Gorgon" (1981), "Space Eggs" (1981), "Pulsar II" (1981), "Auto Bahn" (1981), "Horizon V" (1981), "Firebird" (1981), "Russki Duck" (1982), "Zenith" (1982), and "Neptune" (1982), "ScubaVenture" (1983) and "Mouser" (1983). As a result of this work he caught the eye of a certain Japanese games company; this was SquareSoft (now known more familiarly as Square Enix). This is the company that would develop the "Final Fantasy" franchise.
Japanese Cover art for "Final Fantasy III" (1990). The game was only ever released in Japan when it came out; not being released outside of Japan until 2006 for Nintendo DS and PSP. The first three "Final Fantasy" games were constructed through Gebelli's code. The series is still going strong, with the fifteenth instalment ("Final Fantasy XVI") set for global release sometime in 2021.
  • In 1986, Gebelli was ready to get back into games design; according to an interview conducted by "1up.com"—a now defunct games news site—Sakaguchi said the president of Square directly sought him out to hire him; saying "[t]he core FF project team was completed when Square's president [Masafumi Miyamoto] hired Nasir Gebelli, an Iranian-American programmer who had achieved computer-nerd fame in the early '80s with the 3D shooters and other games he created for the Apple II computer. "I was a huge fan of his," Sakaguchi said. "When the president bought him into the company, I was all 'Wow, it's Nasir, let me have your autograph!'".[30] Thus began Gebelli's career in Japan, which would lead him to even greater success and fame.
    • Interestingly, according to an interview conducted in 2011 by Gamasutra, Takashi Tokita (19??—Present[n. 31]), games designer and producer of Square Enix, implied that it was Hironobu Sakaguchi (1962—Present[31][32]), who was a fan of Gebelli's work, who actually sought him out and recruited him to work for the Japanese firm.[33] Gebelli was also hired at the same time as Shinichiro Kajitani (1960—Present[34]).[35] However according to Gebelli, Masafumi Miyamoto was the one who also introduced him to the game developers at Square.[36] This is also backed up by another games creator from Square who also worked with him, Hiromichi Tanaka (1962—Present). Recalling back to this time, Tanaka explains;
      • "The owner of Square at that time was Mr. [Masafumi] Miyamoto, and at a gathering for this game creators’ association called SST (Super Software Team) at CES, a tech industry event outside Japan, he met a programmer named Nasir Gebelli who made Apple II games by himself. They talked together about all these incredible dreams they had and immediately hit it off. Mr. [Hironobu] Sakaguchi, myself and other people in the company were Apple II users, so we were familiar with him and even had some of his software. He was known for putting together really high-quality programs, so it was kind of an, “Ah!! Yeah yeah, that guy!” moment. [laughs] Through that Nasir came to join us. Together, we first made The 3-D Battles of WorldRunner, then our second work was Rad Racer. FFI was the project we started once we had decided to really put together a serious game using this new programmer".[37]
    • The first "Final Fantasy" game saw tremendous success, selling 400,000 copies in Japan; and eventually generated total global lifetime sales of at least 2 million copies (as of 2011).[30] The second sold 1.08 million copies in Japan,[38] with total global sales amounting to 1.28 million.[38] The third instalment sold 1.40 million copies in Japan,[38] with total global lifetime sales—including those of remakes and re-releases[n. 32]—of 3.48 million copies. The trilogy's success in Japan provided the launchpad for it's continuation, spawning a franchise that is still running today; as of 2020 the franchise has sold 144 million copies globally (generating staggering revenues in excess of $11.7 billion dollars).[39]
      • In total, Gebelli had single-handedly programmed "Tobidase Daisakusen / 3-D WorldRunner" (1987), "Highway Star / Rad Racer" (1987), "JJ: Tobidase Daisakusen II" (1987), and "Rad Racer II" (1990), in addition to "Final Fantasy" (1987), "Final Fantasy II" (1988), "Final Fantasy III" (1990) and "Secret of Mana" (1993).[19][20] Thereafter Gebelli retired from the industry and gradually withdrew from public life and settled down.
Nasir Gebelli (b. 1957) and John Romero (b. 1967) in 1998. This was the first and only ever interview Gebelli gave until his second with Romero in 2017. Romero was greatly influenced by Gebelli, and has called him his personal "programming God".
  • However, Gebelli's lasting and most significant influence would be on another games designer; John Romero (1967—Present[40]), the founder of id Software, and creator of the hugely influential games series' themselves "Commander Keen" (1990—1991[41][42]), "Wolfenstein 3D" (1992[43][44]), "Doom" (1993—1997[n. 33]) and "Quake" (1996[45][46]); the latter would go on inspire the creation of "Half-Life" (1998—2020[n. 34]) and "Counter-Strike" (1999[47]—2014[n. 35]); subsequently making Valve (owners of the Steam market[48]) famous.[49][n. 36] Romero is known as a "rock-star among game developers".[40] Bethesda Softworks would later purchase id and subsequently remake "Wolfenstein" (2014) and "Doom" (2020).
    • In the book "Honoring the Code: Conversations with Great Game Designers" (2013), author Matt Barton interviewed Romero who was asked "who inspires him the most"; he replied "Nasir Gebelli is my favourite. He's my number one programming god, my idol. He's awesome".[50]
    • It is particularly notable that Romero himself is the only person to have ever interviewed Gebelli.[19] Even though news media have alluded that he may have given interviews outside of the ones he has given to Romero (e.g. Gamasutra stated that since retiring in 1993 "he's rarely done interviews about his work in games"), there appears to be no such evidence of this; indeed Romero seems to be the only one.[19]
      • The 1998 interview has been published in word form in the history book "The Untold History of Japanese Game Developers Volume 3" (2018) by John Szczepaniak (19??—Present).[20] Romero posted a copy of Gebelli's entry on his Twitter account, where he shows it appears on pages 208, 209 and 210 (there is currently no preview available past page 209 online but from the image the interview continues past this).[19]
      • Gebelli's last public interview was conducted in November 2017, in a podcast called the "Apple Time Warp Podcast" (2013—2020[51]) hosted by John Romero and Craig Johnston (19??—Present).[51] Gebelli's last public appearance before this was back in 1998 (again, having been interviewed by Romero); almost a staggering 20 years before he would ever be interviewed again; a fact not lost by the games news media site Gamasutra, who commented that the Apple podcast presented "an impossibly rare interview" opportunity.[52]
    • The historian and games designer Brenda Brathwaite (1966—Present; also known as Brenda L. Romero), author of "Breaking into the Game Industry: Advice for a Successful Career from Those Who Have Done It" (2011), and wife of John Romero, goes as far as labelling him as the "Father of the Computer Games Industry".[53]

(Vivid Image & Sobee Interactive) Mevlut Dinc (1985—2013)

"The First Samurai" (1991).
A hand drawn map of the "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Level 1 map (called "Central Park"). It was one Dinc's most critically well-received games.
"Street Racer" (1994). Dinc worked with Ubisoft in the 1990s.
  • Mevlut Dinc (1957—Present), also stylised as "Mevlüt Dinç", is a computer games designer and pioneer who has been active since the 1980s, and is still very much involved in the games industry to this day. Dinc's story consists of two phases, one of that in England and the other in his native Turkey.[54]
    • His entry into the games industry happened during the first phase of his life, when he began working in Southamption, for the Standard Telephones and Cables company. In 1979, after completing his university degree, he packed his bags and migrated over to England.[54] However he was "very unhappy" there; until one day his friend (Vino Dos Santos) told him about the ZX Spectrum (1982—1992[55][56]); hoping this would go in some way to help distract him.[54] Dinc purchased a 48 KB model and weeks later began tinkering around with it.[54]
      • He did not specialise in computer games design, and nor did his work involve much of it at all.[54] But now with armed with Spectrum he would decide to learn about the machine, and thus begin his foray in video-games design. He would go on to subsequently earn himself critical acclaim from reviewers and audiences alike.[54] By the end of 2000 he would leave for Turkey with the intent to build up the games industry there.[54]
    • Dinc was an entirely self-taught programmer, all the more difficult considering that "there was very little in the way of resources" during the early 1980s, the internet not having existed during this time and the manual being extremely confusing for him.[54] Recalling the difficulty, he stated "So, to cut a long story short, it took me two years to learn how to program in machine code, all just from books and magazines. Popular Computing Weekly [1982—1990] was my biggest source of inspiration and information" (copies of the magazine can be viewed on the WayBackMachine.).[54]
  • Similar to what Gebelli had done, Dinc experimented with creating programs (which he called "demos"), taking them to computer fairs to show off his work. One of these programs was "Gerry the Germ" (1985), who's premise was that of an "anti-hero whose mission was to destroy a human body". His work was instantly rejected by the majority of publishers who found it offensive ("Mirrorsoft, for example, turned it down immediately, saying they considered the premise to be in very bad taste"); all except Tony Rainbird of Telecomsoft. The game divided critics with it receiving an aggregate score of 51.4%.[n. 37][57] This did not deter Dinc however, as he went on to develop more games, gradually furthering his success.
    • He promptly began on the development of his second game; "Prodigy" (1986), but this time to critical acclaim. It received an aggregate score of 76.8%.[n. 38][58] Interestingly however, Dinc was personally dissatisfied with it, noting he'd made the gameplay "very tough", but recalled that he'd "learnt a lot from my first two games about having a good balance between playability and difficulty".[54] He recalled his days as a games designer were "very exciting and tiring at the same time. It was hard, but very enjoyable; trying to create something out of nothing on a computer was just so fascinating to me. I always felt very fortunate!".[54] Although varying from project to project, it took Dinc on average 8 months to create a game.[54]
    • His next set of games was where he began developing games for a larger studio, that of Activision (now more well known for it's "Call of Duty" franchise) to develop two major film licenses; the first being "Big Trouble in Little China" (1986) and "Aliens" (1986). Unlike his previous games, these were developed with a proper management team, and were also simultaneously developed by Dinc. However, an important distinction must be made; he didn't actually design the game first game—only programmed it—but for the second was actively involved in its core design.
      • The pressure of making both was so intense that both Dinc and his colleagues wouldn't even bother going home, instead they "just [slept] there on the floor...all very tired but also very determined" to complete them in time for their deadlines. The first of these two games were not released to great critical acclaim, in fact it received generally negative reviews (aggregating a score of 58.6%[n. 39][59][60]) however his second game received critical acclaim when it was released on Christmas 1986 with an aggregate score of 77.2%.[n. 40][61] Interestingly, looking back on his games career, Dinc stated he would never, in retrospect, have coded "Big Trouble in Little China" (however he doesn't state why).[54]
  • The next few years would see Dinc's career peak. He developed a number of games to great fanfare, and some with almost near universal critical acclaim. Chronologically listed, he created and developed "Enduro Racer" (1986; 87.6%[n. 41]),[62][60] "High Frontier" (1987; 73.7%[n. 42]),[60] "Xarq" (1987; 71.3%[n. 43]),[60] "Knightmare" (1987; 83.3%[n. 44]),[63] "Super Hang-On" (1987; 88.0%[n. 45]),[64][65][60] "Last Ninja 2" (1988; 85.5%[n. 46]),[66][62][60] "Hammerfist" (1990; 89.8%[n. 47]),[67][68][69][62] "Last Ninja Remix" (1990; 70%[n. 48])),[70] and "Time Machine" (1990; 85.9%[n. 49]),[71][72]
    • In his twilight years, he moved over to developing games for the SNES, with some notable titles being "The First Samurai" (1991; 91.0%[n. 50]),[73][62] "Second Samurai" (1993; 86.1%[n. 51]),[74] "Street Racer" (1994; 66.0%[n. 52]),[62][75] and "S.C.A.R.S." (1998; unknown).[62][76]
    • Incidentally, of Dinc's most favourite games he recalls "I'm pleased with most of my work and achievements, but if I had to name particular games, I guess Enduro Racer, The Last Ninja 2, First Samurai and Street Racer would be my favourites".[54]
  • Innovations: During his career in designing games, he introduced and achieved several feats and innovations never seen before. During the creation of "Prodigy" (1986) for instance, Dinc was the first to invent the isometric 3D scrolling game.[54] He also created the world's first four-player simultaneous gameplay when he released "Street Racer" (1994).[54] These innovations were driven by a motivation to make his games unique, with Dinc explaining that "I think all the games I was involved with were very challenging...particularly as most of them were original titles...I always wanted every game to be better than the last one, so I always tried to do something unique and include one or two features which were firsts.".[54]
  • As has been stated above, Dinc went back to Turkey at the end of 2000, and single-handedly set the seeds for the growth of the Turkish games industry. By this time Dinc had over 21 years of work experience in developing a range of successful games, from different genres for various platforms during his time in England.[77] He set up "Dinc Interactive" studios, later renamed to "Sobee Interactive" in 2001.[77] In 2009, Dinc sold off Sobee Interactive and is now semi-retired.[78][n. 53]
    • At his time with the studio he developed a lot of well received games, which included "Dual Blades" (2002), "Football Manager" (2003), "Magic Billiards" (2004), "Istanbul Apocalypse Time" (2006), "Nightmare 22" (2006), "Citroen C4 Robot" (2008) and "I Can Football" (2009). Even though he had sold off his company, he still stayed on as CEO, developing "SuperCan" (2011) and "SuperCan 2" (2012).[79] It wasn't until 2013 that he formally left the company for good.[77]
  • Dinc cemented his place in Turkish video games history by developing many successful games. Besides producing it's first ever international games release with "Dual Blades" (2002), he also gave Turkey it's first massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) game with "Istanbul Apocalypse Time" (2006)—it was so popular that it had 700,000 registered users and was still active 9 years after its creation.[79] "SuperCan" (2011) was an even greater success with 2 million players.[79]
    • Dinc kept to his philosophy of making his games innovative and unique (this time in Turkey); he developed the world's first 11 vs. 11 online football game with "I Can Football" (2009).
"Dual Blades" (2002) was Turkey's first internationally released game, designed for Nintendo's Game Boy Advance (2001—2010[80]). It was written entirely by first-time Turkish university students for Sobee.
"SuperCan" (2011) featured Turkey's first child hero. The game was so popular that it also included a crossover with the characters of the Marvel cinematic universe. The game was extremely popular with over 2 million players; a sequel was made in 2012.

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

"The First Samurai" (1991).
A hand drawn map of the "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Level 1 map (called "Central Park"). It was one Dinc's most critically well-received games.
"Street Racer" (1994). Dinc worked with Ubisoft in the 1990s.
  • Mevlut Dinc (1957—Present), also stylised as "Mevlüt Dinç", is a computer games designer and pioneer who has been active since the 1980s, and is still very much involved in the games industry to this day. Dinc's story consists of two phases, one of that in England and the other in his native Turkey.[54]
    • His entry into the games industry happened during the first phase of his life, when he began working in Southamption, for the Standard Telephones and Cables company. In 1979, after completing his university degree, he packed his bags and migrated over to England.[54] However he was "very unhappy" there; until one day his friend (Vino Dos Santos) told him about the ZX Spectrum (1982—1992[55][56]); hoping this would go in some way to help distract him.[54] Dinc purchased a 48 KB model and weeks later began tinkering around with it.[54]
      • He did not specialise in computer games design, and nor did his work involve much of it at all.[54] But now with armed with Spectrum he would decide to learn about the machine, and thus begin his foray in video-games design. He would go on to subsequently earn himself critical acclaim from reviewers and audiences alike.[54] By the end of 2000 he would leave for Turkey with the intent to build up the games industry there.[54]
    • Dinc was an entirely self-taught programmer, all the more difficult considering that "there was very little in the way of resources" during the early 1980s, the internet not having existed during this time and the manual being extremely confusing for him.[54] Recalling the difficulty, he stated "So, to cut a long story short, it took me two years to learn how to program in machine code, all just from books and magazines. Popular Computing Weekly [1982—1990] was my biggest source of inspiration and information" (copies of the magazine can be viewed on the WayBackMachine.).[54]
  • Similar to what Gebelli had done, Dinc experimented with creating programs (which he called "demos"), taking them to computer fairs to show off his work. One of these programs was "Gerry the Germ" (1985), who's premise was that of an "anti-hero whose mission was to destroy a human body". His work was instantly rejected by the majority of publishers who found it offensive ("Mirrorsoft, for example, turned it down immediately, saying they considered the premise to be in very bad taste"); all except Tony Rainbird of Telecomsoft. The game divided critics with it receiving an aggregate score of 51.4%.[n. 54][57] This did not deter Dinc however, as he went on to develop more games, gradually furthering his success.
    • He promptly began on the development of his second game; "Prodigy" (1986), but this time to critical acclaim. It received an aggregate score of 76.8%.[n. 55][58] Interestingly however, Dinc was personally dissatisfied with it, noting he'd made the gameplay "very tough", but recalled that he'd "learnt a lot from my first two games about having a good balance between playability and difficulty".[54] He recalled his days as a games designer were "very exciting and tiring at the same time. It was hard, but very enjoyable; trying to create something out of nothing on a computer was just so fascinating to me. I always felt very fortunate!".[54] Although varying from project to project, it took Dinc on average 8 months to create a game.[54]
    • His next set of games was where he began developing games for a larger studio, that of Activision (now more well known for it's "Call of Duty" franchise) to develop two major film licenses; the first being "Big Trouble in Little China" (1986) and "Aliens" (1986). Unlike his previous games, these were developed with a proper management team, and were also simultaneously developed by Dinc. However, an important distinction must be made; he didn't actually design the game first game—only programmed it—but for the second was actively involved in its core design.
      • The pressure of making both was so intense that both Dinc and his colleagues wouldn't even bother going home, instead they "just [slept] there on the floor...all very tired but also very determined" to complete them in time for their deadlines. The first of these two games were not released to great critical acclaim, in fact it received generally negative reviews (aggregating a score of 58.6%[n. 56][59][60]) however his second game received critical acclaim when it was released on Christmas 1986 with an aggregate score of 77.2%.[n. 57][61] Interestingly, looking back on his games career, Dinc stated he would never, in retrospect, have coded "Big Trouble in Little China" (however he doesn't state why).[54]
  • The next few years would see Dinc's career peak. He developed a number of games to great fanfare, and some with almost near universal critical acclaim. Chronologically listed, he created and developed "Enduro Racer" (1986; 87.6%[n. 58]),[62][60] "High Frontier" (1987; 73.7%[n. 59]),[60] "Xarq" (1987; 71.3%[n. 60]),[60] "Knightmare" (1987; 83.3%[n. 61]),[63] "Super Hang-On" (1987; 88.0%[n. 62]),[64][65][60] "Last Ninja 2" (1988; 85.5%[n. 63]),[66][62][60] "Hammerfist" (1990; 89.8%[n. 64]),[67][68][69][62] "Last Ninja Remix" (1990; 70%[n. 65])),[70] and "Time Machine" (1990; 85.9%[n. 66]),[71][72]
    • In his twilight years, he moved over to developing games for the SNES, with some notable titles being "The First Samurai" (1991; 91.0%[n. 67]),[73][62] "Second Samurai" (1993; 86.1%[n. 68]),[74] "Street Racer" (1994; 66.0%[n. 69]),[62][75] and "S.C.A.R.S." (1998; unknown).[62][76]
    • Incidentally, of Dinc's most favourite games he recalls "I'm pleased with most of my work and achievements, but if I had to name particular games, I guess Enduro Racer, The Last Ninja 2, First Samurai and Street Racer would be my favourites".[54]
  • Innovations: During his career in designing games, he introduced and achieved several feats and innovations never seen before. During the creation of "Prodigy" (1986) for instance, Dinc was the first to invent the isometric 3D scrolling game.[54] He also created the world's first four-player simultaneous gameplay when he released "Street Racer" (1994).[54] These innovations were driven by a motivation to make his games unique, with Dinc explaining that "I think all the games I was involved with were very challenging...particularly as most of them were original titles...I always wanted every game to be better than the last one, so I always tried to do something unique and include one or two features which were firsts.".[54]
  • As has been stated above, Dinc went back to Turkey at the end of 2000, and single-handedly set the seeds for the growth of the Turkish games industry. By this time Dinc had over 21 years of work experience in developing a range of successful games, from different genres for various platforms during his time in England.[77] He set up "Dinc Interactive" studios, later renamed to "Sobee Interactive" in 2001.[77] In 2009, Dinc sold off Sobee Interactive and is now semi-retired.[78][n. 70]
    • At his time with the studio he developed a lot of well received games, which included "Dual Blades" (2002), "Football Manager" (2003), "Magic Billiards" (2004), "Istanbul Apocalypse Time" (2006), "Nightmare 22" (2006), "Citroen C4 Robot" (2008) and "I Can Football" (2009). Even though he had sold off his company, he still stayed on as CEO, developing "SuperCan" (2011) and "SuperCan 2" (2012).[79] It wasn't until 2013 that he formally left the company for good.[77]
  • Dinc cemented his place in Turkish video games history by developing many successful games. Besides producing it's first ever international games release with "Dual Blades" (2002), he also gave Turkey it's first massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) game with "Istanbul Apocalypse Time" (2006)—it was so popular that it had 700,000 registered users and was still active 9 years after its creation.[79] "SuperCan" (2011) was an even greater success with 2 million players.[79]
    • Dinc kept to his philosophy of making his games innovative and unique (this time in Turkey); he developed the world's first 11 vs. 11 online football game with "I Can Football" (2009).
"Dual Blades" (2002) was Turkey's first internationally released game, designed for Nintendo's Game Boy Advance (2001—2010[80]). It was written entirely by first-time Turkish university students for Sobee.
"SuperCan" (2011) featured Turkey's first child hero. The game was so popular that it also included a crossover with the characters of the Marvel cinematic universe. The game was extremely popular with over 2 million players; a sequel was made in 2012.

(Naughty Dog & Big Red Button) Bob Rafei (1993—Present)

Rafei worked on the hugely successful "Crash Bandicoot" (1996—1999), "Jak and Daxter" (2001—2005) and "Uncharted" (2007) series.
  • Bob Rafei (1969—Present; real name Babak Rafei) is an Iranian-American[81] Muslim[n. 71] video games developer best known for creating some of the most critically acclaimed video games in history. He is also particularly notable for having been the first employee of Naughty Dog; who are themselves most well known for their "Crash Bandicoot" (1996—1999[82]), "Jak and Daxter" (2001—2005[83]), "Uncharted" (2007—2017[84]) and "The Last of Us" (2013—2020) games series. Throughout his time at Naughty Dog (1995—2007) he served as their Art and Animation Director.[85]
    • Rafei graduated Parson's School of Design in New York, where he obtained his Bachelors of Fine Arts (BFA) in Illustration in 1991.[85] Two years after having graduated he first started working in video games design in 1993;[85] with "Star Trek: Generations – Beyond the Nexus" (1994).
      • Thereafter he worked on four[86] "Crash Bandicoot" games from 1996 to 1999 ("Crash Bandicoot" (1996), "Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back" (1997), "Crash Bandicoot: Warped" (1998) and "Crash Team Racing" (1999)[87]), four[86] "Jak and Daxter" games ("Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy" (2001), "Jak II" (2003), "Jak 3" (2004), "Jak X: Combat Racing" (2005)[87]) and "Uncharted: Drake's Fortune" (2007).[87]
        • At Naughty Dog, he held various other job titles such as character animator and conceptual artist.[81] Specific notable contributions of his include leading the visual development of "Jak and Daxter", shaping the look of "Crash Bandicoot" and art directing for "Uncharted".[88]
      • His career since leaving Naughty Dog has been somewhat difficult; having been dogged by the failure of his first major project; "Sonic Boom: Rise of Lyric" (2014) which was abysmally received on top of not having sold very well (in fact it is the worst selling Sonic game in history[89]). However he has still produced several games for the company but these aren't as well known—or as praised—as his previous games. He has developed "The Arcslinger" (2016),[87] "The Allegiant VR Experience" (2016)[87] and "John Wick Chronicles" (2017) with Big Red Button Entertainment.
    • Rafei was also an board member of several organisations, notably the "Game Developers Conference" (2002—2011), the "Game Developer Choice Awards", and for "One Big Game"; as a leader for the "Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences" at the art and animation panels.[90]

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

Rafei worked on the hugely successful "Crash Bandicoot" (1996—1999), "Jak and Daxter" (2001—2005) and "Uncharted" (2007) series.
  • Bob Rafei (1969—Present; real name Babak Rafei) is an Iranian-American[81] Muslim[n. 72] video games developer best known for creating some of the most critically acclaimed video games in history. He is also particularly notable for having been the first employee of Naughty Dog; who are themselves most well known for their "Crash Bandicoot" (1996—1999[82]), "Jak and Daxter" (2001—2005[83]), "Uncharted" (2007—2017[84]) and "The Last of Us" (2013—2020) games series. Throughout his time at Naughty Dog (1995—2007) he served as their Art and Animation Director.[85]
    • Rafei graduated Parson's School of Design in New York, where he obtained his Bachelors of Fine Arts (BFA) in Illustration in 1991.[85] Two years after having graduated he first started working in video games design in 1993;[85] with "Star Trek: Generations – Beyond the Nexus" (1994).
      • Thereafter he worked on four[86] "Crash Bandicoot" games from 1996 to 1999 ("Crash Bandicoot" (1996), "Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back" (1997), "Crash Bandicoot: Warped" (1998) and "Crash Team Racing" (1999)[87]), four[86] "Jak and Daxter" games ("Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy" (2001), "Jak II" (2003), "Jak 3" (2004), "Jak X: Combat Racing" (2005)[87]) and "Uncharted: Drake's Fortune" (2007).[87]
        • At Naughty Dog, he held various other job titles such as character animator and conceptual artist.[81] Specific notable contributions of his include leading the visual development of "Jak and Daxter", shaping the look of "Crash Bandicoot" and art directing for "Uncharted".[88]
      • His career since leaving Naughty Dog has been somewhat difficult; having been dogged by the failure of his first major project; "Sonic Boom: Rise of Lyric" (2014) which was abysmally received on top of not having sold very well (in fact it is the worst selling Sonic game in history[89]). However he has still produced several games for the company but these aren't as well known—or as praised—as his previous games. He has developed "The Arcslinger" (2016),[87] "The Allegiant VR Experience" (2016)[87] and "John Wick Chronicles" (2017) with Big Red Button Entertainment.
    • Rafei was also an board member of several organisations, notably the "Game Developers Conference" (2002—2011), the "Game Developer Choice Awards", and for "One Big Game"; as a leader for the "Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences" at the art and animation panels.[90]

Crytek (1999—Present)

"Far Cry" (2004). It's development stretches back to 2000;[91] it was Crytek's first blockbuster game, selling 2.5 million copies by 2010.
  • Crytek, founded by Cevat Yerli (b. 1978), Avni Yerli (b. 1970) and Faruk Yerli (b. 19??), is a studio founded by three Muslim brothers of Turkish background from Germany.[92] They are considered one of the heavyweights in PC gaming, and are particularly notable for their groundbreaking graphics (memed through the saying "but can it run Crysis?"[93]) and gaming engines (notably the CryEngine, and it's offshoot inspirations).
    • Originally founded in 1999,[94] they are mainly known for the creation of the "Far Cry" (2004—2021) and "Crysis" (2007—2020) franchises, although they have expanded their creations to include the free to play game "Warface" (2013)—which has 80 million registered players as of 2019[95]—and the non-free to play game "Hunt: Showdown" (2018) which has 3 million players as of 2021.[96] The brothers have also developed "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013), "Robinson: The Journey" (2016) and the virtual reality game franchise "The Climb" (2016—2020).
  • Their critically acclaimed games have included "Crysis" (2007) with a metacritic score of between 81%—91% (across the PC, PS3 and Xbox 360),[97][98][99][100] "Crysis 2" (2011); 84%—86%,[100][101][102][103] "Crysis Warhead" (2008); 84%,[104] and "Crysis 3" (2013); 76%—77%.[100][105][106][107] Additionally, their very first game, "Far Cry" (2004), scored 89% on release (and was only ever released on the PC).[108]
    • Interestingly, their lowest ever rated game is a port of the original "Far Cry" game for the Xbox 360 called "Far Cry Classic" (2014) which has a metacritic score of 58% (however when it comes to user scores, audiences rated it much higher at 78%; similar to their 2004's 80%).[100][109]
  • In the mid to late 2020s, the company began facing severe financial challenges beginning in 2014,[110] and which lasted up until 2015.[111] During this time, it saw the company close several of their studios, most notably their UK (2009[112][113]—2014[114]), USA (2013[115]—2014[116]), Black Sea (2008[117]—2017[118]), Budapest (2007—2016[118]), Seoul (2008[119]—2016[118]) and Shanghai (2012[120]—2016[118]/2017[121]) subsidiaries.
    • Some of these studios were sold (UK,[118] Black Sea[118]) whilst others were permanently closed. This effectively downsized the company to their original studio in Frankfurt, Germany (f. 1999[94]), the 2nd in Kiev, Ukraine (f. 2005[122] or 2006[123]) and the 3rd in Istanbul, Turkey (f. 2012[122]).
      • Initially it was also reported Crytek Istanbul was shutting down along with the other studios, but a week later reports emerged from the Turkish press that Crytek were investing $500 million dollars into the country.[124] Similarly in 2019 contradictory information was publsihed regarding the studio in Ukraine, where it was reported that Crytek had parted ways with their "Warface" (2013) IP and development team after six years of being together.[125] However both the Ukraine and the Istanbul studios are still currently listed as active on the companies official website.[126]
    • Crytek was also forced to sell off all of their intellectual property (IP) involving the "TimeSplitters" (2000—2005[127]) franchise which was purchased by THQ Nordic.[125] They sold this after having also sold off their IP for "Homefront" (2011) in 2014 (originally bought from THQ).[128]
    • The financial strain was further compounded by the rising cost of development and even piracy. Just as one example, "Crysis 2" (2011) was pirated 3.92 million times,[129] whereas Crytek was aiming to sell at least 7 million units.[130] This was especially concerning given that the original "Crysis" (2007) game cost between $20—22 million dollars to make, but by "Crysis 3" (2013) had risen to $66 million dollars.[131][132][133]
Crytek's "Hunt: Showdown" (2018) has some 3 million players online on Steam. Aside from games, Crytek has also expanded into the film industry with their CGI engines.
  • Crytek have sold ~15 million hard copies of their games altogether (2.5 million units of "Far Cry" (2004) as of 2010,[134] 3 million of "Crysis" (2007) as of 2010,[134] 3 million of "Crysis 2" (2011) as of 2011,[135][136] 0.36 million (and 3 million beta downloads[137]) of "Crysis 3" (2013) as of February 2013 in the US[138] and as of December 2013 in Germany[139] alone and 1.5 million of "Crysis Warhead" (2008).[134] They've also sold 1.3 million units of "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013)[140][141] and 3 million copies of "Hunt: Showdown" (2018).[96] They also had 80 million players for "Warface" (2013) as of 2019.[95]
    • They have additionally sold 20,000 copies of "The Climb" (2016),[142] which was profitable enough for Crytek to release a sequel in 2020, with the first making over $1 million dollars in revenue (as of 2017).[142] While the figures may seem low in comparison to PC and consoles, "The Climb" was the Occulus Rift's best selling game to that date for the virtual reality set.[142] Interestingly, this record has been beaten since by multiple games.[143]
  • Crytek also develop game engines separately from their gaming projects. As of 2021, they have created five separate gaming engines; the CryEngine (2000[144]—2007), CryEngine 2 (2007[145][146]—2009[147]), CryEngine 3 (2009[147][148][149]—2013), CryEngine 4 (2013[150]—2016) and CryEngine 5 (2016[151]—Present). The engines bring Crytek significant sums of money (in one instance alone, Amazon bought a license in 2015 for a sum of $50—$70 million dollars[111]), and form a very important part of Crytek's business (even though they never originally aimed to go down this route[152]).[153]
    • The success of the CryEngine has directly inspired the creation of several related popular gaming engines; the best known of these is the Ubisoft's Dunia Engine and Unreal Engine and Amazon's Lumberyard Engine (2015).[111][154] Crytek itself has also used it to develop the Cinebox Engine (2008[155]) and it's successor Film Engine[156] (which has been used in films such as "Dawn of the Planet of the Apes" (2014) and "The Maze Runner" (2014)[157][158]—which were tremendous successes having generated some $711 million dollars and $348 million dollars respectively).
      • Interestingly the Dunia Engine itself was developed by another Muslim employee who worked at Crytek, Kirmaan Aboobaker.[159][160] He created the engine by "heavily" modifying the CryEngine, although Ubisoft officially claim that they have only incorporated about 2% to 3% of the original code into it,[161][162] although other sources say it is "largely" based on it.[163] The Anvil engine also uses parts of the Dunia engine.[163]

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

"Far Cry" (2004). It's development stretches back to 2000;[91] it was Crytek's first blockbuster game, selling 2.5 million copies by 2010.
  • Crytek, founded by Cevat Yerli (b. 1978), Avni Yerli (b. 1970) and Faruk Yerli (b. 19??), is a studio founded by three Muslim brothers of Turkish background from Germany.[92] They are considered one of the heavyweights in PC gaming, and are particularly notable for their groundbreaking graphics (memed through the saying "but can it run Crysis?"[93]) and gaming engines (notably the CryEngine, and it's offshoot inspirations).
    • Originally founded in 1999,[94] they are mainly known for the creation of the "Far Cry" (2004—2021) and "Crysis" (2007—2020) franchises, although they have expanded their creations to include the free to play game "Warface" (2013)—which has 80 million registered players as of 2019[95]—and the non-free to play game "Hunt: Showdown" (2018) which has 3 million players as of 2021.[96] The brothers have also developed "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013), "Robinson: The Journey" (2016) and the virtual reality game franchise "The Climb" (2016—2020).
  • Their critically acclaimed games have included "Crysis" (2007) with a metacritic score of between 81%—91% (across the PC, PS3 and Xbox 360),[97][98][99][100] "Crysis 2" (2011); 84%—86%,[100][101][102][103] "Crysis Warhead" (2008); 84%,[104] and "Crysis 3" (2013); 76%—77%.[100][105][106][107] Additionally, their very first game, "Far Cry" (2004), scored 89% on release (and was only ever released on the PC).[108]
    • Interestingly, their lowest ever rated game is a port of the original "Far Cry" game for the Xbox 360 called "Far Cry Classic" (2014) which has a metacritic score of 58% (however when it comes to user scores, audiences rated it much higher at 78%; similar to their 2004's 80%).[100][109]
  • In the mid to late 2020s, the company began facing severe financial challenges beginning in 2014,[110] and which lasted up until 2015.[111] During this time, it saw the company close several of their studios, most notably their UK (2009[112][113]—2014[114]), USA (2013[115]—2014[116]), Black Sea (2008[117]—2017[118]), Budapest (2007—2016[118]), Seoul (2008[119]—2016[118]) and Shanghai (2012[120]—2016[118]/2017[121]) subsidiaries.
    • Some of these studios were sold (UK,[118] Black Sea[118]) whilst others were permanently closed. This effectively downsized the company to their original studio in Frankfurt, Germany (f. 1999[94]), the 2nd in Kiev, Ukraine (f. 2005[122] or 2006[123]) and the 3rd in Istanbul, Turkey (f. 2012[122]).
      • Initially it was also reported Crytek Istanbul was shutting down along with the other studios, but a week later reports emerged from the Turkish press that Crytek were investing $500 million dollars into the country.[124] Similarly in 2019 contradictory information was publsihed regarding the studio in Ukraine, where it was reported that Crytek had parted ways with their "Warface" (2013) IP and development team after six years of being together.[125] However both the Ukraine and the Istanbul studios are still currently listed as active on the companies official website.[126]
    • Crytek was also forced to sell off all of their intellectual property (IP) involving the "TimeSplitters" (2000—2005[127]) franchise which was purchased by THQ Nordic.[125] They sold this after having also sold off their IP for "Homefront" (2011) in 2014 (originally bought from THQ).[128]
    • The financial strain was further compounded by the rising cost of development and even piracy. Just as one example, "Crysis 2" (2011) was pirated 3.92 million times,[129] whereas Crytek was aiming to sell at least 7 million units.[130] This was especially concerning given that the original "Crysis" (2007) game cost between $20—22 million dollars to make, but by "Crysis 3" (2013) had risen to $66 million dollars.[131][132][133]
Crytek's "Hunt: Showdown" (2018) has some 3 million players online on Steam. Aside from games, Crytek has also expanded into the film industry with their CGI engines.
  • Crytek have sold ~15 million hard copies of their games altogether (2.5 million units of "Far Cry" (2004) as of 2010,[134] 3 million of "Crysis" (2007) as of 2010,[134] 3 million of "Crysis 2" (2011) as of 2011,[135][136] 0.36 million (and 3 million beta downloads[137]) of "Crysis 3" (2013) as of February 2013 in the US[138] and as of December 2013 in Germany[139] alone and 1.5 million of "Crysis Warhead" (2008).[134] They've also sold 1.3 million units of "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013)[140][141] and 3 million copies of "Hunt: Showdown" (2018).[96] They also had 80 million players for "Warface" (2013) as of 2019.[95]
    • They have additionally sold 20,000 copies of "The Climb" (2016),[142] which was profitable enough for Crytek to release a sequel in 2020, with the first making over $1 million dollars in revenue (as of 2017).[142] While the figures may seem low in comparison to PC and consoles, "The Climb" was the Occulus Rift's best selling game to that date for the virtual reality set.[142] Interestingly, this record has been beaten since by multiple games.[143]
  • Crytek also develop game engines separately from their gaming projects. As of 2021, they have created five separate gaming engines; the CryEngine (2000[144]—2007), CryEngine 2 (2007[145][146]—2009[147]), CryEngine 3 (2009[147][148][149]—2013), CryEngine 4 (2013[150]—2016) and CryEngine 5 (2016[151]—Present). The engines bring Crytek significant sums of money (in one instance alone, Amazon bought a license in 2015 for a sum of $50—$70 million dollars[111]), and form a very important part of Crytek's business (even though they never originally aimed to go down this route[152]).[153]
    • The success of the CryEngine has directly inspired the creation of several related popular gaming engines; the best known of these is the Ubisoft's Dunia Engine and Unreal Engine and Amazon's Lumberyard Engine (2015).[111][154] Crytek itself has also used it to develop the Cinebox Engine (2008[155]) and it's successor Film Engine[156] (which has been used in films such as "Dawn of the Planet of the Apes" (2014) and "The Maze Runner" (2014)[157][158]—which were tremendous successes having generated some $711 million dollars and $348 million dollars respectively).
      • Interestingly the Dunia Engine itself was developed by another Muslim employee who worked at Crytek, Kirmaan Aboobaker.[159][160] He created the engine by "heavily" modifying the CryEngine, although Ubisoft officially claim that they have only incorporated about 2% to 3% of the original code into it,[161][162] although other sources say it is "largely" based on it.[163] The Anvil engine also uses parts of the Dunia engine.[163]

Dead Mage Studios (2000 / 2003—Present)

Dead Mage Studios logo. The studio had to move out of Iran and to the USA in order to avoid sanctions. It has seen significant success since.
  • Dead Mage Studios (formerly known as Fanafzar Sharif Studios or Fanafzar Game Studios[164]) is a company that was founded in 2000 by a group of students from the Sharif University of Technology (Iran's most prestigious university), initially set up to offer services "in various fields of software and hardware design".[165] However others state it was founded in 2003.[164] In 2010, the studio moved to Texas, USA. They are chiefly known for producing "Garshasp The Monster Slayer" (2010; with a critical score of 49% and a user score of 6 out of 10), "Garshasp: Temple of the Dragon" (2012; n/a; 6.5), "Shadow Blade: Reload" (2015; 70%; 8.2) and "Children of Morta" (2019; 80%; 8.2). As can be seen, they have consistantly improved their ranking over time.[166]
    • According to one games historian, the company only entered games development seriously in 2008, producing their first game, "Garshasp The Monster Slayer", in 2010[167];[165] based on an ancient Iranian mythological figure who is said to have been the first human. The game was also developed with the help of the Computer Games Foundation of Iran.[164] When it was released it "became one of the best and most popular hard-core games in Iran and was one of the first Iranian games to make its way into foreign markets",[165] thereby cementing the studio's position at home and abroad. It sold a staggering 300,000 copies domestically and "even more when the developers launched it on Steam".[168] This is even though it was panned in the West.[168]
      • The game took 4 years and $400,000 dollars in development costs to make ("a lot in Iran where most games are a small fraction of that").[164][168] This is all the more amazing considering Iran is one of the most sanctioned countries on Earth (sanctions initiated by the US designed to cripple, destroy and stress both the Iranian economy and it's people simply because Iran wants to exercise it's right to develop nuclear weapons). The game was so successful that it spawned an expansion pack called "Garshasp 1.5: Temple of the Dragon" (2012).[165] A sequel was being developed as late as 2015, called "Garshasp 2", but, according to a 2020 news report was never released "because of a disagreement in contract and lack of budget".[167]
    • Interestingly, the standard price for a game in Iran is $1.60;[168] which means that the 300,000 copies that were sold in Iran made the studio a return of $480,000 dollars alone. Adding in all the steam sales (where each copy was priced higher than in Iran) the studio gained significant profit. The standard price in Iran includes copies of games developed by foreign companies that have cost millions of dollars to make with teams of over 200 people.[168] However Dead Mage Studios only employs 15 people.[168] Other games they've developed are "Epic of Kings" (2016) and "Tale of Ronin" (TBA).

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

Dead Mage Studios logo. The studio had to move out of Iran and to the USA in order to avoid sanctions. It has seen significant success since.
  • Dead Mage Studios (formerly known as Fanafzar Sharif Studios or Fanafzar Game Studios[164]) is a company that was founded in 2000 by a group of students from the Sharif University of Technology (Iran's most prestigious university), initially set up to offer services "in various fields of software and hardware design".[165] However others state it was founded in 2003.[164] In 2010, the studio moved to Texas, USA. They are chiefly known for producing "Garshasp The Monster Slayer" (2010; with a critical score of 49% and a user score of 6 out of 10), "Garshasp: Temple of the Dragon" (2012; n/a; 6.5), "Shadow Blade: Reload" (2015; 70%; 8.2) and "Children of Morta" (2019; 80%; 8.2). As can be seen, they have consistantly improved their ranking over time.[166]
    • According to one games historian, the company only entered games development seriously in 2008, producing their first game, "Garshasp The Monster Slayer", in 2010[167];[165] based on an ancient Iranian mythological figure who is said to have been the first human. The game was also developed with the help of the Computer Games Foundation of Iran.[164] When it was released it "became one of the best and most popular hard-core games in Iran and was one of the first Iranian games to make its way into foreign markets",[165] thereby cementing the studio's position at home and abroad. It sold a staggering 300,000 copies domestically and "even more when the developers launched it on Steam".[168] This is even though it was panned in the West.[168]
      • The game took 4 years and $400,000 dollars in development costs to make ("a lot in Iran where most games are a small fraction of that").[164][168] This is all the more amazing considering Iran is one of the most sanctioned countries on Earth (sanctions initiated by the US designed to cripple, destroy and stress both the Iranian economy and it's people simply because Iran wants to exercise it's right to develop nuclear weapons). The game was so successful that it spawned an expansion pack called "Garshasp 1.5: Temple of the Dragon" (2012).[165] A sequel was being developed as late as 2015, called "Garshasp 2", but, according to a 2020 news report was never released "because of a disagreement in contract and lack of budget".[167]
    • Interestingly, the standard price for a game in Iran is $1.60;[168] which means that the 300,000 copies that were sold in Iran made the studio a return of $480,000 dollars alone. Adding in all the steam sales (where each copy was priced higher than in Iran) the studio gained significant profit. The standard price in Iran includes copies of games developed by foreign companies that have cost millions of dollars to make with teams of over 200 people.[168] However Dead Mage Studios only employs 15 people.[168] Other games they've developed are "Epic of Kings" (2016) and "Tale of Ronin" (TBA).

TaleWorlds (2001—Present)

A screenshot of an active siege from "Mount & Blade II: Bannerlord" (2020; Talesworld). Each character represents a single player, all playing online simultaneously together. The games excruciating difficulty has proven addictive to fans.

Despite semi-positive to positive critical acclaim, the games has done enormously well on the online gaming marketplace Steam. Current sales of the games have amounted to almost 14 million copies. It's explosive success can partly be attributed to the modding culture and combat system surrounding the game.
  • TaleWorlds is an independent games studio that has it's origins in Turkey. They are based in Ankara[169] and are most famous for having created and developed the medieval strategy battle games "Mount & Blade" (2008—2020).[170] They have been described as "aptly named action RPG game[s] centr[ing] on horseback combat...[having] garnered a loyal fanbase with its intricate battle system, storyline freedom and commitment to an authentic medieval atmosphere", thus becoming "a sleeper hit when it was released in 2008".[171]
    • Others have described them as ""medieval simulator[s]" with a focus on timing-based, mounted combat. There are no fantasy elements (as opposed to the heavily unrealistic Elder Scrolls series) and no real storyline to speak of; you can create a warrior from scratch and travel the lands, making friends or enemies along the way", which "came out of nowhere for many PC gamers".[172]
    • There are currently only two games that have ever been published for the franchise. These are "Mount & Blade" (2008,[173] which later included the DLC expansion packs "Warband" [2010][173], "With Fire and Sword" [2011][173], "Napoleonic Wars" [2012][173][174] and "Viking Conquest" [2014][175]) and "Mount & Blade II: Bannerlord" (2020; which currently does not have any DLC).
      • The games have proven to be wildly successful for the company. Sales for the first game alone (including the sales of the standalone DLC expansion packs) between 2008 and 2015 saw the company surpass 6 million copies across all platforms.[176]
      • According to SteamSpy, as of 2021 the series has sold some 13.96 million copies altogether on the Steam platform alone,[177] at an average price of US$22.49 dollars (generating $314 million dollars in revenue, excluding Steam fees).[177] Interestingly, Turkey's game industry is still in it's infancy; as of 2020 it currently exports about $1.5 billion dollars in games annually.[169]
        • Despite stellar sales, the "Mount & Blade" franchise has only received semi-positive to positive critical acclaim. The first game received a 72% rating according to Metacritic (and for the DLCs, "Warband", "With Fire & Sword", "Napoleonic Wars" and "Viking Conquest", 78%, 68%, 83% and unrated respectively). However userscores have been far more positive at 8.6 out of 10 (and for the DLCs, 8.9, 6.9, 7.9 and 8.0).[178] The second game has not been rated since it is only an early access game.
    • Part of it's success has been driven by the fact that the game has "been modded to death by dedicated players, who range from university professors to medieval period actors".[171] There are even "Star Wars" and a "Lord of Rings" mods available.[179][180]
Armağan Yavuz (middle) and Ipek Yavuz (right), 2007; with one of their earliest fans, Gord10Ahmet (aka ahmet gord10).
  • The creator of the games is Armağan Yavuz (and his wife İpek Yavuz[181]) who is also the founder of TaleWorlds.[171] In 2010, he recalled that the development of the games "originated" in his "garage studio in 2001", when he and his wife decided to construct the first prototype.[171][172] Their plan was to develop the game to such an extent that it would impress a publisher who would fund it.[171]
    • However because of the amateurish look and feel of the game no publishers were willing to back them (he recalled "[n]one of the publishers we contacted saw any potential in it").[171] It wasn't until 2005 that Yavuz decided to just directly sell the game to gamers with the idea that "this is what we have and if you like it, buy it at a very low price".[171] That was about US$10 dollars.[171]
    • They eventually made enough money to develop it further.[171] A publisher finally came along in the form of Paradox who released the game to a wider audience.[171] This was when it became a runaway hit, not just in Turkey, but globally.[171]
  • In 2018, PC Gamer delved deeper into the history of the "Mount & Blade" series, tracing it's development from the beginning to what it would become by interviewing Yavuz.[181] Yavuz stated that he had developed an obsession over melee combat (in his words "how it feels, how it works, how it plays") which "drove" the development of the game; because melee system's before the game was released were not enjoyable.[181] PC Gamer concurred; explaining the uniqueness of it's combat system in the following way;[181]
    • "...players change the directions of their strikes and blocks by moving the mouse up and down, left and right, can seem almost quaint today" they were "pioneered" by Taleworlds, "reappearing in games like Chivalry: Medieval Warfare, For Honor, and Kingdom Come: Deliverance" (games developed by other studios).[181] Prior to "2008, melee mouse control like these had never been done before—at least not in a way that was actually enjoyable" as it was in "Mount & Blade".[181] Yavuz adds;
    • "My initial idea was to get the swordfighting element right...I tried to make the combat part of the game more involved and more interesting. If all you had to do was clicking, there wasn't enough to keep a hardcore gamer interested...I wanted a mechanic that gave you more decisions and relied on reflexes and combined elements like horse riding and blocking...You really had to hit a good sweet spot to be intuitive, immersive...easy to grasp, but complicated enough that you don’t get bored with it".[181]

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

A screenshot of an active siege from "Mount & Blade II: Bannerlord" (2020; Talesworld). Each character represents a single player, all playing online simultaneously together. The games excruciating difficulty has proven addictive to fans.

Despite semi-positive to positive critical acclaim, the games has done enormously well on the online gaming marketplace Steam. Current sales of the games have amounted to almost 14 million copies. It's explosive success can partly be attributed to the modding culture and combat system surrounding the game.
  • TaleWorlds is an independent games studio that has it's origins in Turkey. They are based in Ankara[169] and are most famous for having created and developed the medieval strategy battle games "Mount & Blade" (2008—2020).[170] They have been described as "aptly named action RPG game[s] centr[ing] on horseback combat...[having] garnered a loyal fanbase with its intricate battle system, storyline freedom and commitment to an authentic medieval atmosphere", thus becoming "a sleeper hit when it was released in 2008".[171]
    • Others have described them as ""medieval simulator[s]" with a focus on timing-based, mounted combat. There are no fantasy elements (as opposed to the heavily unrealistic Elder Scrolls series) and no real storyline to speak of; you can create a warrior from scratch and travel the lands, making friends or enemies along the way", which "came out of nowhere for many PC gamers".[172]
    • There are currently only two games that have ever been published for the franchise. These are "Mount & Blade" (2008,[173] which later included the DLC expansion packs "Warband" [2010][173], "With Fire and Sword" [2011][173], "Napoleonic Wars" [2012][173][174] and "Viking Conquest" [2014][175]) and "Mount & Blade II: Bannerlord" (2020; which currently does not have any DLC).
      • The games have proven to be wildly successful for the company. Sales for the first game alone (including the sales of the standalone DLC expansion packs) between 2008 and 2015 saw the company surpass 6 million copies across all platforms.[176]
      • According to SteamSpy, as of 2021 the series has sold some 13.96 million copies altogether on the Steam platform alone,[177] at an average price of US$22.49 dollars (generating $314 million dollars in revenue, excluding Steam fees).[177] Interestingly, Turkey's game industry is still in it's infancy; as of 2020 it currently exports about $1.5 billion dollars in games annually.[169]
        • Despite stellar sales, the "Mount & Blade" franchise has only received semi-positive to positive critical acclaim. The first game received a 72% rating according to Metacritic (and for the DLCs, "Warband", "With Fire & Sword", "Napoleonic Wars" and "Viking Conquest", 78%, 68%, 83% and unrated respectively). However userscores have been far more positive at 8.6 out of 10 (and for the DLCs, 8.9, 6.9, 7.9 and 8.0).[178] The second game has not been rated since it is only an early access game.
    • Part of it's success has been driven by the fact that the game has "been modded to death by dedicated players, who range from university professors to medieval period actors".[171] There are even "Star Wars" and a "Lord of Rings" mods available.[179][180]
Armağan Yavuz (middle) and Ipek Yavuz (right), 2007; with one of their earliest fans, Gord10Ahmet (aka ahmet gord10).
  • The creator of the games is Armağan Yavuz (and his wife İpek Yavuz[181]) who is also the founder of TaleWorlds.[171] In 2010, he recalled that the development of the games "originated" in his "garage studio in 2001", when he and his wife decided to construct the first prototype.[171][172] Their plan was to develop the game to such an extent that it would impress a publisher who would fund it.[171]
    • However because of the amateurish look and feel of the game no publishers were willing to back them (he recalled "[n]one of the publishers we contacted saw any potential in it").[171] It wasn't until 2005 that Yavuz decided to just directly sell the game to gamers with the idea that "this is what we have and if you like it, buy it at a very low price".[171] That was about US$10 dollars.[171]
    • They eventually made enough money to develop it further.[171] A publisher finally came along in the form of Paradox who released the game to a wider audience.[171] This was when it became a runaway hit, not just in Turkey, but globally.[171]
  • In 2018, PC Gamer delved deeper into the history of the "Mount & Blade" series, tracing it's development from the beginning to what it would become by interviewing Yavuz.[181] Yavuz stated that he had developed an obsession over melee combat (in his words "how it feels, how it works, how it plays") which "drove" the development of the game; because melee system's before the game was released were not enjoyable.[181] PC Gamer concurred; explaining the uniqueness of it's combat system in the following way;[181]
    • "...players change the directions of their strikes and blocks by moving the mouse up and down, left and right, can seem almost quaint today" they were "pioneered" by Taleworlds, "reappearing in games like Chivalry: Medieval Warfare, For Honor, and Kingdom Come: Deliverance" (games developed by other studios).[181] Prior to "2008, melee mouse control like these had never been done before—at least not in a way that was actually enjoyable" as it was in "Mount & Blade".[181] Yavuz adds;
    • "My initial idea was to get the swordfighting element right...I tried to make the combat part of the game more involved and more interesting. If all you had to do was clicking, there wasn't enough to keep a hardcore gamer interested...I wanted a mechanic that gave you more decisions and relied on reflexes and combined elements like horse riding and blocking...You really had to hit a good sweet spot to be intuitive, immersive...easy to grasp, but complicated enough that you don’t get bored with it".[181]

(Warthog Corporation & Rockstar North) Imran Sarwar (2001—Present)

See also: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
"Grand Theft Auto V" (2013). Sarwar served as it's main designer, and was also the director of games design for "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018). He has been with Rockstar North since since designing the missions of "GTA: Vice City" (2002).
  • Imran Sarwar is a games designer most notable for being a core employee of Rockstar North, a subsidiary of Rockstar Games, responsible for the hugely successful—both critical and commercial—"Grand Theft Auto" (1997—2013) franchise. Sarwar has served a pivotal role within the organisation, noticeable by the end-game credits within the games he's helped to make. He's been credited with helping to develop their most critical aspects which have mainly involved him designing storyline missions ("Grand Theft Auto: Vice City" (2002), "Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas" (2004)) to being producer ("Grand Theft Auto IV" (2008)) to all the entire games design itself ("Grand Theft Auto V" (2013), "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018)).
    • According to Linkedin, Sarwar is a graduate of the University of Manchester, having achieved a BEng in Electronics Systems Engineering (1996—1999), where he thereafter moved to Scotland and studied for a MSc in Software Engineering at the University of Abertay (1999—2000).[182]
    • Sarwar's first job was with Warthog Games (1997—2006) where he worked on "Tiny Toon Adventures: Wacky Stackers" (2001), "Pinky and The Brain: The Master Plan" (2002) and "Battlestar Galactica" (2003). He wasn't credited for anything in particular; and was simply given a "Special Thanks" twice (2001, 2003) and one for "Design" (2002). He began parting ways from Warthog and joined Rockstar North in 2002.
      • According to in-game credits, he initially started working at Rockstar North by designing missions for "Grand Theft Auto: Vice City" (2002),[183] before moving onto becoming a senior level designer[184] for "Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas" (2004). By the time "Grand Theft Auto IV" (2008) released he had become an associate producer,[185][186][187] and by "Grand Theft Auto V" (2013) he was credited as both it's co-producer and game designer.[188] Most significant of all was that he was fully promoted to director of games design for "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018).
    • Sarwar rarely gives out interviews, and in fact has proven extremely elusive. He was only publicly first mentioned in a piece by The Guardian in a 2013 interview of Dan Houser, one of the two founders of Rockstar Games. When asked about their character design process, Houser recalled "me, Rupert Humphries and Imran Sarwar, one of the main designers, will sit around early in the game, talking about stuff, then Sam, Aaron and Leslie will look at it and sign off on it or offer feedback...it doesn't really matter what we put down on the page, we might imagine certain characters are going to be very strong, and they're not, and others start out okay and turn out fantastic".[189] Houser also paid homage to him at the 2013 BAFTAs.
  • Sarwar's contribution to the games he's worked on has lead to the massive success of the games franchise. In terms of absolute units sold, "Grand Theft Auto: Vice City" (2002) has sold 20 million copies, "Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas" (2004) 27.5 million copies, "Grand Theft Auto 4" (2008) 25 million copies (for all platforms as of 2018)[190] and "Grand Theft Auto V" (2013) over 135 million copies (as of 2020).[191] He was also responsible for the success of "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018) which has sold over 34 million copies (as of 2020) given that it was him who designed the game.[192]
    • Many of those games are also critically acclaimed; "Grand Theft Auto Vice City" (2002) scores 95%,[193] "Grand Theft Auto San Andreas" (2004) 95%,[194] "Grand Theft Auto IV" (2008) 98%,[195] "Grand Theft Auto V" (2013) 97% and "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018) 97%.[196][197]

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

See also: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
"Grand Theft Auto V" (2013). Sarwar served as it's main designer, and was also the director of games design for "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018). He has been with Rockstar North since since designing the missions of "GTA: Vice City" (2002).
  • Imran Sarwar is a games designer most notable for being a core employee of Rockstar North, a subsidiary of Rockstar Games, responsible for the hugely successful—both critical and commercial—"Grand Theft Auto" (1997—2013) franchise. Sarwar has served a pivotal role within the organisation, noticeable by the end-game credits within the games he's helped to make. He's been credited with helping to develop their most critical aspects which have mainly involved him designing storyline missions ("Grand Theft Auto: Vice City" (2002), "Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas" (2004)) to being producer ("Grand Theft Auto IV" (2008)) to all the entire games design itself ("Grand Theft Auto V" (2013), "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018)).
    • According to Linkedin, Sarwar is a graduate of the University of Manchester, having achieved a BEng in Electronics Systems Engineering (1996—1999), where he thereafter moved to Scotland and studied for a MSc in Software Engineering at the University of Abertay (1999—2000).[182]
    • Sarwar's first job was with Warthog Games (1997—2006) where he worked on "Tiny Toon Adventures: Wacky Stackers" (2001), "Pinky and The Brain: The Master Plan" (2002) and "Battlestar Galactica" (2003). He wasn't credited for anything in particular; and was simply given a "Special Thanks" twice (2001, 2003) and one for "Design" (2002). He began parting ways from Warthog and joined Rockstar North in 2002.
      • According to in-game credits, he initially started working at Rockstar North by designing missions for "Grand Theft Auto: Vice City" (2002),[183] before moving onto becoming a senior level designer[184] for "Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas" (2004). By the time "Grand Theft Auto IV" (2008) released he had become an associate producer,[185][186][187] and by "Grand Theft Auto V" (2013) he was credited as both it's co-producer and game designer.[188] Most significant of all was that he was fully promoted to director of games design for "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018).
    • Sarwar rarely gives out interviews, and in fact has proven extremely elusive. He was only publicly first mentioned in a piece by The Guardian in a 2013 interview of Dan Houser, one of the two founders of Rockstar Games. When asked about their character design process, Houser recalled "me, Rupert Humphries and Imran Sarwar, one of the main designers, will sit around early in the game, talking about stuff, then Sam, Aaron and Leslie will look at it and sign off on it or offer feedback...it doesn't really matter what we put down on the page, we might imagine certain characters are going to be very strong, and they're not, and others start out okay and turn out fantastic".[189] Houser also paid homage to him at the 2013 BAFTAs.
  • Sarwar's contribution to the games he's worked on has lead to the massive success of the games franchise. In terms of absolute units sold, "Grand Theft Auto: Vice City" (2002) has sold 20 million copies, "Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas" (2004) 27.5 million copies, "Grand Theft Auto 4" (2008) 25 million copies (for all platforms as of 2018)[190] and "Grand Theft Auto V" (2013) over 135 million copies (as of 2020).[191] He was also responsible for the success of "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018) which has sold over 34 million copies (as of 2020) given that it was him who designed the game.[192]
    • Many of those games are also critically acclaimed; "Grand Theft Auto Vice City" (2002) scores 95%,[193] "Grand Theft Auto San Andreas" (2004) 95%,[194] "Grand Theft Auto IV" (2008) 98%,[195] "Grand Theft Auto V" (2013) 97% and "Red Dead Redemption II" (2018) 97%.[196][197]

(Rockstar North) Mondo Ghulam (2003—Present)

See also: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
"Red Dead Redemption II" (2018). Imran Sarwar was the Design Director for this game. Mondo Ghulam also worked in the previous iteration, "Red Dead Redemption" (2010) as the Animation Director for Rockstar North. He also worked on "L.A. Noire" (2011) with Team Bondi and accepted an award with them.
  • Mondo Ghulam is a Pakistani games animator most famously known for his work with Rockstar. Ghulam is a former alumni of the University of Strathclyde (1995[198]) and the Glasgow School of Art (1999[198]). He originally studied Marketing and Finance before specialising in an MPhil in 2D/3D Motion Graphics. Not much is known about what he did between this time and joining Rockstar, but he joined the latter sometime before the creation of "Manhunt" (2003). According to a graduation list published in "The Herald" in 1999, his full name is Rahman Arshed Mondo Ghulam.[199]
    • His earliest known work can be found in "Manhunt" (2003).[200] However, the game proved so controversial that it was banned in several countries for it's gory animated violence.[201] Staff at Rockstar even felt that the game went too far,[202][203] as it included scenes of absolute brutal violence. However the game proved successful enough that a sequel was made; "Manhunt 2" (2007). It was also banned in several countries.[201]
      • Ghulam's next project was his involvement in the "Grand Theft Auto" (GTA; 1997—2013) franchise. The first game he ever worked on in this franchise was "GTA: San Andreas" (2004),[204] and then "GTA: Liberty City Stories" (2005),[205] "GTA: Vice City Stories" (2006),[206] "GTA: IV" (2008),[207] "GTA: The Lost and Damned" (2009),[208] "GTA: The Ballad of Gay Tony" (2009),[209] and finally "GTA: V" (2013).[210]
    • Ghulam has also played a pivotal role in the success of "Red Dead Redemption" (2010)[211] and "L.A. Noire" (2011),[212] as well as other games including "Midnight Club: Los Angeles" (2008)[213] and "Max Payne 3" (2012).[214] As a result, he has won several awards for contributions;
      • At the Edinburgh Interactive Edge Awards, according to Rockstar Informer, "The main thing that got L.A. Noire this award was the usage of the motion technology as it helped push the envelope on L.A. Noire. Edge publisher James Binns presented the award to Mondo Ghulam, animation director at Rockstar North, which worked on the game with beleaguered Team Bondi. "I'm a little bit embarrassed, a bit worried even," Ghulam said. "Eight years of my career have been spent producing very boring cutscenes. Anyway, LA Noire has many qualities, and people have focused on Motionscan. What people maybe don't know is how much my colleagues and myself worked at Rockstar North, and travelled round the world with Team Bondi to produce this game. Working several years, in fact, to make this game what it is"".[215]
  • Throughout his career with Rockstar, Ghulam was credited with roles including (Lead) Cutscene Animator, Technical Director, Animation Director and Animation Supporter. At the company his official title roles were Lead Cutscene Animator (2003—2008) and Animation Director (2008—2012).
    • However, Ghulam's career abruptly came to a halt in 2012,[n. 73] just before the release of "GTAV" (2013). Coincidentally, this was also around the same time that another—more senior employee—was abruptly fired (after his "sabbatical"[216]) over unpaid royalties.[217][n. 74][218][n. 75]
      • That senior member of staff was Leslie Benzies, the producer of franchise. To make matters worse many of his colleagues (his "key support staff"[217] or a "bunch of his best pals"[218] as some of the press put it) were also affected by the fallout as they too were fired.[217][218] This included many of Rockstars key employees; and whilst not explicitly stated, Ghulam could have been one of them. This speculation arises from the fact that Ghulam and Benzies had left Rockstar around the same time, when "GTAV" was almost complete or had been; and is further compounded by the fact that Benzies hired many ex-Rockstar employees, including Ghulam, for his own production company.[219]

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

See also: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
"Red Dead Redemption II" (2018). Imran Sarwar was the Design Director for this game. Mondo Ghulam also worked in the previous iteration, "Red Dead Redemption" (2010) as the Animation Director for Rockstar North. He also worked on "L.A. Noire" (2011) with Team Bondi and accepted an award with them.
  • Mondo Ghulam is a Pakistani games animator most famously known for his work with Rockstar. Ghulam is a former alumni of the University of Strathclyde (1995[198]) and the Glasgow School of Art (1999[198]). He originally studied Marketing and Finance before specialising in an MPhil in 2D/3D Motion Graphics. Not much is known about what he did between this time and joining Rockstar, but he joined the latter sometime before the creation of "Manhunt" (2003). According to a graduation list published in "The Herald" in 1999, his full name is Rahman Arshed Mondo Ghulam.[199]
    • His earliest known work can be found in "Manhunt" (2003).[200] However, the game proved so controversial that it was banned in several countries for it's gory animated violence.[201] Staff at Rockstar even felt that the game went too far,[202][203] as it included scenes of absolute brutal violence. However the game proved successful enough that a sequel was made; "Manhunt 2" (2007). It was also banned in several countries.[201]
      • Ghulam's next project was his involvement in the "Grand Theft Auto" (GTA; 1997—2013) franchise. The first game he ever worked on in this franchise was "GTA: San Andreas" (2004),[204] and then "GTA: Liberty City Stories" (2005),[205] "GTA: Vice City Stories" (2006),[206] "GTA: IV" (2008),[207] "GTA: The Lost and Damned" (2009),[208] "GTA: The Ballad of Gay Tony" (2009),[209] and finally "GTA: V" (2013).[210]
    • Ghulam has also played a pivotal role in the success of "Red Dead Redemption" (2010)[211] and "L.A. Noire" (2011),[212] as well as other games including "Midnight Club: Los Angeles" (2008)[213] and "Max Payne 3" (2012).[214] As a result, he has won several awards for contributions;
      • At the Edinburgh Interactive Edge Awards, according to Rockstar Informer, "The main thing that got L.A. Noire this award was the usage of the motion technology as it helped push the envelope on L.A. Noire. Edge publisher James Binns presented the award to Mondo Ghulam, animation director at Rockstar North, which worked on the game with beleaguered Team Bondi. "I'm a little bit embarrassed, a bit worried even," Ghulam said. "Eight years of my career have been spent producing very boring cutscenes. Anyway, LA Noire has many qualities, and people have focused on Motionscan. What people maybe don't know is how much my colleagues and myself worked at Rockstar North, and travelled round the world with Team Bondi to produce this game. Working several years, in fact, to make this game what it is"".[215]
  • Throughout his career with Rockstar, Ghulam was credited with roles including (Lead) Cutscene Animator, Technical Director, Animation Director and Animation Supporter. At the company his official title roles were Lead Cutscene Animator (2003—2008) and Animation Director (2008—2012).
    • However, Ghulam's career abruptly came to a halt in 2012,[n. 76] just before the release of "GTAV" (2013). Coincidentally, this was also around the same time that another—more senior employee—was abruptly fired (after his "sabbatical"[216]) over unpaid royalties.[217][n. 77][218][n. 78]
      • That senior member of staff was Leslie Benzies, the producer of franchise. To make matters worse many of his colleagues (his "key support staff"[217] or a "bunch of his best pals"[218] as some of the press put it) were also affected by the fallout as they too were fired.[217][218] This included many of Rockstars key employees; and whilst not explicitly stated, Ghulam could have been one of them. This speculation arises from the fact that Ghulam and Benzies had left Rockstar around the same time, when "GTAV" was almost complete or had been; and is further compounded by the fact that Benzies hired many ex-Rockstar employees, including Ghulam, for his own production company.[219]

(Infinity Ward & Respawn Entertainment) Mohammad Alavi (2004—Present)

A fan made copy of Alavi's map as it would look like in the CryEngine (Reddit Post Link). The original 2007 version used the IW engine, which is owned by Inifity Ward.
A cinematic still from "Call of Duty Modern Warfare" (2007). It was this game that brought Alavi lasting fame. His mission and map designs for "All Ghillied Up" and "One Shot, One Kill" have been described as some of the best gameplays in history.
  • Mohammad Alavi (19??—Present) is an Iranian born modder turned video games developer best known for his work on the "Call of Duty" games (having first contributed to "Call of Duty 2" (2005), before moving on to "Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare" (2007) and "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2" (2009)). He is also known for his work on "Titanfall" (2014), "Titanfall 2" (2016) and "Apex Legends" (2019).
    • Alavi's entry into the video games industry was accidental.[n. 79] He originally went to university to study chemistry and biology,[220] but embarked on studying games design and development at Full Sail University, Florida, having declined going to medical school in favour of games design,[221] unlike his brother and sister who followed the family's traditional route and became physicians. His decision to switch career paths occurred when he discovered his work had been featured in "PC Gamer" magazine.[220]
      • Speaking of his experience in the professional industry (versus his experience as an amateur modder), he recalls having a wide array of interest in many of it's different fields "[w]hen I started in 2004, I made textures, models, FX and sound FX...I did final art and lighting for levels. I wrote all kinds of systems as well as gameplay scripts. Plus, I designed and scripted levels".[221]
    • His first ever mod map that he designed was for "Duke Nukem 3D" (1996) before moving on to "Quake" (1996), "Half-Life" (1998) and "Counter-Strike" (1999).[220] One of his most well known mods includes "Half-Life: Natural Selection" (2002).[220]
  • After graduating from the private university he moved to Los Angeles, California and applied for a programming job at Infinity Ward. Unfortunately, he wasn't successful in getting the job.[221] However company management "were impressed enough by Alavi’s mods to offer him a level design position on Call of Duty 2",[221] where he would go on to create the "darkly humorous potato-throwing grenade tutorial", amongst other contributions.[220] However this isn't what cemented his reputation as a great games developer; it was only when "he started to push the boundaries on his studio’s next game, Call Of Duty 4: Modern Warfare"[220] did he gain fame, even infamy.
    • Alavi was responsible for the design of several missions and maps in "Call Of Duty 4: Modern Warfare". Most of the time his work was done in complete secrecy, despite expressly being told either not to pursue it or that it was impossible to do.[220][222] He created the second mission of the game, "Crew Expendable", where the player had to escape a sinking ship amidst a heavy storm. As he recalls;
      • "I...worked 18-hour days for three weeks putting together the ending they told me not to do...Two or three weeks later, there was a leads meeting and one of the effects guys came in and said ‘There’s a rumour [Alavi] is making the ship sink,’ and Jason [West] was like, ‘What!?’ They came into my office, stood behind me and said, ‘What are you working on? Show us right now.’ It wasn’t quite done, but I had the major beats in. Once they saw it, it convinced them...But it was a secret for a while there”".[222]
    • Alavi was also responsible for creating what is "undoubtedly the best level in Call of Duty history",[223] the stealth mission "All Ghillied Up". Indeed some have even called it "one of the best levels in video game history".[224] Similarly, he also created the map and mission of the follow up mission to "All Ghillied Up", "One Shot, One Kill". Speaking of the design of the missions, Alavi stated;
      • "“To feel right, the AI needed to be programmed with every possible reaction to every possible thing the player could do, and double that for MacMillan [the protagonists in game AI partner],” says Alavi. “Which meant it took me three months and over 10,000 lines of code to do the first minute of gameplay for AGU. [Lead designer] Steve Fukuda sat down at my desk to play the first minute, and he replayed it for half an hour, ten different ways, and had fun each time. For me that was a real success”".[221]
        • The mission was so successful that "Alavi’s script...became the basis for the AI in Modern Warfare 2".[221]
"Titanfall" (2014) art (from "Expedition" DLC).
  • Alavi's most controversial contribution to the "Call of Duty" series has been the mission he created, scripted[222] and designed[222][225] called "No Russian", where the player gets to play as one of several terrorists who massacre civilians in an airport. The inclusion of the mission caused a controversy so large that the mission was removed from the game in certain countries or severely age restricted.
  • In 2010 it was reported that Infinity Ward—the developer of the "Call of Duty" franchise—was being taken to court by their publisher, Activision.[226] The lawsuit was called the "biggest break up in video game history" by some.[226] Later that same year it was reported that mass resignations were happening at the Activision owned studio;[227][n. 80] Alavi himself quit in April,[228] and joined the former founders of Infinity Ward at their newly founded studio, Respawn Entertainment,[229] where many of those who had quit had re-joined one another.[229]
    • Since the studio's founding in 2010, it has gone onto develop several games; mostly notably "Titanfall" (2014; which sold 10 million copies[230] and has a metacritic score of 86% across all platforms), "Titanfall 2" (2016; 4 million copies;[231] 86%—89%), "Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order" (2019; 10 million copies;[232] 79%—81%), "Apex Legends" (2019; which has 100 million unique players online;[233] 88%—89%) and "Medal of Honor: Above and Beyond" (2020; unknown; 67%).[234] This totals to at least 24 million hard copies sold.
  • It has been reported by Full Sail University that he was indeed one of the founding members of Respawn Entertainment.[235]

Nasir Gebelli (SquareSoft; 1980—1993) • Mevlut Dinc (Vivid Image; 1985—2013) • Bob Rafei (Naughty Dog; 1993—2007) • Crytek (1999—Present) • Dead Mage Studios (2000—Present) • TaleWorlds (2001—Present) • Imran Sarwar (Rockstar North; 2002—Present) • Mondo Ghulam (Rockstar North; 2003—Present) • Mohammad Alavi (Infinity Ward; 2004—Present) • Amir Rao (Supergiant Games; 2009—Present) • Quixel (2011—Present) • Others

A fan made copy of Alavi's map as it would look like in the CryEngine (Reddit Post Link). The original 2007 version used the IW engine, which is owned by Inifity Ward.
A cinematic still from "Call of Duty Modern Warfare" (2007). It was this game that brought Alavi lasting fame. His mission and map designs for "All Ghillied Up" and "One Shot, One Kill" have been described as some of the best gameplays in history.
  • Mohammad Alavi (19??—Present) is an Iranian born modder turned video games developer best known for his work on the "Call of Duty" games (having first contributed to "Call of Duty 2" (2005), before moving on to "Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare" (2007) and "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2" (2009)). He is also known for his work on "Titanfall" (2014), "Titanfall 2" (2016) and "Apex Legends" (2019).
    • Alavi's entry into the video games industry was accidental.[n. 81] He originally went to university to study chemistry and biology,[220] but embarked on studying games design and development at Full Sail University, Florida, having declined going to medical school in favour of games design,[221] unlike his brother and sister who followed the family's traditional route and became physicians. His decision to switch career paths occurred when he discovered his work had been featured in "PC Gamer" magazine.[220]
      • Speaking of his experience in the professional industry (versus his experience as an amateur modder), he recalls having a wide array of interest in many of it's different fields "[w]hen I started in 2004, I made textures, models, FX and sound FX...I did final art and lighting for levels. I wrote all kinds of systems as well as gameplay scripts. Plus, I designed and scripted levels".[221]
    • His first ever mod map that he designed was for "Duke Nukem 3D" (1996) before moving on to "Quake" (1996), "Half-Life" (1998) and "Counter-Strike" (1999).[220] One of his most well known mods includes "Half-Life: Natural Selection" (2002).[220]
  • After graduating from the private university he moved to Los Angeles, California and applied for a programming job at Infinity Ward. Unfortunately, he wasn't successful in getting the job.[221] However company management "were impressed enough by Alavi’s mods to offer him a level design position on Call of Duty 2",[221] where he would go on to create the "darkly humorous potato-throwing grenade tutorial", amongst other contributions.[220] However this isn't what cemented his reputation as a great games developer; it was only when "he started to push the boundaries on his studio’s next game, Call Of Duty 4: Modern Warfare"[220] did he gain fame, even infamy.
    • Alavi was responsible for the design of several missions and maps in "Call Of Duty 4: Modern Warfare". Most of the time his work was done in complete secrecy, despite expressly being told either not to pursue it or that it was impossible to do.[220][222] He created the second mission of the game, "Crew Expendable", where the player had to escape a sinking ship amidst a heavy storm. As he recalls;
      • "I...worked 18-hour days for three weeks putting together the ending they told me not to do...Two or three weeks later, there was a leads meeting and one of the effects guys came in and said ‘There’s a rumour [Alavi] is making the ship sink,’ and Jason [West] was like, ‘What!?’ They came into my office, stood behind me and said, ‘What are you working on? Show us right now.’ It wasn’t quite done, but I had the major beats in. Once they saw it, it convinced them...But it was a secret for a while there”".[222]
    • Alavi was also responsible for creating what is "undoubtedly the best level in Call of Duty history",[223] the stealth mission "All Ghillied Up". Indeed some have even called it "one of the best levels in video game history".[224] Similarly, he also created the map and mission of the follow up mission to "All Ghillied Up", "One Shot, One Kill". Speaking of the design of the missions, Alavi stated;
      • "“To feel right, the AI needed to be programmed with every possible reaction to every possible thing the player could do, and double that for MacMillan [the protagonists in game AI partner],” says Alavi. “Which meant it took me three months and over 10,000 lines of code to do the first minute of gameplay for AGU. [Lead designer] Steve Fukuda sat down at my desk to play the first minute, and he replayed it for half an hour, ten different ways, and had fun each time. For me that was a real success”".[221]
        • The mission was so successful that "Alavi’s script...became the basis for the AI in Modern Warfare 2".[221]
"Titanfall" (2014) art (from "Expedition" DLC).
  • Alavi's most controversial contribution to the "Call of Duty" series has been the mission he created, scripted[222] and designed[222][225] called "No Russian", where the player gets to play as one of several terrorists who massacre civilians in an airport. The inclusion of the mission caused a controversy so large that the mission was removed from the game in certain countries or severely age restricted.
  • In 2010 it was reported that Infinity Ward—the developer of the "Call of Duty" franchise—was being taken to court by their publisher, Activision.[226] The lawsuit was called the "biggest break up in video game history" by some.[226] Later that same year it was reported that mass resignations were happening at the Activision owned studio;[227][n. 82] Alavi himself quit in April,[228] and joined the former founders of Infinity Ward at their newly founded studio, Respawn Entertainment,[229] where many of those who had quit had re-joined one another.[229]
    • Since the studio's founding in 2010, it has gone onto develop several games; mostly notably "Titanfall" (2014; which sold 10 million copies[230] and has a metacritic score of 86% across all platforms), "Titanfall 2" (2016; 4 million copies;[231] 86%—89%), "Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order" (2019; 10 million copies;[232] 79%—81%), "Apex Legends" (2019; which has 100 million unique players online;[233] 88%—89%) and "Medal of Honor: Above and Beyond" (2020; unknown; 67%).[234] This totals to at least 24 million hard copies sold.
  • It has been reported by Full Sail University that he was indeed one of the founding members of Respawn Entertainment.[235]

(Electronic Arts & SuperGiant Games) Amir Rao (2009—Present)

See also: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
The team of Supergiant Games. The organisation was formed in 2009 after Amir Rao and Simon Gavin left Electronic Arts to pursue their own business. Their experience with designing AAA game titles at EA enabled them to confidently set up their own independent games studio. As of 2020, they have sold over 7 million games on Steam alone (officially 5 million up to 2017).
  • Amir Rao (19??—Present) is a notable Pakistani-American indie video games design pioneer, most well known for his founding of SuperGiant Games, which is currently headquartered in it's founding city; Silicon Valley, California.[236] He has created, produced and published several games that have seen both critical and commercial success (as some critics have noted his company doesn't have a single game rated below that of 80%[n. 83]). These games are "Bastion" (2011; 86%; user score of 8.5/10[237]), "Transistor" (2014; 83%; 8.4[238]), "Pyre" (2017; 82%; 8.0[239]) and "Hades" (2020; 93%; 8.8[240]).
    • Rao initially started off his career in Los Angeles having worked for Electronic Arts—a US games industry juggernaut who's current net worth amounts to at least $40 billion dollars as of 2020—for approximately three years before deciding to found SuperGiant Games with another colleague, Gavin Simon (????—Present), in 2009.[241] At EA, he primarily worked on the "Command & Conquer" (1995—2020) series;[241] and more specifically is credited with working on the design of "Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars" (2007) and "Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3" (2008).[242]
      • According to Gamasutra, in 2010 the two set up the company when they "quit their jobs at EA LA last year [2009] to "move into a house together and make games"".[241] That house was Rao's father's home.[243] Since the studios founding, Rao served as the role of managing both the design and direction of its games, whilst Simon serves as the organisations gameplay engineer (similarly, he too worked for EA, more specifically at its artificial design department for 2 years before leaving to help Rao form their company).[241] Their very first employee was Darren Korb (????—Present) who was employed in 2010, and is responsible for "handl[ing] all the audio work, including sound effects and mixing".[241]
    • Despite being Pakistani-American,[244][245][246][247] Rao has been mistakenly called "Indian-American" by Indian authors[248] (as Indian news reports have often mis-labelled him as such, having claimed that he is of "Indian-origin"; despite the fact that "Amir Rao" is a common Pakistani Muslim name.
      • For example the head of "Microsoft Pakistan" is a Pakistani named Amir Rao; there's also a film director of Pakistani origin called Amir Rao.[n. 84] Interestingly the Muslim actor Aamir Khan was[249] married to a Hindu woman called Kiran Rao.[250][251] Thus it is certainly possible that such authors have confused his second name "Rao" as being Hindu as they also seem to use the name; but it is clearly moreso used by Muslims.
    • Rao's first name, "Amir", additionally and very clearly betrays his Muslim heritage; which traces it's etymological origins to the Arabic and Somali languages and which means "command", "rule", "princely"', or "born in abundant times".[252][253][254][255][256]
Supergiant Games first title, "Bastion" (2011), was the first game to use reactive/real-time narration, which was lauded as "groundbreaking" by critics. This unique feature, and the storyline, helped it sell millions of copies.
  • Supergiant Games colossal success has lead some to study their business model in hopes of replicating it; given how small of an organisation they are their success has indeed been unprecedented to such an extent that it "provides an example that might seem like a dream from the outside".[243] This is especially notable because there are "numerous teams [that] bring similar attributes to their projects" but "don't get to the same results".[243]
    • The first reason seems to be that both Rao and Gavin had extensive experience working on a number of AAA gaming projects "while cultivating ideas for their own games" which had "honed their abilities".[243] Secondly was in them getting the right people for the right job from the right industries.
      • Although these secondary persons largely worked as freelancers, they proved vital to the success of the company. Aside from their childhood Dungeons & Dragons friend Korb, these were video-game journalist Greg Kasavan (likely hired as he had connections in the video-game journalism industry), MMO, comics and table-top games artist Jen Zee, programmer Andrew Wang and vocal actor Logan Cunningham.[243]
    • The third reason seems to be the company entering a gaming show called the Penny Arcade (2004—Present[257]) in 2010.[243] This gave the studio the exposure it wanted, which it aggressively pursued to become visible to their target market (they also used regularly updated blogs to further anchor interest) and organised press meetings (with one notable one being a multiple-part behind-the-scenes featurette with gaming news site Giant Bomb).[243] These helped "create a connection with emerging fans of the project and gave an inside look at the people and work involved".[243]
      • Rao also intensified their exposure at events such as the GDC, E3 and the IGF as well as additional PAX events,[243] which created an "excellent" build up for their first ever release.[243]
    • A fourth, and perhaps more important reason, was that the team took "the time to approach separate platforms thoughtfully, making the game the best it could be for each. They chose to have their internal team tune all versions, rather than [outsource] ports" which contributed to the positive receptions of each port, and subsequently translated over to great sales, thus "validating" their approach.[243]
Supergiant Games release games on average every three years. They have created four games so far since their foundation in 2009. To date they have sold over 7 million copies of their games altogether.
  • Innovation: In 2011, both Rao and Gavin Simon were the first to conceive of—and apply—the idea of reactive narration/real-time[258][n. 85] narration; which was a unique feature never seen before (and which was also hailed as "groundbreaking" by critics[259][n. 86]).[260][n. 87][261][n. 88][262][n. 89][263][n. 90] They used this in their storytelling to create "Bastion" (2011), which was the first to have this idea incorporated into it, containing ~3,000 lines of dialogue that specifically have the narrator react to the actions of the player (where "every action triggers a unique piece of commentary").[264][265]
    • The game was enormously popular and sold over 3 million copies worldwide;[266][267] interestingly, the legacy of "Bastion's" reactive narrative design has inspired other games to adopt a (partially) similar approach, most notably "Getting Over It With Bennett Foddy" (2017)—a rage-inducing game designed to cause as much anger, frustration and grief as possible in the player (and which for a time was enormously popular on YouTube).[268]
  • Rao's company has also developed a unique reputation amongst the gaming industry for the way it treats it's employees, and the avoidance of it's use of what is known as the "crunch". This has gotten the company a lot of praise from several different gaming and industry news outlets.[269][270]
    • "Crunch", according to news reports, is "the process of working nights and weekends to hit a tight deadline" and "unlike other professions that might muster employees to work overtime in the final stretches of a project, in game development it can be a permanent, and debilitating, way of life". In the games industry "crunch is a culture, an atmosphere, a state of mind" that have lead to some people describing it as "a demon lord, hiding behind the no-charge Coke machine, laughing as you guzzle down those free sodas, knowing that each delicious slurp sells off tiny pieces of your soul". It "can be exhilarating" for some but "oppressive and devastating" for others; made worse by the fact that many "studios don’t [even] pay for overtime".[271]
      • According to gaming news site Kotaku, Supergiant cultivates a culture of employee care, in contrast to those that use crunch; "Supergiant offers its employees unlimited time off, requiring every worker take at least 20 days for themselves every year. Emails stop being sent out after 5 p.m. on Friday. They say everyone keeps an eye on everyone else to make sure no one is getting burnt out. Much in the same way crunch culture is partially borne of good qualities like passion and dedication, these and various other decisions have created a culture at Supergiant where people learn to take care of themselves and their coworkers, by simply being mindful of the kind of environment they foster with their own actions".[272]
    • The employees of Supergiant Games are also some of the best paid in the industry. This is most evident from a recent coronavirus PPP loan taken out by the company back in April 2020.[273] According to US government website Federal Pay, judging by their 2019 payroll information, each employee receives somewhere between $88,421 dollars and over $100,000 dollars per year.[273] According to gaming news website, Polygon, perhaps one other interesting fact is that they are entirely self-funded; indeed the first two games by the company were financially supported in this way.[274] Additionally, Supergiant Games has seen growth in its staff, growing from a studio employing three people to 19 employees as of 2020.[273]
  • Sales: According to SteamSpy, Supergiant Games has sold over 7.066 million copies (2020; however these are only estimated sales based on the Steam platform alone).[275] "Bastion" (2011) has sold more than 3 million copies (2015), "Transistor" (2014) over 1 million (2015),[276] and "Hades" (2020) has sold over 1 million as well (2020).[277] Sales figures for "Pyre" (2017) have never been released, but sales are estimated at $4 million dollars[278] (as of 2017 Supergiant Games stated they had sold over 5 million copies of their games, meaning that they had sold at least 1 million copies of "Pyre").[279]
See also: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
The team of Supergiant Games. The organisation was formed in 2009 after Amir Rao and Simon Gavin left Electronic Arts to pursue their own business. Their experience with designing AAA game titles at EA enabled them to confidently set up their own independent games studio. As of 2020, they have sold over 7 million games on Steam alone (officially 5 million up to 2017).
  • Amir Rao (19??—Present) is a notable Pakistani-American indie video games design pioneer, most well known for his founding of SuperGiant Games, which is currently headquartered in it's founding city; Silicon Valley, California.[236] He has created, produced and published several games that have seen both critical and commercial success (as some critics have noted his company doesn't have a single game rated below that of 80%[n. 91]). These games are "Bastion" (2011; 86%; user score of 8.5/10[237]), "Transistor" (2014; 83%; 8.4[238]), "Pyre" (2017; 82%; 8.0[239]) and "Hades" (2020; 93%; 8.8[240]).
    • Rao initially started off his career in Los Angeles having worked for Electronic Arts—a US games industry juggernaut who's current net worth amounts to at least $40 billion dollars as of 2020—for approximately three years before deciding to found SuperGiant Games with another colleague, Gavin Simon (????—Present), in 2009.[241] At EA, he primarily worked on the "Command & Conquer" (1995—2020) series;[241] and more specifically is credited with working on the design of "Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars" (2007) and "Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3" (2008).[242]
      • According to Gamasutra, in 2010 the two set up the company when they "quit their jobs at EA LA last year [2009] to "move into a house together and make games"".[241] That house was Rao's father's home.[243] Since the studios founding, Rao served as the role of managing both the design and direction of its games, whilst Simon serves as the organisations gameplay engineer (similarly, he too worked for EA, more specifically at its artificial design department for 2 years before leaving to help Rao form their company).[241] Their very first employee was Darren Korb (????—Present) who was employed in 2010, and is responsible for "handl[ing] all the audio work, including sound effects and mixing".[241]
    • Despite being Pakistani-American,[244][245][246][247] Rao has been mistakenly called "Indian-American" by Indian authors[248] (as Indian news reports have often mis-labelled him as such, having claimed that he is of "Indian-origin"; despite the fact that "Amir Rao" is a common Pakistani Muslim name.
      • For example the head of "Microsoft Pakistan" is a Pakistani named Amir Rao; there's also a film director of Pakistani origin called Amir Rao.[n. 92] Interestingly the Muslim actor Aamir Khan was[249] married to a Hindu woman called Kiran Rao.[250][251] Thus it is certainly possible that such authors have confused his second name "Rao" as being Hindu as they also seem to use the name; but it is clearly moreso used by Muslims.
    • Rao's first name, "Amir", additionally and very clearly betrays his Muslim heritage; which traces it's etymological origins to the Arabic and Somali languages and which means "command", "rule", "princely"', or "born in abundant times".[252][253][254][255][256]
Supergiant Games first title, "Bastion" (2011), was the first game to use reactive/real-time narration, which was lauded as "groundbreaking" by critics. This unique feature, and the storyline, helped it sell millions of copies.
  • Supergiant Games colossal success has lead some to study their business model in hopes of replicating it; given how small of an organisation they are their success has indeed been unprecedented to such an extent that it "provides an example that might seem like a dream from the outside".[243] This is especially notable because there are "numerous teams [that] bring similar attributes to their projects" but "don't get to the same results".[243]
    • The first reason seems to be that both Rao and Gavin had extensive experience working on a number of AAA gaming projects "while cultivating ideas for their own games" which had "honed their abilities".[243] Secondly was in them getting the right people for the right job from the right industries.
      • Although these secondary persons largely worked as freelancers, they proved vital to the success of the company. Aside from their childhood Dungeons & Dragons friend Korb, these were video-game journalist Greg Kasavan (likely hired as he had connections in the video-game journalism industry), MMO, comics and table-top games artist Jen Zee, programmer Andrew Wang and vocal actor Logan Cunningham.[243]
    • The third reason seems to be the company entering a gaming show called the Penny Arcade (2004—Present[257]) in 2010.[243] This gave the studio the exposure it wanted, which it aggressively pursued to become visible to their target market (they also used regularly updated blogs to further anchor interest) and organised press meetings (with one notable one being a multiple-part behind-the-scenes featurette with gaming news site Giant Bomb).[243] These helped "create a connection with emerging fans of the project and gave an inside look at the people and work involved".[243]
      • Rao also intensified their exposure at events such as the GDC, E3 and the IGF as well as additional PAX events,[243] which created an "excellent" build up for their first ever release.[243]
    • A fourth, and perhaps more important reason, was that the team took "the time to approach separate platforms thoughtfully, making the game the best it could be for each. They chose to have their internal team tune all versions, rather than [outsource] ports" which contributed to the positive receptions of each port, and subsequently translated over to great sales, thus "validating" their approach.[243]
Supergiant Games release games on average every three years. They have created four games so far since their foundation in 2009. To date they have sold over 7 million copies of their games altogether.
  • Innovation: In 2011, both Rao and Gavin Simon were the first to conceive of—and apply—the idea of reactive narration/real-time[258][n. 93] narration; which was a unique feature never seen before (and which was also hailed as "groundbreaking" by critics[259][n. 94]).[260][n. 95][261][n. 96][262][n. 97][263][n. 98] They used this in their storytelling to create "Bastion" (2011), which was the first to have this idea incorporated into it, containing ~3,000 lines of dialogue that specifically have the narrator react to the actions of the player (where "every action triggers a unique piece of commentary").[264][265]
    • The game was enormously popular and sold over 3 million copies worldwide;[266][267] interestingly, the legacy of "Bastion's" reactive narrative design has inspired other games to adopt a (partially) similar approach, most notably "Getting Over It With Bennett Foddy" (2017)—a rage-inducing game designed to cause as much anger, frustration and grief as possible in the player (and which for a time was enormously popular on YouTube).[268]
  • Rao's company has also developed a unique reputation amongst the gaming industry for the way it treats it's employees, and the avoidance of it's use of what is known as the "crunch". This has gotten the company a lot of praise from several different gaming and industry news outlets.[269][270]
    • "Crunch", according to news reports, is "the process of working nights and weekends to hit a tight deadline" and "unlike other professions that might muster employees to work overtime in the final stretches of a project, in game development it can be a permanent, and debilitating, way of life". In the games industry "crunch is a culture, an atmosphere, a state of mind" that have lead to some people describing it as "a demon lord, hiding behind the no-charge Coke machine, laughing as you guzzle down those free sodas, knowing that each delicious slurp sells off tiny pieces of your soul". It "can be exhilarating" for some but "oppressive and devastating" for others; made worse by the fact that many "studios don’t [even] pay for overtime".[271]
      • According to gaming news site Kotaku, Supergiant cultivates a culture of employee care, in contrast to those that use crunch; "Supergiant offers its employees unlimited time off, requiring every worker take at least 20 days for themselves every year. Emails stop being sent out after 5 p.m. on Friday. They say everyone keeps an eye on everyone else to make sure no one is getting burnt out. Much in the same way crunch culture is partially borne of good qualities like passion and dedication, these and various other decisions have created a culture at Supergiant where people learn to take care of themselves and their coworkers, by simply being mindful of the kind of environment they foster with their own actions".[272]
    • The employees of Supergiant Games are also some of the best paid in the industry. This is most evident from a recent coronavirus PPP loan taken out by the company back in April 2020.[273] According to US government website Federal Pay, judging by their 2019 payroll information, each employee receives somewhere between $88,421 dollars and over $100,000 dollars per year.[273] According to gaming news website, Polygon, perhaps one other interesting fact is that they are entirely self-funded; indeed the first two games by the company were financially supported in this way.[274] Additionally, Supergiant Games has seen growth in its staff, growing from a studio employing three people to 19 employees as of 2020.[273]
  • Sales: According to SteamSpy, Supergiant Games has sold over 7.066 million copies (2020; however these are only estimated sales based on the Steam platform alone).[275] "Bastion" (2011) has sold more than 3 million copies (2015), "Transistor" (2014) over 1 million (2015),[276] and "Hades" (2020) has sold over 1 million as well (2020).[277] Sales figures for "Pyre" (2017) have never been released, but sales are estimated at $4 million dollars[278] (as of 2017 Supergiant Games stated they had sold over 5 million copies of their games, meaning that they had sold at least 1 million copies of "Pyre").[279]

Quixel (2011—Present)

See also: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
A hyper-realistic rendition of the dust_2 map from "Counter-Strike", made using Quixel's advanced tools. This is also their most viewed video on their YouTube channel. Enlarge the image to see the finer details. A hyper-realistic rendition of the dust_2 map from "Counter-Strike", made using Quixel's advanced tools. This is also their most viewed video on their YouTube channel. Enlarge the image to see the finer details. A hyper-realistic rendition of the dust_2 map from "Counter-Strike", made using Quixel's advanced tools. This is also their most viewed video on their YouTube channel. Enlarge the image to see the finer details.
  • Quixel is a Pakistani 2D and 3D graphics company founded by Waqar Azim in 2011, and headquartered in both Pakistan and Sweden,[280] that specialises in hyper-realistic 3D environments.[281] It currently employs about 150 people in Pakistan where 95% of the company's technical work is done (as of 2019, they have over 200 employees globally[282]).[283] According to press reports, the company's stated "vision [is] to substantially speed up how creators build digital environments".[282] Since they're founding their "assets and tools have become indispensable to the artists behind some of the most iconic digital productions of our time".[282]
    • Azim studied Computer Science at the Foundation for Advancement of Science and Technology (FAST)—also known as the National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences—graduating in 2006 before moving to Silicon Valley, California.[283] His interest in rendering graphics stemmed from the last few years of his degree where he "worked for a couple of summers exploring [the] industry in Trango" (Gilgit-Baltistan).[283] It was here that he "realized that it could be a legitimate career option".[283]
      • Whilst in the US he was able to gain an internship at a company "that was working on an interesting cross-section of hardware, art, and engineering...It scanned characters, props, and other assets for in-house game development and I liked it enough to quit my job at Disney for it".[283] It was here that he met his partner, and co-founder of Quixel, Teddy Bergsman; and the two decided to develop their expertise further in this area of work.[283] For the next six years, Azim and his colleague developed several critical tools ("Megascans", "Bridge" and "Mixer") that help realise and fund their company.[283]
        • The "Bridge" tool is used to manage and export 3D assets with other 3D applications and game engines, whereas "Mixer" is more of a material creation tool.[284] "Megascans" is their library, which has amassed more than 15,000 assets.[285]
      • It was during this time also, that they decided to shift their operations from the US to Pakistan.[283] Approximately 95% of all their scans originate from Pakistan.[283] The technology Quixel uses to scan textures remains a closely guarded secret.[286] Their first scanner required at least six people to carry around, however as they developed the technology further, they created handheld devices to scan small objects and drones capable of scanning anything larger than a bus.[286]
  • Quixel's assets have been used to construct games such as "Destiny 2" (2017),[284][287] "Shadow of the Colossus" (2018),[288] "Black Ops 4" (2018),[288] "Battlefield V" (2018),[284] "Shadow of the Tomb Raider",[288] "A Plague Tale: Innocence" (2019),[288][289] "Metro Exodus" (2019),[284][287] "The Division 2" (2019),[288] "Anthem" (2019)[288] and "Cyberpunk 2077" (2020).[290]
    • Their assets have also been used in film such as "The Jungle Book" (2016),[284] "Jumanji" (2017), "Justice League" (2017), "Pacific Rim: Uprising" (2018),[288] "Black Panther" (2018),[284][287] "The Lion King" (2019)[284][287] and the film television series' "American Gods" (2017—2021)[291] and "Star Wars: The Mandalorian" (2019—Present). The films alone have grossed over $5.88 billion dollars. Interestingly and more notably, "The Jungle Book" won an Oscar at the Academy Awards as a result of the graphical tools provided by Quixel.[282]
  • In 2019, the makers of "Fortnite" (2017), Epic Games, bought[292][293] Quixel for an undisclosed sum[281] as "[t]heir mission was so grand and so clear that we decided it was the only right move".[283] Although the amount isn't known, Quixel had previously raised $3.1 million dollars themselves in 2018 in order to "bring on an experienced advisory team, assemble a Board of Directors, and break into new industries".[283] Azim was quoted as saying "I’m particularly proud of the fact that when we sold Quixel to Epic Games, our people in Pakistan were beneficiaries since we’d cleaned up our company structure (when we first raised funding) and granted them stock options...Epic Games is very impressed with the quality of our people in Pakistan. They met many of our team leads as part of the acquisition process and were immediately impressed by their abilities and technical aptitude, it’s been a pleasant surprise for them".[283]
See also: List of Inventions and Discoveries in Ancient and Modern Pakistan and Islamic India
A hyper-realistic rendition of the dust_2 map from "Counter-Strike", made using Quixel's advanced tools. This is also their most viewed video on their YouTube channel. Enlarge the image to see the finer details.
  • Quixel is a Pakistani 2D and 3D graphics company founded by Waqar Azim in 2011, and headquartered in both Pakistan and Sweden,[280] that specialises in hyper-realistic 3D environments.[281] It currently employs about 150 people in Pakistan where 95% of the company's technical work is done (as of 2019, they have over 200 employees globally[282]).[283] According to press reports, the company's stated "vision [is] to substantially speed up how creators build digital environments".[282] Since they're founding their "assets and tools have become indispensable to the artists behind some of the most iconic digital productions of our time".[282]
    • Azim studied Computer Science at the Foundation for Advancement of Science and Technology (FAST)—also known as the National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences—graduating in 2006 before moving to Silicon Valley, California.[283] His interest in rendering graphics stemmed from the last few years of his degree where he "worked for a couple of summers exploring [the] industry in Trango" (Gilgit-Baltistan).[283] It was here that he "realized that it could be a legitimate career option".[283]
      • Whilst in the US he was able to gain an internship at a company "that was working on an interesting cross-section of hardware, art, and engineering...It scanned characters, props, and other assets for in-house game development and I liked it enough to quit my job at Disney for it".[283] It was here that he met his partner, and co-founder of Quixel, Teddy Bergsman; and the two decided to develop their expertise further in this area of work.[283] For the next six years, Azim and his colleague developed several critical tools ("Megascans", "Bridge" and "Mixer") that help realise and fund their company.[283]
        • The "Bridge" tool is used to manage and export 3D assets with other 3D applications and game engines, whereas "Mixer" is more of a material creation tool.[284] "Megascans" is their library, which has amassed more than 15,000 assets.[285]
      • It was during this time also, that they decided to shift their operations from the US to Pakistan.[283] Approximately 95% of all their scans originate from Pakistan.[283] The technology Quixel uses to scan textures remains a closely guarded secret.[286] Their first scanner required at least six people to carry around, however as they developed the technology further, they created handheld devices to scan small objects and drones capable of scanning anything larger than a bus.[286]
  • Quixel's assets have been used to construct games such as "Destiny 2" (2017),[284][287] "Shadow of the Colossus" (2018),[288] "Black Ops 4" (2018),[288] "Battlefield V" (2018),[284] "Shadow of the Tomb Raider",[288] "A Plague Tale: Innocence" (2019),[288][289] "Metro Exodus" (2019),[284][287] "The Division 2" (2019),[288] "Anthem" (2019)[288] and "Cyberpunk 2077" (2020).[290]
    • Their assets have also been used in film such as "The Jungle Book" (2016),[284] "Jumanji" (2017), "Justice League" (2017), "Pacific Rim: Uprising" (2018),[288] "Black Panther" (2018),[284][287] "The Lion King" (2019)[284][287] and the film television series' "American Gods" (2017—2021)[291] and "Star Wars: The Mandalorian" (2019—Present). The films alone have grossed over $5.88 billion dollars. Interestingly and more notably, "The Jungle Book" won an Oscar at the Academy Awards as a result of the graphical tools provided by Quixel.[282]
  • In 2019, the makers of "Fortnite" (2017), Epic Games, bought[292][293] Quixel for an undisclosed sum[281] as "[t]heir mission was so grand and so clear that we decided it was the only right move".[283] Although the amount isn't known, Quixel had previously raised $3.1 million dollars themselves in 2018 in order to "bring on an experienced advisory team, assemble a Board of Directors, and break into new industries".[283] Azim was quoted as saying "I’m particularly proud of the fact that when we sold Quixel to Epic Games, our people in Pakistan were beneficiaries since we’d cleaned up our company structure (when we first raised funding) and granted them stock options...Epic Games is very impressed with the quality of our people in Pakistan. They met many of our team leads as part of the acquisition process and were immediately impressed by their abilities and technical aptitude, it’s been a pleasant surprise for them".[283]

(Miscellaneous) Others

  • M. A. Abderrazzaq is a triple-A[294] video games producer and former Machinima Director[294] who has 7 games credited to his name.[295] According to PR Newswire he "demonstrated success in building and maintaining a variety of popular cross-platform entertainment franchises", overseeing "initiatives with studio partners including Warner Bros. and Microsoft to launch premium content on the Machinima Network" including "Halo 4: Forward Unto Dawn" (2012), "Mortal Kombat: Legacy II" (2012) and "Street Fighter: Assassins Fist" (2014).[294]
    • He was producer of "Risk II" (2000),[295] "Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure" (2005),[295] "Silent Hill: Homecoming" (2008),[295] Call of Duty: World at War (2008),[295] Call of Duty: Black Ops (2010)[295] as well as being the multiplayer producer of "Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen" (2009)[295] and Senior Producer of "F.E.A.R. 3" (2011).[295]
      • He has also received "special thanks" credits on two games, notably "300: March to Glory" (2007)[295] and "Robin Hood: Defender of the Crown" (2003).[295]
  • In total, Abderrazzaq has 18 years worth of video gaming experience,[294] having worked with studios such as EA, Collective Studios, Activision, Warner Bros., Konami,[296] and Interactive Entertainment.[294] In 2008, according to Alumni Digest, Abderrazzaq had a harder time than his Whiter counterparts breaking into the industry, despite graduating with a BSc in 1994 (similar to that of his close colleagues Chris Valenziano; 1997 and Patrick Doody; 1995); however his perseverance eventually paid off later in life.[296] He also writes/directs short films.[295]
  • Habib Zargarpour is an award-winning (twice Oscar nominated) Iranian Muslim who has traditionally worked in the visual effects industry of Hollywood (specifically at Industrial Light & Magic, a company founded by George Lucas[297]), but has worked on several video games as well. From 1991 to 2002 he served in visual effects.
    • He served as "computer effects artist" for "Adventures in Dinosaur City" (1991),[298] "Star Trek: Generations" (1994),[298] "The Mask" (1994)[298] and "Star Trek: First Contact" (1996).[298] He was computer graphics supervisor in "Jumanji" (1995)[298] and "Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace" (1999).[298] He was "associate visual effects supervisor" of "The Bourne Identity" (2002),[298] "Signs" (2002) and "The Perfect Storm" (2000).[298] In addition to these roles he was also the digital tornado designer in Twister (1996),[298] a visual effects co-supervisor in Spawn (1997),[298] a digital wave and development researcher and artist for "Snake Eyes" (1998)[298] and a digital artist in "Aizea: City of the Wind" (2001).[298]
  • He was Senior Art Director for "Need for Speed: Underground" (2003),[298] "James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing" (2003),[298] "Need for Speed: Most Wanted" (2005)[298] and "Need for Speed: Nitro" (2009).[298] Since 2010 Zargarpour has served as Creative Director at Microsoft Studios, and has also worked with fellow Muslim video gamers at Crytek for their game "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013).[299][300] He also worked on "Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars" (2007), "Army of Two: The 40th Day" (2010) and "Kinect Star Wars" (2012).
  • M. A. Abderrazzaq is a triple-A[294] video games producer and former Machinima Director[294] who has 7 games credited to his name.[295] According to PR Newswire he "demonstrated success in building and maintaining a variety of popular cross-platform entertainment franchises", overseeing "initiatives with studio partners including Warner Bros. and Microsoft to launch premium content on the Machinima Network" including "Halo 4: Forward Unto Dawn" (2012), "Mortal Kombat: Legacy II" (2012) and "Street Fighter: Assassins Fist" (2014).[294]
    • He was producer of "Risk II" (2000),[295] "Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure" (2005),[295] "Silent Hill: Homecoming" (2008),[295] Call of Duty: World at War (2008),[295] Call of Duty: Black Ops (2010)[295] as well as being the multiplayer producer of "Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen" (2009)[295] and Senior Producer of "F.E.A.R. 3" (2011).[295]
      • He has also received "special thanks" credits on two games, notably "300: March to Glory" (2007)[295] and "Robin Hood: Defender of the Crown" (2003).[295]
  • In total, Abderrazzaq has 18 years worth of video gaming experience,[294] having worked with studios such as EA, Collective Studios, Activision, Warner Bros., Konami,[296] and Interactive Entertainment.[294] In 2008, according to Alumni Digest, Abderrazzaq had a harder time than his Whiter counterparts breaking into the industry, despite graduating with a BSc in 1994 (similar to that of his close colleagues Chris Valenziano; 1997 and Patrick Doody; 1995); however his perseverance eventually paid off later in life.[296] He also writes/directs short films.[295]
  • Habib Zargarpour is an award-winning (twice Oscar nominated) Iranian Muslim who has traditionally worked in the visual effects industry of Hollywood (specifically at Industrial Light & Magic, a company founded by George Lucas[297]), but has worked on several video games as well. From 1991 to 2002 he served in visual effects.
    • He served as "computer effects artist" for "Adventures in Dinosaur City" (1991),[298] "Star Trek: Generations" (1994),[298] "The Mask" (1994)[298] and "Star Trek: First Contact" (1996).[298] He was computer graphics supervisor in "Jumanji" (1995)[298] and "Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace" (1999).[298] He was "associate visual effects supervisor" of "The Bourne Identity" (2002),[298] "Signs" (2002) and "The Perfect Storm" (2000).[298] In addition to these roles he was also the digital tornado designer in Twister (1996),[298] a visual effects co-supervisor in Spawn (1997),[298] a digital wave and development researcher and artist for "Snake Eyes" (1998)[298] and a digital artist in "Aizea: City of the Wind" (2001).[298]
  • He was Senior Art Director for "Need for Speed: Underground" (2003),[298] "James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing" (2003),[298] "Need for Speed: Most Wanted" (2005)[298] and "Need for Speed: Nitro" (2009).[298] Since 2010 Zargarpour has served as Creative Director at Microsoft Studios, and has also worked with fellow Muslim video gamers at Crytek for their game "Ryse: Son of Rome" (2013).[299][300] He also worked on "Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars" (2007), "Army of Two: The 40th Day" (2010) and "Kinect Star Wars" (2012).

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ A cultural Muslim is best summed up as being defined as;
    Quote: "The “cultural Muslim” refers to members of the Muslim community who are non-practising but retain an attachment to elements of Islamic culture. The history of the Muslim world entails the story of numerous civilisations spanning from Spain in the West to Pakistan in the East. And not much has changed today. The vast cultural diversity means distinctness and variety in practice and customs. Communities of faithful across the globe express a multiplicity of interpretations across the globe. More intriguingly, the category of the “cultural Muslim” is not only a testament to the cultural diversity associated with the faith, but further defined by a process of disenchantment with its religious institution. This goes beyond the fact that there are extremist Muslims and peaceful Muslims and mystic Muslims; it points to the ordinary everyday secularised Muslim who might even be engaged in a private and personal (that is to say apolitical) manner with their religion...Not all Muslims are religious. An increasingly recognised body of non-practising Muslims living in the West are identified (or openly self-identify) as cultural. This is different to the many liberal Muslims, who like liberal Christians, would argue that they are simply re-interpreting the unchanging core of their religion, to suit the new environment. The cultural Muslim appears to be the case of an unaccounted majority. They no doubt represent an important part of the dialogue between religion and secularity in the West. The qualifier “cultural”, used by Muslims themselves, seems to indicate awareness that the conscious choice of calling oneself a cultural Muslim dissociates from anti-Muslim sentiment (see Mas 2006: 586)".
    1. Clint Witchalls (September 29th, 2014). Cultural Muslims, like cultural Christians, are a silent majority. The Conversation. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  2. ^ See this for example; in Europe there are tens of millions of Muslims;
    1. Conrad Hackett (November 29th, 2017). 5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe. Pew Research. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  3. ^ See;
    1. Poynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2016). "The resistible rise of Islamophobia". Journal of Sociology. 43 (1): 61–86. doi:10.1177/1440783307073935. ISSN 1440-7833.
    2. Poynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2006). ""Tolerance, Freedom, Justice and Peace"?: Britain, Australia and Anti-Muslim Racism since 11 September 2001". Journal of Intercultural Studies. 27 (4): 365–391. doi:10.1080/07256860600934973. ISSN 0725-6868.
    3. Anna Amelina; Kenneth Horvath; Bruno Meeus (1 December 2015). An Anthology of Migration and Social Transformation: European Perspectives. Springer. p. 284. ISBN 978-3-319-23666-7.
    4. Erik Love. (2013). "[www.jstor.org/stable/41960426 Beyond "post 9/11"]". Contexts. Volume 12. Issue Number 1. pp. 70-72. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  4. ^ In America and Europe for example; "The United States has a long history of...racism and exclusion of African Americans from full participation in American society. In Europe, there is a deeply rooted resistance to immigrants, especially in countries with an ethnic or folk identity".
    1. Ira M. Lapidus (13 October 2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 802. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.
    In Europe for example; "...there is a variety of debate regarding the greatest source of conflict. Oudernam argues that ethnicity seems to be the greatest driving factor of conflict. In chapter five of Rand Corporation’s Sources of Conflict in Europe and the Former Soviet Union, John Van Oudenaren writes, “In many parts of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe, the presence of ethnic or religious minorities in states dominated by other ethnic or religious groups creates a potential for subnational conflict.”27 He goes on to explain that minorities such as the Hungarians in Slovakia and Serbia, the Turks in Greece and the Greeks in Albania all look for protection from their mother country, but given that they reside in these other countries, there is not much their mother country can do. For many, Oudenaren argues, this is where the seeds of conflict arise. However, from this, he says, neighboring countries engage in territorial dispute as can be seen in the “conflict between Greece and Turkey -- over territorial issues in the Aegean, over Cyprus, and over minority issues in Thrace”28. Fox (2001, 464) disagrees, finding that other regions such as the Middle East are more prone to ethnic conflict compared to Europe29".
    1. Jacob C. Potts, Audrey Cleaver-Bartholomew, and Izzi Hughes (2016). Comparing the Roots of Conflict in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Inquiries Journal. Volume 8. Issue Number 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2020.
    See also;
    1. Bruce Baum (1 July 2008). The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. NYU Press. pp. 22–57. ISBN 978-0-8147-3943-3.
    See also; Quote: "A second negative element is the legacy of anti-Semitism. Throughout European history, Jews have been the immediate "others" who fulfilled the group identity, mirrored the needs of the majority and further provided a symbolic reference baseline for all new "others". This mechanism played a substantial role during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the establishmnet of modern European nation-states: anti-Semitism was the common cement for the creation of a national identity in most Western and Eastern European countries (except for Italy, where the Catholic Church has played the role of the "other")".
    1. Sharon Pardo; Hila Zahavi (15 January 2020). The Jewish Contribution to European Integration. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 78. ISBN 978-1-79360-320-3.
  5. ^ Quote: "The Holocaust (i.e. the extermination of Jews during World War II) ranks as the worst genocide in recent history. However, even the Holocuast's highest ranking as the worst genocide does not entail its uniqueness, at least, in any ordinary sense of the term. To give the highest status to the Holocaust on the scale of grave injustices does not provide support for its uniqueness. The Holocaust has a moral priority over other genocides, which emans that the Holocaust has been morally the worst genocide".
    1. Thomas W. Simon (29 April 2016). Genocide, Torture, and Terrorism: Ranking International Crimes and Justifying Humanitarian Intervention. Springer. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-137-41511-0.
  6. ^ By 2011, there are estimated to be about 200,000—320,000 native converts to Islam in Europe alone. However the numbers are difficult to quantify.
    Quote: "In France, estimates suggest approximately 50,000 to 100,000 converts out of a population of three to four million Muslims. For details, see Mapping the Global Muslim Population (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 2009). In 2006, there were 850,000 Muslims in the Netherlands, including 12,000 converts. For details, see “More than 850 Thousand Muslims in the Netherlands,” Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, October 27, 2007. In Germany, the estimated number of converts ranges from 12,000 to 100,000, with the total Muslim population set at around three million. For details, see Johannes Kandel, “Organisierter Islam in Deutschland und gesellschaftliche Integration,” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, September 2004. In Great Britain, there were about 63,000 native converts out of a population of 1.6 million Muslims in the early 2000s. For details, see the 2001 Census completed by the Office for National Statistics. Their numbers, however, must have increased because the Muslim population as a whole reached 2.4 million in 2009. For details, see Richard Kerbaj, “Muslim Population Rising 10 Times Faster Than Rest of Society,” The Times, January 30, 2009. Spain has an estimated 800,000 Muslims, roughly 20,000 of whom are converts. For details, see Geoff Pingree and Lisa Abend, “In Spain, Dismay at Muslim Converts Holding Sway,” Christian Science Monitor, November 7, 2006".
    1. Emmanuel Karagiannis (August 2011). Islamic Activism in Europe: The Role of Converts. Combating Terrorism Center (CTC Sentinel). Volume 4, Issue 8. Archive.is Link. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  7. ^ Contrary to popular belief, there are people who consider themselves half-Muslim or belonging to two different religion, one of which is Islam. The following sources reflect this phenomenon and are excellent reads in understanding how these half-Muslims frame themselves within their mixed identities;
    1. Tanzim Pardiwalla (2019). I'm Half-Parsi, Half-Muslim. This Is How Ramadan Is Celebrated In My World. Mashable India. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    2. Shaista Tayabali (December 26th, 2017). Half Parsi. Half Muslim. Full woman.. Sister Hood. Archive.is Link. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    3. Huma Qureshi (March 29th, 2020). English, Muslim, Pakistani ... how I tell my kids about their identities. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    4. Anushri Kumar (March 12th, 2020). SCPC brings in Trevor Wallace for Spring Comedy Show. Technique. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    5. Sara Belcher (2020). Reza Farahan of 'Shahs of Sunset' Talks His Haircare Line Reza Be Obsessed (Exclusive). Distractify. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    The most famous half-Muslim is Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith. His father was a Hindu convert to Islam; Quote: "Nanak was born in 1469, some fourteen years before Martin Luther. He grew up in the Punjab, which, ruled by a weak Afghan dynasty, was half Hindu and half Muslim. His father, who was a Hindu, worked as the village accountant for the local Rajput chief, who had converted to Islam".
    1. Marcus Braybrooke (2009). Beacons of the Light: 100 Holy People Who Have Shaped the History of Humanity. John Hunt Publishing. p. 332. ISBN 978-1-84694-185-6.
  8. ^ Quote: "In my new book The Myth of the Muslim Tide, I chronicle the widespread misunderstanding of Muslim immigration to the West. As with Jews and Catholics before, I discuss that Muslims are being seen as an impossible-to-integrate, fast-reproducing invasion force who follow a religion that’s more an ideology of conquest than a faith. Using the latest facts and figures, I illustrate the far less alarming truth about these new arrivals".
    1. Doug Saunders (November 10th, 2012). 10 Myths About Muslims in the West. Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2020.
    2. Doug Saunders (21 August 2012). The Myth of the Muslim Tide: Do Immigrants Threaten the West?. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-95125-0.
  9. ^ A cultural Muslim is best summed up as being defined as;
    Quote: "The “cultural Muslim” refers to members of the Muslim community who are non-practising but retain an attachment to elements of Islamic culture. The history of the Muslim world entails the story of numerous civilisations spanning from Spain in the West to Pakistan in the East. And not much has changed today. The vast cultural diversity means distinctness and variety in practice and customs. Communities of faithful across the globe express a multiplicity of interpretations across the globe. More intriguingly, the category of the “cultural Muslim” is not only a testament to the cultural diversity associated with the faith, but further defined by a process of disenchantment with its religious institution. This goes beyond the fact that there are extremist Muslims and peaceful Muslims and mystic Muslims; it points to the ordinary everyday secularised Muslim who might even be engaged in a private and personal (that is to say apolitical) manner with their religion...Not all Muslims are religious. An increasingly recognised body of non-practising Muslims living in the West are identified (or openly self-identify) as cultural. This is different to the many liberal Muslims, who like liberal Christians, would argue that they are simply re-interpreting the unchanging core of their religion, to suit the new environment. The cultural Muslim appears to be the case of an unaccounted majority. They no doubt represent an important part of the dialogue between religion and secularity in the West. The qualifier “cultural”, used by Muslims themselves, seems to indicate awareness that the conscious choice of calling oneself a cultural Muslim dissociates from anti-Muslim sentiment (see Mas 2006: 586)".
    1. Clint Witchalls (September 29th, 2014). Cultural Muslims, like cultural Christians, are a silent majority. The Conversation. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  10. ^ See this for example; in Europe there are tens of millions of Muslims;
    1. Conrad Hackett (November 29th, 2017). 5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe. Pew Research. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  11. ^ See;
    1. Poynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2016). "The resistible rise of Islamophobia". Journal of Sociology. 43 (1): 61–86. doi:10.1177/1440783307073935. ISSN 1440-7833.
    2. Poynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2006). ""Tolerance, Freedom, Justice and Peace"?: Britain, Australia and Anti-Muslim Racism since 11 September 2001". Journal of Intercultural Studies. 27 (4): 365–391. doi:10.1080/07256860600934973. ISSN 0725-6868.
    3. Anna Amelina; Kenneth Horvath; Bruno Meeus (1 December 2015). An Anthology of Migration and Social Transformation: European Perspectives. Springer. p. 284. ISBN 978-3-319-23666-7.
    4. Erik Love. (2013). "[www.jstor.org/stable/41960426 Beyond "post 9/11"]". Contexts. Volume 12. Issue Number 1. pp. 70-72. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  12. ^ In America and Europe for example; "The United States has a long history of...racism and exclusion of African Americans from full participation in American society. In Europe, there is a deeply rooted resistance to immigrants, especially in countries with an ethnic or folk identity".
    1. Ira M. Lapidus (13 October 2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 802. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.
    In Europe for example; "...there is a variety of debate regarding the greatest source of conflict. Oudernam argues that ethnicity seems to be the greatest driving factor of conflict. In chapter five of Rand Corporation’s Sources of Conflict in Europe and the Former Soviet Union, John Van Oudenaren writes, “In many parts of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe, the presence of ethnic or religious minorities in states dominated by other ethnic or religious groups creates a potential for subnational conflict.”27 He goes on to explain that minorities such as the Hungarians in Slovakia and Serbia, the Turks in Greece and the Greeks in Albania all look for protection from their mother country, but given that they reside in these other countries, there is not much their mother country can do. For many, Oudenaren argues, this is where the seeds of conflict arise. However, from this, he says, neighboring countries engage in territorial dispute as can be seen in the “conflict between Greece and Turkey -- over territorial issues in the Aegean, over Cyprus, and over minority issues in Thrace”28. Fox (2001, 464) disagrees, finding that other regions such as the Middle East are more prone to ethnic conflict compared to Europe29".
    1. Jacob C. Potts, Audrey Cleaver-Bartholomew, and Izzi Hughes (2016). Comparing the Roots of Conflict in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Inquiries Journal. Volume 8. Issue Number 4. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2020.
    See also;
    1. Bruce Baum (1 July 2008). The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. NYU Press. pp. 22–57. ISBN 978-0-8147-3943-3.
    See also; Quote: "A second negative element is the legacy of anti-Semitism. Throughout European history, Jews have been the immediate "others" who fulfilled the group identity, mirrored the needs of the majority and further provided a symbolic reference baseline for all new "others". This mechanism played a substantial role during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the establishmnet of modern European nation-states: anti-Semitism was the common cement for the creation of a national identity in most Western and Eastern European countries (except for Italy, where the Catholic Church has played the role of the "other")".
    1. Sharon Pardo; Hila Zahavi (15 January 2020). The Jewish Contribution to European Integration. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 78. ISBN 978-1-79360-320-3.
  13. ^ Quote: "The Holocaust (i.e. the extermination of Jews during World War II) ranks as the worst genocide in recent history. However, even the Holocuast's highest ranking as the worst genocide does not entail its uniqueness, at least, in any ordinary sense of the term. To give the highest status to the Holocaust on the scale of grave injustices does not provide support for its uniqueness. The Holocaust has a moral priority over other genocides, which emans that the Holocaust has been morally the worst genocide".
    1. Thomas W. Simon (29 April 2016). Genocide, Torture, and Terrorism: Ranking International Crimes and Justifying Humanitarian Intervention. Springer. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-137-41511-0.
  14. ^ By 2011, there are estimated to be about 200,000—320,000 native converts to Islam in Europe alone. However the numbers are difficult to quantify.
    Quote: "In France, estimates suggest approximately 50,000 to 100,000 converts out of a population of three to four million Muslims. For details, see Mapping the Global Muslim Population (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 2009). In 2006, there were 850,000 Muslims in the Netherlands, including 12,000 converts. For details, see “More than 850 Thousand Muslims in the Netherlands,” Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, October 27, 2007. In Germany, the estimated number of converts ranges from 12,000 to 100,000, with the total Muslim population set at around three million. For details, see Johannes Kandel, “Organisierter Islam in Deutschland und gesellschaftliche Integration,” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, September 2004. In Great Britain, there were about 63,000 native converts out of a population of 1.6 million Muslims in the early 2000s. For details, see the 2001 Census completed by the Office for National Statistics. Their numbers, however, must have increased because the Muslim population as a whole reached 2.4 million in 2009. For details, see Richard Kerbaj, “Muslim Population Rising 10 Times Faster Than Rest of Society,” The Times, January 30, 2009. Spain has an estimated 800,000 Muslims, roughly 20,000 of whom are converts. For details, see Geoff Pingree and Lisa Abend, “In Spain, Dismay at Muslim Converts Holding Sway,” Christian Science Monitor, November 7, 2006".
    1. Emmanuel Karagiannis (August 2011). Islamic Activism in Europe: The Role of Converts. Combating Terrorism Center (CTC Sentinel). Volume 4, Issue 8. Archive.is Link. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
  15. ^ Contrary to popular belief, there are people who consider themselves half-Muslim or belonging to two different religion, one of which is Islam. The following sources reflect this phenomenon and are excellent reads in understanding how these half-Muslims frame themselves within their mixed identities;
    1. Tanzim Pardiwalla (2019). I'm Half-Parsi, Half-Muslim. This Is How Ramadan Is Celebrated In My World. Mashable India. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    2. Shaista Tayabali (December 26th, 2017). Half Parsi. Half Muslim. Full woman.. Sister Hood. Archive.is Link. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    3. Huma Qureshi (March 29th, 2020). English, Muslim, Pakistani ... how I tell my kids about their identities. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    4. Anushri Kumar (March 12th, 2020). SCPC brings in Trevor Wallace for Spring Comedy Show. Technique. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    5. Sara Belcher (2020). Reza Farahan of 'Shahs of Sunset' Talks His Haircare Line Reza Be Obsessed (Exclusive). Distractify. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 22nd, 2020.
    The most famous half-Muslim is Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith. His father was a Hindu convert to Islam; Quote: "Nanak was born in 1469, some fourteen years before Martin Luther. He grew up in the Punjab, which, ruled by a weak Afghan dynasty, was half Hindu and half Muslim. His father, who was a Hindu, worked as the village accountant for the local Rajput chief, who had converted to Islam".
    1. Marcus Braybrooke (2009). Beacons of the Light: 100 Holy People Who Have Shaped the History of Humanity. John Hunt Publishing. p. 332. ISBN 978-1-84694-185-6.
  16. ^ Quote: "In my new book The Myth of the Muslim Tide, I chronicle the widespread misunderstanding of Muslim immigration to the West. As with Jews and Catholics before, I discuss that Muslims are being seen as an impossible-to-integrate, fast-reproducing invasion force who follow a religion that’s more an ideology of conquest than a faith. Using the latest facts and figures, I illustrate the far less alarming truth about these new arrivals".
    1. Doug Saunders (November 10th, 2012). 10 Myths About Muslims in the West. Huffington Post. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2020.
    2. Doug Saunders (21 August 2012). The Myth of the Muslim Tide: Do Immigrants Threaten the West?. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-95125-0.
  17. ^ A few examples are shown here:
    1. Huma Qureshi (March 29th, 2020). English, Muslim, Pakistani ... how I tell my kids about their identities. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    2. Tanzim Pardiwalla (2019). I'm Half-Parsi, Half-Muslim. This Is How Ramadan Is Celebrated In My World. Mashable (India). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
  18. ^ A few examples include:
    1. Hassan Radwan (September 16th, 2015). Why I self-identify as an ‘Agnostic Muslim’. The Nation (Pakistan). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    2. Saad Muhammad Ismail (May 26th, 2018). Being An Agnostic Muslim. The Companion. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    3. Sean Illing (November 7th, 2017). An atheist Muslim on what the left and right get wrong about Islam. VOX. WayBackMachine. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
  19. ^ Quote: "The largest Muslim ethnic group in Croatia are Bosniaks...This traditionally exclusively Muslim group is composed of immigrants from Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro, who arrived largely in the second half of the twentieth century, and their descendants. In addition, according to the 2001 census, 19,677 people identified themselves as 'ethnic Muslims'. This term was used until 1993 as the official term for Bosniaks in Bosnia and elsewhere and, sometimes, for other slavic Muslims in Macedonia and Kosovo".
    1. Jørgen Schøler Nielsen; Samim Akgönül; Ahmet Alibaši? (11 November 2010). Yearbook of Muslims in Europe. BRILL. p. 116. ISBN 90-04-18475-9.
  20. ^ A few examples are shown here:
    1. Huma Qureshi (March 29th, 2020). English, Muslim, Pakistani ... how I tell my kids about their identities. The Guardian. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    2. Tanzim Pardiwalla (2019). I'm Half-Parsi, Half-Muslim. This Is How Ramadan Is Celebrated In My World. Mashable (India). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
  21. ^ A few examples include:
    1. Hassan Radwan (September 16th, 2015). Why I self-identify as an ‘Agnostic Muslim’. The Nation (Pakistan). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    2. Saad Muhammad Ismail (May 26th, 2018). Being An Agnostic Muslim. The Companion. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
    3. Sean Illing (November 7th, 2017). An atheist Muslim on what the left and right get wrong about Islam. VOX. WayBackMachine. Archive.is Link. Retrieved July 29th, 2020.
  22. ^ Quote: "The largest Muslim ethnic group in Croatia are Bosniaks...This traditionally exclusively Muslim group is composed of immigrants from Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro, who arrived largely in the second half of the twentieth century, and their descendants. In addition, according to the 2001 census, 19,677 people identified themselves as 'ethnic Muslims'. This term was used until 1993 as the official term for Bosniaks in Bosnia and elsewhere and, sometimes, for other slavic Muslims in Macedonia and Kosovo".
    1. Jørgen Schøler Nielsen; Samim Akgönül; Ahmet Alibaši? (11 November 2010). Yearbook of Muslims in Europe. BRILL. p. 116. ISBN 90-04-18475-9.
  23. ^ The company was based in Sacramento, California.
    1. Brad J. King; John M. Borland (1 August 2003). Dungeons and Dreamers: The Rise of Computer Game Culture: Fron Geek to Chic. p. 46. McGraw-Hill/Osborne. ISBN 978-0-07-222888-5.
  24. ^ Finding a reliable source for Tokita's birth year has proven elusive. Sources of a questionable nature have stated that his birth year in 1965, and that he was born on January 24th, but this cannot be verified.
  25. ^ The Nintendo DS remake/re-release sold 2 million copies. The PSP version sold over 80,000 copies in Japan alone.
    • "2012年ゲームソフト年間売上TOP1000" [2012 Game Software Annual Sales Top 1000]. Famitsū Gēmu Hakusho 2013 ファミ通ゲーム白書2013 Famitsu Game Whitebook 2013. Tokyo: Enterbrain. May 31st, 2013. p. 384. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 9th, 2020.
  26. ^ Romero founded id Software in 1991, but was forced to leave the company in 1996. This means the last game he ever worked on for the Doom franchise was Doom 64, which was later released in 1997.
    1. K. Thor Jensen (May 25th, 2020). 20 Years Ago, John Romero's Daikatana Nearly Destroyed Doom's Legacy. PC Mag. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 6th, 2020.
  27. ^ *The game first came out in 1998 and the latest release was in 2020 as indicated in the following source. This footnote was also compiled in 2020, thus indicating the most up to date in the game series of Half-Life games up until December 2020. Quote: "Valve has given us one of the most popular franchises in gaming history, Half-Life, dating back to 1998. After a series of episodes and a few expansion packs, a long silence followed. Nothing happened following Half-Life Episode 2, released in 2007. A third episode would probably have concluded the series. However, for some inexplicable reason, Valve abandoned the story, leaving millions frustrated. Valve did redeem themselves somewhat in the yes of Half-Life fans by releasing Half-Life: Alyx, a VR title that follows events between Half-life (1998) and Half-Life 2 (2004)".
    1. Samir Satam (May 4th, 2020). Survey Shows Half Life Alyx May Have Revived VR in Gaming. Essentially Sports. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 7th, 2020.
  28. ^ The latest game in the Counter-Strike series was released in 2014;
    1. Wesley Yin-Poole (August 7th, 2014). Counter-Strike Nexon: Zombies heads to Steam. Euro Gamer. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 7th, 2020.
  29. ^ Quote: "Among those to benefit from Id's willingness to share their game engines were the founders of Valve. Created by former Microsoft employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington, Valve hired many of its first employees from the Quake modding community (Valve, 2004, pg 7). Their first game, Half-Life, was built upon a modified version of the Quake II engine that they had licensed from Id. Valve followed Id's lead by making modding a major focus of the game. As a result, Half-Life quickly developed a prolific modder community. Among the many mods created for Half-Life was Counter-Strike, considered by many to be the most successful mod ever created (Kucklich, 2005). When the mod began to surpass some of Valve's own games in terms of players, they hired on the two creators of the mod so that they could work on their project full time (Valve, 2004, pg 53). When Valve created their Source engine, the next iteration of their Quake-based game engine, they designed it to be highly modular, facilitating modders by making the modding process easier, as well as giving them greater control. They also created Steam, a digital distribution service that facilitates the sale of games, as well as the distribution of both mods and modding tools. This has led to a very large and active developer community (Trenholme and Smith, 2008)".
    1. Erik Champion (1 January 2013). Game Mods: Design, Theory and Criticism. Lulu.com. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-300-54061-8.
  30. ^ The company was based in Sacramento, California.
    1. Brad J. King; John M. Borland (1 August 2003). Dungeons and Dreamers: The Rise of Computer Game Culture: Fron Geek to Chic. p. 46. McGraw-Hill/Osborne. ISBN 978-0-07-222888-5.
  31. ^ Finding a reliable source for Tokita's birth year has proven elusive. Sources of a questionable nature have stated that his birth year in 1965, and that he was born on January 24th, but this cannot be verified.
  32. ^ The Nintendo DS remake/re-release sold 2 million copies. The PSP version sold over 80,000 copies in Japan alone.
    • "2012年ゲームソフト年間売上TOP1000" [2012 Game Software Annual Sales Top 1000]. Famitsū Gēmu Hakusho 2013 ファミ通ゲーム白書2013 Famitsu Game Whitebook 2013. Tokyo: Enterbrain. May 31st, 2013. p. 384. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved December 9th, 2020.
  33. ^ Romero founded id Software in 1991, but was forced to leave the company in 1996. This means the last game he ever worked on for the Doom franchise was Doom 64, which was later released in 1997.
    1. K. Thor Jensen (May 25th, 2020). 20 Years Ago, John Romero's Daikatana Nearly Destroyed Doom's Legacy. PC Mag. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 6th, 2020.
  34. ^ *The game first came out in 1998 and the latest release was in 2020 as indicated in the following source. This footnote was also compiled in 2020, thus indicating the most up to date in the game series of Half-Life games up until December 2020. Quote: "Valve has given us one of the most popular franchises in gaming history, Half-Life, dating back to 1998. After a series of episodes and a few expansion packs, a long silence followed. Nothing happened following Half-Life Episode 2, released in 2007. A third episode would probably have concluded the series. However, for some inexplicable reason, Valve abandoned the story, leaving millions frustrated. Valve did redeem themselves somewhat in the yes of Half-Life fans by releasing Half-Life: Alyx, a VR title that follows events between Half-life (1998) and Half-Life 2 (2004)".
    1. Samir Satam (May 4th, 2020). Survey Shows Half Life Alyx May Have Revived VR in Gaming. Essentially Sports. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 7th, 2020.
  35. ^ The latest game in the Counter-Strike series was released in 2014;
    1. Wesley Yin-Poole (August 7th, 2014). Counter-Strike Nexon: Zombies heads to Steam. Euro Gamer. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 7th, 2020.
  36. ^ Quote: "Among those to benefit from Id's willingness to share their game engines were the founders of Valve. Created by former Microsoft employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington, Valve hired many of its first employees from the Quake modding community (Valve, 2004, pg 7). Their first game, Half-Life, was built upon a modified version of the Quake II engine that they had licensed from Id. Valve followed Id's lead by making modding a major focus of the game. As a result, Half-Life quickly developed a prolific modder community. Among the many mods created for Half-Life was Counter-Strike, considered by many to be the most successful mod ever created (Kucklich, 2005). When the mod began to surpass some of Valve's own games in terms of players, they hired on the two creators of the mod so that they could work on their project full time (Valve, 2004, pg 53). When Valve created their Source engine, the next iteration of their Quake-based game engine, they designed it to be highly modular, facilitating modders by making the modding process easier, as well as giving them greater control. They also created Steam, a digital distribution service that facilitates the sale of games, as well as the distribution of both mods and modding tools. This has led to a very large and active developer community (Trenholme and Smith, 2008)".
    1. Erik Champion (1 January 2013). Game Mods: Design, Theory and Criticism. Lulu.com. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-300-54061-8.
  37. ^
    1. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Crash". Issue #27. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (45%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #54. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (47.5%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #49. Pg. 49. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (3 Stars/5 Stars; 60%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #4. Pg. 69. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (Score: 4; (17/40); 42.5%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #80. Pg. 15. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (61.8%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 51.4%.
  38. ^
    1. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #34. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #56. Pg. 57. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #62. Pg. 47. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (72.5%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #113. Pg. 19. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (66.7%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 76.8%.
  39. ^
    1. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #40. Pg. 121. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (67%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #68. Pg. 25. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (65%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #63. Pg. 62. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (20%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #18. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #56. Pg. 77. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (51%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #128. Pg. 22. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68.3%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 58.6%.
  40. ^
    1. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #37. Pg. 18. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (84%). [WayBackMachine Link]. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #58. Pg. 25. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (60%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020..
    3. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #14. Pg. 36. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). WayBackMachine Link (1/2). Archive.is Link (1/2). WayBackMachine Link (2/2). Archive.is Link (2/2). Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
      1. Berkmann, Marcus (February 1987 YS14). Aliens. The Your Sinclair Rock'n'Roll Years. (90%) WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #63. Pg. 37. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (77.5%). WayBackMachine Link (1/2). Archive.is Link (1/2). WayBackMachine Link (2/2). Archive.is Link (2/2). Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #23. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). WayBackMachine Link (1/2). Archive.is Link (1/2). WayBackMachine Link (2/2). Archive.is Link (2/2). Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby ". Issue #117. Pg. 17. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71.7%). WayBackMachine Link (1/2). Archive.is Link (1/2). WayBackMachine Link (2/2). Archive.is Link (2/2). Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 77.2%
  41. ^
    1. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #60. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #16. Pg. 31. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #67. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #48. Pg. 31. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (86%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #27. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (96%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "C+VG". Issue #67. Pg. 15. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #40. Pg. 17. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (92%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    8. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #130. Pg. 19. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71.7%). [WayBackMachine Link]. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 87.6%
  42. ^
    1. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #68. Pg. 107. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #26. Pg. 63. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #48. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 73.7%
  43. ^
    1. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #18. Pg. 62. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #32. Pg. 30. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (59%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #54. Pg. 23. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #10. Pg. 83. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (60%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #60. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (67.5%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 71.3%
  44. ^
    1. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #69. Pg. 37. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #49. Pg. 18. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68.5%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Computer & Video Game". Issue #76. Pg. 21. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (82.5%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #26. Pg. 27. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #82. Pg. 63. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (89%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #161. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 83.3%.
  45. ^
    1. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #70. Pg. 12. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "ACE". Issue #05. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (75.2%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #49. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #83. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #165. Pg. 34. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 88.0%
  46. ^
    1. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #33. Pg. 23. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Crash". Issue #59. Pg. 189. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "ACE". Issue #16. Pg. 105. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (74.7%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #14. Pg. 61. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (89%-93%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #75. Pg. 58. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (83%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Crash". Issue #98. Pg. 80. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #22. Pg. 49. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 85.5%
  47. ^
    1. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #75. Pg. 41. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (95%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #29. Pg. 27. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "ACE". Issue #33. Pg. 59. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (86%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "C+VG". Issue #103. Pg. 73. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (87%-88%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #54. Pg. 14. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (87%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #98. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (92%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #200. Pg. 33. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 89.8%.
  48. ^
    1. "Last Ninja Remix" (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #84. Pg. 76. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 70%
  49. ^
    1. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #80. Pg. 42. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #34. Pg. 47. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90-93%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "ACE". Issue #37. Pg. 82. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #58. Pg. 53. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #104. Pg. 21. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #204. Pg. 32. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (72%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Overall: 85.9%
  50. ^
    1. Lee, Peter (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Action". Issue #28. Pg. 84-85. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (94%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. Maddock, Jonathan (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Computing". Issue #44. Pg. 76-77. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (94%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. Campbell, Stuart (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Power". Issue #8. Pg. 34-36. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. Webb, Trenton (December 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #29. Pg. 94-96. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. Haynes, Rik (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "CU Amiga". Issue #December 1991. Pg. 115-116. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. Ashley , Cotter-Cairns (June 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "ACE". Issue #52. Pg. 71. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. Jim , Douglas (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Crash". Issue #37. Pg. 80-85. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89.5%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    8. James, Price (May 1993). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Force". Issue #May 1993. Pg. 12. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    9. Paul, Presley (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "The One for Amiga Games". Issue #39. Pg. 78-79. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    10. Carsten, Borgmeier (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #January 1992. Pg. 28. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (82%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    11. Sharp, Brian (November 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #November 1991. Pg. 24-25. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (100%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 91.0%
  51. ^
    1. Bradley, Stephen (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #53. Pg. 60-61. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. Maddock, Jonathan (February 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Computing". Issue #70. Pg. 140. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. Nash, Jonathan (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Power". Issue #32. Pg. 40-41. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. Tipping, Amanda (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #145. Pg. 38. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. Upchurch, David (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "The One Amiga". Issue #63. Pg. 76-77. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (87%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. Storey III, Dudley (May 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Down Under". Issue #9. Pg. 75. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (85%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. Sloan, Jonathan (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "CU Amiga". Issue #December 1993. Pg. 184. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (83%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    8. Löwenstein, Richard (February 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #February 1994. Pg. 16. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (73%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score of 86.1%
  52. ^
    1. Korn, Andrew (November 1997). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "CU Amiga Magazine". Issue #November 1997. Pg. 38-39. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (87%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. Smith, Andy (December 1997). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #105. Pg. 40-41. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (45%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 66.0%
  53. ^ Murat Oktay: You are not publishing games for a long time. Is that means that you are retired? Or did you change your way in the industry? Mevlüt Dinç: I have not been very active since 2013, about 6 years, where does the time go?! I left the UK at the end of 2000 to move back to my native country Turkey to start the professional game sector. As you know the early days were tough but we worked very hard and I believe were successful establishing the foundation of the gaming industry in Turkey. Now with 30 million plus gamers its one of the biggest emerging markets in the World. I sold my Turkish gaming studio Sobee to Turk Telekom in 2009 and continued to head it until 2013, when I left and I guess I’m sort of semi-retired now. I’m trying to contribute to special projects, mentor new talent and also look for opportunities especially in the area of mobile gaming.
    1. Inverview with the founder of Pixel Age Studios: Mevlüt Dinç. May 23rd, 2019. Play4UK. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 11th, 2020.
  54. ^
    1. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Crash". Issue #27. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (45%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #54. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (47.5%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #49. Pg. 49. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (3 Stars/5 Stars; 60%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #4. Pg. 69. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (Score: 4; (17/40); 42.5%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Gerry the Germ" (1985) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #80. Pg. 15. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (61.8%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 51.4%.
  55. ^
    1. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #34. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #56. Pg. 57. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #62. Pg. 47. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (72.5%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Prodigy" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #113. Pg. 19. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (66.7%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 76.8%.
  56. ^
    1. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #40. Pg. 121. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (67%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #68. Pg. 25. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (65%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #63. Pg. 62. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (20%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #18. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #56. Pg. 77. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (51%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Big Trouble in Little China" (1987) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #128. Pg. 22. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68.3%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 58.6%.
  57. ^
    1. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #37. Pg. 18. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (84%). [WayBackMachine Link]. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #58. Pg. 25. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (60%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020..
    3. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #14. Pg. 36. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). WayBackMachine Link (1/2). Archive.is Link (1/2). WayBackMachine Link (2/2). Archive.is Link (2/2). Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
      1. Berkmann, Marcus (February 1987 YS14). Aliens. The Your Sinclair Rock'n'Roll Years. (90%) WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #63. Pg. 37. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (77.5%). WayBackMachine Link (1/2). Archive.is Link (1/2). WayBackMachine Link (2/2). Archive.is Link (2/2). Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #23. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). WayBackMachine Link (1/2). Archive.is Link (1/2). WayBackMachine Link (2/2). Archive.is Link (2/2). Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Aliens" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby ". Issue #117. Pg. 17. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71.7%). WayBackMachine Link (1/2). Archive.is Link (1/2). WayBackMachine Link (2/2). Archive.is Link (2/2). Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 77.2%
  58. ^
    1. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #60. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #16. Pg. 31. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #67. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #48. Pg. 31. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (86%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #27. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (96%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "C+VG". Issue #67. Pg. 15. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "Crash". Issue #40. Pg. 17. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (92%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    8. "Enduro Racer" (1986) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #130. Pg. 19. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71.7%). [WayBackMachine Link]. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 87.6%
  59. ^
    1. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #68. Pg. 107. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #26. Pg. 63. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "High Frontier" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #48. Pg. 136. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (71%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 73.7%
  60. ^
    1. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Computer Gamer". Issue #18. Pg. 62. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #32. Pg. 30. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (59%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #54. Pg. 23. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #10. Pg. 83. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (60%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Xarq" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #60. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (67.5%). WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 71.3%
  61. ^
    1. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #69. Pg. 37. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #49. Pg. 18. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (68.5%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Computer & Video Game". Issue #76. Pg. 21. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (82.5%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #26. Pg. 27. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #82. Pg. 63. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (89%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Knightmare" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #161. Pg. 44. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 83.3%.
  62. ^
    1. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #70. Pg. 12. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "ACE". Issue #05. Pg. 39. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (75.2%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "Crash". Issue #49. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "C+VG". Issue #83. Pg. 24. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Super Hang-On" (1987) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #165. Pg. 34. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (100%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 88.0%
  63. ^
    1. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #33. Pg. 23. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Crash". Issue #59. Pg. 189. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "ACE". Issue #16. Pg. 105. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (74.7%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #14. Pg. 61. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (89%-93%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #75. Pg. 58. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (83%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Crash". Issue #98. Pg. 80. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. "Last Ninja 2" (1988) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #22. Pg. 49. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (85%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 85.5%
  64. ^
    1. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #75. Pg. 41. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (95%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #29. Pg. 27. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "ACE". Issue #33. Pg. 59. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (86%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "C+VG". Issue #103. Pg. 73. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (87%-88%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #54. Pg. 14. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (87%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #98. Pg. 11. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (92%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. "Hammerfist" (1990) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #200. Pg. 33. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 89.8%.
  65. ^
    1. "Last Ninja Remix" (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #84. Pg. 76. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (70%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 70%
  66. ^
    1. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Crash". Issue #80. Pg. 42. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "The Games Machine". Issue #34. Pg. 47. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90-93%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "ACE". Issue #37. Pg. 82. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (80%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Your Sinclair". Issue #58. Pg. 53. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "Sinclair User". Issue #104. Pg. 21. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. "Time Machine (1990) Review. "MicroHobby". Issue #204. Pg. 32. World of Spectrum. Review Score: (72%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Overall: 85.9%
  67. ^
    1. Lee, Peter (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Action". Issue #28. Pg. 84-85. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (94%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    2. Maddock, Jonathan (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Computing". Issue #44. Pg. 76-77. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (94%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. Campbell, Stuart (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Power". Issue #8. Pg. 34-36. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. Webb, Trenton (December 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #29. Pg. 94-96. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. Haynes, Rik (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "CU Amiga". Issue #December 1991. Pg. 115-116. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). Retrieved 21 April 2014.
    6. Ashley , Cotter-Cairns (June 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "ACE". Issue #52. Pg. 71. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. Jim , Douglas (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Crash". Issue #37. Pg. 80-85. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89.5%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    8. James, Price (May 1993). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Force". Issue #May 1993. Pg. 12. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    9. Paul, Presley (December 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "The One for Amiga Games". Issue #39. Pg. 78-79. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    10. Carsten, Borgmeier (January 1992). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #January 1992. Pg. 28. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (82%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    11. Sharp, Brian (November 1991). "First Samurai" (1991) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #November 1991. Pg. 24-25. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (100%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 91.0%
  68. ^
    1. Bradley, Stephen (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #53. Pg. 60-61. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. Maddock, Jonathan (February 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Computing". Issue #70. Pg. 140. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (91%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    3. Nash, Jonathan (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Power". Issue #32. Pg. 40-41. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (90%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    4. Tipping, Amanda (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Computer & Video Games". Issue #145. Pg. 38. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (89%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    5. Upchurch, David (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "The One Amiga". Issue #63. Pg. 76-77. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (87%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    6. Storey III, Dudley (May 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Down Under". Issue #9. Pg. 75. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (85%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    7. Sloan, Jonathan (December 1993). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "CU Amiga". Issue #December 1993. Pg. 184. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (83%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    8. Löwenstein, Richard (February 1994). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Joker". Issue #February 1994. Pg. 16. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (73%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score of 86.1%
  69. ^
    1. Korn, Andrew (November 1997). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "CU Amiga Magazine". Issue #November 1997. Pg. 38-39. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (87%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    2. Smith, Andy (December 1997). "Second Samurai" (1993) Review. "Amiga Format". Issue #105. Pg. 40-41. Amiga Magazine Rack. Review Score: (45%). [WayBackMachine Link]. [Archive.is Link]. Retrieved April 21st, 2014. Updated December 11th, 2020.
    Aggregate Score: 66.0%
  70. ^ Murat Oktay: You are not publishing games for a long time. Is that means that you are retired? Or did you change your way in the industry? Mevlüt Dinç: I have not been very active since 2013, about 6 years, where does the time go?! I left the UK at the end of 2000 to move back to my native country Turkey to start the professional game sector. As you know the early days were tough but we worked very hard and I believe were successful establishing the foundation of the gaming industry in Turkey. Now with 30 million plus gamers its one of the biggest emerging markets in the World. I sold my Turkish gaming studio Sobee to Turk Telekom in 2009 and continued to head it until 2013, when I left and I guess I’m sort of semi-retired now. I’m trying to contribute to special projects, mentor new talent and also look for opportunities especially in the area of mobile gaming.
    1. Inverview with the founder of Pixel Age Studios: Mevlüt Dinç. May 23rd, 2019. Play4UK. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved December 11th, 2020.
  71. ^ Babak's second name, "Rafei" (alternatively spelled as "Rafee") is a Qur'anic name translating to a person of "high status", being "exalted, sublime and superb".
    1. Refee (entry). Quranic Names (QuranClub). [WayBackMachine Link]. Archive.is Link. Retrieved 14 September 2014. Updated January 9th, 2021.
    The name Babak appears however not to be a Qur'anic derived name but can be used by Muslims "since it doesn't have a bad meaning". The name means "father" or "mentor" and was used in ancient Persia as an endearing term for male heads of households (similarly to the use of "daddy" in English).
    1. Babak (entry). Quranic Names (QuranClub). [WayBackMachine Link]. Archive.is Link. Retrieved 14 September 2014. Updated January 9th, 2021.
    Babak is also the name of a famous historical figure in Iran, notable for having been a "leader of a major Khurramī revolt in early ʿAbbāsid Iran" and having "[grown up] Muslim", according to the Danish Islamic historian Patricia Crone, although in contrast modern Iranian historians believe him to have been a Muslim throughout his life.
    1. Crone, Patricia (2011). Bābak(1,466 words). Brill Online. Retrieved 14 September 2014. Updated January 9th, 2021.
    2. Abbas Amanat; Farzin Vejdani (14 February 2012). Iran Facing Others: Identity Boundaries in a Historical Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 73-74. ISBN 978-1-137-01340-8.
  72. ^ Babak's second name, "Rafei" (alternatively spelled as "Rafee") is a Qur'anic name translating to a person of "high status", being "exalted, sublime and superb".
    1. Refee (entry). Quranic Names (QuranClub). [WayBackMachine Link]. Archive.is Link. Retrieved 14 September 2014. Updated January 9th, 2021.
    The name Babak appears however not to be a Qur'anic derived name but can be used by Muslims "since it doesn't have a bad meaning". The name means "father" or "mentor" and was used in ancient Persia as an endearing term for male heads of households (similarly to the use of "daddy" in English).
    1. Babak (entry). Quranic Names (QuranClub). [WayBackMachine Link]. Archive.is Link. Retrieved 14 September 2014. Updated January 9th, 2021.
    Babak is also the name of a famous historical figure in Iran, notable for having been a "leader of a major Khurramī revolt in early ʿAbbāsid Iran" and having "[grown up] Muslim", according to the Danish Islamic historian Patricia Crone, although in contrast modern Iranian historians believe him to have been a Muslim throughout his life.
    1. Crone, Patricia (2011). Bābak(1,466 words). Brill Online. Retrieved 14 September 2014. Updated January 9th, 2021.
    2. Abbas Amanat; Farzin Vejdani (14 February 2012). Iran Facing Others: Identity Boundaries in a Historical Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 73-74. ISBN 978-1-137-01340-8.
  73. ^ Ghulam does not mention abruptly having left, but it is unusual given his senior position to leave for as big of a project as GTAV so suddenly. Ghulam's website currently states that "In 2012, Mondo looked toward new storytelling challenges in writing & directing and sought to broaden his understanding of the developments in CG methods outside of game development". After leaving Rockstar, Mondo attended a film school in London. His experience can be read from this reference.
  74. ^ Quote: "Years later, of course, Benzies would allegedly be flown out to New York and encouraged by Rockstar to take a sabbatical after shipping GTA V. He alleges he agreed to do so and signed a "Sabbatical Agreement" that guaranteed him all pay and benefits while on leave, but that within a few months his company phone and email account were remotely disabled, some of his key support staff were fired, and payments he says he was owed under the 2009 royalty plan were not made".
    1. Alex Wawro (April 12th, 2016). 5 things to know about GTA producer Leslie Benzies' legal fight with Rockstar. Gamasutra. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 29th, 2021.
  75. ^ Quote: "Benzies says he was persuaded to take a nice sabbatical for six months, but while he was away, Rockstar fired his own son as well as a bunch of his best pals, while cutting off his access to company emails. When he tried to return to work at his offices at Rockstar North in Scotland, after completing his sabbatical, he found himself ordered off the premises by the office manager. Benzies says that Rockstar threatened him by "making scurrilous allegations" about his actions while at the company, "a revenge tactic they had used before with other respected employees … in an attempt to concoct false grounds for termination. In response to that, Benzies makes an eye-popping allegation. "Sam Houser … orchestrated and encouraged a company culture involving strip clubs, personal photography of employees in sexually compromising positions, and other conduct grossly in violation of standard workplace norms.""
  76. ^ Ghulam does not mention abruptly having left, but it is unusual given his senior position to leave for as big of a project as GTAV so suddenly. Ghulam's website currently states that "In 2012, Mondo looked toward new storytelling challenges in writing & directing and sought to broaden his understanding of the developments in CG methods outside of game development". After leaving Rockstar, Mondo attended a film school in London. His experience can be read from this reference.
  77. ^ Quote: "Years later, of course, Benzies would allegedly be flown out to New York and encouraged by Rockstar to take a sabbatical after shipping GTA V. He alleges he agreed to do so and signed a "Sabbatical Agreement" that guaranteed him all pay and benefits while on leave, but that within a few months his company phone and email account were remotely disabled, some of his key support staff were fired, and payments he says he was owed under the 2009 royalty plan were not made".
    1. Alex Wawro (April 12th, 2016). 5 things to know about GTA producer Leslie Benzies' legal fight with Rockstar. Gamasutra. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved April 29th, 2021.
  78. ^ Quote: "Benzies says he was persuaded to take a nice sabbatical for six months, but while he was away, Rockstar fired his own son as well as a bunch of his best pals, while cutting off his access to company emails. When he tried to return to work at his offices at Rockstar North in Scotland, after completing his sabbatical, he found himself ordered off the premises by the office manager. Benzies says that Rockstar threatened him by "making scurrilous allegations" about his actions while at the company, "a revenge tactic they had used before with other respected employees … in an attempt to concoct false grounds for termination. In response to that, Benzies makes an eye-popping allegation. "Sam Houser … orchestrated and encouraged a company culture involving strip clubs, personal photography of employees in sexually compromising positions, and other conduct grossly in violation of standard workplace norms.""
  79. ^ "Mohammad Alavi is responsible for some of the most intense and memorable campaign levels in Call Of Duty history, but he almost never entered the industry at all. He was on the path to becoming a doctor, earning bachelor’s degrees in chemistry and biology. On the side, he enjoyed making maps for firstperson shooters, starting with Duke Nukem 3D and continuing with Quake, Half-Life and Counter-Strike. As a part of the Internet’s then-thriving modding scene, he soon became a contributor to some of the more prominent mods of the Half-Life era, including the original Natural Selection and the ill-fated Half-Life: Nightwatch. But the idea of working on games professionally never struck him as viable. Then, just as he had sent his last applications to medical school, an issue of PC Gamer magazine changed his life. The issue contained a feature on modders and mod teams, and prominently featured were screenshots of Alavi’s maps. “I’m flipping through this magazine, and all of a sudden I see all my levels,” he recalls. “I never took it as a serious career path; I didn’t think I was good enough. Once I saw that, though, I guess it gave me confidence.”"
    1. Edge Staff (February 11th, 2013). No Russian: the modder who went on to make Call Of Duty’s most controversial set piece. pg. 1. Edge Online. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved May 3rd, 2021.
  80. ^ Quote: "Industry veterans Grant Collier, Vince Zampella and Jason West each have signed a long-term employment contract with Activision and will continue to manage Infinity Ward. Additionally, key employees also have signed long-term employment contracts with Activision. Under the terms of the agreement, Infinity Ward became a wholly owned subsidiary of Activision."
  81. ^ "Mohammad Alavi is responsible for some of the most intense and memorable campaign levels in Call Of Duty history, but he almost never entered the industry at all. He was on the path to becoming a doctor, earning bachelor’s degrees in chemistry and biology. On the side, he enjoyed making maps for firstperson shooters, starting with Duke Nukem 3D and continuing with Quake, Half-Life and Counter-Strike. As a part of the Internet’s then-thriving modding scene, he soon became a contributor to some of the more prominent mods of the Half-Life era, including the original Natural Selection and the ill-fated Half-Life: Nightwatch. But the idea of working on games professionally never struck him as viable. Then, just as he had sent his last applications to medical school, an issue of PC Gamer magazine changed his life. The issue contained a feature on modders and mod teams, and prominently featured were screenshots of Alavi’s maps. “I’m flipping through this magazine, and all of a sudden I see all my levels,” he recalls. “I never took it as a serious career path; I didn’t think I was good enough. Once I saw that, though, I guess it gave me confidence.”"
    1. Edge Staff (February 11th, 2013). No Russian: the modder who went on to make Call Of Duty’s most controversial set piece. pg. 1. Edge Online. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retrieved May 3rd, 2021.
  82. ^ Quote: "Industry veterans Grant Collier, Vince Zampella and Jason West each have signed a long-term employment contract with Activision and will continue to manage Infinity Ward. Additionally, key employees also have signed long-term employment contracts with Activision. Under the terms of the agreement, Infinity Ward became a wholly owned subsidiary of Activision."
  83. ^ According to the companies profile on metacritic.com, their lowest rated game has gotten 82%, whilst their highest has received 94%. On average, they produce games that have a score of critic score of 88%. Although they have only released four games, these have been released over different systems such as the PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch, iOS, and Xbox 360. This has resulted in 14 individual metacritic.com profiles, all of which are positive.
    1. SUPERGIANT GAMES. Metacritic. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retreived December 15th, 2020.
  84. ^ A significant amount of Pakistanis are known as Amir Rao. This includes film directors and IT directors.
    1. Staff Report (September 13th, 2017). Pakistani artists to participate in cultural events in China. Daily Times. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 14th, 2019.
    2. Shoaib Khalil (July 9th, 2013). Microsoft Pakistan empowers businesses through Technology innovation: Amir Rao Asia Net Pakistan. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 14th, 2019.
  85. ^ Quote: "Bastion uses real-time narration extensively. Its purpose is to deliver story and exposition, and to build atmosphere, investment, and immersion in close partnership with the gameplay.".
    1. In-Depth: Writing Bastion. October 26th, 2010. Supergiant Games. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  86. ^ Quote: "Between its groundbreaking incorporation of narrative, challenging combat system, and incredibly artful production, Bastion doesn’t need the, “for a downloadable game” qualifier. It is simply one of the best games you will play this year".
    1. Bitmob (September 27th, 2011). Bastion Makes Me Wish there was a Narrator in My Life Too. Venture Beat. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  87. ^ Quote: "Bastion's unique storytelling device was the reactive narrator. While the player is moving around and going through the levels, you can hear the voice of the narrator commenting on the events. Most of the comments are pre-canned about the level itself, but there are plenty that come from how the player is playing. Such as if the player is taking a lot of damage, or what weapons they decide to use. While the effect is basic, it does show how the player's use of the mechanics could affect how the narrative is being told".
    1. Josh Bycer (11th June 2012). Extreme Storytelling: The Use of Narrative Mechanics. Gamasutra. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  88. ^ Quote: " Bastion introduces a one-of-a-kind reactive narration system, which gradually reveals a rich back story as the narrator reacts to the player’s actions, allowing for the player to have a truly personalized gameplay experience. The game features thousands of lines of narration. No player will be able to hear it all the first time through the game".
    1. Bastion Fact Sheet. June 7th, 2011. Gaming Phanatic. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  89. ^ Quote: "The game fleshed out slowly as the Supergiant team grew naturally, organically. Adding new minds and new perspectives to the project bred different ideas. Some of the game’s most popular elements didn’t come until after this happened..."A lot of what was special about Bastion actually came...when we tried certain ideas, like the reactive narration"...".
    1. Adam Rosenberg (February 15th, 2013). Bastion was a massive success on multiple platforms; its designer explains how. Digital Trends. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  90. ^ Quote: "The true marvel of Bastion is that underneath the gameplay mechanics rests a deep, enriching experience that truly pushes the envelope with what videogames are capable of...Bastion appears at first glance as though a story book. Its world is bright and colorful, though broken, and it hints at a certain whimsical charm that instantly draws you in. It seems almost natural, then, that there should be a narrator. The inclusion of the Narrator is Bastion’s most unique feature as well as one of its greatest triumphs".
    1. Bitmob (December 7th, 2011). Why Bastion is a Masterpiece. Venture Beat. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  91. ^ According to the companies profile on metacritic.com, their lowest rated game has gotten 82%, whilst their highest has received 94%. On average, they produce games that have a score of critic score of 88%. Although they have only released four games, these have been released over different systems such as the PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch, iOS, and Xbox 360. This has resulted in 14 individual metacritic.com profiles, all of which are positive.
    1. SUPERGIANT GAMES. Metacritic. WayBackMachine Link. Archive.is Link. Retreived December 15th, 2020.
  92. ^ A significant amount of Pakistanis are known as Amir Rao. This includes film directors and IT directors.
    1. Staff Report (September 13th, 2017). Pakistani artists to participate in cultural events in China. Daily Times. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 14th, 2019.
    2. Shoaib Khalil (July 9th, 2013). Microsoft Pakistan empowers businesses through Technology innovation: Amir Rao Asia Net Pakistan. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 14th, 2019.
  93. ^ Quote: "Bastion uses real-time narration extensively. Its purpose is to deliver story and exposition, and to build atmosphere, investment, and immersion in close partnership with the gameplay.".
    1. In-Depth: Writing Bastion. October 26th, 2010. Supergiant Games. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  94. ^ Quote: "Between its groundbreaking incorporation of narrative, challenging combat system, and incredibly artful production, Bastion doesn’t need the, “for a downloadable game” qualifier. It is simply one of the best games you will play this year".
    1. Bitmob (September 27th, 2011). Bastion Makes Me Wish there was a Narrator in My Life Too. Venture Beat. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  95. ^ Quote: "Bastion's unique storytelling device was the reactive narrator. While the player is moving around and going through the levels, you can hear the voice of the narrator commenting on the events. Most of the comments are pre-canned about the level itself, but there are plenty that come from how the player is playing. Such as if the player is taking a lot of damage, or what weapons they decide to use. While the effect is basic, it does show how the player's use of the mechanics could affect how the narrative is being told".
    1. Josh Bycer (11th June 2012). Extreme Storytelling: The Use of Narrative Mechanics. Gamasutra. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  96. ^ Quote: " Bastion introduces a one-of-a-kind reactive narration system, which gradually reveals a rich back story as the narrator reacts to the player’s actions, allowing for the player to have a truly personalized gameplay experience. The game features thousands of lines of narration. No player will be able to hear it all the first time through the game".
    1. Bastion Fact Sheet. June 7th, 2011. Gaming Phanatic. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  97. ^ Quote: "The game fleshed out slowly as the Supergiant team grew naturally, organically. Adding new minds and new perspectives to the project bred different ideas. Some of the game’s most popular elements didn’t come until after this happened..."A lot of what was special about Bastion actually came...when we tried certain ideas, like the reactive narration"...".
    1. Adam Rosenberg (February 15th, 2013). Bastion was a massive success on multiple platforms; its designer explains how. Digital Trends. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.
  98. ^ Quote: "The true marvel of Bastion is that underneath the gameplay mechanics rests a deep, enriching experience that truly pushes the envelope with what videogames are capable of...Bastion appears at first glance as though a story book. Its world is bright and colorful, though broken, and it hints at a certain whimsical charm that instantly draws you in. It seems almost natural, then, that there should be a narrator. The inclusion of the Narrator is Bastion’s most unique feature as well as one of its greatest triumphs".
    1. Bitmob (December 7th, 2011). Why Bastion is a Masterpiece. Venture Beat. WayBackMachine Link. Retrieved October 15th, 2019.

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